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In this Japanese name, the family name is Saitō.
Saitō Makoto
斎藤 実


In office
26 May 1932 – 8 July 1934
Monarch Shōwa
Preceded by Korekiyo Takahashi (Acting)
Succeeded by Keisuke Okada

In office
17 August 1929 – 17 June 1931
Monarch Shōwa
Preceded by Hanzō Yamanashi
Succeeded by Kazushige Ugaki
In office
1 December 1927 – 10 December 1927
Monarch Shōwa
Preceded by Kazushige Ugaki (Acting)
Succeeded by Hanzō Yamanashi
In office
12 August 1919 – 14 April 1927
Monarch Taishō
Shōwa
Preceded by Yoshimichi Hasegawa
Succeeded by Kazushige Ugaki (Acting)

Born 27 October 1858(1858-10-27)
Mizusawa, Tokugawa
Died 26 February 1936 (aged 77)
Tokyo, Japan
Political party Independent
Alma mater Imperial Japanese Naval Academy
Military service
Allegiance Empire of Japan
Service/branch Imperial Japanese Navy
Years of service 1879–1928
Rank Admiral
Commands Akitsushima
Itsukushima
Battles/wars First Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
World War I
Awards Order of the Chrysanthemum
Order of the Bath (Honourary Knight Grand Cross)

Viscount Saitō Makoto, GCB (斎藤 実 Saitō Makoto ?, October 27, 1858 – February 26, 1936[1]) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, two-time Governor-General of Korea from 1919 to 1927 and from 1929 to 1931, and the 30th Prime Minister of Japan from May 26, 1932 to 8 July 8, 1934.

Contents

Biography

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Early life

Saitō was born in Mizusawa domain, Mutsu Province (present day Ōshū City Iwate Prefecture), as the son of a samurai of the Mizusawa Clan. In 1879, he graduated from the 6th class Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, ranking third out of a class of 17 cadets.

Military career

In 1884, Saitō went to the United States for four years to study as a military attaché.In 1888, after returning to Japan, he served as a member of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff.

After his promotion to lieutenant commander on December 20, 1893, he served as executive officer on the cruiser Izumi and battleship Fuji.

During the First Sino-Japanese War, Saitō served as captain of the cruisers Akitsushima and Itsukushima. On November 10, 1898, he became Vice Minister of the Navy, and was promoted to rear admiral on May 20, 1900[2]

Political career

Saitō was again Vice Navy Minister at the start of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. He was promoted to Vice Admiral on June 6, 1904. After the end of the war, he served as Navy Minister for 6 years, from 1906-1912, during which time he continually strove for expansion of the navy.

On September 21, 1907, Saitō was ennobled with the title of danshaku (baron) under the kazoku peerage system. On October 16, 1912, he was promoted to full admiral. However, on April 16, 1914, Saitō was forced to resign from his posts in the navy due implications of his involvement in the Siemens scandal, and officially entered the reserves.

In 1919, Saitō was appointed as the third Japanese Governor-General of Korea, a post which he held for many years. He was appointed just after the Samil Independence Movement, and implemented a series of measures to moderate the policies of Japanese rule. He served as governor-general of Korea twice (from 1919–27, and again from 1929–31). On April 29, 1925, his title was elevated to that of shishaku (viscount).

In 1927, Saitō was a member of the Japanese delegation at the Geneva Naval Conference on Disarmament, and he later became a privy councillor.

Prime Minister

Following the assassination of Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi on May 15, 1932 by fanatical navy officers who thought Inukai far too conciliatory (the May 15 Incident), Prince Saionji Kinmochi, one of the Emperor's closest and strongest advisors, attempted to stop the slide towards a military take-over of the government. In a compromise move, Saitō was chosen to be Inukai's successor. Sadao Araki remained as War Minister and immediately began making demands on the new government. During Saitō tenure, Japan recognized the independence of Manchukuo, and withdrew from the League of Nations.

Saitō's administration was one of the longer-serving ones of the inter-war period, and it continued until July 8, 1934; when the cabinet resigned en masse because of the Teijin Incident bribery scandal. Keisuke Okada succeeded as prime minister.

Saitō continued to be an important figure in politics as Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal from December 26, 1935 but was assassinated during the February 26 Incident of 1936 at his home in Yotsuya, Tokyo.

Saitō was posthumously awarded Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum.

References

Books

  • Bix, Herbert B. (2001). Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-093130-2.  
  • Brendon, Piers (2002). The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the 1930s. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-375-70808-1.  
  • Gordon, Andrew (2003). A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195110617.  
  • Jansen, Marius B (2002). The Making of Modern Japan. Belknap Press. ISBN 0674009916.  
  • Sims, Richard (2001). Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868-2000. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0312239157.  

External links

Notes

  1. ^ Nishida, Imperial Japanese Navy
  2. ^ Nishida, Imperial Japanese Navy.
Political offices
Preceded by
Gonbee Yamamoto
Minister of the Navy
1906–1914
Succeeded by
Rokurō Yashiro
Preceded by
Yoshimichi Hasegawa
Governor General of Korea
1919–1927
Succeeded by
Kazushige Ugaki
Acting
Preceded by
Kazushige Ugaki
Acting
Governor General of Korea
1927
Succeeded by
Hanzō Yamanashi
Preceded by
Hanzō Yamanashi
Governor General of Korea
1929–1931
Succeeded by
Kazushige Ugaki
Preceded by
Korekiyo Takahashi
Acting
Prime Minister of Japan
1932–1934
Succeeded by
Keisuke Okada
Preceded by
Kenkichi Yoshizawa
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1932
Succeeded by
Kosai Uchida

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