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In traditional Christian iconography, saints are often depicted as having halos, which is a symbol of their holiness. Note that Judas is depicted without a halo.

Saints are individuals of exceptional holiness who are important in many religions, particularly Christianity. In some usages, the word "saint" is used more generally to refer to anyone who is a Christian.

Contents

General characteristics

Though the term is mostly used for Christians considered exceptionally virtuous, many religions use similar concepts to venerate individuals worthy of honor in some way, e.g., see Hindu saints. John A. Coleman S.J., Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley[1], wrote that saints across various cultures and religions have the following family resemblances:

  • 1. exemplary model;
  • 2. extraordinary teacher;
  • 3. wonder worker or source of benevolent power;
  • 4. intercessor;
  • 5. selfless, ascetic behavior; and
  • 6. possessor of a special and revelatory relation to the holy.[2]

While there are parallels between these (and other) concepts and that of sainthood, each of these concepts has specific meanings within a given religion.[citation needed] Also, new religious movements have sometimes taken to using the word in cases where the people so named would not be regarded as saints within mainstream Christianity. Some of the Cao Dai saints and saints of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica are examples of such.[citation needed] Saints serve the same purpose as demi-gods in other religions.

The anthropologist [3] Lawrence Babb in an article about Sathya Sai Baba asks the question "Who is a saint?", and responds by saying that in the symbolic infrastructure of some religions, there is the image of a certain extraordinary spiritual king's "miraculous powers", to whom frequently a certain moral presence is attributed. These saintly figures, he asserts, are "the focal points of spiritual force-fields," exerting "powerful attractive influence on followers but touch the inner lives of others in transforming ways as well."[4]

Christianity

Catholic Church

Saints of the Catholic Church.

One Catholic website states that "There are over 10,000 named saints and beati from history, the Roman Martyology and Orthodox sources, but no definitive head count".[5] The Catholic Church teaches that it does not, in fact, make anyone a saint. Rather, it recognizes a saint.[6] In the Church, the title of Saint refers to a person who has been formally canonized (officially recognized) by the Catholic Church, and is therefore to be in Heaven.

Rev. Alban Butler, published Lives of the Saints in 1756, containing 1,486 saints. The work, edited by Father Herbert Thurston, S.J. and British Author Donald Attwater, contains the lives of 2,565 saints.[7]

By this definition there are many people believed to be in Heaven who have not been formally declared as saints (most typically due to their obscurity and the involved process of formal canonization) but who may nevertheless generically be referred to as saints. All in Heaven are, in the technical sense, saints, since they are believed to be completely perfected in holiness.[8] Unofficial devotions to uncanonized individuals take place in certain regions.[9] Sometimes the word "saint" is used to refer to Christians still sojourning here on earth.[10]

In his book, Saint of the Day, editor Leonard Foley, OFM, says this of saints: "[Saints'] surrender to God's love was so generous an approach to the total surrender of Jesus that the Church recognizes them as heroes and heroines worthy to be held up for our inspiration. They remind us that the Church is holy, can never stop being holy and is called to show the holiness of God by living the life of Christ." [11]

In his book, Making Saints: How the Catholic Church Determines Who Becomes a Saint, Who Doesn't and Why, author Kenneth Woodward notes the following:

A saint is always someone through whom we catch a glimpse of what God is like -- and of what we are called to be. Only God 'makes' saints, of course. The church merely identifies from time to time a few of these for emulation. The church then tells the story. But the author is the Source of the grace by which saints live. And there we have it: A saint is someone whose story God tells.[12]

The veneration of saints, in Latin, cultus, or the "cult of the saints", describes a particular popular devotion to the saints. Although the term "worship" is sometimes used, it is intended in the old-sense meaning to honor or give respect (dulia). According to the Catholic church, Divine Worship is properly reserved only for God (latria) and never to the saints.[13] They can be asked to intercede or pray for those still on earth,[14] just as one can ask someone on earth to pray for them.

A saint may be designated as a patron saint of a particular cause or profession, or invoked against specific illnesses or disasters, sometimes by popular custom and sometimes by official statements of the Magisterium.[15] Saints are not thought to have power of their own, but only that granted by God. Relics of saints are respected in a similar manner to holy images and icons. The practices of past centuries in venerating relics of saints for healing is taken from the early Church.[16]

Recently, for example, a man from the United States claimed in 2000 that Venerable John Henry Newman interceded with God to cure him. The American, Jack Sullivan, asserted that after addressing Newman he was cured of spinal stenosis in a matter of hours. In 2009, a panel of theologians concluded that Sullivan's recovery was the result of his prayer to Newman. According to the Catholic Church, to be deemed a miracle, "a medical recovery must be instantaneous, not attributable to treatment, disappear for good."[17]

Once a person has been declared a saint, the body of the saint is considered holy.[18] The remains of saints are called holy relics and are usually used in churches. Saints' personal belongings may also be used as relics.[18] Some of the saints have a symbol that represents their life.

In Church tradition, a person who is seen as exceptionally holy can be declared a saint by a formal process, called canonization. Formal canonization is a lengthy process often taking many years, even centuries.[19]

The first step in this process is an investigation of the candidate's life, undertaken by an expert. After this, the report on the candidate is given to the bishop of the area and more studying is done. It is then sent to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in Rome.[20]

If the application is approved, the person may be granted the title of "Venerable".[20] Further investigations may lead to the candidate's beatification and given title of "Blessed."[20] At a minimum, two important miracles are required to be formally declared a saint. These miracles must be posthumous. [20] Finally, when all of this is done the Pope canonizes the saint.[20]

Eastern Orthodoxy

In the Eastern Orthodox Church a saint is defined as anyone who is in Heaven, whether recognized here on earth, or not.[21] By this definition, Adam and Eve, Moses, the various prophets, the angels and archangels are all given the title of "Saint". Sainthood in the Orthodox Church does not necessarily reflect a moral model, but the communion with God: there are countless examples of people who lived in great sin and became saints by humility and repentance, such as Mary of Egypt, Moses the Ethiopian, James the Righteous, and of course Dysmas, the repentant thief who was crucified. Therefore, a more complete definition of what a saint is, has to do with the way that saints, through their humility and their love of humankind, saved inside them the entire Church, and loved all people.

Orthodox belief considers that God reveals his saints through answered prayers and other miracles.[21] Saints are usually recognized by a local community, often by people who directly knew them. As their popularity grows they are often then recognized by the entire church. The formal process of recognition involves deliberation by a synod of bishops.[21] If successful, this is followed by a service of Glorification in which the Saint is given a day on the church calendar to be celebrated by the entire church.[22] This does not, however, make the person a saint; the person already was a saint and the Church ultimately recognized it.

It is believed that one of the ways the holiness (sanctity) of a person is revealed, is through the condition of their relics (remains).[citation needed] In some Orthodox countries (such as Greece, but not in Russia) graves are often reused after 3 to 5 years because of limited space. Bones are washed and placed in an ossuary, often with the person's name written on the skull. Occasionally when a body is exhumed something miraculous is reported as having occurred; exhumed bones are claimed to have given off a fragrance, like flowers, or a body is reported as having remained free of decay, despite not having been embalmed (traditionally the Orthodox do not embalm the dead) and having been buried for some years in the earth.[citation needed]

The reason relics are considered sacred is because, for the Orthodox, the separation of body and soul is unnatural.[citation needed] Body and soul both comprise the person, and in the end, body and soul will be reunited; therefore, the body of a saint shares in the “Holiness” of the soul of the saint.[citation needed] As a general rule only clergy will touch relics in order to move them or carry them in procession, however, in veneration the faithful will kiss the relic to show love and respect toward the saint.[citation needed] Every altar in every Orthodox church contains relics, usually of martyrs. Church interiors are covered with the Icons of saints.[citation needed]

Because the Church shows no true distinction between the living and the dead (the saints are considered to be alive in Heaven), saints are referred to as if they were still alive. Saints are venerated but not worshipped. They are believed to be able to intercede for salvation and help mankind either through direct communion with God, or by personal intervention.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the titles "Όσιος" for men and "Οσία" for women are also used.[citation needed] This is a title attributed to saints who had lived a monastic or eremitic life, and it is equal to the more usual title of "Saint".[citation needed]

Anglicanism

In the Anglican Church, the title of Saint refers to a person who has been elevated by popular opinion as a pious and holy person. The saints are seen as models of holiness to be imitated, and as a 'cloud of witnesses' that strengthen and encourage the believer during his or her spiritual journey (Hebrews 12:1). The saints are seen as elder brothers and sisters in Christ. Official Anglican creeds recognise the existence of the saints in heaven.

So far as saintly intercession is concerned,[23] one of the Church of England's Articles of Religion "Of Purgatory" condemns "the Romish Doctrine concerning...(the) Invocation of Saints" as "a fond thing vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to the Word of God". However, each of the 44 member churches in the Anglican Communion are free to adopt and authorise their own official documents, and the Articles are not officially normative in all of them (e.g., The Episcopal Church USA, which relegates them to "Historical Documents"). Anglo-Catholics in Anglican provinces using the Articles often make a distinction between a "Romish" and a "Patristic" doctrine concerning the invocation of saints, permitting the latter.

In high-church contexts, such as Anglo-Catholicism, a saint is generally one to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated) a high level of holiness and sanctity. In this use, a saint is therefore not a believer, but one who has been transformed by virtue. In Roman Catholicism, a saint is a special sign of God's activity. The veneration of saints is sometimes misunderstood to be worship, in which case it is derisively termed "hagiolatry".

Some Anglicans and Anglican churches, particularly Anglo-Catholics, personally ask prayers of the saints. However, such a practice is seldom found in any official Anglican liturgy. Unusual examples of it are found in The Korean Liturgy 1938, the liturgy of the Diocese of Guiana 1959 and The Melanesian English Prayer Book.

Anglicans believe that the only effective Mediator between the believer and God the Father is God the Son, Jesus Christ. But those who pray to saints make a distinction between "mediator" and "intercessor," and claim that asking for the prayers of the saints is no different in kind than asking for the prayers of living Christians. Anglican Catholics understand sainthood in a more Catholic or Orthodox way, often praying for intercessions from the saints and celebrating their feast days.

According to the Church of England, a saint is one who is sanctified, as it translates in the Authorised King James Version (1611) 2 Chronicles 6:41

Now therefore arise, O LORD God, into thy resting place, thou, and the ark of thy strength: let thy priests, O LORD God, be clothed with salvation, and let thy saints rejoice in goodness.

Protestantism

"Scripture does not teach calling on the saints or pleading for help from them. For it sets before us Christ alone as mediator, atoning sacrifice, high priest, and intercessor."—Augsburg Confession, Article XXI.[24]

In many Protestant churches, the word "saint" is used more generally to refer to anyone who is a Christian. This is similar in usage to Paul's numerous references in the New Testament of the Bible.[25] In this sense, anyone who is within the Body of Christ (i.e., a professing Christian) is a 'saint' because of their relationship with Christ Jesus. Because of this, many Protestants consider prayers to the saints to be idolatry or even necromancy. Dead Christians are awaiting resurrection, and are not able to do anything for the living saint.

Within some Protestant traditions, "saint" is also used to refer to any born-again Christian. Many emphasise the traditional New Testament meaning of the word, preferring to write "saint" to refer to any believer, in continuity with the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers.

Methodism

While Methodists as a whole do not practice the patronage or veneration of saints, they do honor and admire them. Methodists believe that all Christians are saints, but mainly use the term to refer to bibilical people, Christian leaders, and martyrs of the faith. Many Methodist churches are named after saints, such as the Twelve Apostles, John Wesley, etc. Although, most are named after geographical locations associated with an early circuit or prominent location. Some Methodist congregations observe All Saints Day if they follow the liturgical calendar. Many encourage the study of saints, that is, the biography of holy people. The 14th Article of Religion in the United Methodist Discipline states, "The Romish doctrine concerning purgatory, pardon, worshiping, and adoration, as well of images as of relics, and also invocation of saints, is a fond thing, vainly invented, and grounded upon no warrant of Scripture, but repugnant to the Word of God." John Wesley, the theological father of world Methodism, did not practice or permit Roman Catholic practices associated with the veneration of the Virgin Mary or prayers to saints.

Lutheranism

In the Lutheran Church, according to the Augsburg Confession[26], the term "saint" is used in the manner of the Roman Catholic Church only insofar as to denote a person who received exceptional grace, was sustained by faith and whose good works are to be an example to any Christian. Traditional Lutheran belief accounts that prayers to the saints are prohibited, as they are not mediators of redemption.[27][28] But, Lutherans do believe that saints pray for the Christian Church in general.[29] Martin Luther, the founder of Lutheranism, approve honoring the saints by saying they are honored in three ways: 1. By thanking God for examples of His mercy; 2. By using the saints as example for strengthening our faith; 3. By imitating their faith and other virtues. [30][31][32]

Other Christian groups

There are some groups which are generally classified as Protestants who do not accept the idea of the communion of saints. Some believe all of the departed are in soul sleep until the final resurrection on Judgment Day. Others believe that the departed go to either Paradise or Tartarus, to await the day in which the living and the dead are judged.

"Latter-day Saints"

The beliefs of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons with regard to saints are similar to the Protestant tradition described above. In the New Testament the saints are all those who have entered into the Christian covenant of baptism. The qualification "latter-day" refers to the doctrine that members are living in the "latter days", before the second coming of Jesus Christ, and is used to distinguish the members of the Mormon church, which considers itself the restoration of the ancient Christian church. Therefore members are often referred to as "Latter-day Saints" or "LDS", and among themselves as "Saints".[33]

Other religions

The use of the term "saint" is not exclusive to Christianity. In many religions, there are people who have been recognized within their tradition as having fulfilled the highest aspirations of religious teaching. In English, the term saint is often used to translate this idea from many world religions.

Judaism

Judaism speaks of a class of unidentified individuals known as Tzadikkim.

Hinduism

There are individuals who have been described as being Hindu saints, most of whom have also been more specifically identified by the terms Mahatma, Paramahamsa, or Swami, or with the titles Sri or Srila.

Sikhism

The concept of sant or bhagat is found in North Indian religious thought including Sikhism. Figures such as Kabir, Ravidas, Nanak, and others are widely regarded as belonging to the Sant tradition. Some of their mystical compositions are incorporated in the Guru Granth Sahib. The term "Sant" is still sometimes loosely applied to living individuals in the Sikh and related communities.

Islam

Some groups within Islam hold the Hadrat (literally, Presence, a title of Sufi saints) in esteem.

Buddhism

Buddhists hold the Arhats and Arahants in special esteem, as well as Bodhisattvas and Buddhas.

Sufism

Anthropologists have also noted the parallels between the regard for some Sufi figures in popular Muslim observance and Christian ideas of sainthood. In some Muslim countries there are shrines at the tombs of Sufi "saints", with the observation of festival days on the anniversary of death, and a tradition of miracle-working. In some cases, the rites are observed according to the solar calendar, rather than the normal Islamic lunar calendar.[34]

Hazrat Babajan (c. 1806 - September 18, 1931) was a Baloch Muslim saint considered by her followers to be a sadguru or qutub.

Afro-American Religion

Cuban Santeria, Haitian Vodou, Brazilian Umbanda and Candomble, and other similar syncretist religions adopted the Catholic saints, or at least the images of the saints, and applied their own spirits/deities to them. They are worshiped in churches (where they appear as saints) and in religious festivals, where they appear as the deities. The name santeria was originally a pejorative term for those whose worship of saints deviated from Catholic norms.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. p. 239
  2. ^ Coleman, John A. S.J. "Conclusion: after sainthood", in Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. pp 214-217
  3. ^ Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. page 239
  4. ^ Babb, Lawrence A. "Sathya Sai Baba's Saintly Play", in Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. pp 168-170
  5. ^ All About Saints at Catholic Online (USA) FAQs- Saints and Angels
  6. ^ The Catechism of the Catholic Church From the Knights of Columbus website
  7. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,862347,00.html
  8. ^ What is a saint? Vatican Information Service, 29 July 1997
  9. ^ Folk_saint from Citizendium
  10. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church (Second Edition)
  11. ^ Saint of the Day edited by Leonard Foley, OFM, (Cincinnati: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2003), xvi. ISBN 0-86716-535-9
  12. ^ Kenneth Woodward, Making Saints: How the Catholic Church Determines Who Becomes a Saint, Who Doesn't and Why (New York: Touchstone/Simon and Shuster, 1996) ISBN 0-7432-0029-2
  13. ^ Scully, Teresita Do Catholics Worship Mary? on American Catholic.org
  14. ^ The Intercession of the Saints on Catholic.com
  15. ^ Patron Saints from Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) on Wikisource.org
  16. ^ Acts 19:11-12
  17. ^ Jenna Russell, "Marshfield man's prayer an answer in sainthood query," The Boston Globe April 28, 2009, B1,4.
  18. ^ a b Relics Catholic Encyclopedia on NewAdvent.org
  19. ^ Table of the Canonizations during the Pontificate of His Holiness John Paul II on Vatican.va
  20. ^ a b c d e How Stuff Works
  21. ^ a b c Bebis G The Saints of the Orthodox Church at Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, New York
  22. ^ Frawley J The Glorification of the Saints in the Orthodox Church at Orthodox Church in America, Syosset, New York
  23. ^ Article XXII
  24. ^ Augsburg Confession, Article 21, "Of the Worship of the Saints". trans. Kolb, R., Wengert, T., and Arand, C. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2000.
  25. ^ "Beloved of God, Called to Be Saints", New Testament Gospel Doctrine Teacher’s Manual. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah. p. 150. lds.org. Retrieved on November 21, 2009.
  26. ^ A Confession of Faith Presented in Augsburg by certain Princes and Cities to His Imperial Majesty Charles V in the Year 1530
  27. ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession XXI 14-30
  28. ^ Smalcald Articles-II 25
  29. ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession XXI 9
  30. ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession XXI 4-7
  31. ^ Lutheran teaching
  32. ^ Augsburg Confession XXI 1
  33. ^ M. Russell Ballard, "Faith, Family, Facts, and Fruits", Ensign, Nov 2007, 25–27
  34. ^ Michael Gilsenan (1973). Saint and Sufi in Modern Egypt. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-823181-4. 

Bibliography

  • Cunningham, Lawrence S. The Meaning of Saints. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980.
  • Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Hein, David. "Saints: Holy, Not Tame." Sewanee Theological Review 49 (2006): 204–17.
  • Hein, David. "Farrer on Friendship, Sainthood, and the Will of God." In Captured by the Crucified: The Practical Theology of Austin Farrer. Edited by David Hein and Edward Hugh Henderson. New York and London: T & T Clark / Continuum, 2004. 119-48.
  • Jean-Luc Deuffic (éd.), Reliques et sainteté dans l'espace médiéval [1]
  • O'Malley, Vincent J. "Ordinary Suffering of Extraordinary Saints", 1999. ISBN 0-87973-893-6
  • Perham, Michael. The Communion of Saints. London: Alcuin Club / SPCK, 1980.
  • Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Insight on the Scriptures: Volume 1. Brooklyn,: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 1988.
  • Woodward, Kenneth L. Making Saints. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

External links

Stages of Canonization in the Catholic Church
  Servant of God   →   Venerable   →   Blessed   →   Saint  


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Saint is a term used for a various people who are considered holy. The term originates within Christianity as a one which has various definitions varying by denomination. The word itself means “holy” and is derived from the Latin sanctus which was the word used in translating hagios (άγιος meaning “holy” or “holy one”) in early Greek Christian literature and in the New Testament, where it is used to describe the followers of Jesus of Nazareth. This page is for quotes referring to concepts about saints.

Sourced

  • Let us never forget that if we wish to die like the Saints we must live like them. Let us force ourselves to imitate their virtues, in particular humility and charity.
  • What is a saint? A saint is someone who has achieved a remote human possibility. It is impossible to say what that possibility is. I think it has something to do with the energy of love. Contact with this energy results in the exercise of a kind of balance in the chaos of existence. A saint does not dissolve the chaos; if he did the world would have changed long ago. I do not think that a saint dissolves the chaos even for himself, for there is something arrogant and warlike in the notion of a man setting the universe in order. It is a kind of balance that is his glory. He rides the drifts like an escaped ski. His course is the caress of the hill. His track is a drawing of the snow in a moment of its particular arrangement with wind and rock. Something in him so loves the world that he gives himself to the laws of gravity and chance. Far from flying with the angels, he traces with the fidelity of a seismograph needle the state of the solid bloody landscape. His house is dangerous and finite, but he is at home in the world. He can love the shape of human beings, the fine and twisted shapes of the heart. It is good to have among us such men, such balancing monsters of love.
  • Some say this world of trouble
    Is the only one we need
    But I’m waiting for that morning
    When the new world is revealed.

    Oh when the saints go marching in,
    When the saints go marching in,
    Oh lord I want to be in that number,
    When the saints go marching in!

  • Oh, when the saints go marching in
    Lord, how I want to be in that number
    When the saints go marching in.

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1911 encyclopedia

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Wiktionary

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Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Noun

Singular
Saints

Plural

Saints

  1. Plural form of Saint., title of a saint.

Anagrams


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Saint article)

From BibleWiki


one separated from the world and consecrated to God; one holy by profession and by covenant; a believer in Christ (Ps. 16:3; Rom. 1:7; 8:27; Phil. 1:1; Heb. 6:10).

The "saints" spoken of in Jude 1:14 are probably not the disciples of Christ, but the "innumerable company of angels" (Heb. 12:22; Ps. 68:17), with reference to Deut. 33:2.

This word is also used of the holy dead (Matt. 27:52; Rev. 18:24). It was not used as a distinctive title of the apostles and evangelists and of a "spiritual nobility" till the fourth century. In that sense it is not a scriptural title.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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