Saint Peter: Wikis

  
  

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Saint Peter the Apostle
West: Prince of the Apostles, First pope
East: Pre-eminent Apostle
Born c. 1 BC, Bethsaida
Died AD 67, Rome, by crucifixion
Venerated in Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion, Lutheranism, Oriental Orthodoxy
Major shrine St. Peter's Basilica
Feast main feast (with Paul of Tarsus) 29 June (Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Lutheranism)
Chair of St Peter in Rome 18 January (Pre-1960 Roman Calendar)
Confession of St Peter 18 January (Anglicanism)
Chair of St Peter 22 February (Roman Catholic Church)
St Peter in Chains 1 August (pre-1960 Roman Calendar)
Attributes .Keys of Heaven, pallium, Papal vestments, man crucified head downwards, vested as an Apostle, holding a book or scroll.^ Origen says: "Peter was crucified at Rome with his head downwards, as he himself had desired to suffer".
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Iconographically, he is depicted with a bushy white beard and white hair
Patronage See St. Peter's Patronage
.Simon Peter (Greek: Πέτρος, Pétros, "stone, rock";[1] c.^ Aramaic name Cephas by Jesus or the early church; the name means "rock" and is translated into Greek as Peter.
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^ Jesus announced that Simon would be called Cephas, which is the Aramaic word that equals the Greek word Petros from which Peter comes.
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^ Jesus changed his name from Simon to Peter, which meant rock.
  • Peter: Saint and Sinner 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.gracevalley.org [Source type: Original source]

.1 BC – AD 67), sometimes called Simon Cephas (Greek: Κηφᾶς, Kēphas; Aramaic: kêfâ‎, "rock, stone") after his name in Hellenized Aramaic, was a leader of the early Christian Church, who features prominently in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles.^ Aramaic name Cephas by Jesus or the early church; the name means "rock" and is translated into Greek as Peter.
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^ The Christian community of Antioch was founded by Christianized Jews who had been driven from Jerusalem by the persecution (Acts 11:19 sqq.
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^ To the people crowding in amazement about the two Apostles, he preaches a long sermon in the Porch of Solomon, and brings new increase to the flock of believers (Acts 3:1-4:4).
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.Peter was the son of John, and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee.^ We next read of our Lord's singular interview with Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he thrice asked him, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?"
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^ Life The divinely-blessed Peter was from Bethsaida of Galilee.
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^ And finally, at a time of great restoration, Jesus met Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee and asked him, "Simon, son of John, do you truly love me more than these?"
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.His brother Andrew was also an apostle.^ And when day broke, he summoned his disciples; and from these he chose twelve (whom he also named apostles): Simon, whom he named Peter, and his brother Andrew, James and John...

^ The Apostle Andrew was his brother, and the Apostle Philip came from the same town.
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.After having been the Bishop of Antioch and having preached to the ones who were scattered (i.e., Jews and Hebrew Christians.^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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^ The Christian community of Antioch was founded by Christianized Jews who had been driven from Jerusalem by the persecution (Acts 11:19 sqq.
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^ SOME OF ITS DISTINGUISHED SCHOLARS AND PHILOSOPHERS Athenaghoras was one of the most eminent among them, who defended Christianity and its apologists.
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), in .Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, Peter went to Rome.^ The first begins with greetings "to the sojourners of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia."

^ After leaving Antioch, where he spent a considerable amount of time, Peter traveled through the provinces of Pontus, Galatians, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, districts of present-day Turkey.

^ 'Apocrypha' rescues the situation by sending Peter into Syria, Cappadocia, Pontus and beyond.
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.In the second year of Claudius, he overthrew Simon Magus, and held the Sacerdotal Chair for 25 years.^ The narratives contained in the apocryphal literature of the second century concerning the supposed strife between Peter and Simon Magus belong to the domain of legend.
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.At the hand of Nero, he is said to have been put to death.^ Fantasies of this ilk had to suffice, allowing the ‘tradition’ to emerge that Peter not only met his death in the city (at the hands of Nero) but also (a mutually exclusive proposition!
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.He wrote two epistles which are called Catholic, the second of which, (on account of its difference in style from the first), is considered by many not to be his work.^ Later he wrote two Epistles to the faithful of these Christian communities of Asia Minor.

^ Mark was with St. Peter when he wrote his first epistle and he wrote, "The church that is Babylon, elected together with you salutes you and so does Marcus my son."
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^ (Philemon 24) Again St. Paul wrote from Rome in his second epistle to his disciple St.Timothy, "Only Luke is with me.
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.The Gospel of Mark, is ascribed to him (as Mark was his disciple and interpreter).^ When we read his Gospel we say , "From the Book of St. Mark the preacher and the pure disciple" He is always mentioned as a disciple and an apostle of God.
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^ [Mark 10 : 17 - 30] THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK BELONGS TO ST. MARK Some of the Westerners tried to claim that the Gospel written by St. Mark was dictated to him by St. Peter, discrediting him of that honor.
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^ [Mark 1 : 45] and how he had disciples who came after Him and followed.
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.On the other hand, the following books: his Acts, his Gospel, his Preaching, his Revelation, his Judgement are rejected as Apocryphal.^ On the other hand, St. Mark wrote his Book to the Gentiles with very limited little reference to the Old Testament compared to Matthew's and Luke's.
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^ [Acts 12 : 12] It may be possible that Mark had accompanied his relative in his preaching in Jerusalem and 'Beth-Ania' and other Jewish places as was mentioned by Severus Ibn Al Mokafaa in his book "the History of the Patriarchs".
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^ He also retained connection with the other Christian communities in Palestine, and preached the Gospel both there and in the lands situated farther north.
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[2][3] [4]
.According to Biblical accounts, he was one of Twelve Apostles, chosen by Jesus from his first disciples.^ Christ Himself unmistakably accords Peter a special precedence and the first place among the Apostles , and designates him for such on various occasions.
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^ Their chosen hero figure was Peter, ‘first of the apostles.’ Why did Rome need to make a saint out of Peter?
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^ Imagine the pleading and petitioning in this very important decision by Christ in the selection of His first twelve apostles.

.He was a fisherman assigned a leadership role by Jesus and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration.^ Peter, along with James and John, witnessed the Transfiguration of Jesus (Matthew 17:19).
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^ Only a few weeks after this, then, Christ chose these four men, together with eight others, as His apostles.

^ Did Christ mean only that flock which pressed around Peter during the apostle's own lifetime?

.Peter is revered by all Christians to this day[5].^ Peter had to learn much about forgiveness, without any limits, and humility, as all Christians must, if they are to extend the Church of God as Peter did.

^ The liturgy and Christian art from the first century down to the present day emphasize the friendship between Peter and Paul.

^ The events of that day "completed the change in Peter himself which the painful discipline of his fall and all the lengthened process of previous training had been slowly making.
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Contents

Names and etymologies

.Peter is also known as Ben-Yonah/Bar-Yonah, Simon Peter, Cephas (Greek: Κηφᾶς), and Kepha (Kepha and Cephas כיפא also mean rock)—original name Shimon or Simeon.^ Aramaic name Cephas by Jesus or the early church; the name means "rock" and is translated into Greek as Peter.
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^ Jesus changed his name from Simon to Peter, which meant rock.
  • Peter: Saint and Sinner 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.gracevalley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Primacy of Peter Peter was called Simon, a very common name among the Jews.

New Testament account

Ruins of ancient Capernaum on north side of the Sea of Galilee. An Orthodox church is built on top of traditional site of Apostle Peter's house.
.Peter's life story relies on the four Canonical Gospels, The Book of Acts, New Testament Letters, Non Canonical Gospels such as the Gospel According to the Hebrews and other Early Church accounts of his life and death.^ To such an extent are Peter's discourses centered around Jesus that, if the Pauline Epistles or even the Gospels were lost, one could reconstruct the life of our Lord from these simple and plain speeches.

^ Succession of Peter's Primacy The death of St. Peter raised the question of the permanence of his office on the Church.

^ Peter in the Acts of the Apostles Books have been written about the apostle Peter which present information gathered exclusively from the Gospels.

.In the New Testament, he is the first of the disciples called during Jesus' ministry.^ We are called 'Watchmen on the Wall' which God always had during the Old / New Testament Times.
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^ In the New Testament, Peter is called at first only Simon, then gradually Simon Peter, then Peter alone.

^ He had a younger brother called Andrew, who first brought him to Jesus (John 1:40-42).
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.It was during his first meeting with Jesus that Jesus named him Peter.^ That he might the better fulfill the trust reposed in him by the Holy Father, and worthily carry out his commission, Peter first consulted the archbishop of Florence on the affair.
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^ It is consoling to know for us sinners that Peter misunderstood Jesus' gift to him.

^ We are grateful to the Saint whose name was given to the first church in our country, where his body was buried and after him our Patriarchs were chosen.
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.Peter was to become the first apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church.^ And Solov’ev bows down before the Peter of the Catholic Church, before the Roman first-priest, before the active-militant hierarchic order of the West.
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^ The Acts of the Apostles, especially the first eleven chapters, have also been referred to as the "Acts of Peter".

^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
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[5]
.Peter ran a fishing business in Bethsaida.^ Originally from Bethsaida of Galilee where he and his brother Andrew were in the fishing business, he also had a home in Capernaum.
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[Jn. 1:44] .He was named Simon, son of Jonah or John.^ Simon, son of John, do you love me?If you love Me, then feed My flock!

^ And when day broke, he summoned his disciples; and from these he chose twelve (whom he also named apostles): Simon, whom he named Peter, and his brother Andrew, James and John...

^ Simon, son of John, do you love Me more than these others do?

[6] .The synoptic gospels all recount how Peter's mother-in-law was healed by Jesus at their home in Capernaum[Matt. 8:14–17] [Mk. 1:29–31] [Lk. 4:38] which, coupled with 1 Cor.^ The holy, glorious and all-laudable Apostle Peter is the leader of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.
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^ Remember how Jesus looked at Peter when Peter was denying him?
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^ Peter and reminded him that Jesus had not paid it (Matt.
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9:5
, clearly depict Peter as married or a widower.
.In the Synoptic Gospels, Peter (then Simon) was a fisherman along with his brother Andrew and the sons of Zebedee, James and John.^ Who was this fisherman, Simon Peter?

^ An Ethiopic "Acts of Peter" even goes into detail, falsely maintaining that Peter installed Simon, the son of Cleophas, in Jerusalem and Bartholomew in the "Oasis"; Andrew he sent to Greece and Philip to Africa; James and Thomas were appointed to India; Jude Thaddeus was given a domain in Syria; and John had his province in Ephesus.

^ We next read of our Lord's singular interview with Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he thrice asked him, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?"
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.The Gospel of John also depicts Peter fishing, even after the resurrection of Jesus, in the story of the Catch of 153 fish.^ Now Peter was to fish for and catch men.

^ Perhaps Peter belonged to the group following John the Baptist, as did the other apostles, Andrew, John, and probably even Philip.

^ To such an extent are Peter's discourses centered around Jesus that, if the Pauline Epistles or even the Gospels were lost, one could reconstruct the life of our Lord from these simple and plain speeches.

In Matthew and Mark, Jesus called Simon and his brother Andrew to be "fishers of men."[Matt. 4:18–19] [Mk. 1:16–17]
.In Luke, Simon Peter owns the boat that Jesus uses to preach to the multitudes who were pressing on him at the shore of Lake Gennesaret.^ Who was this fisherman, Simon Peter?

^ On several occasions also Christ favoured him above all the others; He enters Peter's boat on Lake Genesareth to preach to the multitude on the shore (Luke 5:3); when He was miraculously walking upon the waters, He called Peter to come to Him across the lake (Matthew 14:28 sqq.
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^ St Peter said that it is noble to announce the praises of Him who called us out of darkness into His wonderful light in His own inimitable manner.

[Lk. 5:3] .Jesus then amazes Simon and his companions James and John (Andrew is not mentioned) by telling them to lower their nets, whereupon they catch a huge number of fish.^ They enclosed a great number of fishes, but their net was breaking.

^ "'Put out into the deep, and lower your nets for a catch,'" He ordered.

^ And when day broke, he summoned his disciples; and from these he chose twelve (whom he also named apostles): Simon, whom he named Peter, and his brother Andrew, James and John...

.Immediately after this, they follow him.^ His disciples had left Him, asked the Twelve if they too should leave Him; Peter's answer comes immediately: "Lord to whom shall we go?
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^ [Mark 6 : 32 - 34] Many people followed him, [Mark 5 : 24] " And all the people, when they beheld Him, were greatly amazed and running to Him saluted Him.
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^ They followed Him and even invited Him to their homes, just to watch and were ready to catch a wrong of Him.
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[Lk. 5:4–11]
.The Gospel of John gives a comparable account of "The First Disciples."^ Compared with the Pauline Epistles, or even the Gospel of St. John, the sermons of Peter are simple; but they are no poorer in content.

[Jn. 1:35–42] .In John, we are told that it was two disciples of John the Baptist (Andrew and an unnamed disciple) who heard John the Baptist announce Jesus as the "Lamb of God," and then followed Jesus.^ Andrew and John hearing it, followed Jesus, and abode with him where he was.
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^ His brother Andrew, who introduced him to Jesus, had been a disciple of John the Baptist (John 1:35ff.
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^ When, after the High Council had sent envoys for the second time to the Baptist, the latter pointed to Jesus who was passing, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God", Andrew and another disciple followed the Saviour to his residence and remained with Him one day.
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Andrew then went and fetched his brother Simon, saying, "We have found the Messiah," and then brought Simon to Jesus.

The "Rock" dialogue

.In a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples (Matthew 16:13-20), Jesus asks, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” The disciples give various answers.^ While journeying along with His Apostles, Jesus asks them: "Whom do men say that the Son of man is?"
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^ His disciples had left Him, asked the Twelve if they too should leave Him; Peter's answer comes immediately: "Lord to whom shall we go?
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^ We expect to be raptured in a pretribulation Rapture to live with God the Father, God His Son Jesus Christ and God the Holy Spirit, who are ONE GOD in three persons, forever.
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.When he asks, "Who do you say that I am?"^ When Hans Kung, who has suffered directly at this guy's hands, says give him a chance, he's probably got a better insight than you on the topic.

.Simon Peter answers, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God."^ Simon said: "Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God".
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^ Mark was with St. Peter when he wrote his first epistle and he wrote, "The church that is Babylon, elected together with you salutes you and so does Marcus my son."
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^ We next read of our Lord's singular interview with Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he thrice asked him, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?"
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.In turn, Jesus declares Peter to be "blessed" for having recognized Jesus' true identity and attributes this recognition to a divine revelation.^ Life The divinely-blessed Peter was from Bethsaida of Galilee.
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^ Very characteristic is the expression of true fidelity to Jesus, which Peter addressed to Him in the name of the other Apostles.
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^ Still it was only six verses before this that the same Jesus called Peter blessed.

.Then Jesus addresses Simon by what seems to have been the nickname "Peter" (Cephas in Aramaic, Petros [rock] in Greek) and says, "On this rock (also cephas in Aramaic, petra in Greek) I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it."^ The Lord makes it clear that Peter is not the rock on which he will build his church.
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^ Jesus said: "Upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it."

^ The truth Peter confessed is the solid rock on which Jesus builds his church.
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.A common exegetical interpretation of Peter is provided by Daniel Harrington who suggests that Peter was an unlikely symbol of stability.^ There are even those who would interpret Paul's remark as evidence and proof against the primacy of Peter.

^ And Peter was the one who stood up at the council of the apostles, the first Church Council in Jerusalem, and interpreted and explained the Law of Moses as it applied to the Gentiles: .

.While he was one of the first disciples called and served as the spokesman for the group, Peter is also the exemplar of "little faith" in Matthew 14, will soon be called "Satan" by Jesus and will eventually deny Jesus three times.^ And then Jesus and Peter stood next to each other for the first time.

^ The first time that happened was after Pope Simon I. The seat was empty for three years and nine months.
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^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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In light of the Easter event, then, Peter became an exemplar of the forgiven sinner.[7] .A great variance of opinions exists as to the interpretation of this passage with respect to what authority and responsibility, if any, Jesus was giving to Peter.^ Jesus announced to Peter that he was giving him the keys to bind and loose sins (Matthew 16:19).
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^ One of the first miracles of Jesus was the curing of Peter's mother-in-law, who was ill with "a great fever," as Luke, the doctor, diagnosed it in his Gospel.

.Petros had not previously been used as a name, but in the Greek-speaking world it became a popular Christian name, after the tradition of Peter's prominence in the early Christian church had been established.^ If Christ made Simon Peter the cornerstone of His Church-and indeed He did-then did He not intend the completed structure to remain a permanent establishment?

^ It is profoundly symbolic that Peter had to suffer for the growth of the young Christian community and its formation into the universal Church.

^ It rises above the relics of this apostle with a thrilling exultation, a worthy monument of this sovereign of the early Christian world.

.In the Eastern Orthodox Church this passage is interpreted as not implying a special prominence to the person of Peter, but to Peter's position as representative of the Apostles.^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
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^ And foremost of all he wanted a formal co-subjugation of the Church to an Orthodox pope, a vicar of Peter.
  • Problem of East and West in Religious Consciousness of Vl Solov'ev 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC berdyaev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Naively they narrate how Peter supposedly established a different province and separate office of the Church for each apostle.

.The word used for "rock" (petra) grammatically refers to "a small detachment of the massive ledge",[8] not to a massive boulder.^ By the word "rock" the Saviour cannot have meant Himself, but only Peter, as is so much more apparent in Aramaic in which the same word (Kipha) is used for "Peter" and "rock".
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^ Petra means a rocky cliff or a ledge of rock.
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.Thus, Orthodox Sacred Tradition understands Jesus' words as referring to the Apostolic Faith.^ He thus makes use of the universally known and recognized fact of the Apostolic activity of Peter and Paul in Rome, to find therein a proof from tradition against the heretics.
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.The great majority of Western scholars concur with the interpretation, that the "rock" was Peter, not Jesus himself or Peter's faith.^ So died in defense of the Church the great Peter Martyr, a most faithful follower of our Lord as well as a man of profound learning.
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^ The composer and sender introduced himself in the first lines as Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have obtained an equal privilege of faith with ourselves through the justice of our God and savior Jesus Christ.

^ Not merely Peters belief is the rock foundation, but Peter himself!

[9]

Position among the apostles

Church of the Primacy of St. Peter on the Sea of Galilee. Traditional site where Jesus Christ appeared to his disciples after his resurrection and, according to Catholic tradition, established Peter's supreme jurisdiction over the Christian church.
.Peter is always mentioned first in the lists of the Twelve given in the canonical gospels.^ From the already mentioned statements regarding the origin of the Gospel of St. Mark we may conclude that Peter laboured for a long period in Rome.
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^ When we read his Gospel we say , "From the Book of St. Mark the preacher and the pure disciple" He is always mentioned as a disciple and an apostle of God.
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^ From these pages we see the personality of Peter whereas the Gospel only mentioned what he did.

[10] .He is also frequently mentioned in the Gospels as forming with James the Elder and John a special group within the Twelve Apostles, present at incidents at which the others were not present, such as at the Transfiguration of Jesus.^ Perhaps Peter belonged to the group following John the Baptist, as did the other apostles, Andrew, John, and probably even Philip.

^ Peter in the Acts of the Apostles Books have been written about the apostle Peter which present information gathered exclusively from the Gospels.

^ The holy, glorious and all-laudable Apostle Peter is the leader of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.
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.He often confesses his faith in Jesus as the Messiah.^ Peter first confessed that Jesus was the Messiah (Mark 8:29; Matt.
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^ He is the one who led their forefathers to accept the faith and to confess that Jesus Christ is the Savior, and the Son of God.
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.Peter is often depicted in the Gospels as spokesman of all the apostles.^ Peter in the Acts of the Apostles Books have been written about the apostle Peter which present information gathered exclusively from the Gospels.

^ What happened at this time was precisely what often happened, when the apostles preached the Gospel of Christ to the gentiles, confirming its truth by striking miracles.
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^ The holy, glorious and all-laudable Apostle Peter is the leader of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.
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.Catholics refer to him as chief of the Apostles,[11] as do the Eastern Orthodox[12] and the Oriental Orthodox.^ The Coptic Catholics praise him in their own Theotokion, (4) saying "O the evangelist, the apostle, the theologian.evangelist, the apostle, you were awarded the crown of being an apostle, your fellow apostles were proud of you and we are proud of them and you."
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^ DID HE PREACH WITH HIM IN ROME? It was proven in the history of the church and recorded in both the Orthodox and the Catholic books, even the Holy Bible, that Mark the apostle did preach in Rome.
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^ The Catholic Jesuit, Father Frermaj reported in his book "Moraweg Al Akhyar" referring to St. Mark, that " God blessed him for his unique enthusiasm.
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[13][14] .Some believe this is not the same as saying that the other Apostles were under Peter's orders.^ Perhaps Peter belonged to the group following John the Baptist, as did the other apostles, Andrew, John, and probably even Philip.

^ See the video of this litter lout and some of the other Litter Louts we have filmed here in St Peters, Highfields, Leicester .
  • St Peters Highfields Neighbourhood Monitoring - Leicester (Formerly a Leicester Neighbourhood Management Board) 6 February 2010 13:30 UTC stpetersnm.com [Source type: General]

^ Later sources say that Peter went to Rome, was martyred (64-68) under Nero, and buried on Vatican Hill.
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.In contrast, Jewish Christians are said to have argued that James the Just was the leader of the group.^ As the principal opponents of his views in this connexion, Paul names and combats in all his writings only the extreme Jewish Christians coming "from James" (i.e., from Jerusalem).
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[15] .Some argue James was the Patriarch of Jerusalem and that this position at times gave him privilege in some (but not all) situations.^ AUTHORS: McCarthy, James Some defenders of the Roman Catholic Church argue that the Roman Catholic Magisterium is the rightful interpreter and authoritative teacher of Scripture, because the Church gave Christianity the Bible.
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^ And we are witnesses of all that he did in the country of the Jews and in Jerusalem; and yet they killed him, hanging him on a tree.

^ His prayers, his penances, and the example of Christian charity that he gave at all times were even more efficacious means to these ends.
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The early Church historian Eusebius (c AD 325) records Clement of Alexandria (c AD 190) as saying,
"For they say that Peter and James and John after the ascension of our Saviour, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just bishop of Jerusalem."[16]
.Paul affirms that Peter had the special charge of being apostle to the Jews, just as he, Paul, was apostle to the Gentiles.^ Just as the preaching of Christ was very chose to the heart of the St. Paul, so was the Resurrection of Christ to Peter.

^ Did Matthew by chance exaggerate when he wrote about Peter just to make him appear more brilliant than Paul?

^ "During the persecution of Emperor Valerian, around the year 258, the mortal remains of the apostle Peter were removed to a place of interment in the Vatican hill, just as the remains of the apostles Paul were taken to the road to Ostia for protection.

Walking on water

.Three of the four canonical Gospels—Matthew, Mark and John—recount the story of Jesus walking on water.^ Peter, along with James and John, witnessed the Transfiguration of Jesus (Matthew 17:19).
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^ Peter was allowed to join Jesus and he walked on water until he was distracted (Matthew 14:29).
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^ The second instance recounted in this part of the Gospel took place on the night after Jesus miraculously fed a crowd of five thousand people.

.Matthew additionally describes Peter walking on water for a moment, but sinking when his faith wavered.^ Peter was allowed to join Jesus and he walked on water until he was distracted (Matthew 14:29).
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^ Then Peter got out of the boast and walked on the water to come to Jesus.

^ Is this support and strengthening of the others in their faith not the very same thing that Matthew expressed when he wrote, Thou are Peter, the rock?

[Matt. 14:28–31]

Washing of feet

.At the beginning of the Last Supper, Jesus washed his disciples' feet.^ The Lord washed His Disciple's feet in his house.
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^ Of the Twelve at the Last Supper, Peter was the first to have his feet washed by our Lord.

^ Peter saw following them the disciple whom Jesus loved, the one who, at supper, had leaned back upon his breast and said, "Lord, who is it that will betray thee?"

Peter initially refused to let Jesus wash his feet, but when Jesus responded: "If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me", Peter replied: "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head".[Jn. 13:2-11] The washing of feet is often repeated in the service of worship on Maundy Thursday by some Christian denominations.

Arrest of Jesus

Apostle Peter striking Malchus
.The three synoptic Gospels all mention that, when Jesus was arrested, one of his companions cut off the ear of a servant of the High Priest.^ He struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear-the right ear, as Luke, the exacting doctor, did not forget to mention.

^ Under a sudden impulse he cut off the ear of Malchus (47-51), one of the band that had come forth to take Jesus.
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^ We expect to be raptured in a pretribulation Rapture to live with God the Father, God His Son Jesus Christ and God the Holy Spirit, who are ONE GOD in three persons, forever.
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[17] .The Gospel of John also includes this event, and names Peter as the swordsman and Malchus as the victim.^ And when day broke, he summoned his disciples; and from these he chose twelve (whom he also named apostles): Simon, whom he named Peter, and his brother Andrew, James and John...

^ John baptized in the Jordan and that with which Peter baptized in the Tiber"; and against Marcion he appeals to the testimony of the Roman Christians, "to whom Peter and Paul have bequeathed the Gospel sealed with their blood" (Adv.
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^ The calling of the first four apostles, Peter, Andrew, James, and John, is related by Luke at the same time he relates the events surrounding this miraculous catch of fish.

[Jn. 18:10] Luke adds that Jesus touched the ear and miraculously healed it.[Lk. 22:50]

Denial of Jesus

.All four canonical gospels recount that, during the Last Supper, Jesus foretold that Peter would deny him three times before the following cockcrow ("before the cock crows twice" in Mark's account).^ Three times Jesus asked Simon whether he loved Him.

^ Jesus then responded by telling Peter that he would deny Jesus three times before the rooster had crowed twice.
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^ Peter represented all the disciples when Jesus spoke to him.
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The three Synoptics and John describe the three denials as follows:
.
  1. A denial when a female servant of the high priest spots Simon Peter, saying that he had been with Jesus.^ The composer and sender introduced himself in the first lines as Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have obtained an equal privilege of faith with ourselves through the justice of our God and savior Jesus Christ.

    ^ Jesus is saying that there is something about Peter and the confession he just made that Jesus would use in building his church.
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    ^ Then Jesus took Peter off to the side, Once again they stood face to face, as they did on the Jordan, as they did a few weeks before in the courtyard of the high priest.

    .According to Mark (but not in all manuscripts), "the rooster crowed". Only Luke and John mention a fire by which Peter was warming himself among other people: according to Luke, Peter was "sitting"; according to John, he was "standing".
  2. A denial when Simon Peter had gone out to the gateway, away from the firelight, but the same servant girl (Mark) or another servant girl (Matthew) or a man (Luke and also John, for whom, though, this is the third denial) told the bystanders he was a follower of Jesus.^ Jesus told Peter to feed His sheep.

    ^ He at first took to flight with the other Apostles (John 18:10-11; Matthew 26:56); then turning he followed his captured Lord to the courtyard of the High Priest, and there denied Christ, asserting explicitly and swearing that he knew Him not (Matthew 26:58-75; Mark 14:54-72; Luke 22:54-62; John 18:15-27).
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    ^ This website was designed for St Peters by St Peters Neighbourhood Management Board comprised of residents and people from other agencies who have a stake in St Peters.
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    .According to John, "the rooster crowed".
  3. A denial came when Peter's Galilean accent was taken as proof that he was indeed a disciple of Jesus.^ Jesus then responded by telling Peter that he would deny Jesus three times before the rooster had crowed twice.
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    ^ The resurrected Jesus subtly reminded Peter that he had denied His Master three times during his trial and that is why He asked Peter three times if he truly loved Him now.

    ^ Peter represented all the disciples when Jesus spoke to him.
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    According to Matthew, Mark and Luke, "the rooster crowed". For John, though, this is the second denial, and he does not mention the Galilean accent.
Matthew adds that it was his accent that gave him away as coming from Galilee. .Luke deviates slightly from this by stating that, rather than a crowd accusing Simon Peter, it was a third individual.^ The French Encyclopedia, with its Catholic publishers, stated, "The claim that Mark was a disciple of Peter was nothing other than stupidity based on some failed writers."
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^ Luke explicitly stated that the Lord appeared to Peter, to Peter alone, before He appeared to the other apostles.

^ Then Jesus said to Simon Peter, Simon, son of John, dost thou love more than these do?

St. Peter Denying Christ, by Gustave Doré
.The Gospel of John places the second denial while Peter was still warming himself at the fire, and gives as the occasion of the third denial a claim by someone to have seen him in the garden of Gethsemane when Jesus was arrested.^ After that, a solemn procession in honor of the event was held in Florence every year on Saint Peter's Day; and on this occasion the same standard was carried which the martyr had placed in the.
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^ Shortly thereafter he sat calmly and warmed himself by the fire and denied that he had ever known Christ.

^ It is consoling to know for us sinners that Peter misunderstood Jesus' gift to him.

.In the Gospel of Luke, Jesus' prediction of Peter's denial is coupled with a prediction that all the apostles ("you," plural) would be "sifted like wheat," but that it would be Peter's task ("you," singular), when he had turned again, to strengthen his brethren.^ Where would you like to go?
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^ The holy, glorious and all-laudable Apostle Peter is the leader of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.
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^ Peter becomes Head of the Apostles In especially solemn fashion Christ accentuated Peter's precedence among the Apostles, when, after Peter had recognized Him as the Messias, He promised that he would be head of His flock.
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.In a reminiscent[18] scene in John's epilogue, Peter affirms three times that he loves Jesus.^ Three times Jesus asked Simon whether he loved Him.

^ John records that it was Peter (John 18:10).
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^ Peter, along with James and John, witnessed the Transfiguration of Jesus (Matthew 17:19).
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Empty tomb

.In John's gospel, Peter is the first person to enter the empty tomb, although the women and the beloved disciple see it before him.^ And Solov’ev bows down before the Peter of the Catholic Church, before the Roman first-priest, before the active-militant hierarchic order of the West.
  • Problem of East and West in Religious Consciousness of Vl Solov'ev 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC berdyaev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Already on Easter morning Christ had sent the women who were at the tomb specifically to Peter with a message for him.

^ That the manner, and therefore the place of his death, must have been known in widely extended Christian circles at the end of the first century is clear from the remark introduced into the Gospel of St. John concerning Christ's prophecy that Peter was bound to Him and would be led whither he would not - "And this he said, signifying by what death he should glorify God" (John 21:18-19, see above).
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[Jn. 20:1–9] .In Luke's account, the women's report of the empty tomb is dismissed by the apostles and Peter is the only one who goes to check for himself.^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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^ Already on Easter morning Christ had sent the women who were at the tomb specifically to Peter with a message for him.

^ The composer and sender introduced himself in the first lines as Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have obtained an equal privilege of faith with ourselves through the justice of our God and savior Jesus Christ.

In fact, he runs to the tomb. After seeing the graveclothes he goes home, apparently without informing the other disciples.[Lk. 24:1–12]

Resurrection appearances

.Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians[19] contains a list of resurrection appearances of Jesus, the first of which is an appearance to "Cephas" (Peter).^ Mark was with St. Peter when he wrote his first epistle and he wrote, "The church that is Babylon, elected together with you salutes you and so does Marcus my son."
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^ The contents and form of the second Epistle of St. Peter differ considerable from the first.

^ The resurrected Jesus subtly reminded Peter that he had denied His Master three times during his trial and that is why He asked Peter three times if he truly loved Him now.

[20] .Here Paul apparently follows an early tradition that Peter was the first to see the risen Christ,[5] which however did not seem to have survived to the time when the Gospels were written.^ Here Paul and Peter met again.
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^ If Christ made Simon Peter the cornerstone of His Church-and indeed He did-then did He not intend the completed structure to remain a permanent establishment?

^ Perhaps Peter belonged to the group following John the Baptist, as did the other apostles, Andrew, John, and probably even Philip.

[21]
.In the final chapter of the Gospel of John, Peter, in one of the resurrection appearances of Jesus, three times affirmed his love for Jesus, balancing his threefold denial, and Jesus reconfirmed Peter's position.^ Three times Jesus asked Simon whether he loved Him.

^ To such an extent are Peter's discourses centered around Jesus that, if the Pauline Epistles or even the Gospels were lost, one could reconstruct the life of our Lord from these simple and plain speeches.

^ We expect to be raptured in a pretribulation Rapture to live with God the Father, God His Son Jesus Christ and God the Holy Spirit, who are ONE GOD in three persons, forever.
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[Jn. 21:15–17] Some scholars hypothesize that it was added later to bolster Peter's status.[22]
Statue of St. Peter on the south door of St Mary's Church in Aylesbury, United Kingdom

Role in the early church

.The author of the Acts of the Apostles portrays Peter as an extremely important figure within the early Christian community, with Peter delivering a significant open-air sermon during Pentecost.^ Peter delivered the first public sermon on the first Pentecost.

^ After the descent of the Holy Ghost on the feast of Pentecost, Peter standing at the head of the Apostles delivers the first public sermon to proclaim the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, and wins a large number of Jews as converts to the Christian community (Acts 2:14-41).
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^ At all the important turning-points of the apostolic Church Peter was there to bind and to loose, to close and to open.

.According to the same book, Peter took the lead in selecting a replacement for Judas Iscariot.^ Perhaps this day was selected to replace the heathen festivities which took place on 1 August.
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^ In his first discourse, when speaking to the apostles about choosing another apostle to replace the betrayer Judas, he saw in the incident a fulfillment of a prophecy from the Book of Psalms.

^ According to this same tradition the two separated in Sinope, Peter traveling to the West, Andrew traveling to the East.

[Acts 1:15] He was twice arraigned, with John, before the Sanhedrin and directly defied them.[Acts 4:7–22] [5:18–42] He undertook a missionary journey to Lydda, Joppa and Caesarea,[9:32–10:2] becoming instrumental in the decision to evangelise the Gentiles.[10]
.About halfway through, the Acts of the Apostles turns its attention away from Peter and to the activities of Paul, and the Bible is fairly silent on what occurred to Peter afterwards.^ The Acts of the Apostles, especially the first eleven chapters, have also been referred to as the "Acts of Peter".

^ To the people crowding in amazement about the two Apostles, he preaches a long sermon in the Porch of Solomon, and brings new increase to the flock of believers (Acts 3:1-4:4).
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^ Peter in the Acts of the Apostles Books have been written about the apostle Peter which present information gathered exclusively from the Gospels.

John Vidmar writes:
."Both Catholic and Protestant scholars agree that Peter had an authority that superseded that of the other apostles.^ Do Protestants and Catholics agree on what constitutes Scripture?
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^ Perhaps Peter belonged to the group following John the Baptist, as did the other apostles, Andrew, John, and probably even Philip.

^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
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.Peter is their spokesman at several events, he conducts the election of Matthias, his opinion in the debate over converting Gentiles was crucial, etc.^ During his Apostolic journeys outside Palestine, he recognized in practice the equality of Gentile and Jewish converts, as his original conduct at Antioch proves.
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^ Had St. Paul not intervened, Peter's actions would have caused a disaster: the Christian Jews might have gone back to Judaism and the converting of the Gentiles would have been halted.

^ Throughout the Gospels there is the unwritten opinion that Peter was the spokesman and representative of the others.

[23]

Council of Jerusalem

.At the council of Jerusalem (c 50), the early Church, Paul and the leaders of the Jerusalem church met and decided to embrace Gentile converts.^ He seems to have gone down to Antioch after the council at Jerusalem, and there to have been guilty of dissembling, for which he was severely reprimanded by Paul (Gal.
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^ His aloofness from the Gentile converts, out of consideration for the Jewish Christians from Jerusalem, was by no means an official recognition of the views of the extreme Judaizers, who were so opposed to St. Paul.
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^ Certainly he didn't come before the Council of Jerusalem which was about 50 AD, as agreed by all the historians.
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.Acts portrays Peter as successfully opposing the Christian Pharisees who insisted on circumcision and the rest of the Mosaic law.^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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^ The Christian community of Antioch was founded by Christianized Jews who had been driven from Jerusalem by the persecution (Acts 11:19 sqq.
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^ At the Jerusalem Council he urged the admission of Gentile converts without submission to the Mosaic law (Acts 15:7ff.
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[24]

Epistles

.Peter is mentioned briefly in Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, which mentions a trip by Paul to Jerusalem where he meets Peter, and a trip by Peter to Antioch[Gal. 2:11-14] where Paul rebuked him for treating Gentile converts as inferior to Jewish Christians.^ For this Peter rebuked him.
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^ Still later Paul had to chastise Peter for his actions which were an offense to Gentile Christians (Galatians 2:11-16).
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^ Gentile Christians, whom he addresses in I Peter.
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(See The Incident at Antioch.) Galatians is accepted as authentic by almost all scholars, so these are the earliest mentions of Peter to be written.
.Church tradition ascribes the epistles First and Second Peter to Apostle Peter, as does the text of 2 Peter itself.^ The Acts of the Apostles, especially the first eleven chapters, have also been referred to as the "Acts of Peter".

^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
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^ Mark was the apostle and the preacher and the first bishop to their church.
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.First Peter implies the author is in "Babylon", which has been held to be a coded reference to Rome.^ The Acts of the Apostles, especially the first eleven chapters, have also been referred to as the "Acts of Peter".

^ Mark was with St. Peter when he wrote his first epistle and he wrote, "The church that is Babylon, elected together with you salutes you and so does Marcus my son."
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^ The first eleven chapters have sometimes been referred to as the Acts of Peter.

[24] .Some scholars regard First Peter as not authored by him, and there is still considerable debate about the Petrine authorship of Second Peter.^ That he might the better fulfill the trust reposed in him by the Holy Father, and worthily carry out his commission, Peter first consulted the archbishop of Florence on the affair.
  • Saint Peter Martyr of Verona 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.domcentral.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lord had asked him, Peter, about love!

^ Jesus is saying that there is something about Peter and the confession he just made that Jesus would use in building his church.
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.However the Greek in both books are similar, and the early Church was adamantly opposed to pseudographical authorship.^ DID HE PREACH WITH HIM IN ROME? It was proven in the history of the church and recorded in both the Orthodox and the Catholic books, even the Holy Bible, that Mark the apostle did preach in Rome.
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^ They see in this conflict the expression and explosion of two opposing tendencies in the early Church.

^ Aramaic name Cephas by Jesus or the early church; the name means "rock" and is translated into Greek as Peter.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

[24]

Accounts outside the New Testament

.In Catholic tradition, Peter is said to have founded the church in Rome with Paul, served as its bishop, authored two epistles, and then met martyrdom there along with Paul.^ And Peter found himself between the two.

^ It was on Peter alone that the Church was founded.

^ Another testimony concerning the martyrdom of Peter and Paul is supplied by Clement of Rome in his Epistle to the Corinthians (written about A.D. 95-97), wherein he says (v): "Through zeal and cunning the greatest and most righteous supports [of the Church] have suffered persecution and been warred to death.
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[5]

Antioch and Corinth

Later accounts expand on the brief Biblical mention of his visit to Antioch. .The Liber Pontificalis (9th century) mentions Peter as having served as bishop of Antioch before his journey to Rome.^ Moraweg Al Akhyar book, [ He traveled with him to the blessed city of Rome and shared with him the effort,(10) also mentioned that when Peter left Rome for a long journey, he "ordered his dear disciple Mark to serve this church."
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^ From the already mentioned statements regarding the origin of the Gospel of St. Mark we may conclude that Peter laboured for a long period in Rome.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During this exile from Rome, Peter made a journey to Jerusalem (49-50) to attend the first Church Council.

[25] .Historians have furnished other evidence of Peter's sojourn in Antioch.^ This historian Eusebius considered Peter the founder of Christianity in the community of Antioch.

[26] .Subsequent tradition held that Peter had been the first Patriarch of Antioch.^ This latter view would best explain the tradition referring the foundation of the Church of Antioch to St. Peter.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the incident itself at Antioch is much more a proof for the prominent position of Peter in the first years of the Church than it is against it.

.He might have visited Corinth, as a party of "Cephas" existed there.^ There was a Cephas party at Corinth (I Cor.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

[5]

Death

In the epilogue[24] of the Gospel of John, Jesus hints at the death by which Peter would glorify God,[Jn. 21:18–19] saying "'…when you are old you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you and take you where you do not want to go.'" This is understood as a reference to Peter's crucifixion.[18]
According to the 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Peter labored in Rome during the last portion of his life, and there ended his life by martyrdom.[11] The death of St. Peter is attested to by Tertullian at the end of the second century, and by Origen in Eusebius, Church History II.1. Origen says: "Peter was crucified at Rome with his head downwards, as he himself had desired to suffer".[11]

Status

St. Clement of Rome identifies Peter and Paul as the outstanding heroes of the faith.[5] .Papias reported that the Gospel of Mark was based on Peter's memoirs, a tradition still accepted by some scholars today.^ Some even dared to call this Gospel, "Peter's memoir."
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^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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[5]

Martyrdom

Caravaggio's depiction of the crucifixion of Apostle Peter.
The mention in the New Testament of the death of Peter says that Jesus indicated its form by saying: "You will stretch out your hands, and someone else will dress you and lead you where you do not want to go."[27] Early church tradition (as indicated below) says Peter probably died by crucifixion (with arms outstretched) at the time of the Great Fire of Rome of the year 64. Margherita Guarducci, who led the research leading to the rediscovery of Peter’s tomb in its last stages (1963–1968), concludes Peter died on October 13 A.D. 64 during the festivities on the occasion of the “dies imperii” of Emperor Nero. This took place three months after the disastrous fire that destroyed Rome for which the emperor wished to blame the Christians. .This “dies imperii” (regnal day anniversary) was an important one, exactly ten years after Nero ascended to the throne, and it was ‘as usual’ accompanied by much bloodshed.^ He died for our sins, rose physically from the dead, and is coming back physically and visibly one day.
  • International Social Pulse - October 2003 22 September 2009 13:40 UTC www.cephas-library.com [Source type: News]

^ But, beloved, do not be ignorant of this one thing, that one day with the Lord is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.

.Traditionally, Roman authorities sentenced him to death by crucifixion.^ The one who raised him to the throne, he slew his first wife, a stepsister, Octavia, and kicked to death his second wife, Poppea Sabina, a Roman matron.

.According to the apocryphal Acts of Peter, he was crucified head down.^ The apocryphal Acts of the Apostles go one step beyond Lukes historically true narration about Peters leadership.

Tradition also locates his burial place where the Basilica of Saint Peter was later built, directly beneath the Basilica's high altar.
.Clement of Rome, in his Letter to the Corinthians (Chapter 5), written c. 80-98, speaks of Peter's martyrdom in the following terms: "Let us take the noble examples of our own generation.^ A Jesuit education and a quarter-century as a professor and administrator at Saint Peter’s College have taught me much about the qualities that are necessary and important as we move through life, improving our own lives and the lives of those with us in the world.
  • Saint Peter's College Annual Report 2008 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another testimony concerning the martyrdom of Peter and Paul is supplied by Clement of Rome in his Epistle to the Corinthians (written about A.D. 95-97), wherein he says (v): "Through zeal and cunning the greatest and most righteous supports [of the Church] have suffered persecution and been warred to death.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We acted out scenes from our own lives: taking on too many activities and dealing with the pressures of college.
  • Saint Peter's Magazine Fall 2008 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

.Through jealousy and envy the greatest and most just pillars of the Church were persecuted, and came even unto death… Peter, through unjust envy, endured not one or two but many labours, and at last, having delivered his testimony, departed unto the place of glory due to him."^ To Him, all in one and one in all, be honor and glory!

^ Even so, Christ was not preventing him from having full authority in His Church.

^ Just one more Pope, Peter The Last, and we can finally chuck the Church out.

The apocryphal Acts of Peter is also thought to be the source for the tradition about the famous phrase "Quo vadis, Domine?" (or "Pou Hupageis, Kurie?" which means, "Whither goest Thou, Master?"). .According to the story, Peter, fleeing Rome to avoid execution, asked the question of a vision of Jesus, to which Jesus allegedly responded that he was "going to Rome to be crucified again."^ Jesus answered him, "To Rome to be crucified again."

^ As the story goes, Peter was imprisoned in Rome for nine months at the Mamertine Prison near the Forum.

^ Jesus then responded by telling Peter that he would deny Jesus three times before the rooster had crowed twice.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

On hearing this, Peter decided to return to the city to accept martyrdom. This story is commemorated in an Annibale Carracci painting. .The Church of Quo Vadis, near the Catacombs of Saint Callistus, contains a stone in which Jesus' footprints from this event are supposedly preserved, though this was apparently an ex-voto from a pilgrim, and indeed a copy of the original, housed in the Basilica of St Sebastian.^ MONASTERIES NAMED AFTER ST. MARK: There were three monasteries named after him, that do not exist at this time:- 1- The monastery which was known as The Subterranean, originally was the site of the present St. Mark Church in Alexandria.
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^ It dates back to 1935 AD. 23- St. Mark Church in Nazlet Beni Ahmad , near Minya.
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^ This house became a church in between 60 - 68 AD. When St. Mark was martyred, he was buried under this church.
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.The ancient historian Josephus describes how Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions, and it is likely that this would have been known to the author of the Acts of Peter.^ Entirely inconsistent and in itself untenable is the position of Protestants who (like Schnitzer in recent times) assert that the primacy of the Roman bishops cannot be deduced from the precedence which Peter held among the Apostles.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AUTHORS: Gendron, Mike Quoting from The Apostolic Digest, Mike Gendron shows how Roman Catholic Popes have offered ways of salvation other than that taught in the Bible.
  • ATRI Journal Online Article Index 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.johnankerberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He appeals to the apocryphal Acts of St. Peter, in which two Romans, Albinus and Agrippa, are mentioned as persecutors of the Apostles.
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.The position attributed to Peter's crucifixion is thus plausible, either as having happened historically or as being an invention by the author of the Acts of Peter.^ A confirmation of the position accorded to Peter by Luke, in the Acts, is afforded by the testimony of St. Paul (Galatians 1:18-20).
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^ The apocryphal Acts of the Apostles go one step beyond Lukes historically true narration about Peters leadership.

^ When I came to Saint Peter’s, Plan Your Legacy ‘HAVING THE OPPORTUNITY TO DISCUSS MY FAITH OPENLY AND ACT AS A LEADER FOR OTHERS FILLED A GAP THAT I’D BEEN FEELING.’ ] having the opportunity to discuss my faith openly and act as a leader for others filled a gap that I’d been feeling.
  • Saint Peter's Magazine Fall 2008 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

Death, after crucifixion head down, is unlikely to be caused by suffocation, the usual cause of death in ordinary crucifixion.
.A medieval tradition[citation needed] was that the Mamertine Prison in Rome is the place where Peter was imprisoned before his execution.^ As the story goes, Peter was imprisoned in Rome for nine months at the Mamertine Prison near the Forum.

^ Traditions mention a variety of places in which he preached, ending with Rome where he supposedly became the first bishop of Rome.
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^ At any rate the place of execution and burial of both were close together; St. Peter, who was executed on the Vatican, received also his burial there.
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In 1950, human bones were found buried underneath the altar of St. Peter's Basilica. .The bones have been claimed by many to have been those of Peter.^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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^ Though there are in God's people many bishops and many shepherds, Peter is thus appointed to rule in his own person those whom Christ also rules as the original ruler.

[28] .An attempt to contradict these claims was made in 1953 by the excavation of what some believe to be St Peter's tomb in Jerusalem.^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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^ They attempted to credit all St. Mark's preaching, even that in Egypt and the Five Western Cities to St. Peter.
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^ The French Encyclopedia, with its Catholic publishers, stated, "The claim that Mark was a disciple of Peter was nothing other than stupidity based on some failed writers."
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[29] .However along with supposed tomb of Peter bearing his previous name Simon, tombs bearing the names of Jesus, Mary, James, John, and the rest of the apostles were also found at the same excavation - though all these names were very common among Jews at the time.^ Primacy of Peter Peter was called Simon, a very common name among the Jews.

^ Peter, along with James and John, witnessed the Transfiguration of Jesus (Matthew 17:19).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter's family was very simple and His father's name was Jona, or John.

.In the 1960s, some previously discarded debris from the excavations beneath St Peters Basilica were re-examined, and the bones of a male person were identified.^ He was buried on the Vatican Hill in Rome about the year 64 AD. Accurate research maintains that Peter's remains are buried beneath St Peter's Basilica.

^ [Mark 10 : 17 - 30] THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK BELONGS TO ST. MARK Some of the Westerners tried to claim that the Gospel written by St. Mark was dictated to him by St. Peter, discrediting him of that honor.
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^ The tropaion remained until the fourth century when Emperor Constantine had the basilica of St. Peter erected.

.A forensic examination found them to be a male of about 61 years of age from the first century.^ At the beginning of the twentieth century, some repairs were done in the domes which took about ten years to complete.
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.This caused Pope Paul VI in 1968 to announce them most likely to be the relics of Apostle Peter.^ Like Irenaeus, Tertullian appeals, in his writings against heretics, to the proof afforded by the Apostolic labours of Peter and Paul in Rome of the truth of ecclesiastical tradition.
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^ Then the two great apostles St. Paul and St. Peter were killed and St. Mark returned to Alexandria.
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^ Had St. Paul not intervened, Peter's actions would have caused a disaster: the Christian Jews might have gone back to Judaism and the converting of the Gentiles would have been halted.

.[30]

Connection to Rome

St. Peter's Basilica, believed to be the burial site of St. Peter, seen from the River Tiber. The iconic dome dominates the skyline of Rome.
Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, believed to be the burial site of St. Paul.
See also: First phase of papal supremacy
.The See of Rome is traditionally said to be founded by Peter and Paul, see also Primacy of Simon Peter, who had invested it with apostolic authority.^ Who was this fisherman, Simon Peter?

^ St Peter said that it is noble to announce the praises of Him who called us out of darkness into His wonderful light in His own inimitable manner.

^ In the mother church of all Christendom, St Peter's in Rome, there stands a statue of Simon Peter, magnificent and impressive, depicted in all his apostolic majesty and authority as the first shepherd of the Church, keeping watch down through the ages.

.The New Testament says nothing directly about Peter's connection to Rome, but an early Catholic tradition supports such a connection.^ Another testimony concerning the martyrdom of Peter and Paul is supplied by Clement of Rome in his Epistle to the Corinthians (written about A.D. 95-97), wherein he says (v): "Through zeal and cunning the greatest and most righteous supports [of the Church] have suffered persecution and been warred to death.
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^ He was buried on the Vatican Hill in Rome about the year 64 AD. Accurate research maintains that Peter's remains are buried beneath St Peter's Basilica.

^ Later sources say that Peter went to Rome, was martyred (64-68) under Nero, and buried on Vatican Hill.
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[5]
.That Peter was bishop of Rome is corroborated by both positive and negative evidence.^ The historical claim is that Peter died a martyr as the first bishop of Rome and passed to succeeding bishops there his office and primacy.
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^ There is no evidence that he was bishop of Rome or stayed long in the city.
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^ The essential fact is that Peter died at Rome: this constitutes the historical foundation of the claim of the Bishops of Rome to the Apostolic Primacy of Peter.
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[31] .However, some historians have challenged this traditional view of Peter's role in the early Roman Church.^ Hans Kung has rejected entirely any scriptural basis for a Roman claim to primacy, whereas R. Brown, more cautiously, argues that the scriptural image of Peter's leadership and the Roman Church's early eminence together produce a "trajectory" from which Roman primacy is a defensible conclusion.
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^ The Roman Church enjoyed a certain preeminence very early (as evidenced, e.g., in I Clement 5; Ignatius, Rom.
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^ This conclusion is confirmed by the unanimous voice of tradition which, as early as the second half of the second century, designates the Prince of the Apostles the founder of the Roman Church.
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[32][33][34][35][36] .Still, most Catholic and Protestant scholars,[37] and many scholars in general,[38] conclude that Peter was indeed martyred in Rome under Nero.^ Protestants once vigorously attacked all stories about Peter's end, but the best evidence, as most scholars now agree, indicates that he in fact died a martyr in the time of Nero and that his cult originated very early in Rome, though Cullmann believes he was probably executed rather than buried at the present St. Peter's on the Vatican Hill.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the already mentioned statements regarding the origin of the Gospel of St. Mark we may conclude that Peter laboured for a long period in Rome.
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.A 2009 critical study by Otto Zwierlein has concluded that "there is not a single piece of reliable literary evidence (and no archaeological evidence either) that Peter ever was in Rome."^ There is no evidence that he was bishop of Rome or stayed long in the city.
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^ There is no satisfactory evidence that he was ever at Rome.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the already mentioned statements regarding the origin of the Gospel of St. Mark we may conclude that Peter laboured for a long period in Rome.
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[39]
.1 Clement, a document that has been dated anywhere from the 90's to the 120's, is one of the earliest sources adduced in support of Peter's stay in Rome, but questions have been raised about the text's authenticity and whether it has any knowledge about Peter's life beyond what is contained in the New Testament Acts.^ One can hear the supplication in Peter's question.

^ New Testament documents assign Peter a variety of roles.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another testimony concerning the martyrdom of Peter and Paul is supplied by Clement of Rome in his Epistle to the Corinthians (written about A.D. 95-97), wherein he says (v): "Through zeal and cunning the greatest and most righteous supports [of the Church] have suffered persecution and been warred to death.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

[39] The Letter to the Romans attributed to St. Ignatius of Antioch implies that Peter and Paul had special authority over the Roman church,[5] telling the Roman Christians: "I do not command you, as Peter and Paul did" (ch. 4). .However, the authenticity of this document and its traditional dating to c. 105-110 have also been questioned, and it may date from the final decades of the second century.^ The first Petrine Epislte has always been recognized as genuine and authentic; the second, however, did not achieve universal recognition until after the fourth century.

^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.3), but down to the end of the second century Rome was always considered as founded by Peter and Paul, a tradition which never wholly disappeared.
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^ Concerning the manner of Peter's death, we possess a tradition - attested to by Tertullian at the end of the second century (see above) and by Origen (in Eusebius, "Hist.
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[39]
.Later in the second century, Irenaeus of Lyons believed that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the Church in Rome and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop.^ Irenaeus of Lyons, a native of Asia Minor and a disciple of Polycarp of Smyrna (a disciple of St. John), passed a considerable time in Rome shortly after the middle of the second century, and then proceeded to Lyons, where he became bishop in 177; he described the Roman Church as the most prominent and chief preserver of the Apostolic tradition, as "the greatest and most ancient church, known by all, founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious Apostles, Peter and Paul" (Adv.
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^ Later, perhaps on the building of the church over the graves on the Vatican and in the Via Ostiensis, the remains were restored to their former resting-place: Peter's to the Vatican Basilica and Paul's to the church on the Via Ostiensis.
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^ Peter had anticipated and struck out against what Paul and John later were also to combat.

[40][41]
.Tertullian also writes: "But if you are near Italy, you have Rome, where authority is at hand for us too.^ Like Irenaeus, Tertullian appeals, in his writings against heretics, to the proof afforded by the Apostolic labours of Peter and Paul in Rome of the truth of ecclesiastical tradition.
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^ In "De Praescriptione", xxxv, he says: "If thou art near Italy, thou hast Rome where authority is ever within reach.
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.What a happy church that is, on which the apostles poured out their whole doctrine with their blood; where Peter had a passion like that of the Lord, where Paul was crowned with the death of John (the Baptist, by being beheaded)."^ How fortunate is this Church for which the Apostles have poured out their whole teaching with their blood, where Peter has emulated the Passion of the Lord, where Paul was crowned with the death of John" (scil.
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^ Perhaps Peter belonged to the group following John the Baptist, as did the other apostles, Andrew, John, and probably even Philip.

^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dionysius of Corinth also serves as a late second-century witness to the tradition.^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.3), but down to the end of the second century Rome was always considered as founded by Peter and Paul, a tradition which never wholly disappeared.
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^ Concerning the manner of Peter's death, we possess a tradition - attested to by Tertullian at the end of the second century (see above) and by Origen (in Eusebius, "Hist.
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^ This conclusion is confirmed by the unanimous voice of tradition which, as early as the second half of the second century, designates the Prince of the Apostles the founder of the Roman Church.
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[5] .He wrote: "You (Pope Soter) have also, by your very admonition, brought together the planting that was made by Peter and Paul at Rome and at Corinth; for both of them alike planted in our Corinth and taught us; and both alike, teaching similarly in Italy, suffered martyrdom at the same time".[42] Later tradition, first found in Saint Jerome, attributes to Peter a 25-year episcopate (or apostolate) in Rome.^ St Peter was pope for 34-37 years, 25 of them in Rome and in prison.

^ They lived together and both were martyred about the same time.

^ Peter and Paul on the same day, although the day was not the same in the East as in Rome.
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[5]
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, there was a Christian community at Rome before either Peter or Paul arrived there:
"Even on the Day of Pentecost, "Roman strangers" (advenœ Romani, Acts 2:10) were present at Jerusalem, and they surely must have carried the good news to their fellow-citizens at Rome ... according to the pseudo-Clementine Epistles, St. Barnabas was the first to preach the Gospel in the Eternal City."[43]
Paul's Epistle to the Romans 16 (c 58) attests to a large Christian community already there,[44] although he does not mention Peter.

Non-canonical sayings of Peter

.Two sayings are attributed to Peter in the Gospel of Thomas.^ Here we may say that the Gospel was Mark's and it wasn't dictated by Peter, but was from the filling of the Holy Spirit.
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^ The two Epistles of Peter are ascribed to Peter, although the attribution is questioned.
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^ From the end of the sixth century this is replaced by the keys (usually two, but sometimes three), which henceforth became the attribute of Peter.
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.In the first, Peter compares Jesus to a "just messenger."^ Jesus is saying that there is something about Peter and the confession he just made that Jesus would use in building his church.
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^ St Peter, the fisherman, pictured above with a huge key in his left hand was selected by Jesus Christ as the first appointed leader of the Church.

^ Peter first confessed that Jesus was the Messiah (Mark 8:29; Matt.
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[45] .In the second, Peter asks Jesus to "make Mary leave us, for females don't deserve life,"[46] although the verse containing the latter is regarded by most scholars as a dubious, later addition.^ It is consoling to know for us sinners that Peter misunderstood Jesus' gift to him.

^ The resurrected Jesus subtly reminded Peter that he had denied His Master three times during his trial and that is why He asked Peter three times if he truly loved Him now.

^ This is surprising, for one could expect Andrew, who was the one who took Peter to Jesus, or John, the most beloved of the Twelve, to be first on the lists.

[citation needed]
.In the Apocalypse of Peter, Peter holds a dialogue with Jesus about the parable of the fig tree and the fate of sinners.^ It is consoling to know for us sinners that Peter misunderstood Jesus' gift to him.

^ Jesus is saying that there is something about Peter and the confession he just made that Jesus would use in building his church.
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[47]
.In the Gospel of Mary, whose text is largely fragmented, Peter appears to be jealous of "Mary" (probably Mary Magdalene).^ The Gospels make mention of the quiet brother of Peter, Andrew, whose honor it was to be called together with Peter by the Lord to an apostolic mission.

.He says to the other disciples, "Did He really speak privately with a woman and not openly to us?^ OTHER PRAYERS IN THE LITURGY: a- For his intercession, we say, " Through the prayers of Beholder of God, the Evangelist, God forgive us our sins."
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^ Peter and the other disciples did not have the power to determine whether sins were forgiven or not.
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^ But our Lord in return rebuked Peter, speaking to him in sterner words than he ever used to any other of his disciples (Matt.
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Are we to turn about and all listen to her? Did He prefer her to us?"[48] In reply to this, Levi says "Peter, you have always been hot tempered."[49]
.Other noncanonical texts that attribute sayings to Peter include the Secret Book of James and the Acts of Peter.^ Peter in the Acts of the Apostles Books have been written about the apostle Peter which present information gathered exclusively from the Gospels.

^ In the Book of Acts, it is mentioned that he worked with St. Paul and St. Barnabas the Apostles, but before that he worked with St. Peter in Jerusalem and Judea.
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^ [Mark 6 : 39, 40] Other examples in describing Christ when he slept in the ship on a pillow, or when He was transfigured before Peter, James and John saying, "And his raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them."
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Denial of Jesus

.In the Fayyum Fragment of the end of the third century, Jesus predicts that Peter will deny him three times before a cock crows twice (on the following morning).^ Three times Jesus asked Simon whether he loved Him.

^ Jesus then responded by telling Peter that he would deny Jesus three times before the rooster had crowed twice.
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^ After Jesus' arrest Peter denies knowing him three times and later repents his denial (Matt.
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.The account is similar to that of the canonical gospels, especially the Gospel of Mark, either an abbreviation of the account in the Synoptics or a source text on which they were based.^ Mark's assignment was to go to Alexandria by the order of the Holy Spirit, so they listen to the words of the Gospel of Lord Christ."
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^ They claimed that St. Mark's Gospel was written by St. Peter.
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^ CHAPTER FIFETEEN THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK THE FIRST GOSPEL: It is agreed among scholars that the Book of Mark was the first of the Gospels, however they differed about the time it was written.
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After the death of Jesus

.The fragmentary Gospel of Peter, attributed to Peter, contains an account of the death of Jesus differing significantly from the canonical gospels.^ The Gospel tells us that at least once, Jesus called Peter a "satan" because he was not thinking as God but as a human being.

^ One of the first miracles of Jesus was the curing of Peter's mother-in-law, who was ill with "a great fever," as Luke, the doctor, diagnosed it in his Gospel.

^ (Parallel accounts in Mark 8:27-9:1 and Luke 9:18-27) When Jesus predicted that his followers would fall away, Peter insisted that he would remain true.
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It contains little information about Peter himself, except that after the discovery of the empty tomb, "I, Simon Peter, and Andrew my brother, took our fishing nets and went to the sea." [50]

Modern times

Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, recorded in multiple revelations that Peter appeared to him and Oliver Cowdery in 1829 in order to bestow the apostleship and keys of the kingdom as part of a restoration of priesthood authority.[51][52]

Religious interpretations

Catholic Church

Peter
S. Peter GraoVasco1.jpg
Papacy began AD 30?
Papacy ended AD 64?
Predecessor New creation
Successor Linus
Personal details
Birth name Simon/Simeon bar Jona
Born Bethsaida (traditional)
Died Circa AD 64
City of Rome,
Present day Italy Italy
.According to Catholic belief, Peter was the first Bishop of Rome and chief pastor of the whole Roman Catholic Church - the Vicar of Christ upon Earth.^ Perhaps this is an allusion to Peter as the first pastor of Rome.

^ Most pointedly, and defined at Vatican Council in 1870, its First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ, also known as Pastor aeternus, made it a matter of Catholic faith to believe that Christ conferred primacy of jurisdiction over the whole church directly and without mediation (this against conciliarists) upon Peter, that the Petrine office and its primacy persist through the ages in the bishops of Rome, and that they therefore possess universal, ordinary jurisdiction over all of Christ's church.
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^ Roman Catholics believe that Peter's was a permanent office instituted by Christ and conferred upon the apostle's successors in the see of Rome, and that his primacy in the primitive church has fallen now to the bishops (popes) of Rome.
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[53] .Although Peter never bore the title of "Pope", the Catholic Church recognizes him as the first Pope.^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
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^ Mark was with St. Peter when he wrote his first epistle and he wrote, "The church that is Babylon, elected together with you salutes you and so does Marcus my son."
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^ We are grateful to the Saint whose name was given to the first church in our country, where his body was buried and after him our Patriarchs were chosen.
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[54] .Therefore, they consider every pope to be Peter's successor and the rightful superior of all other bishops.^ Christ did not explicitly speak of the "successor of Peter," or the popes,or bishops.

^ As papal claims expanded to take in the whole church and met stiff resistance from emperors and patriarchs in Constantinople, popes insisted ever more clearly that they were the living embodiment of Peter and therefore enjoyed his primacy over the whole church.
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^ Peter, the weak man, chosen by God, is not to be proud but compassionate toward others all his life for the very reason that the Master had forgiven him and was compassionate toward him.

.The Catholic Church's recognition of Peter as head of its church on Earth (with Christ being its heavenly head) is based on two passages from the Canonical Gospels of the New Testament.^ To him, in blessed Peter, full power has been given by our lord Jesus Christ to tend, rule and govern the universal church.” This belief is based upon the Church’s interpretation of 12 words found in Matthew 16:18.
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^ If Christ made Simon Peter the cornerstone of His Church-and indeed He did-then did He not intend the completed structure to remain a permanent establishment?

^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
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.The first passage is in John 21:15-17, which concludes with “feed my sheep” - seen by Catholics as Christ promising the spiritual supremacy to Peter.^ Jesus told Peter to feed His sheep.

^ When Peter fed the lambs and sheep of Christs flock, he proved by his vigilant care and ceaseless concern that his philein, a love of sentiment, was also an agapan, a love of reverence.

^ AUTHORS: Ankerberg, Dr. John / Weldon, Dr. John Can Christians remain in the Catholic Church without compromising their faith and/or their spiritual growth?
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The second passage is found in Matthew 16:17-20, which states, “by charging him with the superintendency of all his sheep, without exception; and consequently of his whole flock, that is, of his own church,”[53] and:
.I tell you that you are Peter,a and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hadesb will not overcome it.^ The Lord makes it clear that Peter is not the rock on which he will build his church.
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^ The truth Peter confessed is the solid rock on which Jesus builds his church.
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^ The controversy in particular centers around the words of Jesus, "And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it" (Matthew 16:18).
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c .I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will bed bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will bee loosed in heaven."^ And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven".
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^ And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven.
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^ Jesus announced to Peter that he was giving him the keys to bind and loose sins (Matthew 16:19).
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Matthew 16:18-20 (NIV)

NIV footnotes a through e (above):
aMatthew .16:18 Peter means rock.^ Aramaic name Cephas by Jesus or the early church; the name means "rock" and is translated into Greek as Peter.
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^ The controversy in particular centers around the words of Jesus, "And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it" (Matthew 16:18).
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bMatthew 16:18 Or hell
cMatthew 16:18 Or not prove stronger than it
dMatthew 16:19 Or have been
eMatthew 16:19 Or have been
.In reference to Peter's occupation before becoming an Apostle, the popes wear the Fisherman's Ring, which bears an image of the saint casting his nets from a fishing boat.^ The Acts of the Apostles, especially the first eleven chapters, have also been referred to as the "Acts of Peter".

^ Peter becomes Head of the Apostles In especially solemn fashion Christ accentuated Peter's precedence among the Apostles, when, after Peter had recognized Him as the Messias, He promised that he would be head of His flock.
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^ THE POPES AND BISHOPS OF THE SEAT OF SAINT MARK: One hundred and sixteen patriarchs sat on that seat before the our present Pope.
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.The keys used as a symbol of the pope's authority refer to the "keys of the kingdom of Heaven" promised to Peter.^ Peter is to the kingdom of heaven .

^ And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven.
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^ Blessed Peter is therefore told: "To you I will give the keys of the kingdom of heaven.

[Matt. 16:18–19] The terminology of this "commission" of Peter is unmistakably parallel to the commissioning of Eliakim ben Hilkiah in Isaiah 22:15–23. Peter is often depicted in both Western and Eastern Christian art holding a key or a set of keys.
Though the authenticity of this account has been challenged, the general consensus is that these are Jesus' words.[55]

Feast days

Looking down into the confessio near the tomb of Apostle Peter, Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome.
.The Roman Martyrology assigns 29 June as the feast day of both Peter and Paul, without thereby declaring that to be the day of their deaths.^ In the liturgy their feast is celebrated on the day of their death, June 29.

^ The feast day of Saints Peter and Paul are celebrated together on June 29th.

^ However, because of the great distance between the two churches of St Peter and St. Paul in Rome and the difficulties of holding services in both on the same day, the feast was divided, and June 30 was made the day on which to honor St. Paul.

St. Augustine of Hippo says in his Sermon 295: "One day is assigned for the celebration of the martyrdom of the two apostles. But those two were one. Although their martyrdom occurred on different days, they were one."
.This is also the feast of both Apostles in the calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church.^ This feast was originally the dedication feast of the church of the Apostle, erected on the Esquiline Hill in the fourth century.
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^ DID HE PREACH WITH HIM IN ROME? It was proven in the history of the church and recorded in both the Orthodox and the Catholic books, even the Holy Bible, that Mark the apostle did preach in Rome.
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^ It was on the feast of St. Mark, Friday May,8, 1970 that the Copts celebrated the Eucharist at the Church of Mar Afram , a Syrian Orthodox church.
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In the Roman Rite, the feast of the Chair of Saint Peter is celebrated on 22 February, and the anniversary of the dedication of the two papal basilicas of Saint Peter's and Saint Paul's outside the Walls is held on 18 November.
.Before Pope John XXIII's revision in 1960, the Roman Calendar also included on 16 January another feast of the Chair of Saint Peter (denominated the Chair of Saint Peter in Rome, while the February feast was then called that of the Chair of Saint Peter at Antioch), and on 1 August the feast of Saint Peter in Chains.^ At the time, another chain in Rome was claimed to be that which had bound St. Peter.

^ And the liturgy solemnizes February 22 as the feast of the bishopric of Peter in Antioch.

^ AUTHORS: Gendron, Mike In September, 2000, Pope John Paul II announced the Roman Catholic Church is necessary for salvation.
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St. Peter's Basilica

.When, in the early fourth century, the Emperor Constantine I decided to honour Peter with a large basilica, the precise location of Peter's burial was so firmly fixed in the belief of the Christians of Rome that the building had to be erected on a site that involved considerable difficulties, both physical (excavating the slope of the Vatican Hill, while the great church could much more easily have been built on level ground only slightly to the south) and without moral and legal issues (demolishing a cemetery).^ V. FEASTS OF ST. PETER As early as the fourth century a feast was celebrated in memory of Sts.
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^ This feast was originally the dedication feast of the church of the Apostle, erected on the Esquiline Hill in the fourth century.
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^ The tropaion remained until the fourth century when Emperor Constantine had the basilica of St. Peter erected.

.The focal point of the Basilica, both in its original form and in its later complete reconstruction, is the altar placed over what is held to be the exact place where Peter was buried.^ He was buried on the Vatican Hill in Rome about the year 64 AD. Accurate research maintains that Peter's remains are buried beneath St Peter's Basilica.

^ Later, perhaps on the building of the church over the graves on the Vatican and in the Via Ostiensis, the remains were restored to their former resting-place: Peter's to the Vatican Basilica and Paul's to the church on the Via Ostiensis.
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^ At any rate the place of execution and burial of both were close together; St. Peter, who was executed on the Vatican, received also his burial there.
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Protestants and other views

.A major debate between Catholics and Protestants centers on Matthew 16:19 where Jesus tells Peter: "You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church...."^ The Lord makes it clear that Peter is not the rock on which he will build his church.
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^ The truth Peter confessed is the solid rock on which Jesus builds his church.
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^ The controversy in particular centers around the words of Jesus, "And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it" (Matthew 16:18).
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.Catholics interpret the verse as saying that Jesus would build his church on Peter, the apostle.^ The truth Peter confessed is the solid rock on which Jesus builds his church.
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^ To him, in blessed Peter, full power has been given by our lord Jesus Christ to tend, rule and govern the universal church.” This belief is based upon the Church’s interpretation of 12 words found in Matthew 16:18.
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^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
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The traditional Catholic interpretation has been that Jesus told Peter (Rock) that he would build his Church on this Rock (Peter), and that Peter was made the shepherd of the apostolic flock[Jn 21:15-19]—hence their assertion of the Primacy of the Roman Pontiff.

Meaning of "Rock"

.In the original Greek the word translated as "Peter" is Πέτρος (Petros) and that translated as "rock" is πέτρα (petra), two words that, while not identical, give an impression of one of many times when Jesus used a play on words.^ The play on words of Kepha-rock-is possible only in the original Aramaic.

^ Meaning of the Word Love In the Greek text there are two different words for the term to love.

^ But the English translation of this passage avoids this difference by using one word, love, for the Greek words agapan and philein; the Latin text, however, distinguishes by using diligere and amare respectively.

.Furthermore, since Jesus presumably spoke to Peter in their native Aramaic language, he would have used kepha in both instances.^ In this instance Peter used his authority with tact and discretion.

^ Jesus is saying that there is something about Peter and the confession he just made that Jesus would use in building his church.
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^ Jesus then responded by telling Peter that he would deny Jesus three times before the rooster had crowed twice.
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[56] .The Peshitta Text and the Old Syriac text use the word "kepha" for both "Peter" and "rock" in Matthew 16:18.^ Both used the Old Testament to prove the teachings of Christ to the Jews.

^ How surprisingly this old word is used in a scientific modern sense!

^ Christs words to him were forcible and penetrating: I say to thee, thou are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church.

[57] .John 1:42 says Jesus called Simon "Cephas", as does Paul in some letters.^ Looking off into the distance, Jesus said, speaking more to Himself than to Peter, "'Thou art Simon, the son of John: thou shalt be called Cephas (which interpreted is Peter).'"

^ Later, meeting his brother Simon, Andrew said "We have found the Messias", and brought him to Jesus, who, looking upon him, said: "Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is interpreted Peter".
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^ He had a younger brother called Andrew, who first brought him to Jesus (John 1:40-42).
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He was instructed by Christ to strengthen his brethren, i.e., the apostles.[Lk 22:31-32] Peter also had a leadership role in the early Christian church at Jerusalem according to The Acts of the Apostles chapters 1-2, 10-11, and 15.
Early Catholic Latin and Greek writers (such as St. John Chrysostom) considered the "foundation rock" as applying to both Peter personally and his confession of faith (or the faith of his confession) symbolically, as well as seeing Christ's promise to apply more generally to his twelve apostles and the Church at large.[58] .This "double meaning" interpretation is present in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church.^ AUTHORS: Durel, Greg Does the Roman Catholic church have a different understanding of what “lordship salvation” means?
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^ Mike Gendron, a former Catholic of 37 years answers these important questions by contrasting the new Catechism of the Catholic Church and the Word of God.
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[59]
.Protestant counter-claims to the Catholic interpretation are largely based on the difference between the Greek words translated "Rock" in the Matthean passage.^ Meaning of the Word Love In the Greek text there are two different words for the term to love.

^ The French Encyclopedia, with its Catholic publishers, stated, "The claim that Mark was a disciple of Peter was nothing other than stupidity based on some failed writers."
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^ But the English translation of this passage avoids this difference by using one word, love, for the Greek words agapan and philein; the Latin text, however, distinguishes by using diligere and amare respectively.

In classical Attic Greek petros generally meant "pebble," while petra meant "boulder" or "cliff." .Accordingly, taking Peter's name to mean "pebble," they argue that the "rock" in question cannot have been Peter, but something else, either Jesus himself, or the faith in Jesus that Peter had just professed.^ Later, probably at the time of his definitive call to the Apostolate with the eleven other Apostles, Jesus actually gave Simon the name of Cephas (Petrus), after which he was usually called Peter, especially by Christ on the solemn occasion after Peter's profession of faith (Matthew 16:18; cf.
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^ The composer and sender introduced himself in the first lines as Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have obtained an equal privilege of faith with ourselves through the justice of our God and savior Jesus Christ.

^ Jesus is saying that there is something about Peter and the confession he just made that Jesus would use in building his church.
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.However, the New Testament was written in Koiné Greek, not Attic Greek, and some authorities say no significant difference existed between the meanings of petros and petra.^ Meaning of the Word Love In the Greek text there are two different words for the term to love.

^ Between Peter and Paul there was no dogmatic difference in their conception of salvation for Jewish and Gentile Christians.
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^ CHAPTER FIFETEEN THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK THE FIRST GOSPEL: It is agreed among scholars that the Book of Mark was the first of the Gospels, however they differed about the time it was written.
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Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter, by Pietro Perugino (1481-82)
.However, even though the feminine noun petra is translated as rock in the phrase "on this rock I will build my church," the word petra (πέτρα in Greek) is also used at 1 Cor.^ Jesus is saying that there is something about Peter and the confession he just made that Jesus would use in building his church.
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^ But the English translation of this passage avoids this difference by using one word, love, for the Greek words agapan and philein; the Latin text, however, distinguishes by using diligere and amare respectively.

^ The Lord makes it clear that Peter is not the rock on which he will build his church.
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.10:4 in describing Jesus Christ, which reads: "They all ate the same spiritual food and drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them, and that rock was Christ."^ [Mark 2 : 6 , 7] When they began to reason again they asked His disciples, "How is it that He ate and drank with the publicans and the sinners ?"
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^ The holy, glorious and all-laudable Apostle Peter is the leader of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.
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^ Is it possible for a Catholic to adhere to the teachings of his church and at the same time believe the Gospel of Jesus Christ?
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.Although Matthew 16 is used as a primary proof-text for the Catholic doctrine of Papal supremacy, Protestant scholars say that prior to the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Matthew 16 was very rarely used to support papal claims.^ Advanced Information Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike.
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^ Moreover, progressive Catholic theologians concede that this saying, whatever its exact meaning and referent, cannot serve as a direct proof text for the Roman papacy and its primatial claims.
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^ AUTHORS: Ankerberg, Dr. John / Weldon, Dr. John Many Catholics and Protestants today would have us believe that there are only minor differences between the doctrine of justification as taught by the Reformers and that taught by the Council of Trent and modern Catholics.
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.Their position is that most of the early and medieval Church interpreted the 'rock' as being a reference either to Christ or to Peter's faith, not Peter himself.^ Was Peter to be the solid and stable foundation rock of Christs Church?

^ The divinity of Christ is referred to by Peter in his discourses again and again.

^ If Christ made Simon Peter the cornerstone of His Church-and indeed He did-then did He not intend the completed structure to remain a permanent establishment?

.They understand Jesus' remark to have been his affirmation of Peter's testimony that Jesus was the Son of God.^ Then Jesus took Peter off to the side, Once again they stood face to face, as they did on the Jordan, as they did a few weeks before in the courtyard of the high priest.

^ Peter's Temperament and Character The Gospels make three brief and seemingly unimportant remarks about Peter; nevertheless, they throw a new light on his character.

^ Peter proclaimed Jesus as the Messiah and Jesus told Him He would be the "rock" to build God's Church.

[60]
.Another rebuttal of the Catholic position is that if Peter really means the Rock which makes him the chief of Apostles, it would contradict Bible's teaching in Ephesians 2:20 which says that the church's foundation is the apostles and prophets, not Peter alone.^ The Lord makes it clear that Peter is not the rock on which he will build his church.
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^ It was on Peter alone that the Church was founded.

^ Was Peter to be the solid and stable foundation rock of Christs Church?

.They posit that the meaning of Matthew 16:18 is that Jesus uses a play on words with Peter's name to say that the confession he had just made is the rock on which the church is built.^ Jesus is saying that there is something about Peter and the confession he just made that Jesus would use in building his church.
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^ He made the great confession in Matthew 16:16.
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^ This word was used with that meaning in Luke 4 : 20 .
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[61]
.Other theologically conservative Christians, including Confessional Lutherans, also rebut comments made by Karl Keating and D.A. Carson who claim that there is no distinction between the words petros and petra in Koine Greek.^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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^ His conduct made a great impression on the other Jewish Christians at Antioch, so that even Barnabas, St. Paul's companion, now avoided eating with the Christianized pagans.
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^ There were no other bishops, but in the Second Century, Pope Dimitrius [12] ordained other bishops with him.
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.The Lutheran theologians state that the dictionaries of Koine/NT Greek, including the authoritative[62] Bauer-Danker-Arndt-Gingrich Lexicon, indeed list both words and the passages that give different meanings for each.^ Meaning of the Word Love In the Greek text there are two different words for the term to love.

^ But the English translation of this passage avoids this difference by using one word, love, for the Greek words agapan and philein; the Latin text, however, distinguishes by using diligere and amare respectively.

^ Ben Kabar included his name in both, the origional Coptic and the Greek lists of the apostles (21) This was also reported by Al Maqrizi, a Muslim historian from the Middle Ages, saying that he was among the seventy.
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The Lutheran theologians further note that:
.We honor Peter and in fact some of our churches are named after him, but he was not the first pope, nor was he Roman Catholic.^ The church was named after him, as St. Mark Church.
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^ The Roman Melchites confiscated our churches.
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^ THE ROMAN CATHOLIC : They have three churches by the name of St. Mark.
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.If you read his first letter, you will see that he did not teach a Roman hierarchy, but that all Christians are royal priests.^ AUTHORS: McCarthy, James You can’t understand Roman Catholicism unless you first understand Tradition.
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^ In a letter to the Romans, St. Ignatius, bishop and martyr (98-110), spoke of these two leaders of the Church as the teaching authority of the Church in Rome: "I do not command you as Peter and Paul."

^ The same circle of narrow-minded Christian Jews insisted on teaching : "'Unless you be circumcised after the manner of Moses, you cannot be saved.""

The same keys given to Peter in Matthew 16 are given to the whole church of believers in Matthew 18[63]

Partial Protestant support

.Partial support for the Catholic position comes from one of Protestantism's most distinguished Church historians, Oscar Cullmann, a Lutheran theologian.^ SOME OF ITS DISTINGUISHED SCHOLARS AND PHILOSOPHERS Athenaghoras was one of the most eminent among them, who defended Christianity and its apologists.
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^ During that era, Anba Yusab Al-Abbah, Bishop of Girga and Ekhmeem was one of the most eminent scholars of the church.
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^ THE COPTIC CATHOLICS: They have one church named after St., Mark in Ismailiah, at the Monofia and Dakahlia Streets.
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.He disagrees with Luther and the Protestant reformers who held that by "rock" Christ did not mean Peter, but meant either himself or the faith of His followers.^ If Christ made Simon Peter the cornerstone of His Church-and indeed He did-then did He not intend the completed structure to remain a permanent establishment?

^ Perhaps Peter belonged to the group following John the Baptist, as did the other apostles, Andrew, John, and probably even Philip.

^ Already on Easter morning Christ had sent the women who were at the tomb specifically to Peter with a message for him.

.He believes the meaning of the original Aramaic is very clear: that "Kepha" was the Aramaic word for "rock", and that it was also the name by which Christ called Peter.^ Primacy of Peter Peter was called Simon, a very common name among the Jews.

^ The play on words of Kepha-rock-is possible only in the original Aramaic.

^ Just as the preaching of Christ was very chose to the heart of the St. Paul, so was the Resurrection of Christ to Peter.

[64]
.Yet, Cullmann sharply rejects the Catholic claim that Peter began the papal succession.^ The French Encyclopedia, with its Catholic publishers, stated, "The claim that Mark was a disciple of Peter was nothing other than stupidity based on some failed writers."
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^ AUTHORS: Durel, Greg Roman Catholics claim that Peter was the first Pope, and that he had primacy over the other apostles.
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.He writes: "In the life of Peter there is no starting point for a chain of succession to the leadership of the church at large."^ At all the important turning-points of the apostolic Church Peter was there to bind and to loose, to close and to open.

^ Succession of Peter's Primacy The death of St. Peter raised the question of the permanence of his office on the Church.

^ Both had a deep devoton to St Peter and they received heavenly assistance to support their leadership and the Church though St Peter's holy intercession.

While he believes the Matthew text is entirely valid and is in no way spurious, he says it cannot be used as "warrant of the papal succession."[64]
.Cullmann concludes that while Peter was the original head of the apostles, Peter was not the founder of any visible church succession.^ Succession of Peter's Primacy The death of St. Peter raised the question of the permanence of his office on the Church.

^ Naively they narrate how Peter supposedly established a different province and separate office of the Church for each apostle.

^ Then will Christ Himself, now and forever the invisible Head of His Church, feed and love us in the visible glory of His Epiphany.

[64]
.There are other Protestant scholars who also partially defend the historical Catholic position about "Rock."^ SOME OF ITS DISTINGUISHED SCHOLARS AND PHILOSOPHERS Athenaghoras was one of the most eminent among them, who defended Christianity and its apologists.
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^ All these facts were mentioned in our Coptic references as well as in books of the Catholics, Protestants and other churches.
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^ ST. MARK CHURCHES IN OTHER DENOMINATIONS 1-THE GREEK ORTHODOX "AL RUM" There is a historic church in "Haret al Rum" in Cairo.
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[65] .Taking a somewhat different approach from Cullman, they point out that the Gospel of Matthew was not written in the classical Attic form of Greek, but in the Hellenistic Koine dialect in which there is no distinction in meaning between petros and petra.^ Christ was by no means a fisherman, but they listened to Him.

^ Meaning of the Word Love In the Greek text there are two different words for the term to love.

^ Peter ordered another apostle to be chosen to take the place of the betrayer, Judas, and even pointed out the essential qualities the new candidate had to have.

.Moreover, even in Attic Greek, in which the regular meaning of petros was a smallish "stone," there are instances of its use to refer to larger rocks, as in Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus v.^ Meaning of the Word Love In the Greek text there are two different words for the term to love.

1595, where petros refers to a boulder used as a landmark, obviously something more than a pebble. In any case, a petros/petra distinction is irrelevant considering the Aramaic language in which the phrase might well have been spoken. .In Greek, of any period, the feminine noun petra could not be used as the given name of a male, which may explain the use of Petros as the Greek word with which to translate Aramaic Kepha.^ But the English translation of this passage avoids this difference by using one word, love, for the Greek words agapan and philein; the Latin text, however, distinguishes by using diligere and amare respectively.

^ He translated the Aramaic words in his writing, like the name of Boanerges, which meant the sons of thunder.
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^ Tauchire" Its present name is Tokra and was built in 510 BC by the Greeks on the coast and may have been used as another port for Barka.
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[56]
.Yet, still other Protestant scholars believe that Jesus in fact did mean to single out Peter as the very rock which he will build upon, but that the passage does nothing to indicate a continued succession of Peter's implied position.^ Does that mean that Jesus’ scathing criticism of the former can be applied to the latter?
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^ Then Jesus took Peter off to the side, Once again they stood face to face, as they did on the Jordan, as they did a few weeks before in the courtyard of the high priest.

^ Peter, the weak man, chosen by God, is not to be proud but compassionate toward others all his life for the very reason that the Master had forgiven him and was compassionate toward him.

.They assert that Matthew uses the demonstrative pronoun taute, which allegedly means "this very" or this same, when he refers to the rock on which Jesus' church will be built.^ Peter proclaimed Jesus as the Messiah and Jesus told Him He would be the "rock" to build God's Church.

^ Jesus said: "Upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it."

^ The Church of Christ is one, built on a rock, Peter, so invincible that even the very gates of hell, the hostile and evil powers of destruction-the gateway of the underworld.

He also uses the Greek word for "and", kai. It is alleged that when a demonstrative pronoun is used with kai, the pronoun refers back to the preceding noun. .The second rock Jesus refers to must then be the same rock as the first one; and if Peter is the first rock he must also be the second.^ The Acts of the Apostles, especially the first eleven chapters, have also been referred to as the "Acts of Peter".

^ The first eleven chapters have sometimes been referred to as the Acts of Peter.

^ The contents and form of the second Epistle of St. Peter differ considerable from the first.

[66]

Eastern Orthodox

Icon of St. Peter (15th century, Russian State Museum, Saint Petersburg).
.The Eastern Orthodox Church regards Apostle Peter, together with Apostle Paul, as "Preeminent Apostles". Another title used for Peter is Coryphaeus, which could be translated as "Choir-director", or lead singer.^ Around the year 200, Gaius, a Roman priest, pointed out to one of the teachers of a heresy that he could show the heretic "the signs of victory" of the graves of the apostles, Peter's in the Vatican, Paul's on the way to Ostia.

^ Mark was with St. Peter when he wrote his first epistle and he wrote, "The church that is Babylon, elected together with you salutes you and so does Marcus my son."
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^ In our Church's Ritual Books: Mark the apostle, (25) is the title given to this Saint, in all the prayers and praises.
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[67] .The church recognizes Apostle Peter's leadership role in the early church, especially in the very early days at Jerusalem, but does not consider him to have had any "princely" role over his fellow Apostles.^ The Acts of the Apostles, especially the first eleven chapters, have also been referred to as the "Acts of Peter".

^ He acknowledged that he must go to Jerusalem to see Cephas, and he stayed with him for fifteen days.

^ Peter assummed the leadership role most mindful of his past failures and denials.

.The New Testament is not seen by the Orthodox as supporting any extraordinary authority for Peter with regard to faith or morals.^ The words of Peter in this part of the New Testament are copious.

^ In the New Testament, Peter is called at first only Simon, then gradually Simon Peter, then Peter alone.

^ Is this support and strengthening of the others in their faith not the very same thing that Matthew expressed when he wrote, Thou are Peter, the rock?

.The Orthodox also hold that Peter did not act as leader at the Council of Jerusalem, but as merely one of a number who spoke.^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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^ He was the first to speak and the first to act, but the last one to think before he spoke or acted.

^ During this exile from Rome, Peter made a journey to Jerusalem (49-50) to attend the first Church Council.

.The final decision regarding the non-necessity of circumcision (and certain prohibitions) was spelled out by James, the Brother of the Lord (though Catholics hold James merely reiterated and fleshed out what Peter had said, regarding the latter's earlier divine revelation regarding the inclusion of Gentiles).^ St Peter said that it is noble to announce the praises of Him who called us out of darkness into His wonderful light in His own inimitable manner.

^ After relating the story of his escape, and before he departed, he merely said, " ' Tell this to James (the Younger) and to the brethren.'

^ And when day broke, he summoned his disciples; and from these he chose twelve (whom he also named apostles): Simon, whom he named Peter, and his brother Andrew, James and John...

Eastern and Oriental Orthodox do not recognize the Bishop of Rome as the successor of St. Peter but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople sends a delegation each year to Rome to participate in the celebration of the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul. In the Ravenna Document of 13 October 2007, the representatives of the Eastern Orthodox Church agreed that "Rome, as the Church that 'presides in love' according to the phrase of St. Ignatius of Antioch (To the Romans, Prologue), occupied the first place in the taxis, and that the bishop of Rome was therefore the protos among the patriarchs, if the Papacy unites with the Orthodox Church. .They disagree, however, on the interpretation of the historical evidence from this era regarding the prerogatives of the bishop of Rome as protos, a matter that was already understood in different ways in the first millennium."^ CHAPTER FIFETEEN THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK THE FIRST GOSPEL: It is agreed among scholars that the Book of Mark was the first of the Gospels, however they differed about the time it was written.
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^ They also ordained Raphael Al Tokhi as their bishop for Upper Egypt, but he was unable to stay there, so the Pope of Rome called him to Rome to stay there .
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.With regard to Jesus' words to Peter, "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church", the Orthodox hold Christ is referring to the confession of faith, not the person of Peter as that upon which he will build the church.^ Christs words to him were forcible and penetrating: I say to thee, thou are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church.

^ Jesus said: "Upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it."

^ Et super hanc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam.-Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church.

.This is allegedly shown by the fact that the original Greek uses the feminine demonstrative pronoun when he says "upon this rock" (ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ); whereas, grammatically, if he had been referring to Peter, he would allegedly have used the masculine.^ Peter proclaimed Jesus as the Messiah and Jesus told Him He would be the "rock" to build God's Church.

^ Christs words to him were forcible and penetrating: I say to thee, thou are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church.

^ But as all were denying it, Peter and those who were with him said, "Master, the crowds throng and press upon thee, and dost thou say, 'Who touched me?'

[68] This "gender distinction" argument is also held by some Protestants.
The Orthodox also consider that St. Linus, not Peter, was the first Bishop of Rome,[citation needed], as do Catholics who define "pope" as "successor of Saint Peter".

Feast days

In the Orthodox Daily Office every Thursday throughout the year is dedicated to the Holy Apostles, including St. Peter. There are also two feast days in the year which are dedicated to him:
  • June 29, Feast of Saints Peter and Paul—This is a major feast day and is preceded by a period of Lenten fasting known as the Apostles' Fast
  • January 16, Veneration of the Precious Chains of the Holy and All-Glorious Apostle Peter—commemorating both the chains which Acts 12:1-11 says miraculously fell from him, and the chains in which he was held before his martyrdom by Nero.

Syriac Orthodox Church

.The Fathers of the Syriac Orthodox Church tried to give a theological interpretation to the primacy of Apostle Peter.^ Succession of Peter's Primacy The death of St. Peter raised the question of the permanence of his office on the Church.

^ Strange was the fact that they tried to falsify the history of our fathers and our church.
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^ In a bizarre words Father Chineau in his book, "Saints of Egypt" wrote that St. Mark, after preaching in the five western cities, went to see his distinguished teacher, Peter the apostle, to give him an account for the assignment that was given to him.
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.They were fully convinced of the unique office of Peter in the primitive Christian community.^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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^ It is profoundly symbolic that Peter had to suffer for the growth of the young Christian community and its formation into the universal Church.

^ Naively they narrate how Peter supposedly established a different province and separate office of the Church for each apostle.

.Ephrem, Aphrahat and Marutha who were supposed to be the best exponents of the early Syriac tradition unequivocally acknowledge the office of Peter.^ Climate President Cornacchia signed the College Presidents Climate Commitment to acknowledge that Saint Peter’s College will continue to be an early adopter of environmentally friendly solutions.
  • Saint Peter's College Annual Report 2008 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Syriac Fathers following the rabbinic tradition call Jesus “Kepha” for they see “rock” in the Old Testament as a messianic Symbol.^ That they broke the fifth commandment for that tradition, [Mark 7 : 6 - 23] and stopped honoring their fathers and took the money from the temple.
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^ They are truly worthy documents of the words of 'Simon, valuable records of an old tradition handed down to posterity.

^ Precisely this word Peter-Kephas, or rock is found not only in Matthew, but in all four Gospels of the New Testament in one particular passage.

.When Christ gave his own name “Kepha” to Simon he was giving him participation in the person and office of Christ.^ If a person is in Christ, he is already so blessed and so secure that no religion can offer him anything.
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^ But when Jesus met this fisherman on the River Jordan, He gave him another name, Cephas.

^ Though there are in God's people many bishops and many shepherds, Peter is thus appointed to rule in his own person those whom Christ also rules as the original ruler.

.Christ who is the Kepha and shepherd made Simon the chief shepherd in his place and gave him the very name Kepha and said that on Kepha he would build the Church.^ The church was named after him, as St. Mark Church.
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^ If Christ made Simon Peter the cornerstone of His Church-and indeed He did-then did He not intend the completed structure to remain a permanent establishment?

^ Mark, then saw an angel who told him that a big city will be established there and named after him.
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Aphrahat shared the common Syriac tradition. .For him Kepha is in fact another name of Jesus, and Simon was given the right to share the name.^ Three times Jesus asked Simon whether he loved Him.

^ We are grateful to the Saint whose name was given to the first church in our country, where his body was buried and after him our Patriarchs were chosen.
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^ But when Jesus met this fisherman on the River Jordan, He gave him another name, Cephas.

.The person who receives somebody else’s name also obtains the rights of the person who bestows the name.^ Jesus remained silent, like a person who knows that the course of events will prove him right.

^ A person who was raised in the arms of his righteous mother, among relatives of Christ's Apostles, in a house which God entered, where He gave His Body and His Blood and filled them with the Holy Spirit.
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^ To him all the prophets bear witness, that through his name all who believe in him may receive forgiveness of sins."

Aphrahat makes the stone taken from Jordan a type of Peter. .He says Jesus son of Nun set up the stones for a witness in Israel; Jesus our Saviour called Simon Kepha Sarirto and set him as the faithful witness among nations.^ It was on the River Jordan that our Lord first called the son of Jona.

^ The composer and sender introduced himself in the first lines as Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have obtained an equal privilege of faith with ourselves through the justice of our God and savior Jesus Christ.

^ Looking off into the distance, Jesus said, speaking more to Himself than to Peter, "'Thou art Simon, the son of John: thou shalt be called Cephas (which interpreted is Peter).'"

Again he says in his commentary on Deuteronomy that Moses brought forth water from “rock” (Kepha) for the people and Jesus sent Simon Kepha to carry his teachings among nations. .Our Lord accepted him and made him the foundation of the Church and called him Kepha.^ To him, in blessed Peter, full power has been given by our lord Jesus Christ to tend, rule and govern the universal church.” This belief is based upon the Church’s interpretation of 12 words found in Matthew 16:18.
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^ We are grateful to the Saint whose name was given to the first church in our country, where his body was buried and after him our Patriarchs were chosen.
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^ It was on the River Jordan that our Lord first called the son of Jona.

.When he speaks about transfiguration of Christ he calls him Simon Peter, the foundation of the Church.^ Speaking of the apex of Peters mission, Matthew and Luke called him Simon Peter.

^ Was Peter to be the solid and stable foundation rock of Christs Church?

^ To him, in blessed Peter, full power has been given by our lord Jesus Christ to tend, rule and govern the universal church.” This belief is based upon the Church’s interpretation of 12 words found in Matthew 16:18.
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Ephrem also shared the same view. .In Armenian version of De Virginitate records Peter the Rock shunned honour Who was the head of the Apostles.^ Pierre Biloun de Manz, a French tourist who visited Egypt in 1527, recorded : [There was a Coptic monastery and a patriarchal building beside their church.
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^ It was mentioned about Pope Peter VI [106], that, "he went to Alexandria, in 1722 AD, and kissed the head of St. Mark The Apostle.
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In a mimro of Efrem found in Holy Week Liturgy points to the importance of Peter.
Both Aphrahat and Ephrem represent the authentic tradition of the Syrian Church. The different orders of liturgies used for sanctification of Church building, marriage, ordination etc. reveal that the primacy of .Peter is a part of living faith of the Church.^ It was Peter's faith and gift from God that allowed him to live this truth and also be crucified for it.

^ The Lord has set you firm within his Church, which he built upon the rock of Peter's faith.

[69]

Seventh Day Adventist understanding

.When Christ on the eve of His betrayal forewarned His disciples, "All ye shall be offended because of Me this night," Peter confidently declared, "Although all shall be offended, yet will not I."[Mk. 14:27,29] Self-confidence misled him, but in a few short hours the test came, and with cursing and swearing he denied his Lord, then the crowing of the cock reminded him of the words of Christ.^ Yes, the Lord knows all.

^ These words were spoken directly to Peter as Christ was predicting the denial.

^ [Mark 14 : 14] 9- CHRIST THE KING: St. Mark introduced Him as a King of a Spiritual Kingdom, preaching the Kingdom of God.
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Now his self-confidence was gone. Never again were the old boastful assertions repeated. .Christ after His resurrection thrice tested Peter.^ Just as the preaching of Christ was very chose to the heart of the St. Paul, so was the Resurrection of Christ to Peter.

^ Severus Ibn Al Mokafaa stated that after Christ's resurrection, Mark accompanied Peter, preaching the multitudes in Jerusalem and went from there to Bethany to preach the Word of God.
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^ After Christs Resurrection and Ascension, as Peters mission came more exclusively, especially in the Acts of the Apostles.

."Simon, son of Jonas," He said, "lovest thou Me more than these?"^ Looking off into the distance, Jesus said, speaking more to Himself than to Peter, "'Thou art Simon, the son of John: thou shalt be called Cephas (which interpreted is Peter).'"

^ Simon, son of John, do you love Me more than these others do?

^ Yet, a third time he said to him, Simon, son of John, dost thou love me?

.Peter did not now exalt himself above his brethren.^ Peter had to follow the Lord without John, and now he had to take a way, again alone, that he did not want to travel, especially not without John.

.He appealed to the One who could read His heart.^ With one glance he could see the heart of the matter, both sides of the picture.

^ This is surprising, for one could expect Andrew, who was the one who took Peter to Jesus, or John, the most beloved of the Twelve, to be first on the lists.

."Lord," he said, "Thou knowest all things; Thou knowest that I love Thee."^ Yes, Lord, thou knowest that I love thee.

^ Throwing himself down, he protested, and swore, and entreated, and begged, Lord, thou knowest all things, thou knowest that I love thee.

^ A man who came from a background of utter poverty could not have walked so boldly and self-confidently up to the Lord when He called and have said, "'Behold, we have left all and followed thee.'"

[Jn. 21:15,17] Then he received his commission. .Christ bade him feed the sheep and the lambs.^ When Peter fed the lambs and sheep of Christs flock, he proved by his vigilant care and ceaseless concern that his philein, a love of sentiment, was also an agapan, a love of reverence.

^ For this very reason Peter was made the foundation of the Church, that he could feed the lambs and sheep.

^ Quietly Jesus said to him, Feed my lambs.

.Christ gave to Peter the strongest proof of confidence in his restoration.^ The words of Christ to Simon Peter at the promise and investiture of the primacy are proof enough for all ages to come.

Though Peter had grievously sinned, he was not forsaken. .The words of Christ were written upon his soul, "I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not."^ But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith may not fail; and do thou, when once thou has turned again, strengthen thy brethen.

^ Christs words to him were forcible and penetrating: I say to thee, thou are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church.

[Lk. 22:32] .When Jesus asked, "Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?"^ When the Lord proceeded toward the north, across the borders of the Holy Land and into Caesarea Philippi, He finally put the critical question to His follower: Who do men say the Son of Man is?But who do you say that I am?

^ When Jesus was asked by the high priest during His trial, "Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed.
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^ [Mark 1 : 7] , "And there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."
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[Mk. 8:27] Sadly the disciples were forced to acknowledge that Israel had failed to recognize their Messiah. “But whom say ye that I am?"[Mk. 8:29] .Peter answered, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God."^ He did not hesitate any longer: Thou are the Christ, the Son of the living God.

^ Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."
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^ Though there are in God's people many bishops and many shepherds, Peter is thus appointed to rule in his own person those whom Christ also rules as the original ruler.

.Peter had expressed the faith of the twelve.^ Is this support and strengthening of the others in their faith not the very same thing that Matthew expressed when he wrote, Thou are Peter, the rock?

.Jesus answered Peter, saying, "Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jona Bar-jona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but My Father which is in heaven."^ This confession to Jesus of Nazareth was so much above all human comprehension that Jesus Himself was surprised: He exclaimed with joy, Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to thee, but my Father in heaven.

^ Unmercifully they pushed him still deeper: Surely thou also art one of them, for even they speech betrays thee.

^ Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."
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.The truth which Peter had confessed is the foundation of the believer's faith.^ Arstopolis accepted Christ immediately (30) through his son and confessed his faith The father died later as a believer.
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^ It was Peter's faith and gift from God that allowed him to live this truth and also be crucified for it.

“The secret of the .Lord is with them that fear Him;" and the fact that Peter discerned the glory of Christ was evidence that he had been "taught of God."^ To him, in blessed Peter, full power has been given by our lord Jesus Christ to tend, rule and govern the universal church.” This belief is based upon the Church’s interpretation of 12 words found in Matthew 16:18.
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^ [Mark 14 : 14] 9- CHRIST THE KING: St. Mark introduced Him as a King of a Spiritual Kingdom, preaching the Kingdom of God.
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^ The Lord had asked him, Peter, about love!

[Ps. 25:14] [Jn. 6:45] Jesus continued: "I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it." Peter was not the rock upon which the church was founded. .The gates of hell did prevail against him when he denied his Lord with cursing and swearing.^ Jesus said: "Upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it."

^ Earnestly, almost unwillingly, did the Lord answer Peter's interrogative plea about John: "'If I wish him to remain until I come, what is it to thee?

^ Peter had a balanced character, a straightforward nature, as a defense against the severe temptations of self-praise- a praise which the Lord wanted him to have.

Peter himself, writing by inspiration, applies this prophecy to Jesus. .He says, "If ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious: unto whom coming, a living stone, rejected indeed of men, but with God elect, precious, ye also, as living stones, are built up a spiritual house."^ He did not want dissension in the Church; he wanted unity and friendship between the Gentiles and this "man of stone" on whom the Lord had founded His Church.

^ Later on, the Empress Eudocia built the Basilica at Vincoli to house and preserve this precious relic.

^ And now, before thousands he proclaimed with a loud voice, "'God has made both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.'"

[1 Pet. .2:3-5] "Other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.^ AUTHORS: Gendron, Mike Mike Gendron explains how living a “good” life, and even recognition for human accomplishments are no substitute for faith in Jesus Christ.
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^ Upon examining the Scriptures, it becomes clear that the Lord Jesus Christ, rather than the Church are the light and guide, and the only source for salvation.
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^ On no other disciple of Christ was this Galilean character so strongly impressed.

[1 Cor. .3:11] "The keys of the kingdom of heaven"[Mt. 16:19] are the words of Christ.^ Blessed Peter is therefore told: "To you I will give the keys of the kingdom of heaven.

^ He held the keys of the kingdom of heaven; to him our Lord entrusted the gold ark of truth.

^ These words spoken by Christ, and recorded by Matthew (16:18) and John (21:15), did not stop with Peter; rather, they began with him.

.All the words of Holy Scripture are His, and are here included.^ When we examine the Holy Scriptures we find no such words or promises made by Christ.
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^ We should remember that all have a sacred calling and special office as Peter did, for all scripture informs us that we are a chosen race, a royal priesthood and a holy nation.

.These words have power to open and to shut heaven.^ These words gave to St Peter and his successors an extraordinary mandate and ecclesiastical power to "bind and loose".

.Christ had accepted Peter's acknowledgment of Him as the Son of God; and now His words pointing to His suffering and death seemed incomprehensible.^ [Mark 14 : 14] 9- CHRIST THE KING: St. Mark introduced Him as a King of a Spiritual Kingdom, preaching the Kingdom of God.
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^ In the book " Moraweg Al Akhyar", accepted by Patriarch Meximos Mazloom, it was written that St. Mark didn't accept Christ except after His resurrection, through St. Peter, who took him in his entourage.
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^ Already on Easter morning Christ had sent the women who were at the tomb specifically to Peter with a message for him.

Peter could not keep silent. .He laid hold upon his Master, as if to draw Him back from His impending doom, exclaiming, "Be it far from Thee, Lord: this shall not be unto Thee."^ He was arrested, "Having a linen cloth cast about his naked body ;and the young men laid hold on him : And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked."
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^ Christs words to him were forcible and penetrating: I say to thee, thou are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church.

^ Earnestly, almost unwillingly, did the Lord answer Peter's interrogative plea about John: "'If I wish him to remain until I come, what is it to thee?

[Matt. 16:22] .Peter did not desire to see the cross in the work of Christ.^ AUTHORS: McCarthy, James Was Christ’s work of redemption really finished at the cross?
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.The impression which his words would make was directly opposed to that which Christ desired to make on the minds of His followers, and the Saviour was moved to utter one of the sternest rebuke that ever fell from His lips: "Get thee behind Me, Satan: thou art an offense unto Me: for thou savorest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men."^ But the result of this protest was frightening to Peter: Jesus turned and said to Peter, Get behind me, satan, thou art a scandal to me; for thou dost not mind the things of God, but those of men.

^ Unmercifully they pushed him still deeper: Surely thou also art one of them, for even they speech betrays thee.

^ Though there are in God's people many bishops and many shepherds, Peter is thus appointed to rule in his own person those whom Christ also rules as the original ruler.

Mt. 16:23 .Satan was trying to discourage Jesus, and turn Him from His mission; But the Savior heeded it not; His thought was for His disciple.^ But the result of this protest was frightening to Peter: Jesus turned and said to Peter, Get behind me, satan, thou art a scandal to me; for thou dost not mind the things of God, but those of men.

.Satan had interposed between Peter and his Master, that the heart of the disciple might not be touched at the vision of Christ's humiliation for him.^ Just as the preaching of Christ was very chose to the heart of the St. Paul, so was the Resurrection of Christ to Peter.

^ Already on Easter morning Christ had sent the women who were at the tomb specifically to Peter with a message for him.

^ He has another title in the Doxlogies, as in the song of Watus,(26) referring to him as 'Christ's disciple'.
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.The words of Christ were spoken, not to Peter, but to the one who was trying to separate him from his Redeemer.^ These words were spoken directly to Peter as Christ was predicting the denial.

^ To him, in blessed Peter, full power has been given by our lord Jesus Christ to tend, rule and govern the universal church.” This belief is based upon the Church’s interpretation of 12 words found in Matthew 16:18.
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^ In the book " Moraweg Al Akhyar", accepted by Patriarch Meximos Mazloom, it was written that St. Mark didn't accept Christ except after His resurrection, through St. Peter, who took him in his entourage.
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"Get thee behind Me, Satan." .No longer interpose between Me and My erring servant.^ When the Lord, "after a long time," returns to his servants, He will no longer need a vicar on earth.

Let Me come face to face with Peter, that I may reveal to him the mystery of My love.
Quoted from Acts of the Apostles by Ellen White.

New Apostolic Church

.The New Apostolic Church, who believes in the re-established Apostle ministry, sees Peter as the first Chief Apostle.^ At all the important turning-points of the apostolic Church Peter was there to bind and to loose, to close and to open.

^ The Acts of the Apostles, especially the first eleven chapters, have also been referred to as the "Acts of Peter".

^ Mark was the apostle and the preacher and the first bishop to their church.
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Latter Day Saint movement

Bronze statue on the LDS Church's Temple Square (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA) depicting Peter, James, and John conferring the Melchizedek priesthood in 1829 on Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery
.The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church or "Mormons") along with other sects of the Latter Day Saint movement believe that Peter was the first leader of the early Christian church, but reject papal succession.^ And then Jesus and Peter stood next to each other for the first time.

^ To him, in blessed Peter, full power has been given by our lord Jesus Christ to tend, rule and govern the universal church.” This belief is based upon the Church’s interpretation of 12 words found in Matthew 16:18.
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^ If Christ made Simon Peter the cornerstone of His Church-and indeed He did-then did He not intend the completed structure to remain a permanent establishment?

.In interpreting Matthew 16:13–19 the LDS Church has stated, "The words then addressed to him, 'Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church,' have been made the foundation of the papal claims.^ Christs words to him were forcible and penetrating: I say to thee, thou are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church.

^ Et super hanc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam.-Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church.

^ Matthew was careful when he recorded these important words; Thou art Peter (the rock) and upon this rock I will build my church.

.But it is the Godhead of Christ, which Peter had just confessed, that is the true keystone of the Church."^ If Christ made Simon Peter the cornerstone of His Church-and indeed He did-then did He not intend the completed structure to remain a permanent establishment?

^ Just as the preaching of Christ was very chose to the heart of the St. Paul, so was the Resurrection of Christ to Peter.

^ St Peter, the fisherman, pictured above with a huge key in his left hand was selected by Jesus Christ as the first appointed leader of the Church.

[70] Latter-day saints believe that Peter, James, and John. came from heaven and conferred the keys of the Melchizedek Priesthood upon Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery in 1829, near Harmony Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania as part of the restoration of priesthood authority.[71]

Afro-American syncretism

In the Cuban Santería and Palo Mayombe, he has been syncretized with Ogún.

Jewish folklore

Saint Peter statue, Israel
According to Jewish folklore (Toledot Yeshu narrative), St. Peter (Shimeon Kepha Ha-Tzadik) had a pristine reputation as a greatly learned and holy man.

Writings

.Traditionally, two canonical epistles (1 & 2 Peter) and several apocryphal works have been attributed to Peter.^ But Peter could have been referring to neither of these; it has never been known that he worked in either of the two.

^ Peter's Two Epistles The Petrine Epistles go beyond the discourses recorded in the Acts of the Apostles.

^ Peter Discourses The teachings of St. Peter have been directly preserved in his eight discourses in the Acts of the Apostles and in his own two Epistles.

New Testament

A 6th-century encaustic icon from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai.
.The New Testament includes two letters (epistles) ascribed to Peter.^ The words of Peter in this part of the New Testament are copious.

^ In the New Testament, Peter is called at first only Simon, then gradually Simon Peter, then Peter alone.

^ Peter's Two Epistles The Petrine Epistles go beyond the discourses recorded in the Acts of the Apostles.

.Both demonstrate a high quality of cultured and urban Greek, at odds with the linguistic skill that would ordinarily be expected of an Aramaic-speaking fisherman, who would have learned Greek as a second or third language.^ The Greek language and culture were common.
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^ Before him, Origen, a scholar of the second and third centuries, reported this in his book the "Faith in God", saying that Mark was among the seventy, who were chosen by God to be His messengers.
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.However, the author of the first epistle explicitly claims to be using a secretary (see below), and this explanation would allow for discrepancies in style without entailing a different source.^ The contents and form of the second Epistle of St. Peter differ considerable from the first.

^ CHAPTER FIFETEEN THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK THE FIRST GOSPEL: It is agreed among scholars that the Book of Mark was the first of the Gospels, however they differed about the time it was written.
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^ They claimed that St. Peter referred to him in his first epistle as his son, because he became a Christian by him.
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.The textual features of these two epistles are such that a majority of scholars doubt that they were written by the same hand.^ CHAPTER FIFETEEN THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK THE FIRST GOSPEL: It is agreed among scholars that the Book of Mark was the first of the Gospels, however they differed about the time it was written.
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.This means at the most that Peter could not have authored both, or at the least that he used a different secretary for each letter.^ This is surprising, for one could expect Andrew, who was the one who took Peter to Jesus, or John, the most beloved of the Twelve, to be first on the lists.

^ He could make a quick resolution; he could act immediately; and he could get results The grace of God put to good use this natural tendency of Peter.

^ All four evangelists generally used this double name, which expressed both the personality and the office of Peter.

.Some scholars argue that theological differences imply different sources, and point to the lack of references to 2 Peter among the early Church Fathers.^ At all the important turning-points of the apostolic Church Peter was there to bind and to loose, to close and to open.

^ Naively they narrate how Peter supposedly established a different province and separate office of the Church for each apostle.

^ A recent book by a Protestant scholar points out unreservedly that the Lord Himself endowed Peter with power and authority.

Of the two epistles, the first epistle is considered the earlier. A number of scholars have argued that the textual discrepancies with what would be expected of the biblical Peter are due to it having been written with the help of a secretary or as an amanuensis. .Indeed in the first epistle the use of a secretary is clearly described: "By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand".[1 Pet.^ By Silvanus, the faithful brother as I account him, I have written to you thus briefly, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God.

^ Mark was with St. Peter when he wrote his first epistle and he wrote, "The church that is Babylon, elected together with you salutes you and so does Marcus my son."
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^ The status of the Christian community among the pagans in the north and northwest of Asis Minor had changed since the first Epistle had been written-"This, beloved is now the second epistle that I am writing to you"-but the change was not for the better.

.5:12] Thus, in regards to at least the first epistle, the claims that Peter would have written Greek poorly seem irrelevant.
^ Mark was with St. Peter when he wrote his first epistle and he wrote, "The church that is Babylon, elected together with you salutes you and so does Marcus my son."
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^ [Mark 10 : 17 - 30] THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK BELONGS TO ST. MARK Some of the Westerners tried to claim that the Gospel written by St. Mark was dictated to him by St. Peter, discrediting him of that honor.
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^ They claimed that St. Mark's Gospel was written by St. Peter.
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.The references to persecution of Christians, which only began under Nero, cause most scholars to date the text to at least 80, which would require Peter to have survived to an age that was, at that time, extremely old, and almost never reached, particularly by common fishermen.^ SOME OF ITS DISTINGUISHED SCHOLARS AND PHILOSOPHERS Athenaghoras was one of the most eminent among them, who defended Christianity and its apologists.
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^ Even when Christ spoke openly for the first time about his passion and death-the most difficult mystery of our Lords life for the Jews and the apostles to understand-Peter protested: And Peter taking him aside, began to chide him, saying, Far be it from thee, O Lord; this will never happen to thee.

^ As it was, Peter considered them only as second-class Christians.

.However, the Roman historian Tacitus and the biographer Suetonius both record that Nero's persecution of Christians began immediately after the fire that burned Rome in 64. Such a date, which is in accord with Christian tradition, especially Eusebius (History book 2, 24.1), would not have Peter at an improbable age upon his death.^ This historian Eusebius considered Peter the founder of Christianity in the community of Antioch.

^ He was buried on the Vatican Hill in Rome about the year 64 AD. Accurate research maintains that Peter's remains are buried beneath St Peter's Basilica.

^ Had St. Paul not intervened, Peter's actions would have caused a disaster: the Christian Jews might have gone back to Judaism and the converting of the Gentiles would have been halted.

On the other hand, many scholars consider this in reference to the persecution of Christians in Asia Minor during the reign of the emperor Domitian (81-96).
.In the salutation of the First Epistle of Peter, the writer refers to the diaspora, which did not occur until 136: Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to God's elect, strangers in the world, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood: Grace and peace be yours in abundance.^ The Acts of the Apostles, especially the first eleven chapters, have also been referred to as the "Acts of Peter".

^ The first begins with greetings "to the sojourners of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia."

^ True Christianity is not a religion but a relationship with God through Jesus Christ.
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.The Second Epistle of Peter, on the other hand, appears to have been copied, in part, from the Epistle of Jude, and some modern scholars date its composition as late as c. 150. Some scholars argue the opposite, that the Epistle of Jude copied 2 Peter, while others contend an early date for Jude and thus observe that an early date is not incompatible with the text.^ And how did St. Peter end this second Epistle?

^ The French Encyclopedia, with its Catholic publishers, stated, "The claim that Mark was a disciple of Peter was nothing other than stupidity based on some failed writers."
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^ The contents and form of the second Epistle of St. Peter differ considerable from the first.

.Many scholars have noted the similarities between the apocryphal second pseudo-Epistle of Clement (2nd century) and 2 Peter.^ And how did St. Peter end this second Epistle?

^ The contents and form of the second Epistle of St. Peter differ considerable from the first.

^ And shortly thereafter, in the closing of his second Epistle, St. Peter wrote "our most dear brother Paul."

.Second Peter may be earlier than 150, there are a few possible references to it that date back to the first century or early second century, e.g., 1 Clement written in c. AD 96, and the later church historian Eusebius claimed that Origen had made reference to the epistle before 250. Even in early times there was controversy over its authorship, and 2 Peter was often not included in the Biblical Canon; it was only in the 4th century that it gained a firm foothold in the New Testament, in a series of synods.^ In the New Testament, Peter is called at first only Simon, then gradually Simon Peter, then Peter alone.

^ At the beginning of the Twentieth Century there were only 5 churches after his name.
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^ At all the important turning-points of the apostolic Church Peter was there to bind and to loose, to close and to open.

.In the east the Syrian Orthodox Church still did not admit it into the canon until the 6th century.^ Church of Resurrection and is controlled by the Syrian Orthodox.
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^ The first Petrine Epislte has always been recognized as genuine and authentic; the second, however, did not achieve universal recognition until after the fourth century.

^ DID HE PREACH WITH HIM IN ROME? It was proven in the history of the church and recorded in both the Orthodox and the Catholic books, even the Holy Bible, that Mark the apostle did preach in Rome.
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.Traditionally, the Gospel of Mark was said to have been written by a person named John Mark, and that this person was an assistant to Peter, hence its content was traditionally seen as the closest to Peter's viewpoint.^ It was either said, John who was named Mark, or John who was known as Mark.
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^ They claimed that St. Mark's Gospel was written by St. Peter.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others said that Peter dictated the gospel to Mark.
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According to Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History, Papias recorded this belief from John the Presbyter:
.Mark having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately whatsoever he remembered.^ Mark was with St. Peter when he wrote his first epistle and he wrote, "The church that is Babylon, elected together with you salutes you and so does Marcus my son."
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^ And still he himself did not forget to mention some of the complimentary words of our Lord to him, which Mark-who wrote down Peter's words-recorded for all posterity, as did the other evangelists.

^ Peter sent St. Mark to Egypt in 49 AD,(11) to preach these people with the Gospel that he wrote."
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.It was not, however, in exact order that he related the sayings or deeds of Christ.^ We certainly cannot say that God would never allow Christians to remain in the Catholic Church in order to lead others to personal faith in Christ.
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For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied Him. .But afterwards, as I said, he accompanied Peter, who accommodated his instructions to the necessities [of his hearers], but with no intention of giving a normal or chronological narrative of the Lord's sayings.^ St Peter said that it is noble to announce the praises of Him who called us out of darkness into His wonderful light in His own inimitable manner.

^ Clement of Alexandria reported that Peter accompanied his wife even to martyrdom, exhorting and encouraging, "Remember the Lord!"

^ Our Lord also told him that no mortal man told him to say this.

Wherefore Mark made no mistake in thus writing some things as he remembered them. For of one thing he took especial care, not to omit anything he had heard, and not to put anything fictional into the statements
.—Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3.39.14–16
Also Irenaeus wrote about this tradition:
After their (Peter and Paul's) passing, Mark also, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, transmitted to us in writing the things preached by Peter. (Irenaeus, Against Heresies, III. 1.2.; quoted by Eusebius in Ecclesiastical History, book 5, 7.6)
Based on these quotes, and on the Christian tradition, the information in Mark's Gospel about St. Peter would be based on eyewitness material. .It should be noted, however, that some scholars (for differing reasons) dispute the attribution of the Gospel of Mark to its traditional author.^ [Mark 10 : 17 - 30] THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MARK BELONGS TO ST. MARK Some of the Westerners tried to claim that the Gospel written by St. Mark was dictated to him by St. Peter, discrediting him of that honor.
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^ CHAPTER FIFETEEN THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK THE FIRST GOSPEL: It is agreed among scholars that the Book of Mark was the first of the Gospels, however they differed about the time it was written.
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^ His father's name was Jona, or John-a spelling or writing mistake in the Greek transcription of Matthew's Gospel may be the reason for this difference.

The gospel itself is anonymous, and the above passages are the oldest surviving written testimony to its authorship.

Pseudepigrapha and apocrypha

There are also a number of other apocryphal writings that have been either attributed to or written about St. Peter. They were from antiquity regarded as pseudepigrapha.[citation needed] These include:

Popular culture

Over the years "St. Peter" has evolved into a stock character that is now widely used in jokes, cartoons, comedies, dramas, and plays. .Such caricatures almost all play upon Peter's role as the "keeper of the keys of the kingdom of heaven" in Matthew 16:19, on the basis of which he is often depicted as an elderly, bearded man who sits at the pearly gates that serve as heaven's main entrance, and acting as a sort of hotel-style doorman / bouncer who personally interviews prospective entrants into Heaven, often seated behind a desk, or standing at a lectern.^ Peter is to the kingdom of heaven .

^ A person who served the Lord.
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^ To him, in blessed Peter, full power has been given by our lord Jesus Christ to tend, rule and govern the universal church.” This belief is based upon the Church’s interpretation of 12 words found in Matthew 16:18.
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In traditional Medieval iconography, Peter is a bald man with a long beard. He usually has one or more large keys in his hand or hanging from his belt.
.In the South Park episode "Fantastic Easter Special" he was portrayed as being a rabbit (Peter Rabbit) because Jesus knew no human could speak for all Christianity as Pope without any acts of corruption, and that rabbits were pure, tolerant, and incorruptible.^ It was precisely because St. Paul knew and understood and recognized Peter's position that he demanded from him so impetuously and pitilessly an immediate end to his current course of action.

^ This is surprising, for one could expect Andrew, who was the one who took Peter to Jesus, or John, the most beloved of the Twelve, to be first on the lists.

^ The Gospel tells us that at least once, Jesus called Peter a "satan" because he was not thinking as God but as a human being.

Patronage

Saint Peter is the patron saint of the following categories[citation needed]
Workers
Called for aid in
  • Frenzy
  • Foot problems
Institutions
Locations

Holy relics

.
Pius XII ordered archaeological excavations under St Peter's Basilica in Rome to determine whether the tomb of St Peter was there.
^ In the mother church of all Christendom, St Peter's in Rome, there stands a statue of Simon Peter, magnificent and impressive, depicted in all his apostolic majesty and authority as the first shepherd of the Church, keeping watch down through the ages.

^ He was buried on the Vatican Hill in Rome about the year 64 AD. Accurate research maintains that Peter's remains are buried beneath St Peter's Basilica.

^ DT St. Paul there is Great Waters on St Peter St. Decent beer (though the above is way way better).
  • MSP - St. Paul recommendations - Midwest - Chowhound 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the conclusion of the Holy Year in 1950 he confirmed that the tomb of Peter had been found underneath the basilica[72]
.Pope Vitalian sent filings from Apostle Peter's chains to Oswy, King of Northumbria in the seventh century.^ It was mentioned about Pope Peter VI [106], that, "he went to Alexandria, in 1722 AD, and kissed the head of St. Mark The Apostle.
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^ AUTHORS: Durel, Greg Roman Catholics claim that Peter was the first Pope, and that he had primacy over the other apostles.
  • ATRI Journal Online Article Index 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.johnankerberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[73]
.Peter's remains continue to be subject of investigation, but his tomb is located under Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican, which was announced by Pope Pius XII on Christmas Day in 1950 after years of painstaking research.^ After many years of research and study and digging to find the grave of Peter, the late Pope Pius XII, giving an audience on December 19, 1951, could say that the goal attained had far surpassed the expectations of scholars, and that the historical and theological value and significance of this unique, archaeological discovery could escape the notice and attention of no one.

^ He was buried on the Vatican Hill in Rome about the year 64 AD. Accurate research maintains that Peter's remains are buried beneath St Peter's Basilica.

^ Total number of donors 29.7% Five-year percentage growth of the Saint Peter’s College Endowment.
  • Saint Peter's College Annual Report 2008 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC issuu.com [Source type: Academic]

[72]

Revisionist views

.Many Protestant scholars accept the traditional story of Peter's martyrdom in Rome.^ As the story goes, Peter was imprisoned in Rome for nine months at the Mamertine Prison near the Forum.

^ A recent book by a Protestant scholar points out unreservedly that the Lord Himself endowed Peter with power and authority.

^ The traditions of the Oriental and Occidental Church testify with one voice to these , and to the death of St. Peter in Rome.

.Some Protestants, however, have rejected Peter's martyrdom as a later invention, arguing that evidence of Peter exists only in Biblical accounts.^ He left Rome only after the martyrdom of St. Paul in about 67 AD, to return to Alexandria where he received his martyrdom, one year later.
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^ In either case, however, Bethsaida is well-known in world history today only because Peter was from there.

.It has also been claimed that there was a serious division between Peter's Jewish Christian party and Paul's Hellenizing party, seen in e.g.^ And St Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons (177), testified in detail that Peter and Paul preached in Rome and established Christianity there.

^ This passage in Galatians shows that Paul won a complete victory in this mater of the difference between himself and Peter.

^ Others attempt to maintain that the conflict between Peter and Simon the magician, in Samaria and later in Rome, is merely a camouflage of the conflict between Peter and Paul.

the Incident at Antioch, which later Christian accounts have downplayed.[74]
Another revisionist view was developed by supporters of the Christ myth theory, which holds that the figure of Peter is largely a development from some mythological doorkeeper figures. .If there was a historical Peter then all that is known about him is the brief mentions in Galatians.^ At all the important turning-points of the apostolic Church Peter was there to bind and to loose, to close and to open.

^ The Lord had asked him, Peter, about love!

^ The history books didn't mention much about his service during that time, but God blessed him by performing many miracles that attracted many to the faith.
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[75][76]

See also


Notes

  1. ^ Bible Lexicon
  2. ^  "Fathers of the Church". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Fathers_of_the_Church. .
  3. ^ Thomas Patrick Halton, On Illustrious Men, v. 100, CUA Press, 1999, pp 5 - 7 ISBN 0813201004.
  4. ^ The Early Church Fathers Chapter 1
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Peter, St. " F. L., Cross, The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, 2005
  6. ^ His father's name is given as 'Jonah',[Jn. 1:42] [Matt. 16:17] although some manuscripts of John give his father's name as John.
  7. ^ Harrington, Daniel J. "Peter the Rock." America, August 18–25, 2008. Accessed Oct. 9, 2009: p. 30.
  8. ^ Rienecker, Fritz; Rogers, Cleon (1976), Linguistic key to the Greek New Testament, Grand Rapids MI: Regency Reference Library (Zondervan Publishing House), p. 49, ISBN 0-310-32050-X 
  9. ^ "Saint Peter the Apostle." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 25 Nov. 2009 [1].
  10. ^ Matt. 10:2-4, Mk. 3:16-19, Lk. 6:14-16
  11. ^ a b c Sermon by Leo the Great (440-461)
  12. ^ Archbishop Stylianos of Australia
  13. ^ Patriarch H.H.Ignatius Zakka I Iwas
  14. ^ Identity of the Syriac Orthodox Church
  15. ^ http://cbi.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/5/1/73.pdf
  16. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250102.htm [Church History Book II, Chapter I, quoting Clement of Alexandria's Sixth book of Hypotyposes]
  17. ^ Matt. 26:51, Mk. 14:47, Lk. 22:50
  18. ^ a b May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.
  19. ^ 1Cor 15
  20. ^ 1Cor 15:3-7
  21. ^ See Matthew 28:8-10, John 20:16 and Luke 24:13-16.
  22. ^ Brodie, T. L. (1997). The Gospel according to John a literary and theological commentary. New York: Oxford University Press. pg. 574
  23. ^ John Vidmar, The Catholic Church through the ages: a history. pp. 39-40
  24. ^ a b c d Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  25. ^ Louise Ropes Loomis, The Book of Popes (Liber Pontificalis). Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-86-8 (Reprint of the 1916 edition).
  26. ^ This is provided in Downey, A History of Antioch, pp. 583–586. This evidence is accepted by M. Lapidge, among others, see Bischoff and Lapidge, Biblical Commentaries from the Canterbury School (Cambridge, 1994) p. 16. Lastly, see Finegan, The Archaeology of the New Testament, pp. 63–71.
  27. ^ "Jesus said this to indicate the kind of death by which Peter would glorify God" ([Jn. 21:19]).
  28. ^ Walsh, The Bones of St. Peter: A 1st Full Account of the Search for the Apostle's Body
  29. ^ Finegan, The Archeology of the New Testament, pp. 368–370.
  30. ^ http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/Necropolis/JW/TheBonesofStPeter-1.htm The Bones of St. Peter
  31. ^ The evidence that Peter was "bishop" of Rome is corroborated by both positive and "negative" evidence. Positively, Clement's letter to the Corinthians situates Peter in Rome by mentioning his death there. Ignatius of Antioch writes to the Romans and says, "I do not command you as Peter and Paul did." The lists of Roman bishops given by Irenaeus and Tertullian support this, as does the honor given Peter's supposed burial place on Vatican Hill. Eamon Duffy's text for a BBC production, Saints and Sinners, soft-pedals the position of Peter as bishop. Duffy claims that there were five Christian neighborhoods in Rome, and that Peter could not possibly have been supervisor over all of them. One argument against this is the fact that the historical letters (from Paul, Ignatius, and Clement) are all addressed to "the Romans," and not one particular community in Rome. Historians cite negative evidence as well, namely that there is no rival tradition. No other city claims Peter as its bishop except Antioch, and even it conceded that Peter had moved on to Rome." John Vidmar
  32. ^ Brown, Raymond E. and Meier, John P. (1983). Antioch and Rome: New Testament Cradles of Christianity. Paulist Press. p. 98. "As for Peter, we have no knowledge at all of when he came to Rome and what he did there before he was martyred. Certainly he was not the original missionary who brought Christianity to Rome (and therefore not the founder of the church of Rome in that sense). There is no serious proof that he was the bishop (or local ecclesiastical officer) of the Roman church--a claim not made till the third century. Most likely he did not spend any major time at Rome before 58 when Paul wrote to the Romans, and so it may have been only in the 60s and relatively shortly before his martyrdom that Peter came to the capital." 
  33. ^ Cullmann, Oscar (1962). Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr, 2nd ed.. Westminster Press. p. 234. ""In the New Testament [Jerusalem] is the only church of which we hear that Peter stood at its head. Of other episcopates of Peter we know nothing certain. Concerning Antioch, indeed ... there is a tradition, first appearing in the course of the second century, according to which Peter was its bishop. The assertion that he was Bishop of Rome we first find at a much later time. From the second half of the second century we do possess texts that mention the apostolic foundation of Rome, and at this time, which is indeed rather late, this foundation is traced back to Peter and Paul, an assertion that cannot be supported historically. Even here, however, nothing is said as yet of an episcopal office of Peter."" 
  34. ^ Chadwick, Henry (1993). The Early Church, rev. ed.. Penguin Books. p. 18. "No doubt Peter's presence in Rome in the sixties must indicate a concern for Gentile Christianity, but we have no information whatever about his activity or the length of his stay there. That he was in Rome for twenty-five years is third-century legend." 
  35. ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of the Popes (Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 6. "Ignatius assumed that Peter and Paul wielded special authority over the Roman church, while Irenaeus claimed that they jointly founded it and inaugurated its succession of bishops. Nothing, however, is known of their constitutional roles, least of all Peter's as presumed leader of the community."
  36. ^ Building Unity, Ecumenical Documents IV (Paulist Press, 1989), p. 130. "There is increasing agreement that Peter went to Rome and was martyred there, but we have no trustworthy evidence that Peter ever served as the supervisor or bishop of the local church in Rome."
  37. ^ "most scholars, both Roman Catholic and Protestant,concur that Peter died in Rome" Keener, Craig S., The Gospel of Matthew: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary, p. 425, n. 74, 2009 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company
  38. ^ "[M]any scholars ... accept Rome as the location of the martyrdom and the reign of Nero as the time." Daniel William O’Connor, "Saint Peter the Apostle." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 25 Nov. 2009 [2].
  39. ^ a b c Pieter W. van der Horst, review of Otto Zwierlein, Petrus in Rom: die literarischen Zeugnisse. Mit einer kritischen Edition der Martyrien des Petrus und Paulus auf neuer handschriftlicher Grundlage, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2009, in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2010.03.25.
  40. ^ "Irenaeus Against Heresies 3.3.2". http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.ix.iv.iv.html. "...[the] Church founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul; as also [by pointing out] the faith preached to men, which comes down to our time by means of the successions of the bishops. ...The blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate." 
  41. ^ In Against Heresies (Book III, Chapter III, paragraphs 2–3), Irenaeus wrote:
    Since, however, it would be too long to enumerate in such a volume as this the succession of all the churches, we shall confound all those who, in whatever manner, whether through self-satisfaction or vainglory, or through blindness and wicked opinion, assemble other than where it is proper, by pointing out here the successions of the bishops of the greatest and most ancient church known to all, founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul, that church which has the tradition and the faith which comes down to us after having been announced to men by the apostles. With that church, because of its superior origin, all the churches must agree, that is, all the faithful in the whole world, and it is in her that the faithful everywhere have maintained the apostolic tradition.
    The blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate. Of this Linus, Paul makes mention in the Epistles to Timothy. To him succeeded Anacletus; and after him, in the third place from the apostles, Clement was allotted the bishopric. This man, as he had seen the blessed apostles, and had been conversant with them, might be said to have the preaching of the apostles still echoing [in his ears], and their traditions before his eyes. Nor was he alone [in this], for there were many still remaining who had received instructions from the apostles. In the time of this Clement, no small dissension having occurred among the brethren at Corinth, the Church in Rome dispatched a most powerful letter to the Corinthians, exhorting them to peace, renewing their faith, and declaring the tradition which it had lately received from the apostles…
  42. ^ (Letter to Pope Soter A.D. 170, in Eusebius, History of the Church 2:25:8)
  43. ^ "Rome", Catholic Encyclopedia
  44. ^ Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Rome (early Christian)
  45. ^ "Gospel of Thomas 13". http://www.misericordia.edu/users/davies/thomas/Trans.htm. 
  46. ^ "Gospel of Thomas 114". http://www.misericordia.edu/users/davies/thomas/Trans.htm. 
  47. ^ "Apocalypse of Peter". http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/apocalypsepeter-mrjames.html. 
  48. ^ "Gospel of Mary 9:4". http://www.gnosis.org/library/marygosp.htm. 
  49. ^ "Gospel of Mary 9:6". http://www.gnosis.org/library/marygosp.htm. 
  50. ^ Gospel of Peter 14:3
  51. ^ Doctrine & Covenants 27:12-13
  52. ^ Doctrine & Covenants 128:20-21
  53. ^ a b  "The Pope". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/The_Pope. 
  54. ^ Wilken, p. 281, quote: "Some (Christian communities) had been founded by Peter, the disciple Jesus designated as the founder of his church. ... Once the position was institutionalized, historians looked back and recognized Peter as the first pope of the Christian church in Rome"
  55. ^ "Saint Peter the Apostle." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 25 Nov. 2009.
  56. ^ a b http://www.catholic.com/library/Peter_the_Rock.asp
  57. ^ http://www.peshitta.org/pdf/Mattich16.pdf
  58. ^ Veselin Kesich (1992). "Peter's Primacy in the New Testament and the Early Tradition" in The Primacy of Peter. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. pp. 61–66. 
  59. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Articles 424 and 552
  60. ^ Mathison, Keith A., The Shape of Sola Scriptura, pp.184-185
  61. ^ WELS Topical Q&A
  62. ^ Rykle Borger, "Remarks of an Outsider about Bauer's Worterbuch, BAGD, BDAG, and Their Textual Basis," Biblical Greek Language and Lexicography: Essays in Honor of Frederick W. Danker, Bernard A. Tayler (et al. eds.) pp. 32-47.
  63. ^ WELS Topical Q&A
  64. ^ a b c "Religion: Peter & the Rock." Time," Dec. 07, 1953. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,890753-1,00.html Accessed Oct. 08, 2009
  65. ^ D. A. Carson in The Expositor's Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984).
  66. ^ Jesus, Peter & the Keys: A Scriptural Handbook on the Papacy
  67. ^ John Meyendorff, et al. (1963), The Primacy of Peter in the Orthodox Church (St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, Crestwood NY, ISBN 978-0-88141-125-6)
  68. ^ Holy Apostles Convent (1999) The Orthodox New Testament, Vol. I: The Holy Gospels (Dormition Skete, Buena Vista CO, ISBN 0-944359-13-2) p. 105
  69. ^ Primacy of St. Peter http://www.syrianchurch.org/Articles/PrimacyofStPeter.htm
  70. ^ LDS Bible Dictionary—Peter
  71. ^ Doctrine & Covenants 27: 12–13
  72. ^ a b Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p. 76.
  73. ^ Wall, J. Charles. (1912), Porches and Fonts. Pub. London: Wells Gardner and Darton. P. 295.
  74. ^ White, L. Michael (2004). From Jesus to Christianity. HarperSanFrancisco. pp. 170. ISBN 0–06–052655–6.
  75. ^ http://www.egodeath.com/arthurdrewslegendstpeter.htm
  76. ^ George Albert Wells, "St. Peter as Bishop of Rome"

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
New creation
Pope
53–64
Succeeded by
Linus
Preceded by
New creation
Bishop of Antioch
37–53
Succeeded by
Evodius

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents
.Saint Peter is a city on the Channel Island of Jersey.^ Santo Maertz ’08 at bat for Saint Peter’s in 2008 (above) and on the mound for the Johnson City Cardinals (left).
  • Saint Peter's Magazine Fall 2008 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ Proximity to New eral volleyball players studentYork City factored promi- Saint Peter’s welcomed freshmen Director of from California and a athletes to campus.
  • Saint Peter's Magazine Fall 2008 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ ST. MARK'S PREACHING: After St. Mark served with St. Peter, St. Paul and Saint Barnabas, he went to preach the faith in his native country, the five western cities.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Do

The aMaizin Maze [1] is a Jersey family attraction. .This attraction is open seven days a week from April to September.^ This day was chosen for the celebration because that of his martyrdom, April 6, often falls in Holy Week, or within the octave of Easter.
  • Saint Peter Martyr of Verona 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.domcentral.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is an all-inclusive pricing policy which means that your entrance fee is the only price to pay.^ Show only for sale All Open Houses Today's Open Houses Open Houses this weekend New listings in past 7 days Price reduced NEW! In the past year .
  • Saint Peter Real Estate & Saint Peter Homes For Sale — Trulia.com 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.trulia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This fee includes the aMaizin Adventure Park, aMaizin Maze (opens beginning of July) and the aMaizin Barnyard. .Tractor rides, go-karts, water pistol range, crazy golf course, animal activities and much more are all included in the price.^ If the Lord had thought that the end of the world were immediately at hand, then why did He go to the trouble of establishing His Church, and all this with so much solemnity?

^ Close to city/state government, major sports activities, museums, colleges, malls, hospitals, restaurants, parks, and golf courses.
  • Hotels Near Cathedral of St. Peter the Apostle - Jackson Mississippi hotels 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC hotel.uscity.net [Source type: General]

^ How much more profound the images are of the last elder of the East and the last pope of the West, than is all the scholasticism of his French book.
  • Problem of East and West in Religious Consciousness of Vl Solov'ev 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC berdyaev.com [Source type: Original source]

.You should allow at least half a day to use all the facilities and a towel or change of clothes are recommended for the water activities.^ If you're going to be all the way over at the old Sherlock's Home, maybe you should drop by this place on your way back: .
  • MSP - St. Paul recommendations - Midwest - Chowhound 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you're at all into beer, you should know that the Twin Cities now has one of the better local beer scenes in the midwest.
  • MSP - St. Paul recommendations - Midwest - Chowhound 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, he compared it to an American presidential election and said people "should allow the pope 100 days to learn."

This article is an outline and needs more content. .It has a template, but there is not enough information present.^ Without the information contained in the Supplementary Information Form, there may not be enough evidence to place you in certain categories.

Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Saint Peter
by Henry Lawson
Information about this edition
.Now, I think there is a likeness
'Twixt St Peter's life and mine
For he did a lot of trampin'
Long ago in Palestine.
^ And how did St. Peter end this second Epistle?

^ From the already mentioned statements regarding the origin of the Gospel of St. Mark we may conclude that Peter laboured for a long period in Rome.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marylou Yam, Ph.D. “I think that many educational goals related to critical thinking and life-long learning are the same for Saint Peter’s students today as they were in the past,” explained Dr. Yam.
  • Saint Peter's Magazine Fall 2008 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]


.He was "union" when the workers
First began to organise,
And I'm glad that old St Peter
Keeps the gate of Paradise.
^ Mark was with St. Peter when he wrote his first epistle and he wrote, "The church that is Babylon, elected together with you salutes you and so does Marcus my son."
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mother church of all Christendom, St Peter's in Rome, there stands a statue of Simon Peter, magnificent and impressive, depicted in all his apostolic majesty and authority as the first shepherd of the Church, keeping watch down through the ages.

^ The contents and form of the second Epistle of St. Peter differ considerable from the first.


.
When the ancient agitator
And his brothers carried swags,
I've no doubt he very often
Tramped with empty tucker-bags;
And I'm glad he's Heaven's picket,
For I hate explainin' things,
And he'll think a union ticket
Just as good as Whitely King's.
^ Just don't think that we've completely forgotten about Ghost, though, Diggle.
  • Evil Inc. by Brad Guigar - Daily Super-Villain Webcomic and Comics Blog 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC evil-comic.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore you should understand be in no doubt whatsoever that we have the capacity to make you very famous indeed for the way you selfishly park your car.
  • St Peters Highfields Neighbourhood Monitoring - Leicester (Formerly a Leicester Neighbourhood Management Board) 6 February 2010 13:30 UTC stpetersnm.com [Source type: General]

^ I am sitting here thinking of all the things this new discovery might reveal that could sow doubt in the minds of these zealots.


.
He denied the Saviour's union,
Which was weak of him, no doubt;
But perhaps his feet was blistered
And his boots had given out.
^ Peter followed him out, but with no clear realization that this was taking place through the angel's help.


.And the bitter storm was rushin'
On the bark and on the slabs,
And a cheerful fire was blazin',
And the hut was full of "scabs".

When I reach the great head-station –
Which is somewhere "off the track" –
I won't want to talk with angels
Who have never been out back ;
They might bother me with offers
Of a banjo – meanin' well –
And a pair of wings to fly with,
When I only want a spell.
^ Ezrael the angel of God shall bring them forth out of this fire and establish a judgement of decision.

^ Now students are at my door all the time, talking about what book they’ve read or what conference they want to attend,” said Dr. Trillo.
  • Saint Peter's Magazine Fall 2008 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC issuu.com [Source type: General]

^ People : In offerings and in prayers, let us remember our fathers, who while they were alive, taught us to become children of God in this transitory world.
  • Anaphora of St. Peter the Apostle 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC sor.cua.edu [Source type: Original source]


.
I'll just ask for old St Peter,
And I think, when he appears,
I will only have to tell him
That I carried swag for years.
^ That he might the better fulfill the trust reposed in him by the Holy Father, and worthily carry out his commission, Peter first consulted the archbishop of Florence on the affair.
  • Saint Peter Martyr of Verona 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.domcentral.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After that, a solemn procession in honor of the event was held in Florence every year on Saint Peter's Day; and on this occasion the same standard was carried which the martyr had placed in the.
  • Saint Peter Martyr of Verona 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.domcentral.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days.
  • "Saint Peter" – Fabricated Apostolic commander-in-chief 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]


."I've been on the track," I'll tell him,
"an' I done the best I could,"
And he'll understand me better
Than the other angels would.
^ As a result we get to know Peter better than the others.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I've had two average experiences there, but others have had better ones.
  • MSP - St. Paul recommendations - Midwest - Chowhound 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The heretical uncle, confused by his defeat, and foreseeing what might come to pass, spoke sharply to his brother, and told him that the best thing he could do would he to take the boy out of the hands of Catholics as soon as possible.
  • Saint Peter Martyr of Verona 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.domcentral.org [Source type: Original source]



He won't try to get a chorus
Out of lungs that's worn to rags,
Or to graft the wings on shoulders
That is stiff with humpin' swags.
.But I'll rest about the station
Where the work-bell never rings,
Till they blow the final trumpet
And the Great Judge sees to things.
^ They received him with the ringing of bells.
  • Saint Peter Martyr of Verona 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.domcentral.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Listening and desiring to learn more about the things of God is a great gift.

^ "But I tell you of a truth, there be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the kingdom of God.
  • "Saint Peter" – Fabricated Apostolic commander-in-chief 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]



Source

PD-icon.svg This text was created in Australia and is now in the public domain because its term of copyright has expired. See Australian Copyright Council (ACC), (How Long Copyright Lasts) (Apr 2009).
Australia

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.ST PETER, the chief of the Twelve Apostles.^ ST PETER , the chief of the Twelve Apostles.

^ St Peter the Apostle Church 2005 .

^ More information: St. Peter the Apostle .
  • Our Patron Saint | Saint Peter The Apostle Catholic School - Savannah Georgia 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC school.saintpetertheapostle.com [Source type: General]

.He is known also by other names: (a) " Simon" (Eiµwv) in Mark four times and Luke seven times.^ He is known also by other names: ( a) " Simon" ( Eiµwv ) in Mark four times and Luke seven times.

^ Peter" is found in Matthew nineteen times, Mark eighteen times, Luke sixteen times, Acts fifty-one times, John fifteen times, Galatians twice, i Peter once.

^ It was either said, John who was named Mark, or John who was known as Mark.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This use is only found in narrative before the story of the mission of the apostles: it is also found in speeches; Matthew once, Mark once and Luke twice.^ This use is only found in narrative before the story of the mission of the apostles: it is also found in speeches; Matthew once, Mark once and Luke twice.

^ Matthew also uses the Marcan narrative, but adds to it a new section from some other source which suggests that the name of Peter was conferred on this occasion - not, as Mark says, at the first mission of the Twelve - and confers on him the keys of the kingdom of heaven and the right of binding and loosing.

^ Peter" is found in Matthew nineteen times, Mark eighteen times, Luke sixteen times, Acts fifty-one times, John fifteen times, Galatians twice, i Peter once.

.(b) " Simon who is called Peter" is found in Matthew twice and Acts four times.^ Peter was imprisoned three or four times.
  • Saint Peter and Saint Paul - Loyola Press 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.loyolapress.com [Source type: General]

^ Who was this fisherman, Simon Peter?

^ Simon who is called Peter" is found in Matthew twice and Acts four times.

.(c) " Simon Peter" is found in Matthew once, Luke once, John seventeen times (and perhaps also in 2 Peter i.^ Simon who is called Peter" is found in Matthew twice and Acts four times.

^ Simon Peter" is found in Matthew once, Luke once, John seventeen times (and perhaps also in 2 Peter i .

^ The passages of Holy Scripture with which Roman Catholic theologians usually support the Pope’s primacy as heir to the Apostle Peter are the following: Matthew 16:13-19, Luke 22:32, and John 21:15-17.
  • St. Peter the Rock 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC aggreen.net [Source type: Original source]

1, where the text varies between Simon and Symeon. .(d) " Peter" is found in Matthew nineteen times, Mark eighteen times, Luke sixteen times, Acts fifty-one times, John fifteen times, Galatians twice, i Peter once.^ Peter" is found in Matthew nineteen times, Mark eighteen times, Luke sixteen times, Acts fifty-one times, John fifteen times, Galatians twice, i Peter once.

^ John once, Galatians four times, i Corinthians four times.

^ Simon who is called Peter" is found in Matthew twice and Acts four times.

(e) " Cephas" is found. in .John once, Galatians four times, i Corinthians four times.^ John once, Galatians four times, i Corinthians four times.

^ Peter" is found in Matthew nineteen times, Mark eighteen times, Luke sixteen times, Acts fifty-one times, John fifteen times, Galatians twice, i Peter once.

^ Simon Peter" is found in Matthew once, Luke once, John seventeen times (and perhaps also in 2 Peter i .

.(f) Symeon (raviawv) is found in Acts once.^ Symeon ( raviawv ) is found in Acts once.

^ Peter" is found in Matthew nineteen times, Mark eighteen times, Luke sixteen times, Acts fifty-one times, John fifteen times, Galatians twice, i Peter once.

.It appears that the apostle had two names, each existing in a double form - Greek and Hebrew, Symeon (iivr,w) which was Graecized according to the sound into Simon, and Cephas (s;') which was Graecized according to the meaning into Peter (Mrpos).^ It appears that the apostle had two names, each existing in a double form - Greek and Hebrew, Symeon (iivr,w) which was Graecized according to the sound into Simon, and Cephas (s;') which was Graecized according to the meaning into Peter (Mrpos).

^ Why does simon/ peter the apostle have two names?
  • Questions about Peter the Apostle - Ask.com 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Aramaic name Cephas by Jesus or the early church; the name means "rock" and is translated into Greek as Peter.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Symeon and Simon are both well-known names in Aramaic and Greek respectively, but Cephas and Peter are previously unknown.^ The name Peter comes from the Greek word for rock , and the name Cephas comes from the Aramaic word for rock .

^ Symeon and Simon are both well-known names in Aramaic and Greek respectively, but Cephas and Peter are previously unknown.

^ The name Peter comes from the Aramaic term for "rock" and Simon comes from the Greek for "hearing."
  • Saint Peter the Apostle: Who Was St. Peter the Apostle? What is Peter's Connection to the Roman Catholic Papacy? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: General]

.Symeon was no doubt his original Aramaic name, and the earliest gospel, Mark, which has some claim specially to reproduce Petrine tradition, is careful to employ Simon until after the name Peter had been given, and not then to use it again.^ They claimed that St. Mark's Gospel was written by St. Peter.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symeon was no doubt his original Aramaic name, and the earliest gospel, Mark , which has some claim specially to reproduce Petrine tradition, is careful to employ Simon until after the name Peter had been given, and not then to use it again.

^ It is connected with the giving of the name Peter, which in Mark was not given until much later.

.The Gospels agree in regarding Cephas or Peter as an additional name, which was given by Christ.^ The Gospels agree in regarding Cephas or Peter as an additional name, which was given by Christ .

^ Peter 2:5-8) Cephas was the new name Peter received from Jesus when he converted to Christ Jesus.

^ T HE Roman Catholic Church claims that Christ gave to Peter supremacy over the other apostles; that the authority given to Peter passed to his successors; that the sole inheritors of Peter are the Bishops of Rome.

.But they differ as to the occasion.^ But they differ as to the occasion.

.According to Mark iii.^ According to Mark iii.

13 sqq. it was given on the occasion of the mission of the Twelve. According to John i. .42 it was given ht his first call.^ It is a new name given to him by Jesus as soon as Jesus first approaches this future apostle, Simon in John 1:42: "Then he brought him to Jesus.
  • Upon this Rock... 22 September 2009 13:40 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had a younger brother called Andrew, who first brought him to Jesus (John 1:40-42).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

According to Matt. xvi. 13 sqq. it was given after the recognition of .Jesus as Messiah at Caesarea Philippi.^ Then we have Peter's dramatic confession of faith, which occurred when Jesus and his followers had reached the villages of Caesarea Philippi.
  • St. Peter the Apostle 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.anglican.bm [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus was then dwelling with His Apostles in the vicinity of Caesarea Philippi, engaged on His work of salvation.
  • Saint Peter 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.sabbatarian.com [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Matthew 16:13-16 "When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, He asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?
  • Peter In The Bible - Apostle Peter the Man 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.This last account is the only one which describes any circumstances (for a further discussion see § 3 (2) below).^ That is to say, it tells us only where Peter was not (with one notable exception) and where he was not, from the New Testament account alone, was most certainly Rome.
  • PETER IN ROME 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.giveshare.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Submit a Review Clubplanet members: please log in Guests: Please create an account or enter your review below (only registered users can edit their reviews) .
  • Bnes Grill & Pub Bar in Saint Peter, IL - Clubplanet.com 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.clubplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It isnt driven by business hours, one-day-only sales, or frantic shoppers competing for the last parking space.
  • St. Peter's Episcopal Church Seattle 6 February 2010 13:30 UTC stpeterseattle.org [Source type: General]

.According to the Gospels Peter was the son of John ('Iwavns, John i.^ Peter says something similar in the Gospel of John: .
  • What did the Apostle Peter really believe about Jesus? 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ THE HOLY GOSPEL: John 21:15-19 (Jesus, after rising from the dead, said to Peter: "When you were young, you went where you would, but when you are old, you will go where you are taken."
  • St. Peter and St. Paul 6 February 2010 13:30 UTC satucket.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the Synoptic Gospels ( Gospel According to Matthew 8:14) and Paul (First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians 9:5), there is indirect evidence that Peter was the son of John and was married.
  • Saint Peter the Apostle (Christian Apostle) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

42, xxi. 15 seq.) or Jonas ('Iwvas, Matt. xxvi. 17). According to Mark i. .29 he was a fisherman of Capernaum, but John i.^ He was a fisherman from Bethsaida (John 1:43), but had a home in Capernaum (Mark 1:29ff.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.44 describes him and his brother Andrew as of Bethsaida.^ Brother of Saint Andrew the Apostle who led him to Christ.
  • Our Patron Saint | Saint Peter The Apostle Catholic School - Savannah Georgia 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC school.saintpetertheapostle.com [Source type: General]

^ He had a brother Andrew, who introduced him to Jesus and was himself a disciple of John the Baptist.
  • 1way2God.net - Apostle Peter 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.1way2god.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peter was a native of Bethsaida, near Lake Tiberias, the son of John, and worked, like his brother St. Andrew, as a fisherman on Lake Genesareth.
  • St. Peter, First Pope - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: General]

From Mark i. 30 he is seen to have been married, and i Cor. ix. .5 suggests (but another interpretation is possible) that his wife went with him on his missionary journeys.^ We are told of Peter that his wife accompanied him on his missionary journeys.
  • Saint Peter 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC latter-rain.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter needed missionary activity equal to Paul’s, journeys that would place him incontrovertibly in Rome.
  • "Saint Peter" – Fabricated Apostolic commander-in-chief 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was in all probability accompanied by his wife on his missionary journeys (1 Cor.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

In i Pet. v_ .13 Mark is referred to as his son, but this is usually interpreted of spiritual kinship.^ It was from this city that Apostle Peter sent an epistle to the Christians of Asia Minor, in which he spoke of St. Mark with love and called him his spiritual son.

^ On the same occasion the sons of Zebedee were called ( Matthew 4:18-22 ; Mark 1:16-20 ; Luke 5:1-11 ; it is here assumed that Luke refers to the same occasion as the other Evangelists ).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the same occasion the sons of Zebedee were called (Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; Luke 5:1-11; it is here assumed that Luke refers to the same occasion as the other Evangelists).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to legend (Acta Nerei et Achillei, and Acta Philippi) he had a daughter Petronilla, but there is no reason for thinking that this is historical.^ The reactionary elements in the Vatican do not particularly like the US. JPII was against the war in Iraq, and there's every reason to think Ratzinger feels the same way.

^ There is no compelling reason to interpret these words apart from the literal sense - though many Protestants will do just this.

^ Was there any possible reason why the Church no longer needed protection from the raging furies of Hell after the death of the first pontiff?

.The Gospel narratives are unanimous in describing Peter as one of the first disciples of Christ, and from the time of his call he seems to have been present at most of the chief incidents in the narrative.^ Saint Peter , the most important of Jesus Christ's disciples and the ...
  • Article: Saint Peter: A Biography. - The Historian | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Peter was first among the Apostles , as the first called of the disciples of Christ Jesus, Our Lord and Savior .
  • St. Peter - Wikiality, the Truthiness Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 13:30 UTC wikiality.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Gospel narratives are unanimous in describing Peter as one of the first disciples of Christ , and from the time of his call he seems to have been present at most of the chief incidents in the narrative.

.He formed together with the sons of Zebedee to some extent an inner circle within the Twelve, and this favoured group Ron rrecis specially mentioned as present on three occasions - the raising of the daughter of Jairus (Mark v.^ He is recorded more than any other disciple, and was at Jesus side at the Transfiguration, the raising of Jairus daughter, and the Agony of the Garden of Gethsemane.
  • St. Peter, First Pope - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: General]

^ The form of the present church is due mainly to three men—Michelangelo, Carlo Maderna, and Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini.

^ Peter was one of the three Apostles (with James and John) who were with Christ on certain special occasions the raising of the daughter of Jairus from the dead (Mark 5:37; Luke 8:51); the Transfiguration of Christ (Matthew 17:1; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:28), the Agony in the Garden of Gethsemani (Matthew 26:37; Mark 14:33).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

22-43; Matt. ix. .18-36; Luke viii.^ (Matthew xvi, 13-18; Mark viii, 27-29; Luke ix, 18-20.
  • St. Peter the Apostle 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.anglican.bm [Source type: Original source]

41-56), the transfiguration (Mark ix. 2 sqq.; Matt. xvii. i sqq.; Luke ix. 28 sqq.) and the scene in the .Garden at Gethsemane (Mark xiv.^ Garden at Gethsemane (Mark xiv.

^ These three also were present when Jesus raised the daughter of Jairus from the dead (Mark 5:37) and they were to watch with Jesus as he prayed in the Garden of Gethsemane (Mark 14:32-34).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was present in Gethsemane, and tried to offer some resistance to the arrest of Jesus (Mark xiv.

32 sqq.; Matt. xxvi. 36 sqq.). .He is also specially mentioned in connexion with his call (Mark 1.16-20; Matt.^ He is also specially mentioned in connexion with his call (Mark 1.16-20; Matt.

^ He and Andrew, both fishermen, were called by Jesus to be disciples at the same time as James and John, the sons of Zebedee (Mark 1.16-20, 29-31; 3.14-16; Luke 5.1-11; John 1.40-44).
  • Saint Peter Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saint Peter 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Mark 1 : 16 - 20] All these were mentioned in the first chapter, where he put it forcefully and effectively.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

iv. 18 sqq.; Luke v. i sqq.; John i. 40 sqq.); the healing of his wife's mother (Mark i. 21 sqq.; Matt. viii. 14 sqq.; Luke iv. 38 sqq.); the mission of the Twelve Apostles (Mark iii. 13 sqq.; Matt. x. i sqq.; Luke vi. 12 sqq.); the storm on the Lake of Galilee (Mark vi. 45 sqq.; Matt. xiv. .22 sqq.; John vi.^ Christ , after He had spoken of the mystery of the reception of His Body and Blood ( John 6:22 sqq.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Christ, after He had spoken of the mystery of the reception of His Body and Blood (John 6:22 sqq.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

16 sqq.); the .Messianic recognition at Caesarea Philippi (Mark vii.^ Messianic recognition at Caesarea Philippi (Mark vii.

27 sqq.; Matt. xvi. 16 sqq.; Luke ix. 18 sqq.); the incident of the payment of .tribute by the coin found in the fish caught by Peter (Matt.^ He sent him to the lake to catch the fish in whose mouth Peter found the stater to pay as tribute ( Matthew 17:24 sqq.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The unfortunate problem with this theory is not so much genetics, but that Peter lived in Galilee, an area where this type of fish is not found.
  • Saint Peter of Perillos 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.perillos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He sent him to the lake to catch the fish in whose mouth Peter found the stater to pay as tribute (Matthew 17:24 sqq.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

xvii. 25 sqq.) and with various questions leading to parables or their explanations (Mark xiii. 36 sqq.; Luke xii. 41; Matt. xviii. 21 sqq.; Mark x. 28; Matt. xix. 27; Luke xviii. 28). .In the week of the Passion he appears in connexion with the incident of the withered fig-tree (Mark xi.^ [Mark 6 : 48 - 54] Equally He had authority on the plants, and He cursed the fruitless fig tree, and the tree became dry.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

21; Matt. xxi. 20); as introducing the eschatological discourse (Mark xiii. 3 sqq.); and as prominent during the .Last Supper (Luke xxii.^ Last Supper (Luke xxii.

8 sqq.; John xiii. 4 sqq.; Mark xiv. 27 sqq.; Matt. xxvi. 31 sqq.). .He was present in Gethsemane, and tried to offer some resistance to the arrest of Jesus (Mark xiv.^ He was present in Gethsemane, and tried to offer some resistance to the arrest of Jesus (Mark xiv.

^ Garden at Gethsemane (Mark xiv.

^ These three also were present when Jesus raised the daughter of Jairus from the dead (Mark 5:37) and they were to watch with Jesus as he prayed in the Garden of Gethsemane (Mark 14:32-34).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

47; Matt. xxvi. sr; Luke xxii. 50; John xviii. lo). .After the arrest he followed the Lord to the Scene of the trial, but denied him and fled.^ After the arrest he followed the Lord to the Scene of the trial, but denied him and fled.

^ He denied that he ever knew Jesus, ever followed him, ever ate with him, and ever confessed him as the Son of God.
  • Peter: Saint and Sinner 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.gracevalley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was arrested, "Having a linen cloth cast about his naked body ;and the young men laid hold on him : And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked."
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.The message of the young man at the tomb (Mark xvi.^ The message of the young man at the tomb (Mark xvi.

^ The women , who were the first to find Christ's tomb empty, received from the angel a special message for Peter ( Mark 16:7 ).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The women, who were the first to find Christ's tomb empty, received from the angel a special message for Peter (Mark 16:7).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.4) was especially addressed to Peter and it is clear that the genuine conclusion of Mark must have contained an account of an appearance of the risen Lord to him.^ Peter and it is clear that the genuine conclusion of Mark must have contained an account of an appearance of the risen Lord to him.

^ The Risen Lord confirms Peter's precedence .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first appearance of the Risen Christ was before Peter, ahead of the other disciples, and when the Lord came before the disciples at Tiberias, he gave to Peter the famous command to Feed my lambs....
  • St. Peter, First Pope - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: General]

.Out of this mass of incidents the following are central and call for closer critical consideration.^ Out of this mass of incidents the following are central and call for closer critical consideration.

i. .The Call of St Peter.^ St Peter said that it is noble to announce the praises of Him who called us out of darkness into His wonderful light in His own inimitable manner.

^ The Call of St Peter.

^ B- The Attempt to refer his Gospel to Peter: Some called it the "Book of St. Peter and His Follower Disciple".
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- .(Mark i.
16-20; Matt.^ [Mark 1 : 16 - 20] All these were mentioned in the first chapter, where he put it forcefully and effectively.
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^ He is also specially mentioned in connexion with his call (Mark 1.16-20; Matt.

^ Luke 9:20) or Holy One (John 6:69); Jesus surnamed him alone the "rock" upon which he would build his church (Mark 3:16; Matt.
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iv. .18-22; Luke v.^ On the same occasion the sons of Zebedee were called ( Matthew 4:18-22 ; Mark 1:16-20 ; Luke 5:1-11 ; it is here assumed that Luke refers to the same occasion as the other Evangelists ).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the same occasion the sons of Zebedee were called (Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; Luke 5:1-11; it is here assumed that Luke refers to the same occasion as the other Evangelists).
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r - rr; John i. 40-42). .The account in Matthew is practically identical with that in Mark and is no doubt taken from the Marcan source, but Luke and John have different traditions.^ On the other hand, St. Mark wrote his Book to the Gentiles with very limited little reference to the Old Testament compared to Matthew's and Luke's.
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^ Why are there two demon-possessed men in the Gerasene tombs in Matthew, but only one in Mark and Luke?
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^ Luke 9:20) or Holy One (John 6:69); Jesus surnamed him alone the "rock" upon which he would build his church (Mark 3:16; Matt.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.The main points are as follows: according to Mark, at the beginning of the Galilean ministry Jesus saw Peter and Andrew fishing.^ The main points are as follows: according to Mark, at the beginning of the Galilean ministry Jesus saw Peter and Andrew fishing.

^ Peter, a fisherman, was called to be a disciple of Jesus at the beginning of his ministry.
  • Saint Peter the Apostle (Christian Apostle) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It appears that Peter did not stay with the disciples and neither returned home immediately to Galilee (according to the Galilean tradition) nor sought hiding in Jerusalem (according to the Jerusalem tradition), but followed the Lord at a distance and was a witness of at least part of the trial before the Sanhedrim.

.He called them, and they joined him.^ He called them, and they joined him.

^ But they took him up and brought him to the place called Bucolia, where the holy St. Mark underwent martyrdom for Christ.

^ Kiahk, year 1526 A.M. (December 24th., year 189), and they called him Peter VIII and he was known by Petros El-Gawly.
  • Lives of Saints :: Baramhat 28 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.copticchurch.net [Source type: Original source]

.After this he went with them to Capernaum, preached in the synagogue, and healed Peter's wife's mother.^ After this he went with them to Capernaum, preached in the synagogue , and healed Peter's wife's mother.

^ After preaching the Sermon on the Mount and curing the son of the centurion in Capharnaum, Jesus came to Peter's house and cured his wife's mother, who was sick of a fever (Matthew 8:14-15; Mark 1:29-31).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ST. MARK'S PREACHING: After St. Mark served with St. Peter, St. Paul and Saint Barnabas, he went to preach the faith in his native country, the five western cities.
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.Luke, who certainly used Mark, has partly rearranged this narrative and partly rejected it in favour of a different version.^ Luke, who certainly used Mark, has partly rearranged this narrative and partly rejected it in favour of a different version.

^ This narrative is followed, with the exception of the last part, by Luke, who as usual is inclined to omit anything which could be regarded as derogatory to the Apostles.

^ In today’s Gospel, Jesus stops the road show and asks his disciples the identity question: Who am I? It’s important to note the different titles used in describing Jesus in this exchange.
  • Fr. Frank's Reflections from Jail 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.no-nukes.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to him the visit to Capernaum and the healing of the wife's mother preceded the call of Peter, and this was associated with a tradition of a miraculous draught of fishes.^ According to him the visit to Capernaum and the healing of the wife's mother preceded the call of Peter, and this was associated with a tradition of a miraculous draught of fishes.

^ After this he went with them to Capernaum, preached in the synagogue , and healed Peter's wife's mother.

^ According to rich tradition, Peter was crucified on the Vatican Hill upside down because he declared himself unworthy to die in the same manner as the Lord.
  • St. Peter, First Pope - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: General]

.The advantage of the Lucan reconstruction, so far as the first part is concerned, is that it supplies a reason for Peter's ready obedience, which is somewhat difficult to understand if he had never seen Jesus before.^ The first part of the Acts is largely concerned with the work of Peter.

^ The advantage of the Lucan reconstruction, so far as the first part is concerned, is that it supplies a reason for Peter's ready obedience, which is somewhat difficult to understand if he had never seen Jesus before.

^ Peter understood the importance of being washed by Christ, for in the upper room, when Jesus washed the disciples feet, Peter had first resisted: Peter said unto him, You shall never wash my feet.
  • The Apostle Peter and the Heavenly Sanctuary 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC dedication.www3.50megs.com [Source type: Original source]

.But it seems probable that this is the motive which led to the redactorial change in Luke, and that the Marcan account, which is traditionally' connected with Peter, ought to be followed.^ But it seems probable that this is the motive which led to the redactorial change in Luke, and that the Marcan account, which is traditionally' connected with Peter, ought to be followed.

^ The most important and widespread tradition is that Peter came to Rome; and though this tradition has often been bitterly attacked, it seems to be probable that it is at least in outline quite historical.

^ Perhaps Peter belonged to the group following John the Baptist, as did the other apostles, Andrew, John, and probably even Philip.

.With regard to the narrative of the miraculous draught of fishes, the matter is more complicated.^ With regard to the narrative of the miraculous draught of fishes, the matter is more complicated.

^ According to him the visit to Capernaum and the healing of the wife's mother preceded the call of Peter, and this was associated with a tradition of a miraculous draught of fishes.

^ An account of it is preserved in John xxi., but it is here connected - probably wrongly - with a miraculous draught of fishes, just as the account of his call is in Luke.

.Luke obviously preferred this narrative to the Marcan account, but the fact that the same story comes in John xxi.^ The calling of the first four apostles, Peter, Andrew, James, and John, is related by Luke at the same time he relates the events surrounding this miraculous catch of fish.

^ Biblical scholars are coming to a conclusion that the "doubting Thomas" episode is of the same variety as that of the woman "caught in the act" — (John 8:1-11) , i.e.
  • CRUCIFIXION OR CRUCI-FICTION --- By Ahmed Deedat 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.jamaat.net [Source type: Original source]

suggests that there was an early tradition of some such incident of which the actual occasion and circumstances were undetermined. .Luke preferred to connect it with the call of Peter, the writer of John xxi.^ Luke preferred to connect it with the call of Peter, the writer of John xxi.

^ Peter" is found in Matthew nineteen times, Mark eighteen times, Luke sixteen times, Acts fifty-one times, John fifteen times, Galatians twice, i Peter once.

^ But it seems probable that this is the motive which led to the redactorial change in Luke, and that the Marcan account, which is traditionally' connected with Peter, ought to be followed.

with his restitution: probably both are of the nature of redactorial guesses, and the .Marcan account must be regarded as preferable to either.^ Marcan account must be regarded as preferable to either.

^ Luke obviously preferred this narrative to the Marcan account, but the fact that the same story comes in John xxi .

.The Johannine account of the call of Peter is quite different.^ The Johannine account of the call of Peter is quite different.

^ Thus this brief sketch of Saint Peter Martyr does not call for any detailed account of the errors he bad to combat in his controversies with the heretics of Italy.
  • Saint Peter Martyr of Verona 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.domcentral.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Gospels agree that Peter was called to be a disciple of Jesus at the beginning of his ministry, but when and where the event took place is recorded differently in the several Gospels.
  • Saint Peter the Apostle (Christian Apostle) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to this it took place immediately after the baptism of Jesus, in Judaea not in Galilee.^ According to this it took place immediately after the baptism of Jesus, in Judaea not in Galilee.

^ You know what took place throughout Judea; for he begain in Galilee after the baptism preached by John; how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power, and he went about doing good and healing all who were in the power of the devil; for God was with him.

^ The second instance recounted in this part of the Gospel took place on the night after Jesus miraculously fed a crowd of five thousand people.

.It is connected with the giving of the name Peter, which in Mark was not given until much later.^ It is connected with the giving of the name Peter, which in Mark was not given until much later.

^ It is only later that his name becomes Peter.
  • Saint Peter of Perillos 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.perillos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A.D. 80, but that it may nevertheless be Petrine; therefore he lays stress on the fact that whereas the tradition that Peter was in Rome is early and probably correct, the tradition that he was martyred under Nero is not found until much later.

.2. The Confession of Peter at Caesarea Philippi.^ Matthew associates this with the confession of Caesarea Philippi (Matt.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confession of Peter at Caesarea Philippi.

^ Capernaum and Caesarea Philippi (where Jesus told St. Peter, You re the Rock and upon this rock I will build my Church"), Jericho, Bethany, Jerusalem, and Masada.

- (Mark
viii. 27-3 3; Matt. xvi. 13-23; Luke ix. 18-22). .According to Mark, Peter, in answer to the question of Jesus, recognized that He was the Messiah, but protested against the prophecy of suffering which Jesus then added.^ According to Mark, Peter, in answer to the question of Jesus, recognized that He was the Messiah, but protested against the prophecy of suffering which Jesus then added.

^ Peter first confessed that Jesus was the Messiah (Mark 8:29; Matt.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter answers your questions...
  • Sky Sports | Football | Columnists | Peter Beagrie | Taylor-made for Toon 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.skysports.com [Source type: General]

.This narrative is followed, with the exception of the last part, by Luke, who as usual is inclined to omit anything which could be regarded as derogatory to the Apostles.^ This narrative is followed, with the exception of the last part, by Luke, who as usual is inclined to omit anything which could be regarded as derogatory to the Apostles.

^ Luke, who certainly used Mark, has partly rearranged this narrative and partly rejected it in favour of a different version.

^ The last consideration, but not the least, is this: could Christ and His apostles possibly have been of the erroneous opinion that the end of the world was near at hand?

.Matthew also uses the Marcan narrative, but adds to it a new section from some other source which suggests that the name of Peter was conferred on this occasion - not, as Mark says, at the first mission of the Twelve - and confers on him the keys of the kingdom of heaven and the right of binding and loosing.^ Matthew also uses the Marcan narrative, but adds to it a new section from some other source which suggests that the name of Peter was conferred on this occasion - not, as Mark says, at the first mission of the Twelve - and confers on him the keys of the kingdom of heaven and the right of binding and loosing.

^ And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter is to the kingdom of heaven .

This must be probably 1 interpreted as a reference to the prophecy concerning Eliakim in Isa. xxii. .22, and to technical use of the words "binding" and "loosing" by the scribes in authoritative decisions as to the obligations of the law.^ Quotations Brief quotations (ca 500 words) may be made from the material on this site, in accordance with the “fair use” provisions of copyright law, without prior permission.
  • Saints Peter and Paul 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.wf-f.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The use of the word "keys" connects with this week’s first reading from Isaiah 22:22.
  • Fr. Frank's Reflections from Jail 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.no-nukes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This meaning becomes so much the clearer when we remember that the words "bind" and "loose" are not metaphorical, but Jewish juridical terms.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.It thus confers on Peter a position of quite unique authority.^ It thus confers on Peter a position of quite unique authority.

^ The conferring of the keys to Peter is a clear statement of a position of leadership and authority.
  • Fr. Frank's Reflections from Jail 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.no-nukes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We thus get the compact between Paul and Peter during the famine, then a visit of Peter to Antioch, during which Peter first adopted and afterwards drew back from the position which he had agreed to privately.

.It must, however, be noted that the power of binding and loosing is given in Matt.^ It must, however, be noted that the power of binding and loosing is given in Matt.

^ There must always be one in the Church who hold the highest authority, who can close and open, who can bind and loose.

^ The duties of this twofold power are most wisely ordered in such a way that to God is given what is God's (Matt.
  • Syllabus of Errors of Pope Pius IX 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

xviii. 18 to the whole body of disciples. .This seems to be an alternative version, also found only in Matthew.^ This seems to be an alternative version, also found only in Matthew.

^ Attempts to reconcile these two narratives seem to be found in Matthew and in John xxi.

^ This use is only found in narrative before the story of the mission of the apostles: it is also found in speeches; Matthew once, Mark once and Luke twice.

.The question of the historical character of the Matthaean addition to the Marcan narrative is exceedingly difficult; but it 1 See, however, A. Sulzbach's article in the Zeitschr.^ The question of the historical character of the Matthaean addition to the Marcan narrative is exceedingly difficult; but it 1 See, however, A. Sulzbach's article in the Zeitschr.

f. N.T. Wiss.
(1903), p. .190. He thinks there is an allusion to a room in the Temple where the great key was kept; this room was called Kephas, because the key was placed in a recess closed by a stone.^ He thinks there is an allusion to a room in the Temple where the great key was kept; this room was called Kephas, because the key was placed in a recess closed by a stone.

^ St Basil the Great offers two more etymologies: ‘God is called Theos either because He placed (tetheikenai) all things, or because He beholds (theasthai) all things’.

^ There are certainly places I'd pick over Wong's, Savoy, and DbD. But each can hold a certain "allure," and the OP needs options, and I tried to think of walkable places.
  • MSP - St. Paul recommendations - Midwest - Chowhound 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also a valuable article by W. Kohler in the Archiv fiir Religionswiss. treating the question of the keys from the point of view of comparative religion.^ There is also a valuable article by W. Kohler in the Archiv fiir Religionswiss.

is hard to think that if it were really .authentic it would have been omitted from all the other gospels, and it perhaps belongs to the little group of passages in Matthew which seem to represent early efforts towards church legislation, rather than a strictly historical narrative.^ Matthew which seem to represent early efforts towards church legislation, rather than a strictly historical narrative.

^ Objections have been raised against the genuineness of the wording of the passage, but the unanimous testimony of the manuscripts , the parallel passages in the other Gospels , and the fixed belief of pre-Constantine literature furnish the surest proofs of the genuineness and untampered state of the text of Matthew (cf.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a first conclusion, it would seem that Saunière merely included the symbol of the bishop into his porch – which would be nothing more than customary – as a sign of respect, noting who his superior was at the time of the church’s rebuilding.
  • Saint Peter of Perillos 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.perillos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Besides it is noticeable that in one other point Matthew has slightly remodelled the Marcan narrative.^ Apparently the other graves were grouped around this one grave as closely as possible, on all sides of it, under it, and later, as the level of the floor changed with remodeling, and reconstructions, even it.

.According to the latter Jesus asked, "Whom say men that I am ?"^ Jesus said to them: "But whom do you say that I am?"
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While journeying along with His Apostles, Jesus asks them: "Whom do men say that the Son of man is?"
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the latter Jesus asked, "Whom say men that I am ?"

and .Peter replied "the Messiah," without qualification.^ Peter replied "the Messiah," without qualification.

.But in Matthew the question is changed into "Whom say men that the Son of Man is ?"^ But in Matthew the question is changed into "Whom say men that the Son of Man is ?"

^ While journeying along with His Apostles, Jesus asks them: "Whom do men say that the Son of man is?"
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While journeying along with His Apostles , Jesus asks them: "Whom do men say that the Son of man is?"
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

and, whatever may be the original meaning of the phrase ."the son of man" it cannot be doubted that in the gospels it means Messiah.^ A fisherman certainly cannot be called a poor man, and by no means a beggar.

^ In light of the above list can there be any doubt that Peter did not believe that Jesus was merely a man, a human Messiah and prophet?
  • What did the Apostle Peter really believe about Jesus? 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus the simple answer of Peter in Mark would be meaningless, and it is replaced by "The Messiah, the son of the living God," which is no longer a recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus (this is treated in Matthew as an already recognized fact, cf.^ And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God."
  • Peter In The Bible - Apostle Peter the Man 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Peter first confessed that Jesus was the Messiah (Mark 8:29; Matt.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He did not hesitate any longer: Thou are the Christ, the Son of the living God.

x. 23, xii. 40, &c.), but is a definition and an exaltation of the nature of the Messiah.
.3. The Conduct of Peter after the Betrayal.^ The Conduct of Peter after the Betrayal.

- .The
consideration of this point brings one into touch with the two rival traditions as to the conduct of the disciples after the betrayal and crucifixion of the Lord - the Galilean and the Jerusalem narratives.^ The consideration of this point brings one into touch with the two rival traditions as to the conduct of the disciples after the betrayal and crucifixion of the Lord - the Galilean and the Jerusalem narratives.

^ It appears that Peter did not stay with the disciples and neither returned home immediately to Galilee (according to the Galilean tradition) nor sought hiding in Jerusalem (according to the Jerusalem tradition), but followed the Lord at a distance and was a witness of at least part of the trial before the Sanhedrim.

^ We know that he saw the risen Lord, and, according to the most probable view, that this was in Galilee; but the circumstances are unknown, after the and we have no account of his return to Jerusalem, as at the beginning of the Acts the disciples are all according to in Jerusalem, and the writer, in contradiction to the Acts Marcan or Galilean narrative, assumes that they had never left it.

.There is one incident which must in any case be accepted as it is found in both narratives.^ There is one incident which must in any case be accepted as it is found in both narratives.

^ The Gospel narratives are unanimous in describing Peter as one of the first disciples of Christ , and from the time of his call he seems to have been present at most of the chief incidents in the narrative.

^ There must always be one in the Church who hold the highest authority, who can close and open, who can bind and loose.

This is the denial of Peter. .It appears that Peter did not stay with the disciples and neither returned home immediately to Galilee (according to the Galilean tradition) nor sought hiding in Jerusalem (according to the Jerusalem tradition), but followed the Lord at a distance and was a witness of at least part of the trial before the Sanhedrim.^ It appears that Peter did not stay with the disciples and neither returned home immediately to Galilee (according to the Galilean tradition) nor sought hiding in Jerusalem (according to the Jerusalem tradition), but followed the Lord at a distance and was a witness of at least part of the trial before the Sanhedrim.

^ After this incident Peter returned to Jerusalem.

^ Peter did not preside at the Council in Jerusalem.

.He was detected and accused of being a disciple, which he denied, and so fulfilled the prophecy of Jesus that he would deny Him before the cock crowed.^ He was detected and accused of being a disciple , which he denied, and so fulfilled the prophecy of Jesus that he would deny Him before the cock crowed.

^ Peter understood the importance of being washed by Christ, for in the upper room, when Jesus washed the disciples feet, Peter had first resisted: Peter said unto him, You shall never wash my feet.
  • The Apostle Peter and the Heavenly Sanctuary 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC dedication.www3.50megs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Jesus was betrayed, Peter drew his sword to defend him, but denied him later in the same night, as Jesus had predicted he would (John 13; Mat.
  • Saint Peter Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saint Peter 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But putting this incident aside, the Galilean and Jerusalem traditions do not admit of reconciliation with one another.^ But putting this incident aside, the Galilean and Jerusalem traditions do not admit of reconciliation with one another.

^ The consideration of this point brings one into touch with the two rival traditions as to the conduct of the disciples after the betrayal and crucifixion of the Lord - the Galilean and the Jerusalem narratives.

^ How can you make others understand the reconciliation offered in Jesus Christ if the baptized themselves ignore or fight one another?
  • St. Peter's in the loop 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.stpetersloop.org [Source type: Original source]

The former is represented by Mark. .According to it the disciples all fled after the betrayal (though Peter waited until after the denial), and afterwards saw the risen Lord in Galilee.^ The Risen Lord confirms Peter's precedence .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to it the disciples all fled after the betrayal (though Peter waited until after the denial), and afterwards saw the risen Lord in Galilee.

^ Peter and all the other disciples failed.
  • Peter: Saint and Sinner 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.gracevalley.org [Source type: Original source]

.The details of this narrative are unfortunately lost, as the genuine conclusion of Mark is not extant.^ The details of this narrative are unfortunately lost, as the genuine conclusion of Mark is not extant.

^ Peter and it is clear that the genuine conclusion of Mark must have contained an account of an appearance of the risen Lord to him.

But Mark xiv. 28 and xvi. .7 clearly imply a narrative which described how the disciples returned to Galilee, there saw the risen Lord, and perhaps even how they then returned to Jerusalem in the strength of their newly recovered faith, and so brought into existence the church of Jerusalem as we find it in the Acts.^ Galilee, there saw the risen Lord, and perhaps even how they then returned to Jerusalem in the strength of their newly recovered faith, and so brought into existence the church of Jerusalem as we find it in the Acts.

^ It appears that Peter did not stay with the disciples and neither returned home immediately to Galilee (according to the Galilean tradition) nor sought hiding in Jerusalem (according to the Jerusalem tradition), but followed the Lord at a distance and was a witness of at least part of the trial before the Sanhedrim.

^ Perhaps you do not believe in the Devil, and in that great hell, the bottomless pit, where there is a lake of fire and brimstone into which the wicked are  cast, and where they are continually burning but  are  never consumed?"

.It is also clear from Mark xvi.^ It is also clear from Mark xvi.

.7 that Peter was in some special way connected with this appearance of the risen Lord, and this tradition is confirmed by r Cor.^ The Risen Lord confirms Peter's precedence .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Neighbourhood Management was a new way of working to improve many neighbourhoods around the country including some across Leicester including our own here in St Peters, Leicester.
  • St Peters Highfields Neighbourhood Monitoring - Leicester (Formerly a Leicester Neighbourhood Management Board) 6 February 2010 13:30 UTC stpetersnm.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus, not only did Peter and the first Christians – all of whom were Jews – pray to the risen Lord they also believed that he knows the hearts of all men!
  • What did the Apostle Peter really believe about Jesus? 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

xv. 5, and perhaps by Luke xxiv. 34.
.The Jerusalem narrative is represented especially by Luke and John (excluding John xxi.^ The Jerusalem narrative is represented especially by Luke and John (excluding John xxi.

^ Luke preferred to connect it with the call of Peter, the writer of John xxi.

^ Attempts to reconcile these two narratives seem to be found in Matthew and in John xxi.

as an appendix). .According to this the disciples, though they fled at the betrayal, did not return to their homes, but remained in Jerusalem, saw the risen Lord in that city, and stayed there until after the day of Pentecost.^ According to this the disciples, though they fled at the betrayal, did not return to their homes, but remained in Jerusalem, saw the risen Lord in that city, and stayed there until after the day of Pentecost .

^ According to it the disciples all fled after the betrayal (though Peter waited until after the denial), and afterwards saw the risen Lord in Galilee.

^ It appears that Peter did not stay with the disciples and neither returned home immediately to Galilee (according to the Galilean tradition) nor sought hiding in Jerusalem (according to the Jerusalem tradition), but followed the Lord at a distance and was a witness of at least part of the trial before the Sanhedrim.

.Attempts to reconcile these two narratives seem to be found in Matthew and in John xxi.^ Attempts to reconcile these two narratives seem to be found in Matthew and in John xxi.

^ Peter" is found in Matthew nineteen times, Mark eighteen times, Luke sixteen times, Acts fifty-one times, John fifteen times, Galatians twice, i Peter once.

^ Matthew which seem to represent early efforts towards church legislation, rather than a strictly historical narrative.

.Obviously the choice which has to be made between these traditions cannot be adequately discussed here: it must suffice to say that intrinsic and traditional probability seem to favour the Galilean narrative.^ Obviously the choice which has to be made between these traditions cannot be adequately discussed here: it must suffice to say that intrinsic and traditional probability seem to favour the Galilean narrative.

^ The most important and widespread tradition is that Peter came to Rome; and though this tradition has often been bitterly attacked, it seems to be probable that it is at least in outline quite historical.

^ As a rule the discussion has mainly been between these two dates, but Sir W. M. Ramsay, in his Church in the Roman Empire, has adopted a different line of argument.

.If so, one must say that after the denial Peter returned to Galilee - probably to resume his trade of fishing - and he there saw the risen Lord.^ The Risen Lord confirms Peter's precedence .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I Peter was written there (so probably I Pet.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If so, one must say that after the denial Peter returned to Galilee - probably to resume his trade of fishing - and he there saw the risen Lord.

.This appearance is referred to in r Cor.^ This appearance is referred to in r Cor.

xv. .5, and was certainly described in the lost conclusion of Mark.^ The details of this narrative are unfortunately lost, as the genuine conclusion of Mark is not extant.

.An account of it is preserved in John xxi., but it is here connected - probably wrongly - with a miraculous draught of fishes, just as the account of his call is in Luke.^ Luke preferred to connect it with the call of Peter, the writer of John xxi.

^ An account of it is preserved in John xxi., but it is here connected - probably wrongly - with a miraculous draught of fishes, just as the account of his call is in Luke.

^ Probably John xxi.

.Immediately after the resurrection there is a missing link in the history of Peter.^ Immediately after the resurrection there is a missing link in the history of Peter.

^ Protestants have always objected that in Scripture especially and in the first century of the church's history there is no concern with Peter's rule in Rome or with provision for his supposed successors.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Severus Ibn Al Mokafaa stated that after Christ's resurrection, Mark accompanied Peter, preaching the multitudes in Jerusalem and went from there to Bethany to preach the Word of God.
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.We know that he saw the risen Lord, and, according to the most probable view, that this was in Galilee; but the circumstances are unknown, after the and we have no account of his return to Jerusalem, as at the beginning of the Acts the disciples are all according to in Jerusalem, and the writer, in contradiction to the Acts Marcan or Galilean narrative, assumes that they had never left it.^ Later he left them and returned to Jerusalem.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We know that he saw the risen Lord, and, according to the most probable view, that this was in Galilee; but the circumstances are unknown, after the and we have no account of his return to Jerusalem, as at the beginning of the Acts the disciples are all according to in Jerusalem, and the writer, in contradiction to the Acts Marcan or Galilean narrative, assumes that they had never left it.

^ According to it the disciples all fled after the betrayal (though Peter waited until after the denial), and afterwards saw the risen Lord in Galilee.

.The first part of the Acts is largely concerned with the work of Peter.^ The first part of the Acts is largely concerned with the work of Peter.

^ The advantage of the Lucan reconstruction, so far as the first part is concerned, is that it supplies a reason for Peter's ready obedience, which is somewhat difficult to understand if he had never seen Jesus before.

^ The Acts of the Apostles, especially the first eleven chapters, have also been referred to as the "Acts of Peter".

.He appears as the recognized leader of the Apostles in their choice of a new member of the Twelve to take the place of Judas Iscariot (Acts i.^ He appears as the recognized leader of the Apostles in their choice of a new member of the Twelve to take the place of Judas Iscariot (Acts i.

^ This is rooted in the succession of the Old Covenant ministerial offices, and can be seen in the New Testament in a variety of places, including in Acts when Peter himself, replacing Judas, cites the OT that "his office let another take."
  • Why do Catholics believe that Peter the Apostle was the first Pope, - Catholic Answers Forums 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

^ The first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles describe Peter's role as leader of the Twelve in the election of a replacement for Judas and in the public declaration at Pentecost (Acts 1.15-26; 2.14-40).
  • Saint Peter Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saint Peter 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

15 sqq.); on the day of .Pentecost he seems to have played a prominent part in explaining the meaning of the scene to the people (Acts ii.^ Pentecost he seems to have played a prominent part in explaining the meaning of the scene to the people (Acts ii.

^ Every time I ask people - show me a case of that bias, explain to me where we got it wrong and why what we said was so unfair - they seem to be unable to do so", .

^ At Pentecost it was Peter who delivered the sermon and the Lord blessed his efforts with the conversion of 3,000 people (Acts 2:14-41).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

14 sqq.); and soon afterwards was arrested by the .Jews on the charge of being a ringleader in the disorders caused by the healing of the lame man at the "Beautiful" gate of the temple, but was released.^ Jews on the charge of being a ringleader in the disorders caused by the healing of the lame man at the "Beautiful" gate of the temple, but was released.

^ Now a man crippled from birth was being carried to the temple gate called Beautiful, where he was put every day to beg from those going into the temple courts.
  • What did the Apostle Peter really believe about Jesus? 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When all the people saw him walking and praising God, they recognized him as the same man who used to sit begging at the temple gate called Beautiful, and they were filled with wonder and amazement at what had happened to him.
  • What did the Apostle Peter really believe about Jesus? 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

.After this he appears as the leader of the apostles in the story of Ananias and Sapphira, who perished at his rebuke for their duplicity (Acts v.^ After this he appears as the leader of the apostles in the story of Ananias and Sapphira, who perished at his rebuke for their duplicity (Acts v.

^ This book tells the story of the Iraqi union movement and one of its leaders who was tortured and murdered in 2005.
  • New Labor Forum — May 2007 — Abstracts 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.newlaborforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now they would acquire an heroic story – Acts of the Apostles .
  • "Saint Peter" – Fabricated Apostolic commander-in-chief 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

i - r I). .The last episode of this period is another arrest by the priests, which ended in his being scourged and released (Acts v.^ The last episode of this period is another arrest by the priests, which ended in his being scourged and released (Acts v.

^ Outside of Scripture: Scripture records that Peter after his miraculous release from prison "left for another place" (Acts 12:17).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

17 sqq.).
.After this Peter's attention was directed to the growth of Christianity in Samaria, and he and John made a journey of inspection through that district, laying hands on those who had been baptized in order that they might receive the Holy Spirit.^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
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^ In Conclusion: After we repent and are baptized, we will then receive the gift of the holy spirit.
  • Repent and Be Baptized 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.zoomnet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But what if those who moved the bones were not Christians?
  • The Bones of Saint Peter? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.hissheep.org [Source type: Original source]

.Here Simon Magus was encountered.^ Here Simon Magus was encountered.

.He was a magician who had been converted by Philip and baptized; he desired to obtain the power of conferring the Spirit, and offered Peter money for this purpose, but was indignantly repulsed.^ He was a magician who had been converted by Philip and baptized; he desired to obtain the power of conferring the Spirit, and offered Peter money for this purpose, but was indignantly repulsed.

^ After this Peter's attention was directed to the growth of Christianity in Samaria , and he and John made a journey of inspection through that district, laying hands on those who had been baptized in order that they might receive the Holy Spirit.

^ They claimed that St. Mark was one of those who accepted the faith by St. Peter after the receiving of the Holy Spirit at the beginning of Christianity.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After this Peter and John returned to Jerusalem.^ In addition to James, Peter and John were then (about A.D. 50-51) in Jerusalem .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to James, Peter and John were then (about A.D. 50-51) in Jerusalem.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After this incident Peter returned to Jerusalem.

.During the following stay in Jerusalem, the duration of which is not defined, Peter was visited by Paul (Acts ix.^ Soon after, about the year 44 A.D. (Acts 12), Peter was cast into prison in Jerusalem by Herod, but he was released by an angel.
  • Saint Peter's Jerusalem Tomb 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC dshortt.homestead.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter stayed in Joppa for some time with a tanner named Simon.” Acts 9:40-43 .
  • What did the Apostle Peter really believe about Jesus? 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While visiting a friend in Switzerland, I heard of what seemed to me, one of the greatest discoveries since the time of Christthat Peter was buried in Jerusalem and not in Rome.
  • Saint Peter's Jerusalem Tomb 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC dshortt.homestead.com [Source type: Original source]

26--29; Gal. i. 18), and a comparison of the chronological date afforded by Gal. i. and ii. points to a year not earlier than .33 (Harnack) or later than 38 (C. H. Turner) for this meeting.^ (Harnack) or later than 38 (C. H. Turner) for this meeting.

.According to Galatians, Paul saw none of the apostles on this occasion except Peter and James: it is therefore probable that none of the others were then in Jerusalem.^ But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord’s brother."
  • "Saint Peter" – Fabricated Apostolic commander-in-chief 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Galatians, Paul saw none of the apostles on this occasion except Peter and James : it is therefore probable that none of the others were then in Jerusalem.

^ Even the silence of Paul in the epistles of the captivity proves nothing except that Peter was not then present; the same is true of 2 Tim.

.After this Peter made another journey, visiting especially Lydda, Joppa and Caesarea.^ Peter now undertook an extensive missionary tour, which brought him to the maritime cities, Lydda , Joppe , and Caesarea.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Acts, Peter is a leader in the Jerusalem church and engages in missionary activity in Samaria, Galilee, Lydda, Sharon, and Joppa.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During this exile from Rome, Peter made a journey to Jerusalem (49-50) to attend the first Church Council.

His stay at Lydda was marked by the healing of Aeneas (Acts ix. .32-4) and at Joppa by the resuscitation of Tabitha or Dorcas.^ Joppa by the resuscitation of Tabitha or Dorcas.

.While at Joppa he stayed with Simon the tanner, and thence was summoned to Caesarea to Cornelius the centurion.^ While at Joppa he stayed with Simon the tanner, and thence was summoned to Caesarea to Cornelius the centurion .

^ Peter stayed in Joppa for some time with a tanner named Simon.” Acts 9:40-43 .
  • What did the Apostle Peter really believe about Jesus? 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

.He hesitated whether to go, but was persuaded by a vision and the injunction to call nothing unclean which God had cleansed.^ He hesitated whether to go, but was persuaded by a vision and the injunction to call nothing unclean which God had cleansed.

^ At age 50 God called him to go forth from the monastery to re-evangelize Europe, which he did with 12 companions.

^ But the Divine Wisdom answered you with a voice from heaven: what God has cleansed, you must not call common: by this was signified that the Savior did not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.
  • Akathist to Saints Peter and Paul 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.saintspap.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cornelius was accordingly baptized.^ Cornelius was accordingly baptized.

.This is an important incident, as being the first admission of a Gentile into the church: but he was already "Godfearing," 4000u,u€vos rov O 61' (Acts x.^ This is an important incident, as being the first admission of a Gentile into the church: but he was already "Godfearing," 4000u,u€vos rov O 61' (Acts x.

^ He is next called on to open the door of the Christian church to the Gentiles by the admission of Cornelius of Caesarea (ch.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Christs Ascension into heaven, surprisingly, but understandingly, the first head of the infant Church immediately took up the reins and began to drive forward.

i), which probably denotes some sort of connexion with the .Jewish synagogue, though it is difficult to say exactly what it was.^ Jewish synagogue, though it is difficult to say exactly what it was.

.After this incident Peter returned to Jerusalem.^ After this incident Peter returned to Jerusalem.

^ Peter returned occasionally to the original Christian Church of Jerusalem, the guidance of which was entrusted to St. James, the relative of Jesus, after the departure of the Prince of the Apostles (A.D. 42-44).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter returned occasionally to the original Christian Church of Jerusalem , the guidance of which was entrusted to St. James , the relative of Jesus , after the departure of the Prince of the Apostles (A.D. 42-44).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The members of the Church were somewhat shocked at the reception of a Gentile: their view apparently was that the only road to Christianity was through Judaism.^ The members of the Church were somewhat shocked at the reception of a Gentile: their view apparently was that the only road to Christianity was through Judaism.

^ His aloofness from the Gentile converts, out of consideration for the Jewish Christians from Jerusalem, was by no means an official recognition of the views of the extreme Judaizers, who were so opposed to St. Paul.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They claim that they are opposed only to " unethical proselytizing ," but in reality they are opposed to any attempt to convert someone who is already a member of a church, regardless of how false.
  • International Social Pulse - October 2003 22 September 2009 13:40 UTC www.cephas-library.com [Source type: News]

.They were, however, persuaded by Peter's speech (Acts xi.^ They were, however, persuaded by Peter's speech (Acts xi.

^ And after a while came unto him they that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely thou also art one of them; for thy speech betrayeth thee.
  • Peter In The Bible - Apostle Peter the Man 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ They received great power, boldness, and enlightenment, and throughout the book of Acts you read about Peter standing up for God.
  • Peter: Saint and Sinner 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.gracevalley.org [Source type: Original source]

.4-17); but it is uncertain how far their concession went, and in the light of subsequent events it is probable that they still regarded circumcision as a necessary rite for all Christians.^ Catholics who practice their religion faithfully all their life still need sins to be forgiven after they have died.
  • ATRI Journal Online Article Index 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.johnankerberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, not only did Peter and the first Christians – all of whom were Jews – pray to the risen Lord they also believed that he knows the hearts of all men!
  • What did the Apostle Peter really believe about Jesus? 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC answering-islam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And in tune with that, every Christian country in the world — Britain, France, Germany, America, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe, they all commemorate Good Friday.
  • CRUCIFIXION OR CRUCI-FICTION --- By Ahmed Deedat 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.jamaat.net [Source type: Original source]

.After the return of Peter to Jerusalem the most important events were the famine at Jerusalem, and the persecution of the Church by Herod.^ After this incident Peter returned to Jerusalem.

^ After the return of Peter to Jerusalem the most important events were the famine at Jerusalem, and the persecution of the Church by Herod .

^ Imprisoned by King Herod, he was allegedly rescued by an angel and returned to Jerusalem.
  • Saint Peter Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Saint Peter 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the latter Peter was put in prison (Acts xii.^ During the latter Peter was put in prison (Acts xii.

^ Soon after, about the year 44 A.D. (Acts 12), Peter was cast into prison in Jerusalem by Herod, but he was released by an angel.
  • Saint Peter's Jerusalem Tomb 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC dshortt.homestead.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter barely appears later in the Acts, only during the apostolic meeting conservatively dated around 53.
  • Arthur Drews - The Legend of St. Peter 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC egodeath.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

3 sqq.), but was released by an angel; he first went to the house of Mary, the mother of John Mark, and afterwards went to "another place." This expression has been interpreted to mean another town, and even to be an implied reference to Rome. This last suggestion, improbable though it be, is historically important. .The persecution of Herod seems to have been in his last year, which was probably A.D. 43-44. There was a marked tendency to make the duration of Peter's episcopate at Rome twenty-five years: and a combination of this tendency with the explanation that the 'repos rinros was Rome probably is the origin of the traditional dating of the martyrdom of Peter in A.D. 67-68. There is, however, no justification for this view, and ETEpos Toiros need not mean more than another house in Jerusalem.^ There are probably more ravers today than hippies in the '60s.
  • International Social Pulse - October 2003 22 September 2009 13:40 UTC www.cephas-library.com [Source type: News]

^ Fuller evidence is not found until Eusebius , who dates the arrival of Peter at Rome in 43 and his martyrdom twenty-five years later.

^ I Peter was written there (so probably I Pet.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.The famine referred to in Acts xi.^ The famine referred to in Acts xi.

27 sqq. probably began before the death of .Herod, but it continued after his death, and the relief sent by the church at Antioch to Jerusalem through Paul and Barnabas probably arrived about the year 45. It is not stated in the Acts that Peter was present, and it is therefore usually assumed that he was absent, but Sir W. M. Ramsay has argued in his St Paul the Traveller that the visit of Paul to Jerusalem with the famine relief is the meeting between Paul and Peter referred to in Gal.^ Preaching in Antioch: He accompanied St. Paul and St. Barnabas on their first trip.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This refers St. Peter's arrival in Rome to the year 30, and his death and that of St. Paul to 55.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Book of Acts, it is mentioned that he worked with St. Paul and St. Barnabas the Apostles, but before that he worked with St. Peter in Jerusalem and Judea.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

ii. as the occasion of an agreement between them as to the .preaching of the gospel to Jews and Gentiles.^ Peter preached not only to the Jews, but also to the Gentiles.

^ What happened at this time was precisely what often happened, when the apostles preached the Gospel of Christ to the gentiles, confirming its truth by striking miracles.
  • Saint Peter Martyr of Verona 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.domcentral.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A passage in Galatians may have been the basis for the supposition that Peter and Paul divided various lands between themselves, and that Peter preached the Gospel only to the Jews and Paul to the Gentiles: "They saw that to me was committed the gospel for the uncircumcised, as to Peter that for the circumcised."

.This view is not generally accepted, but it has the great advantage of avoiding the difficulty that otherwise Paul in Gal.^ This view is not generally accepted, but it has the great advantage of avoiding the difficulty that otherwise Paul in Gal.

^ His conduct made a great impression on the other Jewish Christians at Antioch , so that even Barnabas, St. Paul's companion, now avoided eating with the Christianized pagans .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His conduct made a great impression on the other Jewish Christians at Antioch, so that even Barnabas, St. Paul's companion, now avoided eating with the Christianized pagans.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

ii. i sqq. must describe as his second visit to .Jerusalem what was really his third.^ Jerusalem what was really his third.

.According to Ramsay, then, Peter was present during the famine, and made a private agreement with Paul that the latter should preach to the Gentiles, and so far Gentile Christianity was recognized, but the conditions of the intercourse between Gentile and Jewish Christians were not defined, and the question of circumcision was perhaps not finally settled.^ Peter preached not only to the Jews, but also to the Gentiles.

^ According to Ramsay, then, Peter was present during the famine, and made a private agreement with Paul that the latter should preach to the Gentiles, and so far Gentile Christianity was recognized, but the conditions of the intercourse between Gentile and Jewish Christians were not defined, and the question of circumcision was perhaps not finally settled.

^ Between Peter and Paul there was no dogmatic difference in their conception of salvation for Jewish and Gentile Christians.
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According to the more popular view the description in Gal. ii. applies to Acts xv. the so-called council of Jerusalem. .This council met after the first missionary journey (c. A.D. 49) of Paul to discuss the question of the Gentiles.^ This council met after the first missionary journey ( c.

^ Missionary journeys in the East; Council of the Apostles .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A.D. 49) of Paul to discuss the question of the Gentiles.

.Peter, who was present, adopted the view that Gentile Christians were free from the obligation of the law, and this view was put into the form of the so-called Apostolic decrees by James (Acts xv.^ Gentile Christians, whom he addresses in I Peter.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter, who was present, adopted the view that Gentile Christians were free from the obligation of the law, and this view was put into the form of the so-called Apostolic decrees by James (Acts xv.

^ Even to this day the bulk of Christendom commemorate a GOOD FRIDAY instead of a GOOD WEDNESDAY. "Who has deceived the 1,200,000,000 Christians of the world, including the Roman Catholics who claim an unbroken chain of Popes from the first Pope (Peter) to the present Pope, into falsely celebrating GOOD FRIDAY?", I asked Mr. Fahey.
  • CRUCIFIXION OR CRUCI-FICTION --- By Ahmed Deedat 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC www.jamaat.net [Source type: Original source]

23 sqq.).
.The next information which we have about Peter is given in Gal.^ The next information which we have about Peter is given in Gal.

^ Peter in the Acts of the Apostles Books have been written about the apostle Peter which present information gathered exclusively from the Gospels.

^ He said that St. Mark the apostle, went to St. Peter, his teacher to deliver an account about the assignment that was given to him.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

ii. i i sqq. According to this he went to Antioch and at. first accepted the .Gentile Christians, but afterwards drew back and was rebuked by Paul.^ Gentile Christians, but afterwards drew back and was rebuked by Paul.

^ Still later Paul had to chastise Peter for his actions which were an offense to Gentile Christians (Galatians 2:11-16).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Between Peter and Paul there was no dogmatic difference in their conception of salvation for Jewish and Gentile Christians.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the ordinary interpretation this must have taken place after the council, and it is exceedingly difficult to reconcile it with the attitude of Peter described in Acts xv., so that Mr C. H. Turner thinks that in this respect the account in Gal.^ The occurrences in Caesarea and Antioch and the debate at the Council of Jerusalem show clearly Peter's attitude towards the converts from paganism .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A second time Peter defended them before the council (Acts 5: 29-32), who, "when they had called the apostles and beaten them, let them go."
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Outside of Scripture: Scripture records that Peter after his miraculous release from prison "left for another place" (Acts 12:17).
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

ii. is not chronological, and places the visit of .Peter to Antioch before the council.^ The occurrences in Caesarea and Antioch and the debate at the Council of Jerusalem show clearly Peter's attitude towards the converts from paganism .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A second time Peter defended them before the council (Acts 5: 29-32), who, "when they had called the apostles and beaten them, let them go."
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The occurrences in Caesarea and Antioch and the debate at the Council of Jerusalem show clearly Peter's attitude towards the converts from paganism.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

If, however, we take the theory of Sir W. M. Ramsay the matter is simpler. .We thus get the compact between Paul and Peter during the famine, then a visit of Peter to Antioch, during which Peter first adopted and afterwards drew back from the position which he had agreed to privately.^ We thus get the compact between Paul and Peter during the famine, then a visit of Peter to Antioch, during which Peter first adopted and afterwards drew back from the position which he had agreed to privately.

^ Gentile Christians, but afterwards drew back and was rebuked by Paul.

^ According to Ramsay, then, Peter was present during the famine, and made a private agreement with Paul that the latter should preach to the Gentiles, and so far Gentile Christianity was recognized, but the conditions of the intercourse between Gentile and Jewish Christians were not defined, and the question of circumcision was perhaps not finally settled.

.This vacillation may then have been one of the causes which led up to the council, which may have been held before, not, as is usually thought, after the sending of the Epistle to the Galatians.^ This vacillation may then have been one of the causes which led up to the council, which may have been held before, not, as is usually thought, after the sending of the Epistle to the Galatians .

^ He chose the lowly things of this world and the despised things--and the things that are not--to nullify the things that are, so that no one may boast before him."
  • Peter: Saint and Sinner 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.gracevalley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And Peter was the one who stood up at the council of the apostles, the first Church Council in Jerusalem, and interpreted and explained the Law of Moses as it applied to the Gentiles: .

.For this we have no knowledge after the of details for which the same certainty can be claimed.^ For this we have no knowledge after the of details for which the same certainty can be claimed.

Council of There are, however, various traditions of importance. The following points are noteworthy. r Cor. i. .12 suggests the possibility that Peter went to Corinth, as there was a party there which used his name.^ For example, when Paul wrote his epistle to the Romans he greeted twenty nine of the brethren there by name – and Peter was not one of them!
  • "Saint Peter" – Fabricated Apostolic commander-in-chief 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus is saying that there is something about Peter and the confession he just made that Jesus would use in building his church.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eusebius also refers to "the inscription of the names of Peter and Paul, which have been preserved to the present day on the burial-places there" (i.e.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is, however, possible that this party had merely adopted the principles which, as they had been told, perhaps falsely, were supported by the leader of the Twelve.^ It is, however, possible that this party had merely adopted the principles which, as they had been told, perhaps falsely, were supported by the leader of the Twelve.

^ Another possibility is that CH site only supports certain browsers perhaps?
  • MSP - St. Paul recommendations - Midwest - Chowhound 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were told they would be suffering until the second resurrection at the end of the Millennium, but perhaps they could still qualify for the morning of that resurrection, and hence achieve the telestial kingdom.
  • Seven Trumpets 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

Dionysius of Corinth (c. 170) states that Peter was in Corinth. .This may represent local tradition or may be an inference from i Cor.^ This may represent local tradition or may be an inference from i Cor.

i. .12. I Peter suggests a ministry in the provinces of Asia Minor.^ I Peter suggests a ministry in the provinces of Asia Minor .

.There is, of course, nothing improbable in this, and even if r Peter be not authentic, it is early evidence for such a tradition, but it is also possible that Peter wrote to converts whom he had not personally made.^ There is, of course, nothing improbable in this, and even if r Peter be not authentic, it is early evidence for such a tradition, but it is also possible that Peter wrote to converts whom he had not personally made.

^ Even the silence of Paul in the epistles of the captivity proves nothing except that Peter was not then present; the same is true of 2 Tim.

^ For example, when Paul wrote his epistle to the Romans he greeted twenty nine of the brethren there by name – and Peter was not one of them!
  • "Saint Peter" – Fabricated Apostolic commander-in-chief 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

This tradition is found in Origen (Eus. H.E. iii. I), Epiphanius (Haer. xxvii., vi.), Jerome (De Vir. ill. .I) and other later writers; but it is possible that it is merely an inference from the epistle..^ I) and other later writers; but it is possible that it is merely an inference from the epistle ..

^ Others attempt to maintain that the conflict between Peter and Simon the magician, in Samaria and later in Rome, is merely a camouflage of the conflict between Peter and Paul.

^ Apparently the other graves were grouped around this one grave as closely as possible, on all sides of it, under it, and later, as the level of the floor changed with remodeling, and reconstructions, even it.

.Early tradition connects Peter with Antioch, of which he is said to have been the first bishop.^ Early tradition connects Peter with Antioch, of which he is said to have been the first bishop .

^ There is, of course, nothing improbable in this, and even if r Peter be not authentic, it is early evidence for such a tradition, but it is also possible that Peter wrote to converts whom he had not personally made.

^ For example, the first bishop of Rome, said Irenaeus, had been Linus, appointed by the apostle Paul.
  • "Saint Peter" – Fabricated Apostolic commander-in-chief 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first writer to mention it is Origen (Horn.^ The first writer to mention it is Origen ( Horn .

vi. in .Lucarn),
but it is also found in the Clementine Homilies and Recognitions (Horn. 20, 23; Recog. 10, 68).^ Lucarn), but it is also found in the Clementine Homilies and Recognitions (Horn.

and probably goes back to the lists of bishops which were drawn up in the 2nd century. .Other important references to this tradition are found in Eus.^ This tradition is found in Origen (Eus.

^ Other important references to this tradition are found in Eus.

H.E. iii. 26, 2; Apost. Const. vii. .46; Jerome, De Vir.^ Jerome, De Vir.

^ Jerome ( De Vir.

ill.
.I; Chronicon paschale; and Liber pontificalis. The tradition of work in Antioch may well be historical.^ I; Chronicon paschale; and Liber pontificalis .

^ The tradition of work in Antioch may well be historical.

Otherwise it is a. rather wild elaboration of Gal. ii. z i. .The most important and widespread tradition is that Peter came to Rome; and though this tradition has often been bitterly attacked, it seems to be probable that it is at least in outline quite historical.^ The persecutions came to an end in 312 when Constantine captured Rome and he marked the site of the burial of Peter by building a huge church over the aedicula.
  • The Bones of Saint Peter? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.hissheep.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction to the debate on one of Rome's most important (and least frequented) ancient sites.
  • The Bones of Saint Peter? 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.hissheep.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While visiting a friend in Switzerland, I heard of what seemed to me, one of the greatest discoveries since the time of Christthat Peter was buried in Jerusalem and not in Rome.
  • Saint Peter's Jerusalem Tomb 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC dshortt.homestead.com [Source type: Original source]

The. evidence for it is earlier and better than that for any other tradition, though it is not quite convincing.
.The earliest witness to a residence of Peter in Rome is probably I Peter, for (see Peter, Epistles Of) it is probable that the reference to Babylon ought to be interpreted as meaning Rome.^ What does it mean to St Peters residents?
  • St Peters Highfields Neighbourhood Monitoring - Leicester (Formerly a Leicester Neighbourhood Management Board) 6 February 2010 13:30 UTC stpetersnm.com [Source type: General]

^ The earliest witness to a residence of Peter in Rome is probably I Peter, for (see Peter, Epistles Of ) it is probable that the reference to Babylon ought to be interpreted as meaning Rome.

^ The most important and widespread tradition is that Peter came to Rome; and though this tradition has often been bitterly attacked, it seems to be probable that it is at least in outline quite historical.

.If so, and if the epistle be genuine, this is conclusive evidence that Peter was in Rome.^ If so, and if the epistle be genuine, this is conclusive evidence that Peter was in Rome.

^ This evidence is probably sufficient to establish the fact that Peter, like Paul, had a wide missionary career ending in a violent death at Rome, though the details are not recoverable.

^ Peter and it is clear that the genuine conclusion of Mark must have contained an account of an appearance of the risen Lord to him.

.Even if the epistle be not genuine it is evidence of the same tradition.^ Even if the epistle be not genuine it is evidence of the same tradition.

^ Even the silence of Paul in the epistles of the captivity proves nothing except that Peter was not then present; the same is true of 2 Tim.

^ There is, of course, nothing improbable in this, and even if r Peter be not authentic, it is early evidence for such a tradition, but it is also possible that Peter wrote to converts whom he had not personally made.

.Nor is corroboration lacking: Clement (c. A.D. 9 7) refers to Peter and Paul as martyrs (1 Clem. 5-6) and says that "To these men ...^ This is Rome, the Eternal City, the Rome of Peter and the Rome of Paul and the Rome of the martyrs.

^ Nor is corroboration lacking: Clement ( c.

^ Later sources say that Peter went to Rome, was martyred (64-68) under Nero, and buried on Vatican Hill.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

there was gathered a great company of the elect who ... became an example to us." .This points in two ways to a martyrdom of Peter in Rome, (I) because Peter and Paul are co-ordinated, and it is generally admitted that the latter suffered in Rome, (2) because they seem to be joined to the great company of martyrs who are to be an example to the Church in Rome.^ Rejoice enlighteners Peter and Paul who enlighten like two great luminaries.
  • Akathist to Saints Peter and Paul 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.saintspap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rejoice together with Peter and Paul who are like two wings of the Church, from Christ, the Great Eagle.
  • Akathist to Saints Peter and Paul 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.saintspap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This points in two ways to a martyrdom of Peter in Rome, (I) because Peter and Paul are co-ordinated, and it is generally admitted that the latter suffered in Rome, (2) because they seem to be joined to the great company of martyrs who are to be an example to the Church in Rome.

.Similarly Ignatius (c. A.D. 115) says to the Romans (Rom.^ The Roman Church enjoyed a certain preeminence very early (as evidenced, e.g., in I Clement 5; Ignatius, Rom.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A.D. 115) says to the Romans (Rom.

iv.), ."I do not command you as Peter and Paul."^ "I do not command you as Peter and Paul."

^ Rejoice for you are good laborers in the Vineyard of Christ Rejoice Saints Peter and Paul together with all the Holy Apostles.
  • Akathist to Saints Peter and Paul 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.saintspap.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rejoice together with Peter and Paul two tablets of the commandments of the Lord.
  • Akathist to Saints Peter and Paul 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.saintspap.org [Source type: Original source]

.The suggestion obviously is that the Romans had been instructed by these Apostles.^ The suggestion obviously is that the Romans had been instructed by these Apostles.

^ At both these places, also, shrines of the Apostles were erected, and that of the Mamertine Prison still remains in almost its original form from the early Roman time .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At both these places, also, shrines of the Apostles were erected, and that of the Mamertine Prison still remains in almost its original form from the early Roman time.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the end of the 2nd century the tradition is generally known: Irenaeus (3, 1, 1), Clement of Alexandria (comment.^ By the end of the 2nd century the tradition is generally known: Irenaeus (3, 1, 1), Clement of Alexandria (comment.

^ From Clement of Alexandria's so-called Prophetical Extracts, a series of detached sentences excerpted from some larger work, generally supposed to be his Hypotyposes or Outlines: .

^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.3), but down to the end of the second century Rome was always considered as founded by Peter and Paul, a tradition which never wholly disappeared.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

on .I Peter), Origen (Hom.^ I Peter), Origen ( Hom.

vi. in .Lucam
), Tertullian (Score. 15, and several passages) are explicit on the point, and from this time onwards the tradition is met with everywhere.^ Lucam ), Tertullian ( Score .

.There is also a tradition, found in Irenaeus (3, i, i) and in many later writers, and supported by i Pet.^ There is also a tradition, found in Irenaeus (3, i, i) and in many later writers, and supported by i Pet.

^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.3), but down to the end of the second century Rome was always considered as founded by Peter and Paul, a tradition which never wholly disappeared.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As to Purgatory - I don't recall off the top of my head - but I"m pretty sure there is similarly an early Church history tradition supporting that view.
  • Why do Catholics believe that Peter the Apostle was the first Pope, - Catholic Answers Forums 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

v. 13, and by the statements of Papias (Eus. .H.E. 3, 39, 15) that Mark acted as Peter's assistant in Rome and that his gospel is based on recollections of Peter's teaching.^ H.E. 3, 39, 15) that Mark acted as Peter's assistant in Rome and that his gospel is based on recollections of Peter's teaching.

^ Peter" is found in Matthew nineteen times, Mark eighteen times, Luke sixteen times, Acts fifty-one times, John fifteen times, Galatians twice, i Peter once.

^ Here we may say that the Gospel was Mark's and it wasn't dictated by Peter, but was from the filling of the Holy Spirit.
  • SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST 20 September 2009 11:27 UTC tasbeha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This evidence is probably sufficient to establish the fact that Peter, like Paul, had a wide missionary career ending in a violent death at Rome, though the details are not recoverable.^ Peter's death in Rome.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txh/peters.htm 28 January 2010 0:47 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This evidence is probably sufficient to establish the fact that Peter, like Paul, had a wide missionary career ending in a violent death at Rome, though the details are not recoverable.

^ Peter's death in Rome .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles</