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Salafi (Arabic: سلفي‎) is a Sunni Islamic movement that takes the pious ancestors, the Salaf of the patristic period of early Islam, as exemplary models.[1] The word Salaf is an Arabic noun which may be translated as "predecessor" or "ancestor".[2] In Islamic terminology, it is generally used to refer to the first three generations of Muslims: the Sahabah ("The Companions"), the Tabi‘in ("The Followers") and the Taba‘ at-Tabi‘in ("Those after the Followers"). These three generations are looked upon as examples of how Islam should be practiced.

Contents

Definition

Salafis view the first three generations of Muslims, who are Prophet Muhammad's companions, and the two succeeding generations after them, the Tabi‘in and the Taba‘ at-Tabi‘in, as examples of how Islam should be practiced. This principle is derived from the following the hadith attributed to Prophet Muhammad: "The people of my generation are the best, then those who come after them, and then those who come after them."[3]

The principal tenet of Salafism is that Islam was perfect and complete during the days of Prophet Muhammad and his companions, but that undesirable innovations have been added over the later centuries due to materialist and cultural influences. Salafism seeks to revive a practice of Islam that more closely resembles the religion during the time of Prophet Muhammad.[4]

The term Salafism is sometimes used interchangeably with "Wahhabism". Adherents usually reject this term because it is considered derogatory and because they believe that Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab did not establish a new school of thought but revived the original teachings of Prophet Muhammad as was practiced by his companions and the earliest generations of Muslims. Salafis will never self-describe themselves as "Wahabis." Nonetheless, modern-day Salafis do regard Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab as a great Islamic scholar and reformer, a fact that is confirmed by their close adherence to his doctrinal teachings. Typically, adherents of Salafi movements describe themselves as Muwahidoon, Ahl al-Hadith,[5] or Ahl at-Tawheed.[6]

History of Salafism

From the perspective of Salafis, the history of salafism starts with Prophet Muhammad himself. They consider themselves direct followers of his teachings as outlined in the Quran and Sunnah (Prophetic traditions), and wish to emulate the piety of the first three generations of Islam (the Salaf). All later scholars are merely revivers (not 'founders') of the original practices. Modern scholars may only come to teach (or remind) Muslims of the instructions of the original followers of Islam.

Etymology

An example of early usage of the word salaf is in the hadith of Prophet Muhammad who noted, "I am the best Salaf for you."[7]

Early usage of the term as an ascription appears in the book Al-Ansaab by Abu Sa'd Abd al-Kareem al-Sama'ni, who died in the year 1166 (562 of the Islamic calendar). Under the entry for the ascription al-Salafi he stated, "This is an ascription to the salaf, or the predecessors, and the adoptation of their school of thought based upon what I have heard." He then mentions an example or more of people who were utilizing this ascription in his time.[8] In commenting upon as-Sam'aanee's saying, Ibn al-Athir noted: "And a group were known by this ascription." Thus the term Salafi, and its ascription to the group, was a matter known in the time of early Islamic scholars.[9]

Early examples of usage

  • Some scholars, such as Ibn Taymiyyah, have noted: "There is no criticism for the one who proclaims the madhab of the Salaf, who attaches himself to it and refers to it. Rather, it is obligatory to accept that from him by unanimous agreement because the way of the Salaf is nothing but the truth."[10]
  • The term salafi has been used to describe to theological position of particular scholars. Abo al-Hasan Ali ibn Umar al-Daraqutuni (d. 995 C.E., 385 A.H.) was described by al-Dhahabi as: "Never having entered into rhetoric or polemics, instead he was salafi."[11]
  • Also, Al-Dhahabi described Ibn al-Salah, a prominent 12th Century hadith specialist, as: "Firm in his religiosity, salafi in his generality and correct in his denomination. [He] refrained from falling into common pitfalls, believed in Allah and in what Allah has informed us of from His names and description."[12]
  • In another of his works, Tadhkirat al-huffaz, al-Dhahabi said of Ibn al-Salah: "I say: He was salafi, of sound creed, abstaining from the interpretations of the scholars of rhetoric, believing in what has been textually established, without recourse to unjustified interpretation or elaboration.[13]
  • In his book, Tabsir al-Muntabih, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani mentioned the ascription al-Salafi and named Abd al-Rahman ibn Abdillah ibn Ahmad Al-Sarkhasi al-Salafi as an example of its usage. Ibn Hajar then said: "And, likewise, the one ascribing to the salaf."[14]
  • Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani also used the term, salafi to describe Muhammad ibn al-Qaasim ibn Sufyan al-Misri al-Maliki (d. 966 C.E., 355 A.H.) He said that al-Malaiki was: "Salafi al-madh'habsalafi in his school of thought."[15]

Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab

Many Salafis today point instead to Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab as the first figure in the modern era to push for a return to the religious practices of the salaf as-salih or "righteous predecessors".[16] His evangelizing in 18th century Saudi Arabia was a call to return to what were the practices of the early generations of Muslims.

His works, especially Kitab at-Tawhid, are still widely read by Salafis around the world today, and the majority of Salafi scholars still reference his works frequently.[17] After his death, his views flourished under the generous financing of the House of Saud and initiated the current worldwide Salafi movement.

Muhammad Abduh, Jamal al-Din, Rashid Rida

From a perspective shared by historians, the use of the world Salafi to describe a revival movement within Islam started in Egypt in the mid 19th century among intellectuals at al-Azhar University, the preeminent center of Islamic learning, located in Cairo. Prominent among them were Muhammad Abduh (1849–1905), Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1839–1897) and Rashid Rida (1865–1935).[18][19][20][21][22]

These early reformers recognized the need for an Islamic revival, noticing the changing fortunes in the Islamic world following the Enlightenment in Europe. Al-Afghani was a political activist, whereas Abduh, an educator, and head of Egypt's religious law courts, sought gradual social reform and legal reform "to make sharia relevant to modern problems."

Abduh argued that the early generations of Muslims (the salaf al-salihin, hence the name Salafiyya, which was self-ascribed to Abduh and his disciples) had produced a vibrant civilization because they had creatively interpreted the Quran and hadith to answer the needs of their times.[23]

Salafis themselves disavow these figures. One prominent Salafi website, for example, describing itself as promoting "the creed and manhaj of the salaf us-saalih – pure and clear,"[24] includes claims that al-Afghani and Muhammad ‘Abduh were "known freemasons and ... [show] great misguidance in their ideologies," and alleges they were interested in an "anti-colonial political movement" rather than "orthodox Islam" or "the way of the Salaf," but their call was deceptively surrounded with slogans of `returning back to the way of the forefathers.`[25]

Beliefs and practices

Just who, or what groups and movements, qualify as salafi is disputed. Some define the term broadly, including the Muslim Brotherhood (who include the term salafi in the man nahnu (about us) section of their website),[26] and the Deobandi[27] Others exclude the Muslim Brotherhood[28] and the Deobandi[29] since they believe these groups commit religious innovations (bid'ah), or worse.

Staunch monotheism

Particular emphasis is given to monotheism – (tawhid); many Muslim practices which have now become common are condemned as polytheism (shirk). Salafis believe that widespread Muslim practices such as venerating the graves of Islamic prophets and saints to be shirk. Salafis in general are opposed to both Sufi and Shi'a doctrines, which Salafis regard as having many aspects of shirk, bid`ah and impermissible intercession of religious figures.

Prohibition of Rhetoric and Speculative Theology

Salafis reject Islamic speculative theology also known as "kalam", which is the usage of discourse and debate in the development of the Islamic creed. They consider this process as a foreign import from Greek philosophy (such as Plato and Aristotle) and alien to the original practice of Islam. They note that Imaam adh-Dhahabee (d. 748H) said: "It is authentically related from ad-Daaraqutnee that he said: There is nothing more despised by me than kalam (innovating speech and rhetoric). I say: He never entered into kalam, nor argumentation. Rather, was a Salafee (a follower of the Salaf).[10]

Abstaining from heretical beliefs and practices

Salafis maintain that bid'ah or innovation in the Islamic creed can cause considerable rifts amongst Muslims and future generations of Muslims. They believe that Muslims in one part of the world who engage in bid'ahs, such as circumambulating around shrines of saints,[30] celebrating Muhammad's birthday,[31] or commemorating the day of the death of a saint ("urs"), may not receive their newly invented practice with much welcome in other areas of the Islamic world where the practice is totally foreign, thus sparking dogmatic division.

Salafis further assert that actions stemming from a practice rooted in bid'ah will not result in any reward in spite of a worshipper's good intentions and, are dangerous to the Islamic creed since they replace or corrupt the religious practices ("Sunnah") of Muhammad. Salafis assert that if such practices increase a devotee's faith, Muhammad would have known about it and assuredly directed Muslims to do such acts since he was the best worshipper amongst mankind and most dutiful.[32] In showing textual support for the impermissibility of bid'ah or innovation in the Islamic creed, Salafis frequently cite a Sunni tradition attributed to Muhammad which states: "Every innovation is misguidance and going astray."[33]

They also maintain that Muhammad also warned against the People of Innovation, from befriending, supporting, or taking from them, as Muhammad is believed to have said: "Whoever innovates or accommodates an innovator then upon him is the curse of Allah, His Angels, and the whole of mankind.".[10] Salafis often quote many companions of Muhammad including a Sunni tradition in which Ibn Abbas states: "Indeed the most detestable of things to Allah are the innovations,"[10] and, a tradition in which Ibn Umar states: "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good."[10]

They note that earlier generations of Muslims like Imam Malik conveyed similar sentiment: "Whosoever introduces into Islam an innovation, and holds it to be something good, has indeed alleged that Muhammad has betrayed his message." Imam Malik then stressed: "Read the saying of Allah – the Most Blessed, the Most High: "This day I have perfected your Religion for you, completed My favour upon you and I have chosen for you Islam as your Religion." [Al-Maa‘idah 5:3].

Malik then concluded: "So that which was not part of the Religion at that time, cannot be part of the Religion today...And the last part of this Ummah cannot be rectified, except by that which rectified its first part." Similarly, they state that Abu Hanifa emphasized: "Adhere to the athar (narration) and the tareeqah (way) of the Salaf (Pious Predecessors) and beware of newly invented matters (in Religion) for all of it is innovation."[10]

Likewise, Shaikh Saalih Aal ash-Shaikh, Minister of Islamic Affairs of Saudi Arabia, stated: "Muslims are of two groups: Salafis and Khalafis. As for the Salafis, then they are the followers of Salafus Saalih (first three generations of Muslims). And as for the Khalafis, then they are the followers of the understanding of the Khalaf and they are also called Innovators – since everyone who is not pleased and satisfied with the path of the Salafus Saalih, in knowledge and action, understanding and fiqh, then he is a khalafi, an innovator."[34]

Practices

Whichever definition is used, Salafis idealize an uncorrupted, pure Islamic religious community. They believe that Islam's decline after the early generations is the result of religious innovations (bid‘ah) and that an Islamic revival will result through the emulation of the three early generations and the purging of foreign influences from the religion.

Salafis, similar to adherents of most denominations of Islam, place great emphasis on ritual not only in prayer but in every activity in daily life—many are careful to always use three fingers when eating, drink water in three pauses with the right hand while sitting,[35] make sure their galabea or other garment worn by them does not extend below the ankle—so as to follow the example of Muhammad and the companions and make religion part of every activity in life.

On following a Madh'hab

They believe that following only the Qur'an and the Hadith and the Ijma (consensus) of the Ulema, are sufficient guidance for the believing Muslim. Salafis also reference many of their teachings to the 14th century Syrian scholars Ibn Taymiya, and his students Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Kathir[citation needed] and Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in the 18th century. These individuals were Hanbali in origin.

As Salafism is a methodology, Salafis can come from the Maliki, the Shafi, the Hanbali, or the Hanafi schools of law.[6] Salafis accept teaching of all four school of law only if their ruling is supported by Quran and Sunnah, they are not divided on the question of adherence to the four recognized schools of legal interpretation (madh'habs). Salafis base their jurisprudence directly on the Qur'an and Sunnah and the first three generations of Muslims. Salafis rely on the jurisprudence of one of the four famous madh'habs. only if supported by Quran and Sunnah. For example, Ibn Taymiya followed the Hanbali madhhab. Some of his students (such as Ibn Kathir and Al-Dhahabi) followed the Shafi madhhab. Other students (such as Ibn Abu al-Iz) follow the Hanafi madhhab.

Contemporary Salafism

Modern use

In modern times the word has come to have two sometimes dissimilar definitions. The first, used by academics and historians, refers to denote "a school of thought which surfaced in the second half of the nineteenth century as a reaction to the spread of European ideas," and "sought to expose the roots of modernity within Muslim civilization."[36] The second "quite different" use of the word favored by self-described contemporary salafis, defines a salafis as a Muslim who follows "literal, traditional ... injunctions of the sacred texts" rather than the "somewhat freewheeling interpretation" of earlier "salafis." These salafis look to Ibn Taymiyya, not the 19th century figures of Muhammad Abduh, Jamal al-Din, Rashid Rida.[36]

Current disagreements and division

All Salafi Scholars spoke against present so called jihad and they hold their opinion as ""No individual has the right to take the law into his own hands on any account. Even the closest of Muhammad's companions never killed a single of his opponents even when invectives were hurled at him day and night in the first thirteen years of his Da'wah at Makkah. Nor did they kill anyone in retaliation when he was pelted with stones at Ta'if"". But in recent years they have been falsely associated with "jihadi" of Al-Qaeda, and related groups calling for the killing of civilians, and opposed by many Muslim groups and governments, including the Saudi government. Debate continues today over the appropriate method of reform, ranging from violent "Salafism jihadism" to lesser politicized evangelism.[citation needed]

Despite some similarities, the different contemporary self-proclaimed Salafist groups often strongly disapprove of each other and deny the others Salafi character.[37][37][38]

Spread and effect

For rootless immigrants and disaffected second and third generation youths in Europe, Salafism is attractive because of its claim to authenticity. For those living in the metropolises of the Middle East, it offers an emotionally rich alternative to the slogans of Arab nationalism.

Salafism appeals to younger Muslims as a way to differentiate themselves from the beliefs of parents and grandparents because it is seen as "pure", stripped of "the local, superstitious, and customary Muslim practices of their families' countries of origin". It confers a sense of moral superiority. Salafism has a potent appeal because it underscores Islam's universality.[39]

Salafism insists on the literal truth of Muslim scripture and what might be called a strict constructionist brand of sharia or religious law.[39] Salafism may have more appeal than secularism by appropriating secularisms' traditional role of defending the socially and politically weak against the powerful.[40]

The spread of Salafism has prompted political leaders in the Middle East to accommodate a greater role for religion in public policy.[41]

Association with Wahhabism

As the second definition has predominated, the terms "Wahhabism" – which also pays great respect to Ibn Taymiyya – and "Salafism" are now often used interchangeably. Wahhabism has been called a "belittling" term for Salafi,[37] while another source defines it as "a particular orientation within Salafism,"[6] an orientation some consider ultra-conservative,[42][43] and yet another describes it as a formerly separate current of Islamic thought that appropriated "language and symbolism of Salafism" until the two became "practically indistinguishable" in the 1970s.[44]

Scholar Trevor Stanley states that while the origins of the terms Wahhabism and Salafism "were quite distinct" – "Wahhabism was a pared-down Islam that rejected modern influences, while Salafism sought to reconcile Islam with modernism" – they both shared a rejection of "traditional teachings on Islam in favor of direct, ‘fundamentalist’ reinterpretation."

Stéphane Lacroix, a postdoctoral fellow and lecturer at Sciences Po in Paris, also affirmed a distinction between the two: "As opposed to Wahhabism, Salafism refers here to all the hybridations that have taken place since the 1960s between the teachings of Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Wahhab and other Islamic schools of thought. Al-Albani’s discourse can therefore be a form of Salafism, while being critical of Wahhabism."[45]

But despite their beginnings "as two distinct movements", the migration of Muslim Brotherhood members from Egypt to Saudi Arabia and Saudi King Faisal's "embrace of Salafi pan-Islamism resulted in cross-pollination between ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s teachings on tawhid, shirk and bid‘ah and Salafi interpretations of ahadith (the sayings of Muhammad).[46]

Comparison with Islamism

Salafism differs from the earlier contemporary Islamic revival movements of the 1970s and 1980s commonly referred to as Islamism, in that (at least many) Salafis reject not only Western ideologies such as Socialism and Capitalism, but also common Western concepts like economics, constitutions, political parties and revolution.

Salafi Muslims often promote not engaging in Western activities like politics, "even by giving them an Islamic slant."[47] Instead, it is thought that Muslims should stick to traditional activities, particularly Dawah. Salafis promote Sharia (Islamic law) rather than an Islamic political program or state.

Criticism

Salafism, or at least the so called "puritanical" forms of it, has been recently criticized by Professor Khaled Abou El Fadl of UCLA School of Law. El Fadl claims that the Salafi methodology "drifted into stifling apologetics" by mid-20th century, a reaction against "anxiety" to "render Islam compatible with modernity," by its leaders earlier in the century.[48]

Some Salafi writers would allegedly claim, for example, that "any meritorious or worthwhile modern institutions were first invented and realized by Muslims." The result was that "an artificial sense of confidence and an intellectual lethargy" developed, according to Abou El Fadl, "that took neither the Islamic tradition nor" the challenges of the modern world "very seriously."[49][50]

Salafi scholars

Older authorities accepted by modern Salafis as Salafi

Arabian Peninsula

Egypt

List of scholars[51]

Mesopotamia & Greater Khorasan

List of scholars[52]

Greater Syria

List of scholars[53]

Al Andalus

Contemporary Salafi scholars

Afghanistan

Albania

Egypt

List of scholars[55]

  • Shaykh Ahmad bin Muhammad Shaakir (1377H)
  • Shaykh Muhhib ud-Deen al-Khateeb (1389H)
  • Shaykh Muhammad Khaleel Harras (1395H)
  • Shaykh 'Abdur-Razzaaq al-'Afeefee (1415H)
  • Shaykh Mahmood Shaakir (1418H)
  • Shaykh Safwat Nouruddeen (1423H)
  • Shaykh Muhammad bin 'Abdul-Wahhaab al-Banna (1430H)

Pakistan

  • Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Muhammad ad-Dehlawee al-Madanee (1375H)
  • Shaykh Ehsaan Elaahi Zaheer (1407H)
  • Shaykh Badee' ud-Deen as-Sindhee (1416H)
  • Shaykh 'Abdul-Ghaffaar Hasan (1427H)
  • Shaykh Muhammad Ismail Salafi

India

  • Shaykh Safiur-Rahmaan al-Mubarakpuree (1427H)

Saudi Arabia

List of scholars[56]

Somalia

Syria

Yemen

List of scholars[58]

References

  1. ^ Ghazali And The Poetics Of Imagination, by Ebrahim Moosa ISBN 0-8078-5612-6 – Page 21
  2. ^ Dawat-us-Salafiyyah (Call of those who preceded us)
  3. ^ Bukhari 3:48:819 and 820 [1] and Muslim 31:6150 and 6151 [2].
  4. ^ Creed according to Sheikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah
  5. ^ The Muslim World After 9/11 By Angel M. Rabasa, pg. 275
  6. ^ a b c GlobalSecurity.org Salafi Islam
  7. ^ Why the Word Salafee?
  8. ^ Al-Ansab, by Abu Sa'd Abd al-Kareem Al-Sama'ni, vol. 7, pg. 168, photocopied from the Da'iah Al-Ma'arif Al-Uthmaniyah edition by the Al-Faruq publishing company of Egypt, no date provided. The names of those using this ascription were described by the verifier as being blank in all of the manuscript copies of the book, he obtained them by means of cross referencing.
  9. ^ A Reply to the Doubts of the Qutubiyyah Concerning Ascription to Sunnah and Salafiyyah, page 29, SalafiPublications.com, Article ID: SLF010004.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Statements from the Salaf on Ascription to the Salaf, SalafiPublications.com, Article ID: SLF010001
  11. ^ a b Siyar 'Alam al-Nubula, by al-Dhahbi, vol. 16, pg. 457, no. 332, Mua'ssash al-Risalah, Beirut, 11th edition, 2001.
  12. ^ Siyar 'Alam al-Nubala, vol. 23, pg. 142-3, by al-Dhahabi, Muassah al-Risalah, Beirut, 11th Edition, 2001.
  13. ^ Tadhkirah al-huffaz, vol. 4, pg. 1431, Da'irah al-Ma'arif al-'Uthmaniyyah, India.
  14. ^ Tabsir al-Muntabih Bitahrir al-Mushtabih, vol. 2, pg. 738, published by: Al-Mu'assasah al-Misriyyah al-'Ammah Lil-Talif wa Al-Anba' wa al-Nashr, edited by: Ali al-Bajawi, no additional information.
  15. ^ Lisan al-Mizan, by Ibn Hajar, vol. 5, pg. 348, no. 1143, Dar al-Kitab al-Islami, no additional information; it is spparently a reprint of the original Indian print. The quoted segment of Ibn Hajar's biography for al-Misri originated from Ibn Hajar, as this was not included in al-Dhahabi's biography of the same individual (who is named 'ibn Sha'ban' instead of ibn Sufyan).
  16. ^ The Principles of Salafiyyah
  17. ^ Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhab: His Salafi Creed, Reformist Movement and Scholars' Praise of Him, 4th ed. by Judge Ahmad Ibn 'Hajar Ibn Muhammad al-Butami al-Bin Ali, Ad-Dar as-Salafiyyah, Kuwait, 1983, p.108-164
  18. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Macmillan Reference, 2004, v.2, p.609
  19. ^ The New Encyclopedia of Islam by Cyril Glasse, Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, p.19
  20. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Islam by John L. Esposito, OUP, 2003, p.275
  21. ^ Historical Dictionary of Islam by Ludwig W. Wadamed, Scarecrow Press, 2001, p.233
  22. ^ see discussion section
  23. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Macmillan Reference, 2004, p.7
  24. ^ salafipublications.com
  25. ^ "Historical Development of the Methodologies of al-Ikhwaan al-Muslimeen And Their Effect and Influence Upon Contemporary Salafee Dawah: Part 8 Updated. accessed 12 May 2007.p.5
  26. ^ http://ikhwanonline.net/Article.asp?ArtID=120&SecID=0
  27. ^ Pape, Dying to Win Random House, 2005, p.106
  28. ^ Hasan al-Banna and the Ways and Means of Da'wah Hasan al-Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, "... is the imaam of this crooked path/way which makes permissible for itself every single way or means for the sake of actualizing what they call the 'the benefit of the da'wah' but [in reality] it is nothing but the 'benefits of dejected hizbiyyah (party-spirit)' ..."
  29. ^ Tableegh Jamaat: Teachings of Shirk .... "... And this is the trodden path of Salaf, so let the School of Deobandi and the generality of Tabligh beware that Allah loves not the spreaders of mischief and corruption upon the earth and that the oppression of Shirk (that they promote in their books) is great indeed ...."
  30. ^ Shocking Images of Graves and Tombs from Banglore, India
  31. ^ Who Really Loves the Messenger of Allah?
  32. ^ Every Innovation is Misguidance and all misguidance leads to hell-fire
  33. ^ Bid'ah, SalafiPublications.com, Knowledge Base – Bid'ah section
  34. ^ A Reply to the Doubts of the Qutubiyyah Concerning Ascription to Sunnah and Salafiyyah, page 24, SalafiPublications.com, Article ID: SLF010004
  35. ^ Six Points of Tabligh, Its chapter on `Desired Manners of Eating and Drinking`, includes 26 norms on the etiquette of eating and drinking. From: Globalized Islam : the Search for a New Ummah, by Olivier Roy, Columbia University Press, 2004
  36. ^ a b Jihad By Gilles Kepel, Anthony F. Roberts
  37. ^ a b c What is a Salafi and What is Salafism?
  38. ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled, The Great Theft Harper San Francisco, 2005, p.62-8
  39. ^ a b The Next Attack, By Daniel Benjamin Steven Simon, ISBN 0-8050-7941-6 – Page 55
  40. ^ Brief History of Islam, Hassan Hanafi, ISBN 1-4051-0900-9 – Page 258-259
  41. ^ The Next Attack, By Daniel Benjamin, Steven Simon, ISBN 0-8050-7941-6 – Page 274
  42. ^ Washington Post, For Conservative Muslims, Goal of Isolation a Challenge
  43. ^ John L. Esposito, What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam, p.50
  44. ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled M., The Great Theft, HarperSanFrancisco, 2005, p.79
  45. ^ Al-Albani’s Revolutionary Approach to Hadith, by Stéphane Lacroix, ISIM Review, issue 21, Spring 2008, pg. 7, as appears at ISIM Review Al-Albani’s Revolutionary Approach to Hadith
  46. ^ Understanding the Origins of Wahhabism and Salafism by Trevor Stanley
  47. ^ Globalized Islam : the Search for a New Ummah, by Olivier Roy, Columbia University Press, 2004 (p.245)
  48. ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled, The Great Theft, Harper San Francisco, 2005, p.77
  49. ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled, The Great Theft Harper San Francisco, 2005, p.78-9
  50. ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled, The Great Theft Harper San Francisco, 2005, p.52-56
  51. ^ http://salafi-books.com/index.php/books/authors.html
  52. ^ http://salafi-books.com/index.php/books/authors.html
  53. ^ http://salafi-books.com/index.php/books/authors.html
  54. ^ Siyar 'Alam al-Nubala, vol. 23, pg. 142-3, by al-Dhahabi, Muassah al-Risalah, Beirut, 11th Edition, 2001. And Tadhkirah al-huffaz, vol. 4, pg. 1431, Da'irah al-Ma'arif al-'Uthmaniyyah, India.
  55. ^ http://salafi-books.com/index.php/books/authors.html
  56. ^ http://salafi-books.com/index.php/books/authors.html
  57. ^ http://www.fatwa-online.com/scholarsbiographies/15thcentury/assumaalee.htm
  58. ^ http://salafi-books.com/index.php/books/authors.html

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