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Salem, Massachusetts
—  City  —
Salem Maritime National Historic Site

Seal
Nickname(s): The Witch City
Location in Essex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°31′10″N 70°53′50″W / 42.51944°N 70.89722°W / 42.51944; -70.89722
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Essex
Settled 1626
Incorporated 1629
A City 1836
Government
 - Type Mayor-council city
 - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll
Area
 - Total 18.1 sq mi (46.8 km2)
 - Land 8.1 sq mi (21.0 km2)
 - Water 10.0 sq mi (25.8 km2)
Elevation 9 ft (3 m)
Population (2007)
 - Total 40,922
 Density 5,052.1/sq mi (1,948.7/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 01970
Area code(s) 351 / 978
FIPS code 25-59105
GNIS feature ID 0614337
Website www.salem.com

Salem, Massachusetts is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 40,407 at the 2000 census. It and Lawrence are the county seats of Essex County.[1] Home to Salem State College, the Salem Willows Park and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem is a residential and tourist area which includes the neighborhoods of Salem Neck, The Point, South Salem and North Salem, Witchcraft Heights, and the McIntire Historic District (named after Salem's famous architect and carver, Samuel McIntire).

Salem was one of the most significant seaports in early America. It has the first National Historic Site designated by Congress, Salem Maritime National Historic Site, which protects Salem's historic waterfront.[citation needed]

Featured notably in Arthur Miller's The Crucible, much of the city's cultural identity is reflective of its role as the location of the Salem Witch Trials of 1692: Police cars are adorned with witch logos, a local public school is known as the Witchcraft Heights Elementary School, the Salem High School football team is named The Witches, and Gallows Hill, a site of numerous public hangings, is currently used as a playing field for various sports.

Tourists know Salem as a mix of important historical sites, New Age and Wiccan boutiques, and kitschy Halloween or witch-themed attractions. The most recent (and controversial) addition of significance is a bronze statue of the Samantha Stephens character (played by actress Elizabeth Montgomery) of the Bewitched television program in Salem's Lappin Park on June 15, 2005.[2]

Contents

History

Nathaniel Hawthorne by Bela Pratt
People working along shore and wharf on the waterfront in Salem, Massachusetts circa 1770s

Salem was founded at the mouth of the Naumkeag river in 1626 at the site of an ancient Native American village and trading center (it was originally called Naumkeag and was renamed Salem three years later) by a company of fishermen from Cape Ann led by Roger Conant, and incorporated in 1629. The name "Salem" is also the name used for Jerusalem in Genesis 14:18, and related to the Hebrew word shalom, meaning 'peace'.[3] As the future Massachusetts was intended to be the Puritan New Israel in the New World, it was deemed appropriate to name Massachusetts' intended seat of government after Jerusalem - Salem.

Naumkeag was first settled in 1626 by the Dorchester Company with Roger Conant as Governor. That settlement was located east of the present day Salem commuter rail station.

A year later, Governor John Endicott arrived in Naumkeag and a patent was solicited by the Massachusetts Bay Company in England. Endicott moved the Great House from Cape Anne reassembling on what is now Washington Street north of Church Street. And a year later, the Massachusetts Bay Charter was issued creating the Massachusetts Bay Colony with Thomas Craddock as Governor and Endicott as a Governor's Assistant. A challenge to Endicott's authority in Naumkeag arose in London and was settled within the Massachusetts Bay Company. One week later, Governor John Winthrop was elected Governor and John Endicott was re-elected Governor's Assistant, followed by the Great Puritan Migration/Fleet of 1629/30. Endicott's greeting of Winthrop is the subject of a plaque on the Boston Common.

In 1639, his was one of the signatures on the building contract for enlarging the meeting house in Town House Square for the First Church in Salem. This document remains part of the town records at City Hall. He was active in the affairs of the town throughout his life. In 1679, he died at the age of 87. Salem originally included much of the North Shore, including Marblehead. Most of the accused in the Salem witch trials lived in nearby 'Salem Village', now known as Danvers, although a few lived on the outskirts of Salem. Salem Village also included Peabody and parts of present-day Beverly. Middleton, Topsfield, Wenham and Manchester-by-the-Sea, too, were once parts of Salem. One of the most widely known aspects of Salem is its history of witchcraft allegations, which started with Abigail Williams, Betty Parris, and their friends playing with a Venus glass and egg. Salem achieved further legal notoriety as the site of the Dorothy Talbye trial, where a mentally ill woman was hanged for murdering her daughter, because at the time the Massachusetts common law made no distinction between insanity and criminal behavior.[4]

On February 26, 1775, patriots raised the drawbridge at the North River, preventing British Colonel Alexander Leslie and his 300 troops of the 64th Regiment of Foot from seizing stores and ammunition hidden in North Salem. A few months later, in May 1775, a group of prominent merchants with ties to Salem, including Francis Cabot, William Pynchon, Thomas Barnard, E.A. Holyoke and William Pickman, felt the need to publish a statement retracting what some interpreted as Loyalist leanings and to profess their dedication to the Colonial cause.[5]

During the Revolution, the town became a center for privateering. By 1790, Salem was the sixth largest city in the country, and a world famous seaport—particularly in the China trade. Codfish was exported to the West Indies and Europe. Sugar and molasses were imported from the West Indies, tea from China, and pepper from Sumatra. Salem ships also visited Africa, Russia, Japan and Australia. During the War of 1812, privateering resumed.

Prosperity left the city with a wealth of fine architecture, including Federal style mansions designed by one of America's first architects Samuel McIntire, for whom the city's largest historic district is named. These collection of homes and mansions from Colonial America are now the greatest concentrations of notable pre-1900 domestic structures in the United States.

This wealth of architecture in Salem can be directly attributed to the Old China Trade, which was ongoing for years with America and Great Britain.

Incorporated as a city on March 23, 1836 [6], Salem adopted a city seal in 1839 with the motto "Divitis Indiae usque ad ultimum sinum", Latin for "To the farthest port of the rich Indies." Nathaniel Hawthorne was overseer of the port from 1846 until 1849. He worked in the Customs House near Pickering Wharf, his setting for the beginning of The Scarlet Letter. In 1858, an amusement park was established at Salem Willows, a peninsula jutting into the harbor. It should be noted that up until the War of 1812, the port of Salem was a major center of trade in America.

But shipping declined throughout the 19th century. Salem and its silting harbor were increasingly eclipsed by Boston and New York. Consequently, the city turned to manufacturing. Industries included tanneries, shoe factories and the Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company. More than 400 homes burned in the Great Salem Fire of 1914, leaving 3,500 families homeless from a blaze that began in the Korn Leather Factory. The fire ripped into one part of the city, but historical places including City Hall and the historic concentration of Federal architecture on Chestnut Street were spared; the fire left mostly all of Salem's architectural legacy intact, which helped it develop as a center for tourism.

The book "The Salem-India Story" written by Vanita Shastri narrates the adventures of the Salem seamen who connected the far corners of the globe through trade. This period (1788–1845) marks the beginning of US-India relations, way before the 21st century wave of globalization. It reveals the global trade connections that Salem, Massachusetts had established with faraway lands, which were a source of livelihood and prosperity for many.

Geography and Transportation

The Salem Ferry approaching its dock off Blaney Street.

Salem is located at 42°31′1″N 70°53′55″W / 42.51694°N 70.89861°W / 42.51694; -70.89861 (42.516845, -70.898503).[7] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.1 square miles (46.8 km²), of which, 8.1 square miles (21.0 km²) of it is land and 9.9 square miles (25.8 km²) of it (55.09%) is water. Salem lies on Massachusetts Bay between Salem Harbor, which divides the city from much of neighboring Marblehead to the southeast, and Beverly Harbor, which divides the city from Beverly along with the Danvers River, which feeds into the harbor. Between the two harbors lies Salem Neck and Winter Island, which are divded from each othe by Cat Cove, Smith Pool (located between the two land causeways to Winter Island) and Juniper Cove. The city is further divided by Collins Cove, and the inlet to the North River. The Forest River flows through the south end of town as well, along with Strong Water Brook, wich feeds Spring Pond at the town's southwest corner. The town has several parks, as well as conservation land along the Forest River and Camp Lion, which lies east of Spring Pond.

The city is divided by its natural features into several small neighborhoods. The Salem Neck neighborhood lies northeast of downtown, and North Salem lies to the west of it, on the other side of the North River. South Salem is south of the South River, lying mostly along the banks of Salem Harbor southward. Downtown Salem lies fifteen miles northeast of Boston, sixteen miles southwest of Gloucester and Cape Ann, and nineteen miles southeast of Lawrence, the other county seat of Essex County. Salem is bordered by Beverly to the north, Danvers to the northwest, Peabody to the west, Lynn to the southeast, Swampscott to the south, and Marblehead to the southeast. The town's water rights extend along a channel into Massachusetts Bay between the water rights of Marblehead and Beverly.

The connection between Salem and Beverly is made across the Danvers River and Beverly Harbor by three bridges, the Kernwood Bridge to the west, and a railroad bridge and the Essex Bridge, from the land between Collins Cove and the North River, to the east. Essex Bridge carries Route 1A across the river. Route 1A passes through the eastern side of the city, through South Salem towards Swampscott. For much of its length in the city, it is coextensive with Route 114, which goes north from Marblehead before merging with Route 1A, and then heading northwest from downtown towards Lawrence. Route 107 also passes through town, entering from Lynn in the southwest corner of the city before heading towards its intersection with Route 114 and terminating at Route 1A. There is no highway access within the city; the nearest highway access to Route 128 is along Route 114 in neighboring Peabody.

Several lines of the MBTA Bus service pass through the city. Salem has a station on the Newburyport/Rockport Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail. The railroad lines are also connected to an abandoned portion of the Springfield Terminal lines which lead into Peabody, and a former line into Marblehead has been converted into a bike path. Between late spring and early autumn, the high-speed Salem Ferry operates between Salem and the New England Aquarium. The nearest small airport is Beverly Municipal Airport, and the nearest national and international service can be reached at Boston's Logan International Airport.

Demographics

Essex Street in c. 1920

As of the census[8] of 2000, there were 40,407 people, 17,492 households, and 9,708 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,986.0 people per square mile (1,926.1/km²). There were 18,175 housing units at an average density of 2,242.7/sq mi (866.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 85.37% White, 3.15% African American, 0.22% Native American, 2.00% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.74% from other races, and 2.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.24% of the population.

There were 17,492 households out of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.5% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.95.

Pickering House in c. 1905

In the city the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $44,033, and the median income for a family was $55,635. Males had a median income of $38,563 versus $31,374 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,857. About 6.3% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.

Education

Salem State College is the largest state college in Massachusetts (note that State Colleges are separate from the University of Massachusetts system), with 7,000 undergraduates and 2,500 graduate students; its campus comprises 108 acres (0.44 km2) and 33 buildings. It hosts a regular Speaker Series, featuring major invited speakers. It was originally founded as the Salem Normal School (for teacher training) in 1854, thanks to the efforts of Horace Mann who is considered the "Father of American Public Education."

Public elementary schools include the Bates, Bentley, Carlton, Horace Mann, Nathaniel Bowditch, Saltonstall and Witchcraft Heights schools. Collins Middle School, Nathaniel Bowditch School, and Salem High School are located on Highland Avenue. Private schools are also located in the city, including two independent, alternative schools, the Phoenix and the Greenhouse, as well as the Salem Academy Charter School.

Salem also once had a very strong Roman Catholic school system. Once home to almost a dozen schools, the last school in the city, St. Joseph, has announced it will close in June 2009. St. James High School, St. Chretienne Academy, St. Chretienne Grammar School and St. Mary's School closed in 1971, St. James Grammar School closed in 1972, St. Thomas the Apostle School closed in 1973, St. Anne School closed in 1976, St. John the Baptist School closed in 1977 and St. Joseph High School closed in 1980.[9]

In late 2007 and early 2008, the city's public school system garnered regional and even national attention after officials announced a $4.7 million budget shortfall that threatened the jobs of teachers and other staff members. The Massachusetts General Court passed legislation, and residents raised enough money, that averted teacher layoffs. Several dozen support workers were still laid off.[10] Police were investigating what happened to the money in a search for criminal violations of the law.[11]

Tourism

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Witch-related tourism

People lined up to visit the Witch Museum on Halloween

Since the decline of the city's industrial base, tourism has become an increasingly important part of Salem's economy. Tourism based on the 1692 witch trials dates back to at least the first half of the 20th century, when dry goods merchant Daniel Low sold souvenir spoons with witch images. Such tourism expanded significantly in the 1970s, when the television comedy Bewitched filmed several episodes here.[12] Witch-related tourism expanded significantly in the 1990s, and the city added an official "Haunted Happenings" celebration during the October tourist season. In 2007, the city launched the Haunted Passport program which offers visitors discounts and benefits from local tourist attractions and retailers from October to April. The goal of the program is to get visitors to come back to Salem after Halloween and experience businesses that may not be directly tied to Halloween. Thousands watched in 2007 as Mayor Kim Driscoll started a new trend with a massive fireworks display that kicked off at 10:00 pm on Halloween.[13]

In recent years, tourism has been an occasional source of debate in the city, with some residents arguing the city should downplay witch tourism and market itself as a more upscale cultural center. In 2005, the conflict came to a head over plans by the cable television network TV Land to erect a bronze statue of Elizabeth Montgomery, who played the comic witch "Samantha" in the 1960s series Bewitched. A few special episodes of the series were actually filmed in Salem, and TV Land said that the statue commemorated the 35th anniversary of those episodes. The statue was sculpted by StudioEIS under the direction of brothers Elliott and Ivan Schwartz. Many felt the statue was good fun and appropriate to a city that promotes itself as "The Witch City", and contains a street named "Witch Way". Others objected to the use of public property for what was transparently commercial promotion. Some felt that the statue trivialized history by encouraging visitors to recall a sitcom rather than the tragic Salem witch trials. The statue was later vandalized with red spray-painted "X"s over the face and chest, and flags placed in the statue's hands.

Other tourist attractions

Salem is home to the oldest National Historic Site in America, Salem Maritime National Historic Site, [3] which is managed by the National Park Service. Salem Massachusetts was one of the most important ports in the nation prior to the War of 1812, when ships were still small enough to fit into the rather small inner harbor. Lining the downtown are historic buildings, wharves, and the customs house where Nathaniel Hawthorne penned The Scarlet Letter. Other historical tourist attractions include Hawthorne's birthplace, the House of the Seven Gables which inspired Hawthorne's novel of the same name, and a reconstructed late 18th-century warehouse from neighboring Marblehead.

The Friendship replica docked off of Derby Street

In 2000 the replica tall ship Friendship was finished and sailed to Salem Harbor, where she sits today. The Friendship is a reconstruction of a 171-foot (52 m) three-masted Salem East Indiaman trading ship, originally built in 1797, which traveled the world over a dozen times and returning to Salem after each voyage with goods from all over the world. The original was taken by the British during the War of 1812 then stripped and sold in pieces.

The Peabody Essex Museum is a leading museum of Asian art and culture and early American maritime trade and whaling; its collections of Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese art, and in particular Chinese export porcelain, are among the finest in the country. It is now America's oldest continuously operating museum, having been founded in 1799. The museum owns and exhibits a number of historic houses in downtown Salem. In 2003, it completed a massive renovation and expansion, designed by architect Moshe Safdie, and moved a 200-year-old 16-room Chinese home from Xiuning County in southeastern China to the grounds of the Museum.

The Pioneer Village, created in 1930, was America's first living-history museum. The site features a three-acre, recreated Puritan village, and allows visitors the opportunity to participate in activities from the lives of Salem's earliest English settlers.

As of the fall of 2009 the Old Salem Jail, an active facility until 1991, and once housed captured British soldiers from the War of 1812, is now under a complete multi-million dollar renovation. When completely finished the Old Salem Jail will be a mixed use development with condos, a dining establishment & small attraction on the history of the Old Salem Jail.

Points of interest

Notable residents

Sister cities

Further reading

  • In the Devil's Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692, Mary Beth Norton, Knopf, 2002, hardcover, 432 pages, ISBN 0-375-40709-X

Notes

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ McCabe, Kathy. "'Bewitched' statue charms Salem fans". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2005/06/16/bewitched_statue_charms_salem_fans/. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  3. ^ MileChai.com definition
  4. ^ Albert Christophe. The Romantic Story of the Puritan Fathers: And Their Founding of NewBoston. http://books.google.com/books?id=648_AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131&dq=dorothy+talbye&source=web&ots=3yh_eFoua8&sig=gTpgLoNymx_uf9umOuCnSXtz19o#PPR5,M1. Retrieved 2007-11-14. 
  5. ^ The Loyalists of Massachusetts and the Other Side of the American Revolution, James H. Stark, James H. Stark, Boston, 1910
  6. ^ Salem history
  7. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  8. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  9. ^ Salem News
  10. ^ Salem News
  11. ^ Salem News
  12. ^ Harpies Bizarre
  13. ^ Salem News
  14. ^ Hasket Derby Pickman, Harvard College class of 1815 and son of Col. Benjamin Pickman Esq. and his wife Anstiss Derby, daughter of merchant Elias Hasket Derby and his wife Elizabeth Crowninshield, died the year he graduated from Harvard.[1]
  15. ^ The Native Ministry of New Hampshire, Nathan Franklin Carter, Rumford Printing Co., Concord, N.H., 1906
  16. ^ The Life of Timothy Pickering, Vol. II, Octavius Pickering, Charles Wentworth Upham, Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1873
  17. ^ Leavitt was minister of a splinter church of Salem's First Church. Upon Leavitt's untimely death in 1762, the church elected to call itself 'the Church of which the Rev. Mr. Dudley Leavitt was late Pastor.'[2]
  18. ^ Naturalization papers of Benjamin Pickman, Dudley Leavitt Pickman Papers, Phillips Library Collection, Peabody Essex Museum, pem.org/museum
  19. ^ Acts and Resolves Passed by the General Court, Russell, Cutler & Co., Boston, 1812-1815
  20. ^ George Nichols, Salem Shipmaster and Merchant, George Nichols, Martha Nichols, Reprinted by Ayers Publishing, 1970
  21. ^ Yankee India: American Commercial and Cultural Encounters with India in the Age of Sail, 1784–1860, Susan S. Bean, Peabody Essex Museum, Published by Peabody Essex Museum, 2001
  22. ^ History of Essex County, Massachusetts, Vol. I, Douglas Hamilton Hurd, J.W. Lewis & Co., Philadelphia, 1888
  23. ^ Chico considers establishing permanent sister city guidelines - Chico Enterprise Record
  24. ^ This resulted from the affiliation between Salem's Peabody Essex Museum (PEM) and the Ota Folk Museum in Japan.

References

External links

Coordinates: 42°31′01″N 70°53′55″W / 42.516845°N 70.898503°W / 42.516845; -70.898503


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SALEM, a city and one of the county-seats (Lawrence is the other) of Essex (disambiguation)|Essex county, Massachusetts, about 15 m. N.E. of Boston. Pop. (1900), 35,956, of whom 10,902 were foreign-born (including 4003 French Canadians, 3476 Irish, and 1585 English Canadians), 23,038 were of foreign parentage (one or the other parent foreign-born) and 156 were negroes; (1910), 43,697. Area, 8.2 sq. m. Salem is served by the Boston & Maine and by interurban electric railways westward to Peabody, Danvers and Lawrence, eastward to Beverly, and southward to Marblehead, Swampscott, Lynn and Boston. It occupies a peninsula projecting toward the north-east, a small island (Winter Island) connected with the neck of the peninsula (Salem Neck) by a causeway, and some land on the mainland. Salem has many historical and literary landmarks. There are three court-houses, one of granite (1839-1841) with great monolithic Corinthian pillars, another (1862), adjoining it, of brick, and a third (1908-1909) of granite, for the probate court. The City Hall was built in 1837, and enlarged in 1876. The Custom House (1818-1819) is described in the introduction to Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter, and in it Hawthorne worked as surveyor of the port in 1845-1849. The public library building (1888) was given to the city by the heirs of Captain John Bertram.

The Essex Institute (1848) is housed in a brick building (1851) with freestone trimmings and in old Plummer Hall (1857); its museum contains some old furniture and a collection of portraits; it has an excellent library and publishes quarterly (1859 sqq.) Historical' Collections. The Peabody Academy of Science, founded by the gift in 1867 of $140,000 from George Peabody and incorporated in 1868, is established in the East India Marine Hall (1824), bought for this purpose from the Salem East India Marine Society. The Marine Society was organized in 1799, its membership being limited to "persons who have actually navigated the seas beyond the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn, as masters or supercargoes of vessels belonging to Salem"; it assists the widows and children of members. Its museum, like the ethnological and natural history collection of the Essex Institute, was bought by the Peabody Academy of Science, whose museum now includes Essex county collections (natural history, mineralogy, botany, prehistoric relics, &c.), type collections of minerals and fossils; implements, dress, &c. of primitive peoples, especially rich in objects from Malaysia, Japan and the South Seas; and portraits and relics of famous Salem merchants, with models and pictures of Salem merchant vessels. The Salem Athenaeum (1810), the successor of a Social Library (1760) and a Philosophical Library (1781) is housed in Plummer Hall (1908), a building in the southern Colonial style, named in honour of a benefactor of the Athenaeum, Caroline Plummer (d. 1855), who endowed the Plummer Professorship of Christian Morals at Harvard. Some of the old houses were built by ship-owners before the War of Independence, and more were built during the first years of the 19th century when Salem privateersmen made so many fortunes. Many of the finest old houses are of the gambrel type; and there are many beautiful doorways, doorheads and other details. Nathaniel Hawthorne's birthplace was built before 1692; another house - now reconstructed and used as a social settlement - is pointed out as the original "house of seven gables." The Corwin or "Witch" house, so called from a tradition that Jonathan Corwin, one of the judges in the witchcraft trials, held preliminary examinations of witches here, is said to have been the property of Roger Williams. The Pickering house, built before 1660, was the homestead of Timothy Pickering and of other members of that family. Among the other buildings and institutions are Hamilton Hall (1805); the Franklin Building (1861) of the Salem Marine Society; a large armoury; a state normal school (1854); an orphan asylum (1871), under the Sisters of the Grey Nuns; the Association for the Relief of Aged and Destitute Women (1860), occupying a fine old brick house formerly the home of Benjamin W. Crowninshield (1772-1851), a member of the national House of Representatives in1824-1831and Secretary of the Navy in 1814; the Bertram Home for Aged Men (1877) in a house built in 1806-1807; the Plummer Farm School for Boys (incorporated 1855, opened 1870), another charity of Caroline Plummer, on Winter Island; the City Almshouse (1816) and the City Insane Asylum (1884) on Salem Neck; a home for girls (1876); the Fraternity (1869), a club-house for boys; the Marine Society Bethel and the Salem Seamen's Bethel; the Seamen's Orphan and Children's Friend Society (1839); an Associated Charities (1901), and the Salem Hospital (1873).

Among the Church organizations are: the First (Unitarian; originally Trinitarian Congregational), which dates from 1629 and was the first Congregational church organized in America; the Second or East Church (Unitarian) organized in 1718; the North Church (Unitarian), which separated from the First in 1772; the Third or Tabernacle (Congregational), organized in 1735 from the First Church; the South (Congregational), which separated from the Third in 1774; several Baptist churches; a Quaker society, with a brick meeting-house (1832); St Peter's, the oldest Episcopalian church in Salem, with a building of English Gothic erected in 1833, and Grace Church (1858).

Washington Square or the Common (8 acres) is in the centre of the city. The Willows is a 30-acre park on the Neck shore, and in North Salem is Liberty Hill, another park. On a bluff projecting into South river is the old "Burying Point," set apart in 1637, and the oldest cemetery in the city; its oldest stone is dated 1673; here are buried Governor Simon Bradstreet, Chief-Justice Benjamin Lynde (1666-1745) and Judge John Hathorne (1641-1717) of the witchcraft court. The Broad Street Burial Ground was laid out in 1655. On Salem Neck is Fort Lee and on Winter Island is Fort Pickering (on the site of a fort built in 1643), near which is the Winter Island Lighthouse.

The main trade of Salem is along the coast, principally in the transhipment of coal; and the historic Crowninshield's or India wharf is now a great coal pocket. The harbour is not deep enough for ocean-going vessels, and manufacturing is the most important industry. In 1905 the total value of the factory products was $12,202,217 (13.9% more than in 1900), and the principal manufactures were boots and shoes and leather. The largest single establishment is the Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company, which has 2800 looms and about 1500 mill-hands. Another large factory is that of the silversmiths, Daniel Low & Co.

History

Salem was settled in 1626 by Roger Conant (1593-1679) and a company of "planters," who in 1624 (under the Sheffield patent of 1623 for a settlement on the north shore of Massachusetts Bay) had attempted a plantation at Cape Ann, whither John Lyford and others had previously come from Plymouth through "dissatisfaction with the extreme separation from the English church." Conant was not a separatist, and the Salem settlement was a commercial venture, partly agricultural and partly to provide a wintering place for Banks fishermen so that they might more quickly make their spring catch. Cape Ann was too bleak, but Naumkeag was a "pleasant and fruitful neck of land," which they named Salem in June 1629, probably in allusion to Psalm lxxvi. 2. In 1628 a patent for the territory was granted by the New England Council to the Dorchester Company, in which the Rev. John White of Dorchester, England, was conspicuous, and which in the same year sent out a small company under John Endecott as governor. Under the charter for the Colony of Massachusetts Bay (1629), which superseded the Dorchester Company patent, Endecott continued as governor until the arrival in 1630 of John Winthrop, who soon removed the seat of government from Salem first to Charlestown and then to Boston. In July or August 1629 the first Congregational Church (see Congregationalism, § American) in America was organized here; its "teacher" in 1631 and 1633 and its pastor in1634-1635was Roger Williams, a close friend of Governor Endecott and always popular in Salem, who in 1635 fled thence to Rhode Island to escape arrest by the officials of Massachusetts Bay. In 1686, fearing that they might be dispossessed by a new charter, the people of Salem for X 20 secured a deed from the Indians to the land they then held. Although not strictly Puritan the character of Salem was not essentially different from that of the other Massachusetts towns. The witchcraft delusion of 1692 centred about Salem Village, now in the township of Danvers, but then a part of Salem. Ten girls, aged nine to seventeen years, two of them house servants, met during the winter of1691-1692in the home of Samuel Parris, pastor of the Salem Village church, and after learning palmistry and various "magic" tricks from Parris's West Indian slave, Tituba, and influenced doubtless by current talk about witches, accused Tituba and two old women of bewitching them. The excitement spread rapidly, many more were accused, and, within four months, hundreds were arrested, and many were tried before commissioners of oyer and terminer (appointed on the 27th of May 1692, including Samuel Sewall, q.v., of Boston, and three inhabitants of Salem, one being Jonathan Corwin); nineteen were hanged,' and one was pressed to death in September for refusing to plead when he was accused. All these trials were conducted in accordance with the English law of the time; there had been an execution for witchcraft at Charlestown in 1648; there was a case in Boston in 1655; in 1680 a woman of Newbury was condemned to death for witchcraft but was reprieved by Governor Simon Bradstreet; in England and Scotland there were many executions long after the Salem delusion died out. The reaction came suddenly in Salem, and in May 1693 Governor William Phips ordered 1 There is nothing but tradition to identify the place of execution with what is now called Gallows Hill, between Salem and Peabody.

the release from prison of all then held on the charge of witchcraft.

Salem was an important port after 1670, especially in the India trade, and Salem privateers did great damage in the Seven Years' War, in the War of Independence (when 158 Salem privateers took 445 prizes), and in the War of 1812. On this foreign trade and these rich periods of privateering the prosperity of the place up to the middle of the 19th century was built.

The First Provincial Assembly of Massachusetts met in Salem in 1774. On the 10th of February 1775 at the North Bridge (between the present Salem and Danvers) the first armed resistance was offered to the royal troops, when Colonel Leslie with the 64th regiment, sent to find cannon hidden in the Salem "North Fields," was held in check by the townspeople. Salem was the birthplace of Nathaniel Hawthorne, W. H. Prescott, Nathaniel Bowditch, Jones Very and W. W. Story.

Marblehead was separated from Salem township in 1649; Beverly in 1668, a part of Middleton in j1728, and the district of Danvers in 1752. Salem was chartered as a city in 1836.

See Charles S. Osgood and Henry M. Batchelder, Historical Sketch of Salem, 1626-1879 (Salem, 1879); Joseph B. Felt, Annals of Salem (ibid., 1827; 2nd ed., 2 vols., 18 4518 49); Charles W. Upham, Salem Witchcraft (2 vols., Boston, 1867); H. B. Adams, Village Communities of Cape Ann and Salem (Baltimore, 1883); Eleanor Putnam (the pen-name of Mrs Arlo Bates), Old Salem (Boston, 1886); C. H. Webber and W. S. Nevins, Old Naumkeag (Salem, 1877) R. D. Paine, Ships and Sailors of Old Salem (New York, 1909), and Visitor's Guide to Salem (Salem, 1902) published by the Essex Institute.


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Salem, Massachusetts
File:Salem mass.jpg
Salem Maritime National Historic Site
File:Salem, MA Seal.jpg
Seal
Nickname: "The Witch City"
File:Salem ma highlight.png
Location in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°31′10″N, 70°53′50″WLatitude: 42°31′10″N
Longitude: 70°53′50″W
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Essex County
History  
Settled 1626
Incorporated 1629
Government  
 - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll
Area  
 - City 46.8 km²  (18.1 sq mi)
 - Land 21.0 km²  (8.1 sq mi)
 - Water 25.8 km² (10.0 sq mi)
Elevation 3 m  (9 ft)
Population  
 - City (2000) 40407
 - Density 1925.1/km² (4986.0/sq mi)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 01970
Website: http://www.salem.com/

Salem is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 40,407 at the 2000 census. It and Lawrence are the county seats of Essex County.GR6 Home to Salem State College, Salem Willows Park and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem is a residential and tourist area which includes the neighborhoods of Salem Neck, South Salem and North Salem, and Witchcraft Heights.

Many people associate the city with the Salem Witch Trials of 1692, which the city embraces both as a source of tourism and culture — police cars are adorned with witch logos, a local public school is known as the Witchcraft Heights Elementary School, the Salem High School football team is named The Witches, and Gallows Hill, a site of numerous public hangings, is currently used as a playing field for various sports.

Salem also embraces its Maritime History, which is dominant on the city seal with a motto that says, "To the Farthest port of the rich east." Salem also boasts the first National Historic Site designated by congress, Salem Maritime National Historic Site, which protects Salem's Historic Water front. There are tours, led by National Park Rangers, of The Historic Customs House (1819), The Derby house (18th Century), Narbonne house (17th Century), Friendship, a replica 18th century East Indiamen Ship, Hawks house (18th Century), Macintire Federalist period house (not open for tour, West India goods store(19th Century) Polish Club (20th Century), Park Orientation center (19th Century Warehouse) Tours leave from this location and a 17 minute film is played here every 30 minutes which introduces Salem's Historic Maritime Past. The Park also boasts a Park Visitor Center, Open 9-5 with a film that shows once an hour covering Salem, and Essex County, history.

Tourists know Salem as a mix of important historical sites, New Age and Wiccan boutiques, and kitschy Halloween-themed and/or witch-themed attractions. A statue of Elizabeth Montgomery (Samantha Stephens in Bewitched) was erected there in 2005.

Arthur Miller's 1952 play The Crucible dealt with the witch trials of the 1690s. The play, and the 1996 film version with Winona Ryder and Daniel Day-Lewis, were popular and commercial successes.

Contents

History

The House of the Seven Gables.

Native Americans called the area 'Naumkeag', meaning 'eel land'. Salem was founded at the mouth of the Naumkeag River in 1626 by a company of fishermen from Cape Ann led by Roger Conant, and incorporated in 1629. The name 'Salem' is related to the Hebrew word 'shalom' and Arabic word 'salam', both meaning 'peace'. Conant was later supplanted by John Endecott, the governor assigned by the Massachusetts Bay Company. Salem originally included much of the North Shore, including Marblehead, set off in 1649. Most of the accused in the Salem Witch Trials lived in nearby 'Salem Village', now Danvers. Salem Village also included Peabody and parts of present-day Beverly. Middleton, Topsfield, Wenham and Manchester-by-the-Sea, too, were once parts of Salem. One of the most widely known aspects of Salem is its witchcraft history, starting with Abigail Williams, Betty Parris, and their friends playing with a venus glass and egg.

On February 26, 1775, patriots raised the drawbridge at the North River, preventing British Colonel Alexander Leslie and his 300 troops from seizing stores and ammunition hidden in North Salem. During the Revolution, the town became a center for privateering. By 1790, Salem was the sixth largest city in the country, and a world famous seaport—particularly in the China trade. Codfish was exported to the West Indies and Europe. Sugar and molasses were imported from the West Indies, tea from China, and pepper from Sumatra. Salem ships also visited Africa, Russia, Japan and Australia. During the War of 1812, privateering resumed.

Prosperity would leave the city with a wealth of fine architecture, including Federal style mansions designed by Samuel McIntire, for whom the city's largest historic district is named. Incorporated a city in 1836, Salem adopted a city seal in 1839 with the motto "Divitis Indiae usque ad ultimum sinum"—"To the farthest port of the rich East." Nathaniel Hawthorne was overseer of the port from 1846 until 1849. He worked in the Customs House near Pickering Wharf, his setting for the beginning of The Scarlet Letter. In 1858, an amusement park was established at Salem Willows, a peninsula jutting into the harbor.

But shipping would decline through the 19th century. Salem and its silting harbor were increasingly eclipsed by Boston and New York. Consequently, the city turned to manufacturing. Industries included tanneries, shoe factories and the Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company. Large parts of the mill town were destroyed in the Great Salem Fire of 1914, which began in the Korn Leather Factory. More than 400 homes burned, leaving 3,500 families homeless. But much of Salem's architectural legacy survived, helping it develop as a center for tourism.

Geography

Salem is located at 42°31′1″N, 70°53′55″W (42.516845, -70.898503).GR1

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 46.8 km² (18.1 mi²). 21.0 km² (8.1 mi²) of it is land and 25.8 km² (9.9 mi²) of it (55.09%) is water. Salem Harbor faces north onto the Danvers River, a tidal inlet of Massachusetts Bay.

Tourism

Salem Witch Museum

Since the decline of the city's industrial base, tourism has become an increasingly important part of Salem's economy. Tourism based on the 1692 witch trials dates back to at least the first half of the 20th Century, when dry goods merchant Daniel Low sold souvenir spoons with witch images. Such tourism expanded significantly in the 1970s, when the television comedy Bewitched filmed several episodes there. The Halloween movie Hocus Pocus was also filmed in Salem. Witch-related tourism expanded significantly in the 1990s, and the city added an official "Haunted Happenings" celebration during the October tourist season.

In recent years, tourism has been an occasional source of debate in the city, with some residents arguing the city should downplay witch tourism and market itself as a more upscale cultural center. Several steps have been taken in this direction, including the designation of a portion of the city's waterfront as a National Historic Site (the country's first), the completion in 2000 of the replica tall ship "Friendship," and the 2003 expansion of the Peabody Essex Museum, designed by architect Moshe Safdie. In 2005, the city's semi-official tourist agency, Destination Salem, unveiled a new marketing campaign for the city, which de-emphasized witch tourism.

In 2005, the conflict came to a head over plans by the cable television network TV Land to erect a bronze statue of Elizabeth Montgomery, who played the comic witch 'Samantha' in the 1960s series Bewitched. A few special episodes of the series were actually filmed in Salem, and TV Land said that the statue commemorated the 35th anniversary of those episodes.

Many felt the statue was good fun and appropriate to a city that promotes itself as "The Witch City," and contains a street named 'Witch Way'. Others objected to the use of public property for what was transparently commercial promotion. Some felt that the statue trivialized history by encouraging visitors to recall a sitcom rather than the tragic Salem witch trials. Local resident John Carr, a former member of the city's Historical Commission, was quoted in the local newspaper (and later in Time magazine) as saying 'it's like TV Land going to Auschwitz and proposing to erect a statue of Colonel Klink'. The statue was eventually approved and has generated little controversy since its unveiling. The statue was later vandalized with red spray painted "X"s over the face and chest, and flags placed in the statue's hands.

Points of interest

Nathaniel Hawthorne by Bela Pratt
  • Nathaniel Bowditch House (c. 1805)
  • Crowninshield-Bentley House (c. 1727-1730)
  • John Tucker Daland House (1851)
  • Gedney House (c. 1665)
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne Birthplace (c. 1730-1745)
  • The House of the Seven Gables (1668)
  • The Witch House The only house remaining in Salem with any direct ties to the Salem Witch Trials. c.1642-1675
  • Misery Islands
  • Peabody Essex Museum (1799) – A major museum of Asian art and culture, as well as a leading museum of early American maritime trade and whaling. Its collections of Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese art, and in particular Chinese export porcelain, are among the finest in the country.
  • Stephen Phillips Memorial Trust House (1800 & 1821)
  • Pickering House, Broad Street (c. 1651)
  • Ropes Mansion (late 1720s)
  • Salem Maritime National Historic Site - The only remaining intact waterfront from the U.S. age of sail.
  • Pioneer Village Salem Massachusetts, Forest River Park (c. 1930)
  • Salem Willows Park (1858)

Notable residents

  1. REDIRECT template:refimproveImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Roger Williams House (or "The Witch House") in c. 1910
  • Nehemiah Adams, clergyman & author
  • Frank W. Benson, artist
  • Nathaniel Bowditch, mathematician & navigator
  • Robert Ellis Cahill, sheriff, historian & author
  • Roger Conant, founder of Salem
  • Crowninshield family, Boston Brahmins who later helped found Salem
  • Elias Hasket Derby, merchant
  • John Endecott, governor
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne, writer
  • Samuel McIntire, architect & woodcarver
  • Richard Mulcahy, executive producer
  • George Swinton Parker, founder of Parker Brothers
  • Samuel Parris, minister
  • Timothy Pickering, secretary of state
  • Sarah Parker Remond, abolitionist
  • Samuel Sewall, magistrate
  • John F. Tierney, U.S. Congressman
  • Roger Williams, theologian
  • Laurie Cabot, Wiccan high priestess
  • The rock band Godsmack formed in Salem
  • Hardcore/metal band Converge are based in Salem.
  • Singer/Songwriter Mary Lou Lord grew up in Salem
  • Steve Thomas - Former host of PBS's "This Old House".

Further reading

  • In the Devil's Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692, Mary Beth Norton, Knopf, 2002, hardcover, 432 pages, ISBN 0-375-40709-X

References

External links

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Short name Salem, Massachusetts  +

This article uses material from the "Salem, Massachusetts" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Salem is a city in Essex Country, in Massachusetts. It was home of the Salem Witch Trials of 1692.


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