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Sailor Moon
Sailor Senshi2.png
The major characters of the Sailor Moon anime. The series is known for its large central cast and bright colors.
美少女戦士セーラームーン
(Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn)
Genre adventure, magical girl, romance, comedy, drama, fantasy
Manga
Author Naoko Takeuchi
Publisher Kodansha
English publisher United States Tokyopop
Demographic Shōjo
Magazine Nakayoshi, Run Run
English magazine United States Mixxzine, Smile
Original run 1991April 1997
Volumes 18 (List of volumes)
TV anime
Director Junichi Sato
Studio Toei Animation
Network TV Asahi
English network Australia ABC, 7, Ten, Fox Kids Australia

Canada YTV, Global, TVA
Republic of Ireland Fox Kids
New Zealand TV2
United Kingdom Fox Kids, ITV

United States USA Network, Cartoon Network, Syndication, NBC
Original run March 7, 1992February 27, 1993
Episodes 46 (List of episodes)
TV anime
Sailor Moon R
Director Junichi Sato
Studio Toei Animation
Network TV Asahi
English network Australia ABC, 7, Ten, Fox Kids Australia

Canada YTV, Global, TVA
Republic of Ireland Fox Kids
New Zealand TV2
United Kingdom Fox Kids, ITV

United States USA Network, Cartoon Network, Syndication, NBC
Original run March 6, 1993March 12, 1994
Episodes 43 (List of episodes)
TV anime
Sailor Moon S
Director Kunihiko Ikuhara
Studio Toei Animation
Network TV Asahi
English network Australia Fox Kids Australia
Canada YTV, Global, TVA

Republic of Ireland Fox Kids
New Zealand TV2
United Kingdom Fox Kids, ITV

United States Cartoon Network
Original run March 19, 1994February 25, 1995
Episodes 38 (List of episodes)
TV anime
Sailor Moon SuperS
Director Kunihiko Ikuhara
Studio Toei Animation
Network TV Asahi
English network Australia Fox Kids Australia

Canada YTV, Global, TVA
Republic of Ireland Fox Kids
New Zealand TV2
United Kingdom Fox Kids, ITV

United States Cartoon Network
Original run March 4, 1995March 2, 1996
Episodes 39 (List of episodes)
TV anime
Sailor Moon Sailor Stars
Director Takuya Igarashi
Studio Toei Animation
Network TV Asahi
Original run March 9, 1996February 8, 1997
Episodes 34 (List of episodes)
Films
  • Sailor Moon R: The Movie
  • Sailor Moon S: The Movie
  • Sailor Moon Supers: The Movie
Stage musical series

Sailor Moon musicals (SeraMyu): 25 stage shows based on the Sailor Moon franchise were released between 1993 and 2005.

Live-action series

Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon: a 49 episode live action series directed by Ryuta Tasaki ran from October 4, 2003, to September 25, 2004. There were also two direct-to-video releases: a sequel (Special Act), and a prequel (Act Zero).

Video games

Quite a few Sailor Moon video games have been released, mainly in Japan, with very few ever being translated into other languages.

Related series
  • Codename: Sailor V
Anime and Manga Portal

Sailor Moon (美少女戦士セーラームーン Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn?, officially translated as Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon) is the title of a Japanese media franchise created by Naoko Takeuchi. Fred Patten credits Takeuchi with popularizing the concept of a sentai ("team") of magical girls,[1][2] and Paul Gravett credits the series with "revitalizing" the magical-girl genre itself.[3] Sailor Moon redefined the magical girl genre, as previous magical girls did not use their powers to fight evil, but this is now considered one of the standard archetypes of the genre.[4]

The story of the various metaseries revolves around the reincarnated defenders of a kingdom that once spanned the solar system, and around the evil forces that they battle. The major characters—the Sailor Senshi (literally "Sailor Soldiers"; frequently called "Sailor Scouts" in many Western versions), teenage girls—can transform into heroines named for the moon and planets (Sailor Moon, Sailor Mercury, Sailor Mars, etc). The use of "Sailor" comes from a style of girls' school uniform popular in Japan, the sērā fuku ("sailor outfit"), on which Takeuchi modeled the Senshi's uniforms. The elements of fantasy in the series are heavily symbolic and often based on mythology.

Before the Sailor Moon manga appeared Takeuchi had written Codename: Sailor V, which centered around just one Sailor Senshi. She devised the idea when she wanted to create a cute series about girls in outer space, and her editor asked her to put them in sailor fuku.[5] When Sailor V was proposed for adaptation into an anime, the concept was modified so that Sailor V herself became only one member of a team. The resulting manga series merged elements of the popular magical girl genre and the Super Sentai Series which Takeuchi admired,[6] making Sailor Moon one of the first series ever to combine the two.

The manga resulted in spinoffs into other types of media, including a highly popular anime, as well as musical theatre productions, video games, and a tokusatsu series. Although most concepts in the many versions overlap, often notable differences occur, and thus continuity between the different formats remains limited.

Contents

Story

The protagonist of Sailor Moon, Usagi Tsukino, an ordinary ditzy middle-school girl - or so she herself thinks, at least - discovers a talking cat named Luna, who reveals Usagi's identity as "Sailor Moon" a special warrior with the destiny of saving the planet Earth, and later the entire galaxy. Usagi who is the reincarnation of the Moon Princess must now protect Earth from a series of villains, beginning with the Dark Kingdom that had appeared once before, long ago, and destroyed the kingdom of the moon.

The characters in Sailor Moon awaken members of the court of the kingdom of the moon, and the people dedicated to protecting it. When the kingdom was attacked by the dark nemesis', the Queen sent the Moon Princess, her guardians and advisors, and her true love, into the future to be reborn. As Usagi and Luna battle evil and search for the Moon Princess, they meet the other Sailor Senshi, incarnations of the Moon Princess' protectors, and the mysterious Tuxedo Mask.

As the series progresses, Usagi and her friends learn more and more about the enemies they face and the evil force that directs them. The characters' pasts are mysterious and hidden even to them, and much of the early series is devoted to discovering their true identities and pasts. Luna, who teaches and guides the Sailor Senshi, doesn't know everything about their histories either, and the Senshi eventually learn that Usagi is the real Moon Princess. The Moon Princess' mother had her reborn as a Sailor Senshi to protect her. Gradually she discovers the truth about her own past life, her destined true love, and the possibilities for the future of the Solar System.

The plot spans five major story arcs, each of them represented in both the manga and anime, usually under different names:

  1. the Dark Kingdom arc (Sailor Moon)
  2. the Black Moon arc (Sailor Moon R)
  3. the Death Buster arc (Sailor Moon S)
  4. the Dead Moon arc (Sailor Moon Supers)
  5. the Stars arc (Sailor Stars)

The anime added an additional minor arc at the start of the second series, and spent the first few episodes of Sailor Stars wrapping up the plot from the previous series. The manga is preceded by its Sister series Codename: Sailor V which tell the story of Sailor V, Minako Aino and her adventures during the year before Sailor Moon itself starts and many characters from it return in Sailor Moon includeing Sailor V herself under the name Sailor Venus.

Characters

Usagi Tsukino/Sailor Moon (月野 うさぎ Tsukino Usagi?)
The main character of the series, called Bunny in the English manga. Usagi, a ditzy carefree schoolgirl with an enormous capacity for love, transforms into the heroine called Sailor Moon. The beginning of the series portrays her as an immature crybaby who hates having to fight evil and wants nothing more than to be a normal girl.[7][8] As she progresses, however, she embraces the chance to use her power to protect those she cares about.[9][10]
Mamoru Chiba/Tuxedo Mask (地場 衛 Chiba Mamoru?)
A student somewhat older than Usagi. As a young child he experienced a terrible car-accident that robbed him of his parents and of his knowledge of his own identity.[11] During the series he has some precognitive ability,[12][13] including dreams that inspire him to take on the guise of Tuxedo Mask and fight alongside the Sailor Senshi. After an initially confrontational relationship,[8] he and Usagi remember their past lives together and fall in love again.
Ami Mizuno/Sailor Mercury (水野 亜美 Mizuno Ami?)
A quiet bookworm in Usagi's class. Highly intelligent, with a rumored IQ of 300,[14] she can transform into Sailor Mercury, acquiring power over all phases of water. Ami's shy exterior masks a passion for knowledge and for taking care of the people around her.[15] She hopes to become a doctor one day, like her mother, and tends to be the practical one in the group. Secretly, she is also a fan of pop culture and romance novels, and becomes embarrassed whenever this is pointed out.
Rei Hino/Sailor Mars (火野 レイ Hino Rei?)
An elegant miko (shrine maiden), her name's spelling changed to the American spelling[citation needed] Raye in the English versions. Because of her work as a Shinto priestess, Rei can sense and dispel evil even in her civilian form.[16] When she transforms into Sailor Mars she can also manipulate fire. She is very serious and focused, but although easily annoyed by Usagi's flightiness, cares about her very much. Rei is portrayed as boy-crazy in the early anime[16] and short-tempered throughout, but is uninterested in romance and self-controlled in both the manga and live-action series.[17] She attends a private school (which some versions translate as catholic, however that makes no sense as her family follows shinto), separate from the other girls.
Makoto Kino/Sailor Jupiter (木野 まこと Kino Makoto?)
A tomboy who transfers into Usagi's school. Very tall and strong for a Japanese schoolgirl,[18] she can transform into Sailor Jupiter, attacking with lightning and with some control over plants. Both Makoto's parents died in a plane crash years ago, so she lives alone and takes care of herself. She cultivates her physical strength as well as more domestic interests, including housekeeping, cooking, and gardening. She wants to marry young and to own a flower-and-cake shop.[19]
Minako Aino/Sailor Venus (愛野 美奈子 Aino Minako?)
A perky dreamer who acted on her own as Sailor V for some time.[20][21] Called by her nickname Mina in the English versions, she has a companion cat called Artemis who works alongside Luna in guiding the Sailor Senshi. Minako transforms into Sailor Venus, Soldier of Love, and leads Sailor Moon's four inner guardians. She also dreams of becoming a famous singer and idol: she attends auditions whenever she can.[22] At the start of the live-action series, she has poor health and as a result separates herself from the other Senshi.[23]
Chibiusa/Sailor Chibi Moon (ちびうさ?)
The future daughter of Usagi and Mamoru, Chibiusa travels from the 30th century to seek help to save her parents, then later to train with Sailor Moon to become a soldier.[24] She learns to transform into Sailor Chibi Moon. At times she has an adversarial relationship with her mother in the 20th century,[25] as she considers herself more mature than Usagi, but as the series progresses they develop a deep bond. Chibiusa wants to grow up to become a lady like her mother.[26] The English adaptations call her Rini, and her alter ego "Sailor Mini Moon".
Setsuna Meioh/Sailor Pluto (冥王 せつな Meiō Setsuna?)
A mysterious woman. She appears first as Sailor Pluto, the Guardian of Time, who has the task of protecting the Space-Time Door from unauthorized travelers. Only later does she appear on Earth, living as a college student. She has a distant personality and can be very stern, but can also be quite friendly and helps the younger Sailor Senshi when she can.[27] After so long at the gate of time she carries a deep sense of loneliness, although she is close friends with Chibiusa.
Michiru Kaioh/Sailor Neptune (海王 みちる Kaiō Michiru?)
A talented violinist with some precognition. A year older than most of the other Sailor Senshi, she can transform into Sailor Neptune, channeling the power of the ocean. She worked alone for some time before finding her partner, Sailor Uranus, with whom she fell in love.[28] Michiru is elegant and personable, already well-known for her music as well as her painting, but has given up her own dreams for the life of a Senshi. She is fully devoted to this duty and willing to make any sacrifice for it.
Haruka Tenoh/Sailor Uranus (天王 はるか Ten'ō Haruka?)
A good-natured, masculine-acting girl. Haruka, of an age with her partner, Michiru, transforms into Sailor Uranus, Soldier of the Sky. Before becoming a Sailor Senshi, she dreamt of being a racer, and she has good driving skills.[29] She tends to dress and, in the anime, speak like a man. She is so friendly and genial that nearly everyone she meets is attracted to her. When it comes to fighting the enemy, however, she distrusts outside help and prefers to work solely with Sailor Neptune and, later, Pluto and Saturn.
Hotaru Tomoe/Sailor Saturn (土萠 ほたる Tomoe Hotaru?)
A sweet, lonely young girl whose name remains unchanged in English (though pronounced slightly differently). Daughter of a possessed mad scientist, a terrible lab accident in her youth significantly compromised her constitution. After overcoming the darkness that has surrounded her family, she is able to become the Soldier of Silence, Sailor Saturn.[24] She wields forces of destruction so powerful that she is rarely called upon to use them, and unlike the others, her Senshi and civilian personae seem somewhat disconnected. She is often pensive, and as a human has the inexplicable power to heal others.

Adaptations

Manga

The first cover of the Sailor Moon manga, July 1992.

Before the Sailor Moon manga, Takeuchi published Codename: Sailor V, which centered around just Sailor Venus . She devised the idea when she wanted to create a cute series about girls in outer space, and her editor asked her to put them in sailor fuku.[5] When Sailor V was proposed for adaptation into an anime, the concept was modified so that Sailor V herself became only one member of a team. The resulting manga series became a fusion of the popular magical girl genre the Super Sentai Series of which Takeuchi was a fan.[6] Recurring motifs include astronomy,[5] astrology, Greek myth,[8] Roman myth, geology, Japanese elemental themes,[30] teen fashions,[8][15] and schoolgirl antics.[15]

Talks between Takeuchi and her publishers originally envisaged only one story-arc,[31] and the storyline developed in meetings a year prior to publications,[32] but having completed it, Takeuchi was asked by her editors to continue. She issued four more story-arcs,[31] often published simultaneously with the five corresponding anime series. The anime series would only lag the manga by a month or two.[32]

The complete original manga spans 52 chapters, known as Acts, as well as ten separate side-stories. Its main series appeared in serial form in Nakayoshi, Kodansha's shōjo manga magazine, from 1991 to 1995; the side-stories were serialized in Kodansha's Run Run. Kodansha has published all the chapters and side-stories in book form. The first edition came out as the series was being produced, from 1992 through 1997,[33][34] and consisted of 18 volumes with all the chapters and side stories in the order in which they had been released.

The second edition, called the shinsōban or "renewal" edition, began in 2003 during the run of the live-action series.[35] The individual chapters were redistributed by Kodansha so that there are more per book, and some corrections and updates were made to the dialogue and drawings. New art was featured as well, including completely new cover art and character sketches (including characters unique to the live-action series). In all, the new edition consists of 12 story volumes and two separate short-story volumes.

By the end of 1995, the thirteen Sailor Moon volumes then available had sold about one million copies each, and Japan had exported the manga to over 23 countries, including China, Mexico, Australia, most of Europe and North America.[36]

A special art book was released by Kodansha for each of the five story arcs, collectively called the Original Picture Collection. The books contain cover art, promotional material, and other work done by Takeuchi. Many of the drawings appear accompanied by comments on how she developed her ideas, how she created each picture, whether or not she likes it, and commentary on the anime interpretation of her story.[37][38][39][40][41]

Another picture collection, Volume Infinity, appeared in a strictly limited edition after the end of the series in 1997. This self-published artbook includes drawings by Takeuchi as well as by her friends, her staff, and many of the voice-actors who worked on the anime. In 1999, the Materials Collection was published by Kodansha, containing development sketches and notes for nearly every character in the manga, as well as some who never appeared. Each drawing is surrounded with notes by Takeuchi about the specifics of various costume pieces, the mentality of the characters, and her particular feelings about them. It also includes timelines for the story arcs and for the real-life release of products and materials relating to the anime and manga. At the end, the Parallel Sailor Moon short story is featured, celebrating the year of the rabbit.[42]

Anime

The Sailor Moon anime, co-produced by TV Asahi, Toei Agency and Toei Animation, started airing only a month after the first issue of the manga was published. With 200 episodes airing from March 1992 to February 1997 on TV Asahi, Sailor Moon is one of the longest magical girl anime series. The anime sparked a highly successful merchandising campaign of over 5,000 items,[8] which contributed to demand all over the world and translation into numerous languages. Sailor Moon has since become one of the most famous anime properties in the world.[43][44] Due to its resurgence of popularity in Japan, the series is slated to be back on the air as of September 1, 2009. Also, Italy is getting it rebroadcasted in northern-hemisphere autumn 2010, also getting permission from Naoko who will be releasing new artwork to promote.[45]

Sailor Moon consists of five separate arcs. The titles of the series are Sailor Moon, Sailor Moon R, Sailor Moon S, Sailor Moon Super S and Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. Each series roughly corresponds to one of the five major story arcs of the manga, following the same general storyline and including most of the same characters.[32] There were also five special animated shorts, as well as three theatrically-released movies: Sailor Moon R: The Movie, Sailor Moon S: The Movie, and Sailor Moon Supers: The Movie.[46][47][48]

The anime series uses traditional animation techniques throughout. The series was directed first by Jun'ichi Satō, then by Kunihiko Ikuhara and later by Takuya Igarashi. Character design was headed by Kazuko Tadano, Ikuko Itoh and Katsumi Tamegai, all of whom were also animation directors. Other animation directors included Masahiro Andō, Hisashi Kagawa, and Hideyuki Motohashi.[49]

The series sold as twenty "volumes" in Japan. By the end of 1995, each volume had sold approximately 300,000 copies.[36]

Stage musicals

The musical stage shows, usually referred to collectively as SeraMyu, were a series of live theatre productions that played over 800 performances in some 29 musicals between 1993 and 2005. The stories of the shows include anime-inspired plotlines as well as a large amount of original material. Music from the series has been released on about 20 "memorial" albums.[50] The popularity of the musicals has been cited as a reason behind the production of the live action Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon TV series.[51]

Musicals ran twice a year, in the winter and in the summer. In the summer, the musicals showed only in the Sunshine Theatre in the Ikebukuro area of Tokyo; however, in the winter they went on tour to the other large cities in Japan, including Osaka, Fukuoka,[52] Nagoya, Shizuoka, Kanazawa, Sendai,[53] Saga, Oita, Yamagata and Fukushima.[54]

The final incarnation of the series, The New Legend of Kaguya Island (Revised Edition) (新・かぐや島伝説 <改訂版> Shin Kaguyashima Densetsu (Kaiteban)?), went on stage in January 2005. After that show, the series went on a hiatus.[55]

Live-action series

The Tokyo Broadcasting System and Chubu-Nippon Broadcasting screened a tokusatsu (live-action) version of Sailor Moon from October 4, 2003 through September 25, 2004. The series, titled Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon (often shortened to "PGSM"), used an entirely English-language title for the first time in the Sailor Moon franchise. It lasted a total of 49 episodes.[56][57] Almost one thousand people applied for the parts of the five main characters.[58]

The series' storyline more closely follows the original manga than the anime at first, but in later episodes it proceeds into a significantly different storyline from either, with original characters and new plot developments.[23][51]

In addition to the main episodes, two direct-to-video releases appeared after the show ended its television broadcast. These were the "Special Act", which is set four years after the main storyline ends and which shows the wedding of the two main characters, and "Act Zero", a prequel which shows the origins of Sailor V and Tuxedo Mask.[59]

Video games

More than twenty Sailor Moon console and arcade games have appeared in Japan, all based on the anime series. Bandai and a Japanese game company called Angel (unrelated to the American-based Angel Studios, as of 2010 known as Rockstar San Diego) made most of them, with some produced by Banpresto. The early games were side-scrolling fighters, whereas the later ones were unique puzzle games, or versus fighting games. Another Story was a turn-based role-playing game.[60]

The only Sailor Moon game produced outside of Japan, 3VR New Media's The 3D Adventures of Sailor Moon, went on sale in North America in 1997.[61]

English adaptations

The English adaptations of both the manga and anime series became the first successful shōjo title in the United States.[10] The anime adaptation of Sailor Moon attempted to capitalize on the success of Mighty Morphin Power Rangers.[15][62] After a bidding-war between Toon Makers, who wanted to produce a half live-action and half American-style cartoon version,[63] and DIC Entertainment, DiC — then owned by The Walt Disney Company[64] — acquired the rights to the first two seasons of Sailor Moon,[65] from which they cut six episodes and merged two. Editors cut each of the remaining episodes by several minutes to make room for more commercials, to censor plot points or visuals deemed inappropriate for children, and to allow the insertion of "educational" segments called "Sailor Says" at the end of each episode.

The English adaptations by Optimum Productions for Cloverway of Sailor Moon S and Sailor Moon Supers (the third and fourth series) stayed relatively close to the original Japanese versions, without skipping or merging any episodes. Some controversial changes were made, however, such as the depiction of Sailors Uranus and Neptune as cousins rather than lovers.[66]

The fifth and final series, Sailor Stars, has never been licensed for adaptation into English. As of May 2004, the rest of the metaseries has officially gone off the air in all English-speaking countries due to lapsed and unrenewed licenses.[67]

The manga publisher Mixx (subsequently renamed Tokyopop) translated the Sailor Moon manga into English in 1997. The manga initially appeared syndicated in MixxZine but was later pulled out of that magazine and moved into a secondary magazine called "SMILE."[68] The US comic was released as three series: Sailor Moon, which collects the first three arcs (the Dark Kingdom, Black Moon, and Infinity arcs), Sailor Moon Super S, which collects the Supers arc, and Sailor Moon Stars, which collects the Sailor Stars arc. They feature all of the content from the original manga collections (though the names of characters introduced in the first two story arcs were changed to those used in the English anime), as well as the occasional new sketch and "thank you" commentary from the series' creator.

The Tokyopop English-language manga went out of print on May 2, 2005.[69]

Music

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Numerous people wrote and composed music for the Sailor Moon metaseries, with frequent lyrical contributions by creator Naoko Takeuchi. Takanori Arisawa, who earned the "Golden Disk Grand Prize" from Columbia Records for his work on the first series soundtrack in 1993, composed and arranged all of the background musical scores, including the spinoffs, games, and movies. In 1998, 2000, and 2001 he won the JASRAC International Award for most international royalties, owing largely to the popularity of Sailor Moon music in other nations.[70]

Most of the TV series used for an opening theme "Moonlight Densetsu" (ムーンライト伝説 Mūnraito Densetsu?, lit. "Moonlight Legend"), composed by Tetsuya Komoro with lyrics by Kanako Oda. It was one of the series' most popular songs. "Moonlight Densetsu" was performed by DALI as the opener for the first two anime series,[71][72] and then by Moon Lips for the third and fourth.[73][74] The final series, Sailor Stars, switched to using "Sailor Star Song" for its opening theme, written by Shōki Araki with lyrics by Naoko Takeuchi and performed by Kae Hanazawa.[75] "Moonlight Densetsu" made its final appearance as the closing song for the very last episode, #200.[49] "Moonlight Densetsu" has been covered and remixed many times by artists such as the punk supergroup Osaka Popstar.

The English-language dub of the anime series used the melody of "Moonlight Densetsu", but with very different lyrics and instrumentation. At the time, it was unusual for anime theme songs to be translated, and this was one of the first such themes to be redone in English since Speed Racer.[76] The English theme has been described as "inane but catchy".[77] The Japanese theme is a love song based on the relationship between Usagi and Mamoru ("born on the same Earth"); its first verse, as it appears in the English subtitles, is as follows:[78]

I'm sorry I'm not straightforward,
I can say it in my dreams
My thoughts are about to short circuit,
I want to see you right now

The English "Sailor Moon Theme" rather resembles a superhero anthem. Its first verse is written:[79]

Fighting evil by moonlight,
Winning love by daylight,
Never running from a real fight,
She is the one named Sailor Moon

Both versions of the series also make use of insert themes, battle music, and image songs, with the original being much more prolific. Over 40 Japanese music albums were released for the anime alone, many of which were remixes of the previous albums in jazz style, music box, French, etc. In addition, 33 different CD singles were released, many of them centered around specific characters. The second most prolific country in terms of Sailor Moon music releases was Germany, which produced some fifteen albums and singles, including five by the pop band Super Moonies. In North America, only three albums were released. These numbers do not include the CDs from the Musicals, which were only released in Japan. At least one CD was released per musical, as well as various collections, such as Villain Collections or many songs sung by a single actor or actress. Various CDs were also released for the live action adaptation as well.

Moonlight Densetsu was released as a CD single in March 1992, and was an "explosive hit".[80] "Moonlight Densetsu" won first place in the Song category in Animage's 15th and 16th Anime Grand Prix.[81][82] It came seventh in the 17th Grand Prix, and "Moon Revenge", from Sailor Moon R: The Movie, came eighth.[83] "Rashiku Ikimasho", the second closing song for Supers, placed eighteenth in 1996.[84] In 1997, "Sailor Star Song", the new opening theme for Sailor Stars, came eleventh, and "Moonlight Densetsu" came sixteenth.[85]

Reception

The manga won the Kodansha Manga Award in 1993 for shōjo.[86]

Originally planned to run for only six months, the Sailor Moon anime repeatedly continued due to its popularity, concluding only after a five-year run.[87] In Japan, it aired every Saturday night in prime time,[8][88] getting TV viewership ratings around 11-12% for most of the series run.[8][89] Commentators detect in the anime adaptation of Sailor Moon "a more shonen tone," appealing to a wider audience than the manga, which aimed squarely at teenage girls.[90] Later episodes of the anime added nude transformation sequences for the male audience, to the annoyance of Takeuchi. In the edited English version these scenes were censored.[91] The media franchise is one of the most successful Japan has ever had, reaching 1.5 billion dollars in merchandise sales during the first three years. Ten years after the series completion, the series has featured among the top thirty of TV Asahi's Top 100 Anime polls in 2005 and 2006.[43][44] The anime series won the Animage Anime Grand Prix prize in 1993.[81] Sales of Sailor Moon's fashion dolls overtook that of Licca-chan in the 1990s; Mattel suggested that this was due to the "fashion-action" blend of the Sailor Moon storyline. Doll accessories included both fashion items and the Senshi's weapons.[15]

Sailor Moon has also become popular internationally. Spain and France became the first countries outside of Japan to air Sailor Moon, beginning in December 1993.[46] Other countries followed suit, including Australia, South Korea, the Philippines, Italy, Peru, Brazil, Sweden and Hong Kong, before North America picked up the franchise for adaptation.[92] In 2001, the Sailor Moon manga was Tokyopop's best selling property, outselling the next-best selling titles by at least a factor of 1.5.[93]

Critics have commended the anime series for its portrayal of strong friendships,[94] as well as for its large cast of "strikingly different" characters who have different dimensions and aspects to them as the story goes on,[95] and an ability to appeal to a wide audience.[96] Writer Nicolas Penedo attributes the success of Sailor Moon to its fusion of the shōjo manga genre of magical girls with the Super Sentai fighting teams.[90] According to Martha Cornog and Timothy Perper, Sailor Moon became popular because of its "strongly-plotted action with fight scenes, rescues" and its "emphasis on feelings and relationships", including some "sexy romance" between Usagi and Mamoru.[97] In contrast, others see Sailor Moon as campy[23] and melodramatic. Criticism has singled out its use of formulaic plots, monsters of the day,[98] and stock footage.[99]

Drazen notes that Sailor Moon has two kinds of villains, the Monster of the Day and the "thinking, feeling humans". Although this is common in anime and manga, it is "almost unheard of in the West".[25] Despite the series' apparent popularity among Western anime fandom, the dubbed version of the series received poor ratings in the United States and did not do well in DVD sales in the United Kingdom.[100] Anne Allison attributes the lack of popularity in the United States primarily to poor marketing (in the United States, the series was initially broadcast at times which did not suit the target audience - weekdays at 9:00 a.m. and 2:00 pm). Executives connected with Sailor Moon suggest that poor localization played a role.[15] Helen McCarthy and Jonathan Clements go further, calling the dub "indifferent", and suggesting that Sailor Moon was put in "dead" timeslots due to local interests.[101] The British distributor, MVM Films, has attributed the poor sales to the United Kingdom release being of the dub only, and that major retailers refused to support the show leading to the DVD release appealing to neither children nor older anime fans.[100]

Both the manga dy editorial Vid and the anime the whole series were released in Mexico twice in a quite accurate translation in Imevisión (what is now TvAzteca) that also aired in almost it´s entire content Saint Seiya, Senki,Candy Candy, Remi, Card Captor Sakura, Detective Conan. With quite a success and in the U.S censor version in the Cartoon Network that was very quickly taken out of the air due to poor ratings being lackluster compared to the original version; due to sensitive or controversial topics there was pressure from a Catholic parents' group to take it off the market which partially succeeded but after the whole series had been aired once from Sailor Moon to Sailor Stars and some of the movies. [102] Due to anti-Japanese sentiment, Japanese media was banned for many years in Korea. A Korean TV station producer "did not even try to buy" Sailor Moon because he thought it would not pass the censorship laws, but as of May 1997, Sailor Moon was airing on the national broadcaster without issues and was "enormously" popular.[103]

In his 2007 book Manga: The Complete Guide Jason Thompson gave the manga series 3 / 5 stars. He enjoyed the blending of shōnen and shōjo styles, stating that the combat scenes seemed heavily influenced by Saint Seiya, but shorter and less bloody, and noting that the manga itself appeared similar to Super Sentai television shows. While Thompson found the series fun and entertaining, the repetitive plot lines were a detriment to the title which the increasing quality of art could not make up for; even so, he still states that the series is "sweet, effective entertainment".[10]

James Welker believes that Sailor Moon's futuristic setting helps to make lesbianism "naturalised" and a peaceful existence. Yukari Fujimoto notes that although there are few "lesbian scenes" in Sailor Moon, it has become a popular subject for yuri parodic dojinshi. She attributes this to the source work's "cheerful" tone, although she notes that "though they seem to be overflowing with lesbians, the position of heterosexuals is earnestly secured".[104]

Legacy

The anime has been cited as reinvigorating the magical girl genre by adding dynamic heroines and action-oriented plots. After its success, many similar titles immediately followed. Magic Knight Rayearth, Wedding Peach, Nurse Angel Ririka and Revolutionary Girl Utena all owe much of their basis to the popularity of Sailor Moon.[105] Sailor Moon has been called "the biggest breakthrough" in English dubbed anime up until 1995, when it premiered on YTV,[92] and "the pinnacle of little kid shojo anime".[106] Matt Thorn notes that soon after Sailor Moon, shōjo manga began to be featured in book shops, as opposed to fandom-dominated comic shops.[107] It is credited as the beginning of a wider movement of girls taking up shōjo manga.[10][108][109] Gilles Poitras defines a "generation" of anime fans as those who were introduced to anime by Sailor Moon in the 1990s, noting that they were both much younger than the other fans and also mostly girls. Poitras credits Sailor Moon as laying the ground for other shōjo series such as Fushigi Yuugi, Vision of Escaflowne and Revolutionary Girl Utena.[110]

Fred Patten credits Takeuchi with popularizing the concept of a Super Sentai-like team of magical girls,[1][2] and Paul Gravett credits the series with "revitalizing" the magical girl genre itself.[3] The series is credited with changing the genre of magical girls—its heroine must use her powers to fight evil, not simply to have fun as previous magical girls had done.[4]

In the West, people sometimes associated Sailor Moon with the feminist or Girl Power movements and with empowering its viewers,[108] especially regarding the "credible, charismatic and independent" characterizations of the Sailor Senshi, which were "interpreted in France as an unambiguously feminist position."[90] As such, it has been compared with Barbie,[111] Mighty Morphin Power Rangers,[8][94] Buffy the Vampire Slayer,[112] and Sabrina, the Teenage Witch.[113] Its characters have also been described as "catty stereotypes", with Sailor Moon's character in particular being singled out as less-than-feminist because her favorite class is home economics and her least favorite is math.[114]

In English-speaking countries, Sailor Moon developed a cult following amongst members of the "Save Our Sailors" campaign[114] and male university students,[8] and Drazen considers that the Internet was a new medium that fans used to communicate and played a role in the popularity of Sailor Moon.[112] Fans could use the Internet to communicate about the series, using it to organize the "Save Our Sailors" campaign to return Sailor Moon to US broadcast, and to share information about episodes that had not yet aired.[114] In 2004, one study suggested there were 3,335,000 sites about Sailor Moon, compared to 491,000 for Mickey Mouse.[115] NEO magazine suggested that part of Sailor Moon's allure was that fans communicated, via the Internet, about the differences between the dub and the original version.[116] The Sailor Moon fandom was described in 1997 as being "small and dispersed".[117] In a United States study, children paid rapt attention to the fighting scenes in Sailor Moon, although when questioned if Sailor Moon was "violent" only two would say yes, the other ten preferring to describe the episodes as "soft" or "cute".[118]

Possible international revival

On February 4, 2010, Toei began negotiations to re-air the original 200 episodes of the series. If such revival occurs, the international re-airing would start airing in Italy after its Japanese debut, then working around the world. As of March 1, 2010, a new remastered Sailor Moon is back on Italian TV. Toei has also stated if it is popular in Italy, a international revival will happen. However, it remains unknown if the English version will be re-dubbed, especially the un-aired Sailor Stars series. If the English version does reair, the earliest it may possibly return would be between March-October 2010.[citation needed]

In 2009 Funimation announced that they were considering an entire re-dub of the Sailor Moon Series and asked people to take part in a Survey on what their next project should be. The re-dub of the Sailor Moon Series was included. The results of the survey have not been released to the public. [119]

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External links

zi:Sailor Moon Surpreme


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Sailor Moon is a shoujo manga series created by Naoko Takeuchi in 1992 as the sequel to Codename wa Sailor V. Sailor Moon was published in Kodansha magazine from 1992 to 1997. The anime was produced by Toei and the original run was from March 1992 to Febuary 1997. Many spin-offs were created such as a live-musical series and a live-action series.

Contents

Anime

Sailor Moon (first series)

Stock Introductions

  • Sailor Moon: For Love and Justice, the pretty sailor suited soldier Sailor Moon! In the name of the moon I will punish you!
    • Sailor Moon's stock introduction
  • Sailor Mercury: Agent of Love and Exams, the pretty sailor suited soldier Sailor Mercury! Douse yourself in water, and repent!
    • Sailor Mercury's stock introduction
  • Sailor Mars: Agent of Love and Fire, the pretty sailor suited soldier Sailor Mars! In the name of Mars, I will chastise you!
    • Sailor Mars's stock introduction
  • Sailor Jupiter: Agent of Love and Courage, the pretty sailor suited soldier Sailor Jupiter! In the name of Jupiter, I will punish you!
    • Sailor Jupiter's stock introduction
  • Sailor Venus: Agent of Love and Beauty, the pretty sailor suited soldier Sailor Venus! In the name of Love, I will punish you!
    • Sailor Venus's stock introduction

Episode 1: Crybaby Usagi's Wonderful Transformation

  • Usagi: Moon Prism Power, Make-Up! (First transformation phrase.)
  • Sailor Moon: Moon Tiara Magic! (First attack.)

Dubbed Version


  • Sailor Moon: I am Sailor Moon, champion of justice! On behalf of the moon, I will right wrongs and triumph over evil, and that means you!
    • Inital dubbed version

From the English dubbed version, Episode 4 (Episode 7 in Japan), "So You Want to Be a Superstar." Serena (Usagi) and Molly (Naru) are singing and dancing to the Sailor Moon theme song - very badly - in Usagi's room when Usagi's brother Sammy (Shingo) bursts in.

  • Shingo: Hey, are you guys trying to torture me?!
  • Usagi: Go away, you're interrupting our rehearsal!
  • Naru: Although we could use him as a backup dancer...
  • Shingo: Erm... gotta run! [Slams door and runs away]
  • Naru: I knew that would get rid of him!

  • Sailor Jupiter: For saving the Earth.. and eating cheesecake!
  • Luna: Oh, I do hope they'll be all right..
  • Artemis: Don't worry, Luna! With the promise of cheesecake, they're bound to win this fight!

Sailor Moon Super (third series)

Stock Introductions

  • Sailor Uranus: Guided by a new era, Sailor Uranus acts with elegance!
  • Sailor Neptune: Likewise, Sailor Neptune acts with grace!
  • Sailor Chibi Moon: For Love and Justice, an apprentice to a pretty sailor suited soldier, Sailor Chibi Moon! In the name of the future moon I will punish you!

Sailor Moon SuperS (Fourth series)

Stock Introductions

  • Sailor Moon: For Love and Justice
  • Sailor Chibi Moon: The pretty suited sailor soldiers
  • Sailor Moon: Sailor Moon!
  • Sailor Chibi Moon: Sailor Chibi Moon!
  • Sailor Moon: In the name of the Moon
  • Both: We shall punish you!

Sailor Stars (fifth series)

Stock Introductions

  • Sailor Pluto: Guarded by Pluto, planet of time. I am the soldier of revolution, Sailor Pluto!
  • Sailor Uranus: Guarded by Uranus, planet of the skies. I'm the soldier of flight, Sailor Uranus!
  • Sailor Neptune: Guarded by Neptune, planet of the deep blue sea. I'm the soldier of affinity, Sailor Neptune!
  • Sailor Saturn: My guardian is the planet of silence. I'm the soldier of death and rebirth, Sailor Saturn!
  • Sailor Star Fighter: Penetrating the darkness of night. The air of freedom breaks free. Sailor Star Fighter, Stage on!
  • Sailor Star Maker: Penetrating the darkness of night. The air of freedom breaks free. Sailor Star Maker, Stage on!
  • Sailor Star Healer: Penetrating the darkness of night. The air of freedom breaks free. Sailor Star Healer, Stage on!

Episode 106: The bond of destiny! The distant days of Uranus

  • Sailor Uranus Back then, I wanted to become the wind. I just wanted to be like the wind... Wrestling free from the domination of gravity... and plunging forth into the vast reaches of the sky... That was the kind of person I wanted to be...
  • Sailor Uranus You can't runaway from me because I am the wind.

Episode 195: Princess Kakyuu Burns Out! Galaxia on Earth

  • Sailor Tin Nyanko: Galaxia-sama! I will now bring a Star See- [free will] No! In the name... Of Sailor Tin Nyanko!
  • Sailor Galaxia: That's enough. Good work.

[Galaxia removes Tin Nyanko's other braclet, killing her]


[Galaxia has stolen Princess Kakyuu's Star Seed, and Kakyuu is shown falling down a pit]

  • Sailor Star Maker: Princess!
  • Sailor Star Fighter: Princess!!
  • Sailor Star Healer: Princess!!
  • Princess Kakyuu: Maker... Healer... Fighter... Come together.

  • Sailor Mars: Wait and see! We're going to return her to normal!

[Sailor Tin Nyanko, an evil Sailor Senshi sent by Galaxia to destory Earth, is regaining her free will due to losing one of Galaxia's mind-control bracelets int he previous episode]

  • Princess Kakyuu: She's being controlled by Galaxia's bracelet. She used to be a good Sailor Senshi!
  • Usagi: [in shock] A Sailor Senshi?
  • Princess Kakyuu: Since she lost one of the bracelets... Her sense of being a Sailor Senshi has awakened.
  • Usagi: Oh no...

Episode 198: Disappearing Stars! The End of Uranus and Neptune

  • Sailor Uranus From now on, you want to protect her...
  • Sailor Star Fighter: Uranus...
  • Sailor Uranus: Our Princess is such a cry baby...
  • Sailor Neptune: She is...
  • Sailor Uranus: Are... you... scared ...Michiru?
  • Sailor Neptune: Haruka
  • Sailor Uranus: What
  • Sailor Neptune: I want to touch you, Haruka...

[Their hands touch as they are fading]

  • Sailor Neptune: I can see the light...
  • Sailor Uranus: You're warm, Michiru...

[Uranus and Neptune fade away]

  • Sailor Moon: Again, my important friends are gone! In the end, nobody could protect anything!

Episode 200: Usagi's Love! The Moonlight Illuminates the Galaxy

  • Sailor Galaxia: Have you given up, Sailor Moon?
  • Sailor Moon: No, I haven't. I love this world. [Sailor Moon's ribbons fade leaving her nude with the Silver Crystal embedded in her chest]
  • Sailor Galaxia: What?
  • Sailor Moon: Even though there are lots of sad or difficult things...I like this world very much because I could meet everyone! I know you know...how wonderful this world is!
  • Sailor Galaxia: Stop joking! This world can not be protected by someone who won't fight! It's because of your weakness that all your friends are gone!
  • Sailor Moon: They're not gone.
  • Sailor Galaxia: What?
  • Sailor Moon: The Starlights told me...that if I don't give up, they're always with me! It is possible that everyone is really gone when I give up! So I won't give up! Never!

Simple English

Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon or Sailor Moon is a shojo manga by Naoko Takeuchi. It was adapted to an anime series by Toei Animation CO., LTD. Sailor Moon was one the most popular anime/magna series during the 1990s, spanning five seasons, four movies, and multiple video games. It continues to hold a strong fanbase with many fansites devoted to it. [1]

Contents

Series Summary

Usagi is an eighth grader who is clumsy, a crybaby and gets bad grades. One day, she meets a talking cat named Luna, who tells her that she is Sailor Moon, a superhero. Now, she has to fight monsters to save people from getting their energy stolen. Usagi also has some friends who fight evil. They are named Sailor Mercury, Sailor Venus, Sailor Mars, and Sailor Jupiter. They make up a team called the Sailor Senshi (Senshi means soldier or guardian). The Sailor Senshi are named after different planets in the solar system. Each of the Sailor Senshi uses magic powers to become a Sailor Senshi. They are also young Japanese girls. Their real names are not Sailor Mercury, Sailor Venus, Sailor Mars, and Sailor Jupiter. For example, when Sailor Mercury is not fighting evil, her name is Ami Mizuno (Amy in English). The name of Sailor Venus is Minako Aino (Mina in English). The name of Sailor Mars is Rei Hino (Raye in English). The name of Sailor Jupiter is Makoto Kino (Lita in English). Each of them has a transformation sequence where they turn into their Sailor Senshi form.

Mamoru Chiba (called Darien Chiba in the English manga and Darien Shields in the English anime) is Usagi's boyfriend. He uses magic powers to transform into a man named Tuxedo Mask, who fights evil along with the Sailor Senshi. In the future, Usagi and Mamoru get married and become the king and queen of the earth. Their daughter, named Chibiusa (Rini in the English version), travels through time to help them and the Sailor Senshi.

Usagi has a cat named Luna. The cat is named Luna because "luna" is the Latin word for moon. Minako has a cat named Artemis after the Greek goddess of the moon (although Artemis is a male cat). Luna and Artemis are not ordinary cats. They can talk, and they have moon symbols on their foreheads. They can also turn into humans in the manga, and Luna turns into a human in one of the anime movies. In the future, they have a kitten named Diana (Diana is the name of the Roman moon goddess).

Later there are some other Sailor Senshi. They are named after the planets Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (now a dwarf planet). Sailor Saturn's real name is Hotaru Tomoe . Sailor Uranus' real name is Haruka Tenoh (Amara in English). Sailor Neptune's real name is Michiru Kaioh (Michelle in English). Sailor Pluto's real name is Setsuna Meioh (Trista in English). In the manga and the Japanese anime, Haruka and Michiru are lesbians, but in the English anime they were changed to cousins. This is because the English anime was made for younger children than the Japanese anime.

Each Sailor Senshi has different powers. Sailor Moon has powers of love and healing. Sailor Mercury has powers of water. Sailor Mars has fire powers, Sailor Jupiter has electricity and plant powers, and Sailor Venus has light and energy powers. Sailor Chibi Moon, (called Sailor Mini Moon in the English version) has love and sugar powers. Sailor Saturn is death and rebirth, Sailor Neptune is water, Sailor Uranus is earthquakes, and Sailor Pluto has time and death powers. Tuxedo Mask can throw sharp rose darts at the enemies.

The Manga

In the manga there are five series:Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon, Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon R(eturn/omance), Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Super Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon SuperS Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Stars. Sailor Moon was originally serialized in the Japanese manga magazine by Kodansha. Afterwards Kodansha published the completed series in volumes. There are eighteen volumes total.[2]

The Anime

The anime stayed close to the story from the manga. However due to its popularity, Toei made more seasons and produced movies. Sailor moon was licensed to be aired in the United States by DIC Entertainment (a company that makes tv and film). DIC cut out some scenes and changed some of the dialogue to make it more acceptable for children. Many anime fans in the US did not like the changes. Due to their complaints, ADV Films and later Pioneer Inc. made uncut versions.

The following tv series and movies were made:

  • TV Series
    • Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon
    • Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon R
    • Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon S
    • Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon SuperS
    • Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Stars
  • Movies
    • Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon R: The Movie
    • Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon S: The Movie
    • Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon SuperS: The Movie

References

  1. Thompson, Jason (2007). Manga:the complete guide. New York: Del Rey Books. ISBN 978-0-345-48590-8. 
  2. Thompson, Jason (2007). Manga:the complete guide. New York: Del Rey Books. ISBN 978-0-345-48590-8. 








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