Safed: Wikis


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Safed COA.png
Safed 2009.jpg
Safed is located in Israel
District North
Government City
Hebrew צְפַת
(Translit.) Tzfat
Arabic صفد
Name meaning Lookout (from the Hebrew root tzafa)
Also spelled Tsfat, Tzefat, Zfat, Ẕefat (officially)
Population 28,500[1] (2007)
Mayor Ilan Shohat
Coordinates 32°57′57″N 35°29′54″E / 32.96583°N 35.49833°E / 32.96583; 35.49833Coordinates: 32°57′57″N 35°29′54″E / 32.96583°N 35.49833°E / 32.96583; 35.49833

Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת‎, Tzfat; Arabic: صفد‎, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Located at an altitude of 900 metres (2,953 ft), Safed is the highest city in the Galilee and of Israel.[2] Due to its high altitude, Safed experiences pleasantly warm summers and cold, and often snowy winters.[3] Since the sixteenth century, Safed has been considered one of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem, Hebron and Tiberias.[4] From that time until today, the city has been a center of Jewish mysticism.

In more recent times, thanks to its beautiful setting surrounded by pine forests, and its agreeable, mild summers, Safed has developed into a summer holiday resort much frequented by Israelis and also foreign visitors.[5]



According to the Book of Judges, the region was assigned to the Tribe of Naphtali.[6] The city of Safed itself first appears in Jewish sources in the late Middle Ages.[3] It is mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud as one of five elevated spots where fires were lit to announce the New Moon and festivals during the Second Temple period.[7] Legend has it that Safed was founded by a son of Noah after the Great Flood.[3] Safed has been identified with Sepph, a fortified Jewish town in the Upper Galilee mentioned in the writings of the Roman Jewish historian Josephus (Wars 2:573).[citation needed]

Crusader ruins

In the 12th century, Safed was a fortified city in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem known as Saphet.[3] The Knights Hospitaller built a castle there. In 1266, the Mamluk sultan Baybars wiped out the Christian Templar population and turned it into a Muslim town called Safad or Safat. Samuel ben Samson who visited the town in the 13th-century mentions the existence of a Jewish community of at least fifty members there.[8] According to al-Dimashqi (who died in Safed in 1327), writing around 1300, Baybars after levelling the old fortress, built a "round tower and called it Kullah...The tower is built in three stories. It is provided with provisions, and halls, and magazines. Under the place is a cistern for rain-water, sufficient to supply the garrison of the fortress from year´s end to year´s end.[9] According to Abu al-Fida, Safed "was a town of medium size. It has a very strongly built castle, which dominates the Lake of Tabariyyah. There are underground watercourses, which bring drinking-water up to the castle-gate...Its suburbs cover three hills... Since the place was conquered by Al Malik Adh Dhahir from the Franks, it has been made the central station for the troops who guard all the coast-towns of that district."[10]

Safed rose to fame in the 16th century as a center of Kabbalah, or Jewish mysticism.[11] A Hebrew printing press was established in Safed in 1577 by Eliezer Ashkenazi and his son, Isaac of Prague.[7] It was the first press in Palestine and the whole of the Ottoman Empire.[12]

Seraya: the Ottoman fortress

After the expulsion of the Islamic rule from Spain during the reconquista which ended by 1492, many prominent rabbis found their way to Safed, among them the kabbalists Isaac Luria (Arizal) and Moshe Kordovero; Joseph Caro, the author of the Shulchan Aruch and Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz, composer of the Sabbath hymn Lecha Dodi. The influx of Sephardi Jews made Safed a global center for Jewish learning and a regional center for trade throughout 15th and 16th centuries.[11] The Kurdish quarter was established in the Middle Ages and continued through to the 19th century.[13]

Under the Ottomans, Safed was part of the vilayet of Sidon. The orthodox Sunni courts arbitrated over cases in 'Akbara, Ein al-Zeitun and as far away as Mejdel Islim.[13] In 1555, the Jewish population was 8,000-10,000. By the end of the century, it had grown to 20,000 or 30,000.[citation needed] An outbreak of plague decimated the population in 1742 and the Near East earthquake of 1759 left the city in ruins. An influx of Russian Jews in 1776 and 1781, and of the Perushim in 1809 and 1810, reinvigorated the community.[14]

Muslim quarter of Safed circa 1908

In 1812, another plague killed 80% of the Jewish population, and in 1819 the remaining Jews were held for ransom by Abdullah Pasha, the governor of Acre.[citation needed] The Galilee earthquake of 1837 killed 2,158 inhabitants, of which 1507 were Ottoman subjects, Muslim or Jewish. The north, Jewish section of the town was almost entirely destroyed, while the south, Moslem section suffered far less damage.[15] In 1847, plague struck Safed again.

The Jewish population was increased in the last half of the 19th century by immigration from Iran, Morocco, and Algeria. Moses Montefiore visited Safed seven times and financed rebuilding of much of the town. Virtually all the antiquities of Safed were destroyed by earthquakes.[citation needed]

The Qaddura family was a major political force in Safed. At the end of Ottoman rule the family owned 50,000 dunums, this included 8 villages around Safed.[16]


Arab-Israeli conflict

Monument to the soldiers who fought in Israel's War of Independence

In the 1929 massacre in Safed, twenty Jewish residents of Safed were killed there.[17] By 1948, the city was home to around 1,700 Jews, mostly religious and elderly, as well as some 12,000 Arabs.[3]

In February 1948, the Arabs attacked a Jewish bus attempting to reach Safed, and the Jewish quarter of the town had been under siege ever since, even though there were British forces present. According to Martin Gilbert, food supplies ran short.

"Even water and flour were in desperately short supply. Each day, the Arab attackers drew closer to the heart of the Jewish quarter, systematically blowing up Jewish houses as they pressed in on the central area." [18]

In the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Palmach ground attack on Arab Safad took place on 6 May, as a part of Operation Yiftah. The first phase of the Palmach plan to capture Safed was to secure a corridor through the mountains by capturing the Arab village of Birya [19] . The Arab Liberation Army had artillery pieces that shelled the Jewish Quarter from a nearby hill.[20]

The Third Battalion failed to take the main objective, the "citadel", but "terrified" the Arab population sufficiently to prompt further flight, urgent appeals for outside help and an effort to obtain a truce.[21]

According to Benny Morris, Azzam Pasha accurately described the aim of Plan D, of which Operation Yiftah was a part, when he said:

The Jews were following a perfectly clear and ruthless plan... They are now drawing [driving?] out the inhabitants of Arab villagers along the Syrian and Lebanese frontiers, particularly places on the roads by which Arab regular forces could enter the country. In particular, Acre and Safad were in very great danger of Jewish occupation. It was obvious that if this continued, the Arab armies would have great difficulty in even entering Palestine after May 15.[22]

However, the appeals for help were ignored, and the British, now less than a week away from the end of the British Mandate of Palestine, also did not intervene against the second -and final- Haganah attack, which began on the evening of 9 May, with a mortar barrage on key sites in Safad. Following the barrage, Palmach infantry, in bitter fighting, took the citadel, Beit Shalva and the police fort, Safad´s three dominant buildings. Through 10 May, Haganah mortars continued to pound the Arab neighbourhoods, causing fires in the marked area and in the fuel dumps, which exploded. "The Palmah 'intentionally left open the exit routes for the population to "facilitate" their exodus...' " [23] According to Gilbert,

"The Arabs of Safed began to leave, including the commander of the Arab forces, Adib Shishakli (later Prime Minister of Syria). With the police fort on Mount Canaan isolated, its defenders withdrew without fighting. The fall of Safed was a blow to Arab morale throughout the region.....With the invasion of Palestine by regular Arab armies believed to be imminent - once the British had finally left in elven or twelve days' time - many Arabs felt that prudence dictated their departure until the Jews had been defeated and they could return to their homes.[24]

Victorious Palmach troops in a Safed street, May 1948.

Some 12,000 abandoned or fled (some estimate 15,000) from Safed and were a "heavy burden on the Arab war effort".[25] Among them was the family of Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas.[26] The city was fully under the control of Jewish paramilitary forces by May 11, 1948.[3] On that day Palmach troops secured the now empty Arab quarters, and confiscated "goods that could serve the combat units".

In 1974, 102 Israeli Jewish school children from Safed on a school trip were taken hostage by a Palestinian militant group Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) while sleeping in a school in Maalot. In what became known as the Ma'alot massacre, 22 of these school children were among those killed by the hostage takers. In July 2006, Katyusha rockets fired by Hezbollah from Southern Lebanon hit Safed, killing one man and injuring others. Many residents fled the town.[27] On July 22, four people were injured in a rocket attack.


In 2008, the population of Safed was 32,000.[1] According to CBS figures in 2001, the ethnic makeup of the city was 99.2% Jewish and non-Arab, with no significant Arab population. 43.2% of the residents were 19 years of age or younger, 13.5% between 20 and 29, 17.1% between 30 and 44, 12.5% from 45 to 59, 3.1% from 60 to 64, and 10.5% 65 years of age or older.


In December 2001, residents of Safed earned an average of 4,476 shekels per month, compared to the national average of 6,835 shekels. In 2000, there were 6,450 salaried workers and 523 self-employed. Salaried men had a mean monthly wage of NIS 5,631 (a real change of 10.2%) versus NIS 3,330 for women (a real change of 2.3%). The mean income for the self-employed was NIS 4,843. A total of 425 residents received unemployment benefits and 3,085 received income supplements.


According to CBS, the city has 25 schools and 6,292 students. There are 18 elementary schools with a student population of 3,965, and 11 high schools with a student population of 2,327. 40.8% of Safed's 12th graders were eligible for a matriculation (bagrut) certificate in 2001.

Aous Shakra, a 20th century existential philosopher who taught at Harvard University, was born in Safed[citation needed].


Smoke rises over Safed after a Katyusha rocket attack

In the 1950s and 1960s, Safed was known as Israel's art capital. The artists colony established in Safed's Old City was a hub of creativity that drew leading artists from around the country, among them Yosl Bergner, Moshe Castel and Menachem Shemi. Some of Israel's leading art galleries were located there. In honor of the opening of the Glitzenstein Art Museum in 1953, the artist Mane Katz donated eight of his paintings to the city. During this period, Safed was home to the country's top nightclubs, hosting the debut performances of Naomi Shemer, Aris San, and other acclaimed singers.[28] Safed has been hailed as the klezmer capital of the world, hosting an annual klezmer festival that attracts top musicians from around the globe.[29]

Sister city

See also


  1. ^ a b "Table 3 - Population of Localities Numbering Above 1,000 Residents and Other Rural Population" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  2. ^ Jewish Virtual Library Article: Safed
  3. ^ a b c d e f Vilnay, Zev (1972). "Tsefat". A Guide to Israel. Jerusalem, Israel: HaMakor Press. pp. 522–532. 
  4. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Tiberias
  5. ^ Planetware Safed Tourism
  6. ^ "Hadassah Magazine". Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  7. ^ a b "Safed". Encyclopedia Judaica. Vol. 14. Jerusalem, Israel: Keter. 1972. pp. 626. 
  8. ^ Schechter, Solomon. Studies in Judaism: Second Series (Jewish Studies Classics 3), p. 206. Gorgias Press LLC, 2003. ISBN 1593330391
  9. ^ Dimashi, p. 210, quoted in le Strange, p.524
  10. ^ Abu al-Fida,p. 243, quoted in le Strange, p 525
  11. ^ a b "Safed". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  12. ^ "Ottomans and Safavids 17th Century". Michigan State University. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  13. ^ a b R. Y. Ebied, M. J. L. Young (1976) Some Arabic Legal Documents of the Ottoman Period: From the Leeds Manuscript Collection University of Leeds. Dept. of Semitic Studies Brill Archive, ISBN 9004044019 p 7
  14. ^ Morgenstern, Arie (2007). Hastening Redemption: Messianism and the Resettlement of the Land of Israel. Oxford University Press. 
  15. ^ "The earthquake of 1 January 1837 in Southern Lebanon and Northern Israel" by N. N. Ambraseys, in Annali di Geofisica, Aug. 1997, p.933,
  16. ^ Ottoman Reform and Muslim Regeneration: By Buṭrus Abū Mannah, Itzchak Weismann, Fruma Zachs by I.B.Tauris, 2005 ISBN 1850437572 p 178
  17. ^ 'Arab Attack At Safed', The Times, Saturday, August 31, 1929; pg. 10; Issue 45296; col D.
  18. ^ Martin Gilbert Israel, A history William Morrow & Co, NY 1998 ISBN 0-688-12362-7 pg 174
  19. ^ Gilbert, 1998, pg 177
  20. ^ Benny Morris, 1948, The First Arab-Israeli War, 2008 Yale University Press, pg 158
  21. ^ Morris, 2004, p.223
  22. ^ Broadmead to HC, 5 May 1948, SAMECA CP III\5\102. Quoted in Morris, 2004, p.223
  23. ^ Morris 2004, page 224 quoting unnamed source from Book of the Palmah II
  24. ^ Gilbert, 1998, pg.177
  25. ^ Morris, 2004, page 224 quoting Yigal Allon from Book of the Palmah II
  26. ^ Sarah Honig, Jerusalem Post [1] Another Tack: Self-exiled by guilt July 17, 2009 Abbas is quoted as saying "People were motivated to run away... They feared retribution from Zionist terrorist organizations - particularly from the Safed ones. Those of us from Safed especially feared that the Jews harbored old desires to avenge what happened during the 1929 uprising.... They realized the balance of forces was shifting and therefore the whole town was abandoned on the basis of this rationale - saving our lives and our belongings."
  27. ^ Myre, Greg (2006-07-15). "2 More Israelis Are Killed as Rain of Rockets From Lebanon Pushes Thousands South". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  28. ^ Ashkenazi, Eli. "An Inside Job?". Haaretz. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  29. ^ You can take the music out of the shtetl, Jerusalem Post


External links

Panoramic view of Safed with Sea of Galilee in the background.

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : Middle East : Israel : Safed

Safed [1] (Hebrew: צפת Tsfat) is one of the oldest centers for Jewish learning and spirituality, home to the Kabbalah movement which is popular with celebreties.


It is the birthplace of the Kabbalah, and one of the main bastions for Torah study and the like during the centuries of Ottoman rule. It is one of the four holiest cities in Judaism, along with Hebron, Tiberias, and of course Jerusalem. While there are many stories about when it was founded, and by whom, it truly grew to prominence in the late 15th century when it became a refuge for Jews fleeing the Spanish Inquisition.

It is a cute, quaint city in the north of Israel, and has in recent years regained popularity, not only as a center for study, but also as an artists' colony.

Get in

There are direct buses from Haifa, Jerusalem and Bnai Barak. See the Egged website [2] for information on travel times and fares.

The Israel Railways [3] only get as close as Akko, but from there it is possible to take a bus to Safed.

Ayit Airways has 3 daily flights to/from Rosh Pina and Sde Dov Airport for 260 NIS per person or 185 NIS for residents of the north. Sundays - Thursdays, no weekend service. [4] - from there a 50-60 nis cab ride gets you to Safed.

Get around

Safed's old city is built in a circular fashion around a hilltop, and new neighborhoods lie on adjacent hills. There is a local bus company that runs several local lines around the town. Unofficially, cabs take a set fare for any destination in the town. This is usually cheaper than the metered value. Even more unofficially, you can get "sherut" service with the cabs at the price of the bus fare. On "sherut", the cabs travel the bus routes only. The Old City of Safed is really only accessible by foot. To make the best use of your time and to get the "inside scoop" of this fascinating town rich in history and mystical lore, a local knowledgable guide is essential; Baruch Erdstein (phone in Israel: 052-251-5134) is most highly recommended.


Synagogues - there are a number of old, beautiful, and unique synagogues in Tsfat, some of them rather famous world-wide among the Jewish community. These include:

  • The Ari Ashkenaz and the Ari Sephard synagogues both in memory of Rabbi Isaac Luria. The Ari Ashkenaz is normally open for visitors on weekdays and boasts an ornate ark. The Ari Sephard synagogue is only open for prayers on the Sabbath.
  • The "Abuhav" synagogue is probably the most unique, most beautiful, and most famous. It was built in the 1490's according to Kabbalistic architectural and spiritual beliefs.
  • The "Caro" synagogue is another popular landmark, established in the 16th century on the site of a yeshiva run by one of the chief rabbis of Tsfat, and a compiler of the Shulchan Aruch, a book of Jewish law.

Both of these synagogues follow Sephardic traditions, and both, along with all the synagogues in Tsfat, and most around the country and the world, expect all visitors to be dressed appropriately; this means one must have legs covered (no shorts or short skirts), no bare shoulders/upper arms, and all men must cover their heads.

The Ancient Cemetery is the burial place of many famous Rabbis and is a common destination for visitors to Tsfat looking for answers to their prayers. Some famous Jewish personalities buried there include:

  • The Arizal (Rabbi Isaac Luria), the famous kabbalist of the 16th century.
  • Rabbi Joseph Karo, the author of the Shulchan Aruch, the definitive code of Jewish Law.
  • Rabbi Moshe Cordevero (the Ramak), a famous kabbalist redating the Arizal.
  • Chana and her seven sons, the martyred family from the time of the Temple.

Some other places to see in Tsfat that shouldn't be missed:

  • Tzaddik Educational Visitor's Center featuring the Third Temple Model Exhibit and Multi-Media Presentation
  • Great Breslov Synagogue
  • Meiri Museum for Safed History
  • Printing Press Museum
  • Artist colony in the Old City
  • Biblical Museum in the Fortress Garden
  • Statue Garden and the Gallery of sculptor Moshe Ziffer
  • The sephardic Ari Synagogue
  • The Ari mikve
  • The city also boasts a growing number of small, private art galleries, many of which have little cafes or tourist shops attached, selling postcards, t-shirts, and other basic tourist goods.
  • Livnot U'Lehibanot, Rehov Alkabetz 17, (050)8939-042, [5]. Most tourists try to stop in the Tzfat Tourist Information Center for their first overview of Tzfat. The Center provides maps and guidebooks as well as information about tour guides, accommodations, and other information for Tzfat. There is a 10-minute movie that gives an overview of the History of Tzfat, as well as 800-year-old antiquities which, now uncovered, offer visitors an opportunity to see the original rooms and buildings of Tzfat of the 1300s and 1400s, which have been excavated by the Livnot U'Lehibanot Israel Experience Program.

    Through the Information Center, individuals and groups can experience Tzfat through hiking, Tzfat-Theatre, storytelling, musical tours, discussions and lectures about Judaism, sessions of Ask the Rabbi, and explanations of Mysticism in Tzfat. There are also interactive workshops and seminars which include writing tefillin, challah-baking, candle-making, tying Tzitzit, songs and much more. 972-4-6924427 or
  • Dreams and Visions Gallery, Tet-Vav St. #7, Artist's Colony, Safed, ISRAEL (Near the bus parking lot, across from the General Exhibition.), 054-571-1676, [6]. 9AM-6PM. A graduate of Princeton University, Safed artist, Sheva Chaya draws on her professional artistic training to bring Dreams and Visions to life through her vibrant artwork. Sheva Chaya utilizes glassblowing demonstrations and her lively watercolor paintings to elucidate Jewish mystical concepts and traditional liturgy which inspire her work. Small and large group presentation topics include: The Kabbalah of Glassblowing, The Precious Land of Israel, Expressionist Watercolor, and Women's Wisdom.  edit

After Jerusalem, Tsfat is probably one of the best places in the country to get cultural and religious items, as well as quality artwork. A narrow cobblestone street is lined with open-air shops selling everything from menorahs to mezuzahs, Seder plates and Shabbat candlesticks to swords and other historical/cultural items. These shops are also known for pictures that are made up of the words of songs or Scripture. At the end of this shopping street is a shop called "Nerot Tsfat," or Safed Candles. They sell beautiful candles in every size, shape, and color, as well as displaying a number of scenes in wax, including David & Goliath, Noah's Ark, and a wedding. For a more intimate experience of the inspiration behind Tsfat's artwork, seek out artists' private galleries throughout the Old City and Artists' Colony. One such example is the Dreams and Visions Gallery (, located near the bus parking lot, across from the General Exhibition. Here, resident artist, Sheva Chaya utilizes glassblowing demonstrations and her lively watercolor paintings to elucidate Jewish mystical concepts and traditional liturgy which inspire her work. A bit further down Tet-Vav alley, you will find the Tzfat Gallery of Mystical Art, where artist Avraham Loewenthal brings the ancient study of Kabbalah to life with his artwork. In the old Jewish Quarter, you will find the kabbalistic galleries of Yoseph Saban and David Friedman on Bar Yochai St.

Another way to explore Safed is backpacking Safed, staying in backpacker hostels and hiking the Safed area [7].


There are several Daf Yomi classes in Tsfat in several languages. Visit the non-profit Experience Tsfat Resource Guide's Classes page [8] for more information.

In addition, there are several museums in Tsfat, honoring and sharing the town's important place in Jewish history and culture. The Museum of Hungarian Jewry and the Beit Hameiri Museum, which chronicles Tsfat's local history.


Buy quality artwork direct from the artist. Don't miss the opportunity to spend time with local artists and buy their quality art. Hear their stories and get a sense of how traditional Jewish sources inspire their work.


This section of the city is built in layers, or tiers. The shopping arcade and synagogues are on the middle level, and at the top is a more modern street, mostly cafes and restaurants, along with a number of other shops selling a variety of more mundane, secular, merchandise. Falafel, shawarma, pizza, and other basic foods are relatively cheap, and very good here.

as my famous scholar will say, "drink wata, many many wata." it is good for you!!" drink many wata"

  • The Tzimer Express Tzfat [9] Rehov Ha Ari 104 13204 Safed Israel +972 (0)52 712 7877. Tzimer Express is a different kind of hotel service, all the comforts of a home with hotel-style amenities all at a lower nightly cost then a hotel stay, the rooms & suites are centrally located in the old city of Tzfat giving you easy access to all your needs. The rooms are fully-equipped on the inside and surrounded by stunning views on the outside.

Most people staying overnight in Tsfat choose to stay at the small guest houses throughout the Old City, Artists' Quarter and the South of Tsfat. For a free list of these guest houses visit the non-profit Experience Tsfat Resource Guide [10] the lodging page [11]

Hotels include Ruth Rimmon Inn, The Ron Hotel, and the Tel Aviv Hotel.

You can stay in nearby Amirim.

  • Laurie. A full listing of hotels, hostels, and guest houses of the Old City of Tzfat can be found at For more information (050)8939-042 or  edit
  • Tzfat Pad, 94 David Remez St. (Right next to Abu Chatzerah Shul), +972-545-683-040, [12]. checkin: after 9 am; checkout: 4pm except sat. Great guest apartment owned by an artist that only occasionally visits safed. Apartment has large floor to ceiling windows in the living room and master bedroom with views of the galil and sea of galilee. There is an additional bedroom that has a window to the other side. Located 3-5 minutes walk from restaurants and shopping 100-150 nis per person.  edit
  • Villa Galilee Hotel (Villa Galilee Hotel), Hagdud Hashlishi 106 Har Cnaan, P.O.B 2104, Zafed 13100, +972-4-6999563, [13]. Villa Galilee was built for you: unique and peaceful rooms, spacious penthouses with a terrace overlooking the view and furnished with a pampering jaccuzzi, a lovely swimming pool and a tranquil flower garden and charming little resting areas. Our restaurant offers fine cuisine inspired by the French kitchen, while our downstairs bar provides the perfect ending to any evening. For additional relaxation, treat yourself to one of our soothing treatments at our in-house spa.  edit
  • Ruth Rimonim Hotel (Ruth Rimonim Hotel), Artist Colony POBox 1011, 04-6994666 (fax: 04-6920456), [14]. High up on the Galilee Mountains, in the heart of the artist colony of Safed one finds the RUTH RIMONIM HOTEL - one of the picturesque hotels of the world.  edit

Get out

Safed is an ideal location for basing many day trips in the northern area of Israel. Buses, cabs, and seasonal organized group travel are available to many locations within an hour or so drive such as Rosh Haniqra, Nahariyya, Akko, the Golan Heights, Tel Dan, Monfort Lake, Tiberias, Gamla, Qiryat Shemona, Mount Hermon, and Metulla. Especially for the "mehadrin" or "glatt" traveler, basing northern trips in Safed is adventageous with the availability of mehadrin lodging and food.

For the religious traveler, there are separate beaches available in Nahariyya, Tiberias, and Haifa (Hof Hashaket/Quiet Beach).

From Akko, trains [15] are available to many destinations, including a direct line to terminal 3 of Ben Gurion International Airport. Buses and cabs are available regularly from Safed to Akko, now making it possible to get to the airport in the middle of the night at public transportation prices.

Ayit Airways has 3 daily flights to/from Rosh Pina and Sde Dov Airport for 260 NIS per person or 185 NIS for residents of the north. Sundays - Thursdays, no weekend service. [16] - from there a 50-60 nis cab ride gets you to Safed.

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