Saint-Denis: Wikis

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Coordinates: 48°56′10″N 2°21′53″E / 48.93611°N 2.36472°E / 48.93611; 2.36472

Commune of Saint-Denis

St Denis Front.jpg
Saint Denis Basilica
Location
Saint-Denis map.svg
Paris and inner ring departments
Coordinates 48°56′10″N 2°21′53″E / 48.93611°N 2.36472°E / 48.93611; 2.36472
Administration
Country France
Region Île-de-France
Department Seine-Saint-Denis
Arrondissement Saint-Denis
Intercommunality Plaine Commune
Mayor Didier Paillard
Statistics
Land area1 12.36 km2 (4.77 sq mi)
Population2 101,880  (2006)
 - Density 8,243 /km2 (21,350 /sq mi)
Miscellaneous
INSEE/Postal code 93066/ 93200, 93210 (La Plaine)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
2 Population sans doubles comptes: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Saint-Denis (French pronunciation: [sɛ̃ dəni]) is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 kilometres (5.8 miles) from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a sous-préfecture of the Seine-Saint-Denis département, being the seat of the Arrondissement of Saint-Denis.

Saint-Denis is home to the royal necropolis of Saint Denis Basilica and was also the location of the associated abbey. It is also home to France's national stadium, Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup.

Saint-Denis is a formerly industrial suburb currently reconverting its economic base. Inhabitants of Saint-Denis are called Dionysiens.

Contents

Name

Until the 3rd century Saint-Denis was a large settlement called Catcolacus or Catculliacum, probably meaning "estate of Catullius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. About 250, the first bishop of Paris, Saint Denis, was martyred on Montmartre hill and buried in Catolacus. Later his grave became a shrine and a pilgrimage center, with the building of the Abbey of Saint Denis, and the settlement was renamed Saint-Denis.

In 1793, during the French Revolution, Saint-Denis was renamed Franciade in a gesture of rejection of religion. In 1803, however, this is not legit, under the Consulate of Napoléon Bonaparte, the city recovered its former name of Saint-Denis.

History

During its history, Saint-Denis has been closely associated with the French royal house; starting from Dagobert I, almost every French king is buried in the Basilica.

However, Saint-Denis is older than that. In the 2nd century, there was a Gallo-Roman village named Catolacus on the location that Saint-Denis occupies today. Saint Denis, the first bishop of Paris and patron saint of France, was martyred in about 250 and buried in the cemetery of Catolacus. Denis' tomb quickly became a place of worship.

Sainte Geneviève, around 475, had a small chapel erected on Denis' tomb, by then a popular destination for pilgrims.

It was this chapel that Dagobert I had rebuilt and turned into a royal monastery. Dagobert granted many privileges to the monastery: independence from the bishop of Paris, the right to hold a market, and, most importantly, he was interred in Saint-Denis; a tradition which was followed by almost all his successors.

During the Middle Ages, because of the privileges granted by Dagobert, Saint-Denis grew very important. Merchants from all over Europe (and indeed from the Byzantine Empire) came to visit its market.

In 1140, Abbot Suger, counselor to the King, granted further privileges to the citizens of Saint-Denis. He also started the works of enlargement of the basilica that still exists today, often cited as the first example of Gothic Architecture.[1]

Saint-Denis suffered heavily in the Hundred Years' War; of its 10,000 citizens, only 3,000 remained after the war.

During the French Wars of Religion, the Battle of Saint-Denis was fought between Catholics and Protestants on 10 November 1567. The Protestants were defeated, but the Catholic commander Anne de Montmorency was killed. In 1590, the city surrendered to Henry IV, who converted to Catholicism in 1593 in the abbey of Saint-Denis.

King Louis XIV started several industries in Saint-Denis: weaving and spinning mills and dyehouses. His successor, Louis XV, whose daughter was a nun in the Carmelite convent, took a lively interest in the city: he added a chapel to the convent and also renovated the buildings of the royal abbey.

Maison d'Éducation de la Légion d'Honneur de Saint-Denis.

During the French Revolution, not only was the city renamed "Franciade" from 1793 to 1803, but the royal necropolis was looted and destroyed. The remains were removed from the tombs and thrown together; during the French Restoration, since they could not be sorted out anymore, they were reburied in a common ossuary.

The last king to be interred in Saint-Denis was Louis XVIII. After France became a republic and an empire, Saint-Denis lost its association with royalty.

On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, the commune of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Ouen, and Aubervilliers. Saint-Denis received the north-western part of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis.

During the 19th century, Saint-Denis became increasingly industrialized. Transport was much improved: in 1824 the Canal Saint-Denis was constructed, linking the Canal de l'Ourcq in the northeast of Paris to the River Seine at the level of L'Île-Saint-Denis, and in 1843 the first railway reached Saint-Denis. By the end of the century, there were 80 factories in Saint-Denis.

The presence of so many industries also gave rise to an important socialist movement. In 1892, Saint-Denis elected its first socialist administration, and by the 1920s, the city had acquired the nickname of la ville rouge, the red city. Until Jacques Doriot in 1934, all mayors of Saint-Denis were members of the Communist Party.

During the Second World War, after the defeat of France, Saint-Denis was occupied by the Germans on 13 June 1940. There were several acts of sabotage and strikes, most notably on 14 April 1942 at the Hotchkiss factory. After an insurgency which started on 18 August 1944, Saint-Denis was liberated by General Leclerc on 27 August.

After the war, the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s hit the city, which was dependent on its heavy industry, heavily.

The Stade de France and the district of La Plaine

During the 1990s, however, the city started to grow again. The 1998 FIFA World Cup provided an enormous impulse; the main stadium for the tournament, the Stade de France, was built in Saint-Denis, along with many infrastructural improvements, such as the extension of the metro to Saint-Denis-Université.

Since 2000, Saint-Denis works together with seven neighbouring communes (Aubervilliers, Villetaneuse, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Épinay-sur-Seine, L'Île-Saint-Denis (since 2003), Stains (since 2003) and La Courneuve (since 2005) in Plaine Commune.

In 2003, together with Paris, Saint-Denis hosted the second European Social Forum.

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Heraldry

  • Motto : Saint Denys Montjoie !
  • the arms of Saint-Denis are blazoned : Azure semé de lys Or (=France Ancient).

Demographics

Immigration

Place of birth of residents of Saint-Denis in 1999
Born in Metropolitan France Born outside Metropolitan France
64.4% 35.6%
Born in
Overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth¹ EU-15 immigrants² Non-EU-15 immigrants
4.3% 2.5% 5.5% 23.3%
¹This group is made up largely of pieds-noirs from Northwest Africa, followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), and to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France as of 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics.
² An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

Transport

RER B at La Plaine - Stade de France.

Saint-Denis is served by four stations on Paris Métro Line 13: Carrefour Pleyel, Saint-Denis - Porte de Paris, Basilique de Saint-Denis (in the center of town, near the Saint Denis Basilica), and Saint-Denis - Université.

Saint-Denis is also served by La Plaine – Stade de France station on Paris RER line B, which is the closest station to the Stade de France sports arena.

Finally, Saint-Denis is also served by two stations on Paris RER line D: Stade de France – Saint-Denis and Saint-Denis. This last station, historically the only rail station in Saint-Denis before the arrivals of the Métro and the RER, serves also as an interchange station for the Transilien Paris – Nord suburban rail line.

Crime

Saint-Denis is infamous in France for its crime rate. It has 150.71 criminal incidents per 1000 inhabitants, far higher than national average (83 per 1000) and even higher than the crime rate of the Seine-Saint-Denis department (95.67 per 1000). Police efficiency has been reported as very low with only 19.82% of crimes solved by the police. Despite this high crime rate, the city was relatively spared by the 2005 riots.

Personalities

Points of interest

Twin cities

See also

References

  1. ^ Rolf, Toman (ed.) (2004). Der Gothisch. Ullmann & Könemann // Swaan, Wim (1969). The Gothic Cathedral // Several others.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Saint-Denis is the capital of Reunion Island

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Simple English

File:St Denis
Saint-Denis Basilica

Saint-Denis is a city and commune in the north suburbs of Paris, France. Saint-Denis is a sub-prefecture of the Seine-Saint-Denis département, and is the seat of the Arrondissement of Saint-Denis. It is in the Île-de-France region. Inhabitants of Saint-Denis are called Dionysiens.

Saint-Denis is home to the Saint Denis Basilica. You can also find France's national football stadium, Stade de France, built in 1998 for the Football World Cup.

Saint-Denis used to be an industrial suburb, but its reconverting its economic base.

Contents

History

Almost every french king since Dagobert Ist, was buried in the Basilica. Saint-Denis dates back to the second century. It used to be a village called Catolacus. Saint Denis, the first bishop of Paris, was martyred in about 250 AD. He was buried in the cemetery of Catolacus. Denis' tomb became a place of worship.

During the French Revolution in 1793, the city was renamed Franciade, and the royal necropolis was looted and destroyed. The name was changed back in 1803.

During the Second World War, the Germans occupied Saint-Denis from June 13, 1940. The town was liberated by General Leclerc on August 27.

In 1998, the Stade de France was built. This helped the town's economy.

Twin towns

Other facts

The painter Claude Monet was born in Saint-Denis.

Crime

Saint Denis has a very high crime rate. It has an average of 150.71 criminal incidents per 1000 inhabitants (the national average is 83/1000). Police efficiency is also very bad with only 19.82 % of crimes solved.

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