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Salerno
—  Comune  —
Comune di Salerno
Panorama of Salerno

Flag

Coat of arms
Salerno within the Province of Salerno and Campania
Salerno is located in Italy
Salerno
Location of Salerno in Italy
Coordinates: 40°41′N 14°56′E / 40.683°N 14.933°E / 40.683; 14.933Coordinates: 40°41′N 14°56′E / 40.683°N 14.933°E / 40.683; 14.933
Country Italy
Region Campania
Province Salerno (SA)
Founded 194 BC
Government
 - Mayor Vincenzo De Luca
Area
 - Total 58 km2 (22.4 sq mi)
Elevation 4 m (13 ft)
Population (1 April 2009)
 - Total 146,045
 - Density 2,518/km2 (6,521.6/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 84100
Dialing code 089
Patron saint Saint Matthew
Website Official website

Salerno About this sound listen is a small city and comune in Campania (south-western Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Salerno is the main town close to the Costiera Amalfitana (the "Amalfi Coast" on the Tyrrhenian, which includes the famous towns of Amalfi, Positano, and others) and is mostly known for its Schola Medica Salernitana (the first University of Medicine in the world). In the 16th century, under the Sanseverino family, amongst the most powerful feudal lords in Southern Italy, the city became a great centre of learning, culture and the arts, and the family hired several of the greatest intellects of the time.[1] Later, in 1694, the city was struck by several catastrophic earthquakes and plagues,[2] and afterwords a period of Spanish rule which would last until the 18th century. After that, Salerno became part of the Parthenopean Republic and saw a period of Napoleonic rule. [3]

In recent history the city hosted the King of Italy, who moved from Rome in 1943 after Italy negotiated a peace with the Allies in World War II. A brief so-called "government of the South" was then established in the town, that became the "Capital" of Italy for some months. Some of the Allied landings during Operation Avalanche (the invasion of Italy) occurred near Salerno.

Today Salerno is an important cultural centre in Campania and Italy and has had a long and eventful history. The city has a rich and varied culture, and the city is divided into three distinct regions: the medieval sector with a modern state-of-the arts area, the planned 19th century district and the more densely-populated post-war area, with its several apartment blocks.[4]

Contents

Geography

The city is situated at the north-western end of the plain of the Sele river, at the exact beginning of the Amalfi coast. The small river Irno crosses through the central section of Salerno.

The climate is mediterranean, with a hot and relatively dry summer (23°C/74°F in August) and a rainy fall and winter (8°C/47°F in January). Usually there are nearly 1,000 mm of rain every year. The strong wind that comes from the mountains toward the Gulf of Salerno makes the city very windy (mainly in winter). This gives however Salerno the advantage of being one of the most sunny towns of Italy.

History

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Pre-Roman times

The area of what is now Salerno has been continuously settled since pre-historical times, although the first certain signs of human presence date to the period between the ninth and sixth centuries BC. We know the Samnites-Etruscans city of Irna, situated across the Irno river, in today's Salernitan quarter of Fratte. This settlement represented an important base for Etruscan trade with the Greek colonies of Posidonia and Elea.

The Roman city

With the Roman advance in Campania, Irna began to lose its importance, being supplanted by the new Roman colony (194 BC) of Salernum, developing around an initial castrum. The new city, which gradually lost its military function in favour of its role as a trade center, was connected to Rome by the Via Popilia, which ran towards Lucania and Reggio Calabria.

Archaeological remains, although fragmentary, suggest the idea of a flourishing and lively city. Under the Emperor Diocletian, in the late third century AD, Salernum became the administrative centre of the "Bruttia and Lucania" province.

In the fifth century, after the fall or the Western Roman Empire, Salerno remained an important stronghold under the Ostrogoth domination of Italy.

In the following century, during the Gothic Wars, the Goths were defeated by the Byzantines, whose domination however later lasted only fifteen years (from 553 to 568), before the Lombards invaded almost the whole peninsula. Like many coastal cities of southern Italy (Gaeta, Sorrento, Amalfi), Salerno initially remained untouched by the newcomers, falling only in 646. It subsequently became part of the Duchy of Benevento.

The Principality of Salerno in 1077

The Lombard city

Under the Lombard dukes Salerno enjoyed the most splendid period of its history.

In 774 Arechi II transferred the seat of the Duchy of Benevento to Salerno, in order to elude Charlemagne's offensive and to secure for himself the control of a strategic area, the centre of coastal and internal communications in Campania.

With Arechi II, Salerno grew to great splendour, becoming a centre of studies with its famous Medical School. The Lombard prince ordered the city to be fortified; the Castle on the Bonadies mountain had already been built with walls and towers. In 839 Salerno declared independent from Benevento, becoming the capital of a flourishing principality stretching out to Capua, northern Calabria and Puglia up to Taranto.

Around the year 1000 prince Guaimar IV annexed Amalfi, Sorrento, Gaeta and the whole duchy of Puglia and Calabria, starting to conceive a future unification of the whole southern Italy under Salerno's arms. The coins minted in the city circulated in all the Mediterranean, with the Opulenta Salernum wording to certify its richness.

However, the stability of the Principate was continually shaken by the Saracen attacks and, most of all, by internal struggles. In 1056, one of the numerous plots led to the fall of Guaimar. His weaker son Gisulf II succeeded him, but the begin of the decline for the principality had begun. In 1077 Salerno reached its zenith but soon lost all its territory to the Normans.

Salerno under the Normans, Hohenstaufen and Anjou

On December 13, 1076 the Norman conqueror Robert Guiscard, who had married Guaimar IV's daughter Sichelgaita, besieged Salerno and defeated his brother-in-law Gisulf. This act put an end to hundreds of years of Lombard dominance, but did not check the city's vitality. In this period the royal palace (Castel Terracena) and the magnificent Arab-Gothic style cathedral were built, and science was boosted as the Salerno Medical School, considered the most ancient medical institution of European West, reached its maximum splendour.

Salerno played a conspicuous part in the fall of the Norman kingdom. After the Emperor Henry VI's invasion on behalf of his wife, Constance, the heiress to the kingdom, in 1191, Salerno surrendered and promised loyalty on the mere news of an incoming army. This so disgusted the archbishop, Nicholas of Ajello, that he abandoned the city and fled to Naples, which held out in a siege. In 1194, the situation reversed itself: Naples capitulated, along with most other cities of the Mezzogiorno, and only Salerno resisted. It was sacked and pillaged, much reducing its importance and prosperity. Henry had his reasons, though. He had entrusted Constance to the citizens and they had betrayed him and handed her over to King Tancred. Her combined treachery and stubbornness cost Salerno much after the Hohenstaufen conquest. Henry's son, Frederick II, moreover, issued a series of edicts that reduced Salerno's role in favour of Naples (in particular, the foundation of the University of Naples in that city).

Following the advice of Giovanni da Procida (a famous citizen of that time), King Manfred of Sicily, Frederick II's son, ordered a dock that still now has his name, to be built.

Moreover Manfred founded Saint Matthew's Fair, which was the most important in the south of Italy. After the Angevin conquest the city was particularly beautified by the work of the famous sculptor, Boboccio da Piperno, admired by Queen Consort Margherita of Durazzo who took up her abode in Salerno and was buried in the monumental tomb, which is today in the cathedral.

The Schola Medica Salernitana in a miniature from Avicenna's Canon.

Salerno and the revival of medical learning in Western Europe

A noted medical school, or series of schools, existed at Salerno from at least the tenth century, and by the eleventh century it was widely acknowledged by contemporaries as the centre of medical knowledge in western Europe, in much the same way as Alexandria had been in the ancient world.

Around 1060 a Benedictine monk and native of Carthage, Constantine the African, arrived at the Abbey of Monte Cassino, 100 miles to the north of Salerno. With his knowledge of Arabic and Greek as well as Latin, he began to translate many of the medical texts from ancient Greece and Rome from the surviving Arabic translations into Latin. Constantine translated around twenty major works himself, such as Galen's Ars Parva, Hippocratic work including the Aphorisms and the Prognostics and the great encyclopedic work known as the patengi. However, his most significant translation was probably the Isogoge of Joanittius, which would serve as an introduction to medical theory and practise for centuries.

Salerno in a print from the 17th century.

The Princes of Sanseverino

From the fourteenth century onwards, most of the Salerno province became the territory of the Princes of Sanseverino, powerful feudal lords who acted as real owners of the region. They accumulated an enormous political and administrative power and attracted artists and men of letters in their own princely palace. In the fifteenth century the city was the scene of battles between the Angevin and the Aragonese royal houses with whom the local lords took sides alternatingly.

In the first decades of the sixteenth century the last descendent of the Sanseverino princes, Ferdinando Sanseverino, was in conflict with the Aragonese viceroy mainly because of his opposition to the Inquisition, causing the ruin of the whole family and the beginning of a long period of decadence for the city. The years 1656, 1688 and 1694 represent sorrowful dates for Salerno: the plague and the earthquake which caused many victims.

A slow renewal of the city occurred in the eighteenth century with the end of the Spanish dominion and the construction of many refined houses and churches characterising the main streets of the historical centre.

In 1799 Salerno was incorporated into the Parthenopean Republic. During the Napoleonic era, first Joseph Bonaparte and then Joachim Murat ascended the Neapolitan throne. The latter decreed the closing of the Salerno Medical School, that had been declining for decades to the level of a theoretical school. In the same period even the religious Orders were suppressed and numerous ecclesiastical properties were confiscated.

The city expanded beyond the ancient walls and sea connections were potentiated as they represented an important road network that crossed the town connecting the eastern plain with the area leading to Vietri and Naples.

Unification of Italy

Salerno was an active center of "Carbonari" activities supporting the Unification of Italy in the 19th century. The majority of the population of Salerno supported ideas of the Risorgimento, and in 1861 many of them joined Garibaldi in his struggle for unification [5]

19th century industrialization

After the unification of Italy a slow urban development continued, many suburban areas were enlarged and large public and private buildings were created. The city went on developing till the Second World War. Its population rose from 20 thousand people around 1861s unification to 80 thousands in early 20th century.

During 19th century foreign industries start settling in Salerno: in 1830 a first textile mill was established by the Swiss enterpreneur Züblin Vonwiller, followed by Schlaepfer-Wenner's textile mills and dye factories; the Wenner family settled permanently in Salerno

At same time Dini's flour mills and pasta factories were founded.

The Allied landing at Salerno (September 1943).

In 1877 the city was the site of as many as 21 textile mills employing around 10 thousand workers; in comparison with the four thousand employed in Turin's textile industry, Salerno was sometimes referred to as the "Manchester of the two Sicilies".

World War II, "Salerno Capital" and actual developments

In September 1943, Salerno was the scene of the Operation Avalanche landing of the Allies and suffered a lot of damage[6]

From February 12 to July 17, 1944, it hosted the Government of Marshal Pietro Badoglio. In those months Salerno was the temporary "Capital of the Kingdom of Italy", and the King Victor Emmanuel III lived in a mansion in its outskirts.

The post-war period was difficult for all the Italian cities, but Salerno managed to improve little by little and to aim at becoming a modern European city. In recent years the town administration has taken great strides giving a great impulse to the revaluation of the whole urban territory.

The city's population doubled in a few years, from 80,000 in 1946 to nearly 160,000 in 1976.

Main sights

Main tourist sites of Salerno.

Salerno is located at the geographical center of a triangle nicknamed Tourist Triangle of the 3 P (namely a triangle with the corners in Pompei, Paestum and Positano). This peculiarity gives to Salerno special tourist characteristics that are increased by the many local points of tourist interest (like the Lungomare Trieste, the Castello di Arechi, the Duomo and the Museo Didattico della Scuola Medica Salernitana.[7]

Lay sights

  • Lungomare Trieste. This Promenade was created from the sea during the 1950s and it is one of the best in Italy, at the level (and imitation) of those in the French Riviera. It has an extension of nearly five miles with many rare palms.
  • Castello di Arechi ("Arechi Castle") is a massive castle commanding the city from a 300 m hill. It was enlarged by Arechi II over a pre-existing Roman-Byzantine construction. Today it houses rooms for exhibitions and congresses. The Castle offers a complete and spectacular view of the city and the Gulf of Salerno.
"Lungomare Trieste" promenade.
  • Centro storico di Salerno. The "Historical Downtown Salerno" is believed to be one of the best maintained in the Italian peninsula. Its "Via dei mercanti" (merchant street) is even today the main bulk of the shopping in the city. The Duomo is its center.
  • Giardino della Minerva. The "Garden of Minerva" is situated in the fringes of the Castle hill that dominates the old Salerno. In it can be found the medieval "Hortus sanitatis" of the Schola Medica Salernitana, that was the first European "Orto Botanico" (botanic garden).
  • Parco del Mercatello. The "Park of Mercatello" is situated in the eastern section of the city. It was made in 1998 and with its ten Ha is one the biggest in Italy.
  • Forte La Carnale. The "Castle La Carnale" got his name from a medieval battle against the Arabs and is part of a sport complex (with pool, tennis courts and hockey). Actually it is used as a cultural center for expositions and meetings.
  • Villa Comunale di Salerno. The garden of the old city hall is actually a huge recreation area in front the Salerno Theater (the "Teatro Verdi"), with a fountain (called "Don Tullio") done in 1790.
  • Colle Bellara, a hill from which it is possible to see the Amalfi Coast up to the Cilento.
  • Teatro Verdi. The Salerno Theater ("Teatro Verdi") was done in 1872 and is decorated with paintings of Gaetano D'Agostino. The theater was destroyed during the 1980 earthquake and rebuilt in 1994, during the celebrations for the fifty years of "Salerno Capital of Italy".
The "Teatro Verdi". In the background — on a hill — can be seen the "Castle of Arechi"
  • Palazzo di Città di Salerno (Town Hall). It was constructed in 1936 in typical Fascist style. Its main saloon, the "Marmol Saloon" was the meeting room for the first Government of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of Fascism in 1943.
  • Palazzo Genovese. In baroque style of the seventeenth century, was rebuilt by the arquitect Ferdinando Sanfelice.
  • Palazzo Pinto. It is situated in the middle of the "Via dei Mercanti" (merchant street) and has the "Pinacoteca Provinciale" (Paintings Museum of the Province).
  • Palazzo De Ruggiero. Noble building done in the sixteenth century, situated near the Cathedral.
  • Castel Terracena, built by Robert Guiscard in 1076–1086 as a Royal Mansion, next to the Eastern walls. Only scarce remains (mainly tower-houses in tuff) can be seen today, as it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1275.
  • Palazzo Fruscione. Medieval Palace erected in the 12th century. It includes walls of the Arechi II Royal Mansion.
  • Palazzo Copeta. It is situated in the Lombard section of the city. It hosted the last lessons of the Schola Medica Salernitana during Napoleon times.
  • Palazzo d'Avossa. Noble Palace rebuilt in the seventeenth century by the arquitect Ferdinando Sanfelice. It has frescoes inspired by Torquato Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata
  • Palazzo Ruggi d'Aragona. Palace built in the 15th century near the "Via dei Mercanti" (merchant street).
  • Palazzo Morese. Built in the 14th century and later renovated in Baroque style, facing the Cathedral.

Churches

  • The Salerno Cathedral dominates with the characteristic Bell-Tower the historical downtown Salerno. In the Cripta there it is the tomb of one of the twelve apostles of Cristo, Saint Matthew the Evangelist. The Cathedral is the main tourist attraction of the city.
Ambone D'Ajello, a pulpit inside the Salerno Cathedral.
  • Chiesa della SS. Annunziata (14th century) located near the northern entrance of medieval Salerno (called "Portacatena"). It has a beautiful tower-bell done by the arquitect Ferdinando Sanfelice.
  • Chiesa di San Gregorio. The church was built in the 10th century near the "Via dei Mercanti" (merchant street): a document states its existence in 1058. Actually is the home of the "Museo didattico della Scuola Medica Salernitana" (Museum of the Salerno Medical School).
  • Chiesa di San Giorgio. The Church of San Giorgio is the most beautiful Baroque church of Salerno. It has paintings of Andrea Sabatini and high-quality frescoes by Francesco and Angelo Solimena (late seventeenth century). It is related to one of the most ancient monasteries of the city, dating back to the early ninth century, in which remains of apse frescoes have been recently brought to light.
  • Chiesa di San Pietro in Vinculis. It is located on the "Piazza Portanova" (Square Portanova) and has Renaissance paintings.
  • Chiesa di San Benedetto The St. Benedict church was originally part of monastery from 7th-9th centuries, connected to a massive aqueduct whose remains are still visible today. After the Saracen destruction in 884, it was rebuilt by Abbot Angelarius with a nave and two aisles. Remains of an entrance quadriporticus can still be seen.
  • Chiesa di Sant'Agostino. The church is renowned for the "Madonna di Costantinopoli" (Virgin of Costantinopole) inside.
  • Chiesa di Sant'Apollonia.
  • Chiesa del Santissimo Crocifisso. The church located in the "Via dei Mercanti" (merchant street) has a "Cripta" of the X century.
  • Chiesa di San Pietro a Corte. A Lombard church from the 10th century, it was part of Arechi II's Royal Mansion with the name "Cappella Palatina".
  • Chiesa dell'Annunziatella. The church is located near the old Roman Forum and has a beautiful fountain of the XVI century near the entrance.
The Natività (Nativity) of Andrea Sabatini (called "Andrea da Salerno" when he worked in the Cappella Sistina) can be seen inside the "Palazzo Pinto" of the "Pinacoteca Provinciale"

Monuments

  • Faro della Giustizia. Monument of the Judiciary Citadel of Salerno, near the "Colle Bellara.
  • Monumento al Marinaio. Monument to the sailors, situated in Concordia square, in front of the tourist port "Masuccio Salernitano".

Museums and galleries

  • Museo Archeologico Provinciale. The Museum is located inside the old "San Benedetto Monastery" and is internationally renowned for its "Testa di Apollo" (head of Apollo).
  • Museo Didattico della Scuola Medica Salernitana. Located inside the Lombard church of San Gregorio. The Museum has noteworthy documents from the Schola Medica Salernitana.
  • Museo Diocesano di Salerno. It is located near the Salerno Cathedral and has many precious objects of religious art.
  • Pinacoteca Provinciale. Located inside the "Palazzo Pinto" in the "Via dei Mercanti" (Merchant street). It has many Renaissance paintings (like those of Andrea Sabatini, who worked in the Cappella Sistina).

Archeology

  • Area archeologica etrusco-sannitica di Fratte. The archeological area (in Fratte) of the etruscans and "Sanniti" is the most southern in Italy and is located in the eastern outskirts of Salerno. It has a huge "necropolis".
The bell tower of the Cathedral. Inside the Duomo of Salerno there it is the tomb of the Apostle Matthew

Culture

Salerno hosted the oldest university in Europe, the Schola Medica Salernitana, the most important source of medical knowledge in Europe in the early Middle Ages.

The University Institute of Magistero "Giovanni Cuomo", founded in 1944, received, therefore, the distinguished heritage of an ancient tradition.

Since 1968, when the University of Salerno became public, enrollment has increased substantially. Today the two campuses of Fisciano and Baronissi take in over 40,000 students attending the wide range of subjects offered by the 10 Faculties: Economics, Pharmaceutics, Law, Engineering, Humanities, Foreign Languages, Political Science, Natural Science, Mathematics and Physics, Education Science. Now Medicine and Surgery has been added next to the main Hospital of Salerno in the San Leonardo area.

Demographics

In 2007, there were 140,580 people residing in Salerno, located in the province of Salerno, Campania, of whom 46.7% were male and 53.3% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 19.61 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 21.86 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Salerno residents is 42 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Salerno grew by 2.02 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.85 percent.[3] The current birth rate of Catania is 7.77 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2006, 98.05% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries (particularly from Ukraine and Poland): 1.20%. There are very small numbers of North Africans, Asians, and migrants from the Americas. The population is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic.

Economy

The port of Salerno.

The economy of Salerno is mainly based on services and tourism, as most of the city's manufacturing base did not survive the economic crisis of the 1970s. The remaining ones are connected to pottery and food production and treatment.

The port of Salerno is one of the most active of the Tyrrhenian Sea. It moves some 7 millions of tons of goods a year, 60% of which is made up by containers.

The Salerno airport at Pontecagnano, in the souther outskirt of the city, started international passenger traffic in July 2008. There were direct flights to Milan Malpensa (Italy), Barcelona (Spain) and Bucharest Baneasa (Romania).

Salerno as seen from the Canalone quarter.

Salerno will have at the end of 2009 a "Metropolitan railway service" that will connect the historical center with the new eastern areas of the town (and in future will reach the airport at Pontecagnano).

Photos

Twin cities

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.sitiunesco.it/index.phtml?id=674
  2. ^ http://www.sitiunesco.it/index.phtml?id=674
  3. ^ http://www.sitiunesco.it/index.phtml?id=674
  4. ^ http://www.sitiunesco.it/index.phtml?id=674
  5. ^ Seton-Watson, "Italy from Liberalism to Fascism, 1870-1925".
  6. ^ In the section "Salerno ieri ed oggi" of the website [1] there are many photos of the fighting and destruction of Salerno during the Allies' landing.
  7. ^ In the website [2] can be found in Italian detailed informations about the "historical downtown" of Salerno

Sources

  • Bonfanti, Giuseppe. Dalla Svolta di Salerno al 18 aprile 1948. Editrice La Scuola. Brescia 1979.
  • Crisci, Generoso. Salerno sacra:ricerca storica. Edizioni della Curia arcivescovile. Salerno 1962.
  • D'Episcopo, Francesco. Salerno. Sulla scia di Alfonso Gatto. Masuccio e l'Ottocento salernitano. Editrice Il Sapere. Ancona 2004.
  • De Renzi, Salvatore. Storia documentata della Scuola Medica di Salerno. Tipografie Gaetano Nobile. Naples, 1857.
  • Di Martino, Maristella. Le Ricette di Salerno. La cultura gastronomica della città. Editore Il Raggio di Luna. Salerno 2006.
  • Errico, Ernesto. Cinquant'anni fa a Salerno. Ripostes Editore. Salerno 2004.
  • Felici, Maria. Palazzi nobiliari a Salerno. Edizioni La Veglia. Salerno 1996.
  • Giordano, Gaetano. Il Profeta della Grande Salerno. Cento anni di storia meridionale nei ricordi di Alfonso Menna. Avagliano Editore. Salerno 1999.
  • Iannizzaro, Vincenzo. Salerno. La Cinta Muraria dai Romani agli Spagnoli. Editore Elea Press. Salerno 1999.
  • Iovino, Giorgia. Riqualificazione urbana e sviluppo locale a Salerno. Attori, strumenti e risorse di una città in trasformazione. Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane. Naples, 2002.
  • Mazzetti, Massimo. Salerno Capitale d'Italia. Edizioni del Paguro. Salerno 2000.
  • Musi, Aurelio. Salerno moderna. Editore Avagliano. Salerno 1999.
  • Ferraiolo Marco Storia di un anno di anni fa - Racconti di vita salernitana degli anni 60-70 . Edizioni Ripostes . Salerno 2005
  • Roma, Adelia. I giardini di Salerno. Editore Elea Press. Salerno 1997.
  • Seton-Watson, Christopher. Italy from Liberalism to Fascism, 1870-1925. John Murray Publishers. London, 1967.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Salerno is a city in in Campania, Italy.

Salerno
Salerno

Understand

Salerno is the principal town of the province with the same name, and today numbers around 145,000 inhabitants. For a brief period (February to August 1944) Salerno was the capital city of Italy, during the liberation after the allied landings before the fall of Monte Cassino to the allies and the subsequent liberation of Rome.

Today it is a lively port town, that is rapidly re-acquiring a relaxing and open Mediterranean atmosphere. The port area itself is not particularly attractive, but once you get onto the promenade things get better. Worth a visit also is the Historical Old Town, which has in recent years recovered from being a virtual no-go area to being one of the best preserved historical town centers, full of tiny little passageways and hidden corners.

Salerno was the birthplace of the "Schola Medica Salernitana" in the ninth century, which was the most important source of medical information in Europe at the time, and provided an important impulse to medical learning in Europe.

Salerno is an ideal stopping off point on the way to Paestum, Pompeii or Positano, or the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, which is a lesser known UNESCO World Heritage site. Placed as it is at one end of the Amalfi Coastline, it is an important passing point for the local tourism scene.

Also worth a visit if you happen to be in the area are Vietri sul Mare, for the traditional ceramics, Cava de' Tirreni for the important Abbey at La Badia and one of the few remaining Portici in Campania.

Get in

BY PLANE

The nearest International Airport is Capodichino (code NAP) [1]. Once you have arrived, you'll have to take one of the methods listed below to cover the final leg of the journey.

From the airport you can take a bus for 3 Euros (called Alibus) to Stazione Centrale (get off here for connections to Salerno via Train). It also stops on Piazza Municipio near the ferry port, from which you can take a 5 minute walk to catch the Bus (SITA). The route is not obvious, so see the section below.

You can buy your ticket on the Alibus, and you can get to it by walking right out of the airport terminal to the bus stop which is less than 20 metres from the airport terminal exit.

BY TRAIN

The main station is Piazza Garibaldi Station. You will have to walk a short distance to get to the station building. It's best to keep your valuables out of sight and well under supervision, as the area surrounding the train station is one of the most disreputable in all Italy. The city is trying to clear it up, but they are still quite a long way from the target.

Once you arrive at the station there are ticket machines that you can use to buy a ticket, or you can queue up for assistance at any of the ticket counters. A train ticket should cost you around 5 Euros per person.

If you can speak Italian, you can also book a ticket online, and can collect it from the ticket machine when you arrive.

BY RENTAL CAR

Theoretically, you can rent a car to cover the last stretch of the journey, but in all honesty it's probably better to reserve this option for second (or third) visits to the area if you are used to driving in Northern Europe or the US. The reason for this is that driving habits in this area of Italy have developed in a sort of local micro climate - most cars drift around on the motorway hovering between two or three lanes, most drivers talk and gesticulate instead of driving, and if you don't keep up with the traffic flow, you are likely to find someone tailgating you within 30 seconds or so.

If you need any more convincing, take a look at the cars when you arrive in the area. There is a prize if you can spot one without dents. Dents and rental cars don't mix well.

BY BUS

From Naples

Be aware that you have to cross the road here, and that traffic in Naples follows unwritten rules that are not accessible to foreigners (or even some Italians). Red traffic lights don't always stop the traffic (the locals know the 'important' traffic lights, and will stop at these). Mopeds regularly leave the road and drive on any other surface they can find. Follow the locals, and you should be OK.

You should ask the way to the "SITA" (the name of the bus company that provides the service). If you stand where the bus stops, and face the sea (with the tall castle to your right), you will need to cross the main road and head towards the left. After about 400 meters or so, you will see a small congregation of buses to your right. Check the destination written on the bus, or you can ask for "Salerno".

The service is quite rapid for the first part of the journey, but then will leave the motorway and take a more tortuous route. The journey should take an hour so so. The ticket should cost between 3 and 4 Euros per person.

For further journeys there is a regional ticket that allows you to travel with the bus (timed limit) or train (one journey): see Campania Unico.

From the Amalfi coast

You can catch a bus from the amalfi coast to Salerno, which runs along the winding roads of the coastline. The drivers are very experienced and swing effortlessly round the curves (they don't have special powers to see round corners, if you look closely, there are mirrors at strategic points). In the height of summer expect long delays, as tourist cars and buses tend to get overwhelmed by the road, and vice versa. Much better to go by boat. (See below).

BY BOAT

To and From the Amalfi Coast

  • The Coop Sant'Andrea company operate the ferry service for the Amalfi Coast, with services debuting every year from Easter weekend. Connections are to and between and return Salerno, Positano and Amalfi. In summer, the routes extend to Maiori and Minori. This is a much better way of enjoying the journey, and you will arrive with a smile on your face as it is very relaxing. For full time-table visit http://www.coopsantandrea.com

Amalfi forms a hub of the sea routes along the Amalfi Coast and you can find more complete information about all the routes available at http://coopsantandrea.com

  • For private boat transfer, Charter La Dolce Vita are the industry leaders on the Amalfi Coast and offer transfers to your Amalfi Coast destination along with private luxury daily, weekly or overnight motor-yacht charter tours, visit: http://www.amalficoastyacht.com or phone: +393294603771

See

The Duomo of Salerno is amazing to see. Build in 12th century, it is a peaceful place. At night, you can take a walk at the Lungomare, a boulavard with palmtrees and a nice view at the sea and the surrounding hills. The Villa Communale is an oasis of green at the centre of the city. Big plants, giant flowers, lots of spaces to sit. If you're quiet enough, you will hear the music boxes sing their beautiful song.

  • Yacht charter in Salerno and Amalfi Coast [2] Windward Islands, one of the worlds largest yacht charter companies, can take care of all charter requirements, from bareboat to luxury yacht in Salerno, Naples and Amalfi Coast.

Eat

There are several good restaurants in Salerno and nearby, offering a wide range of food. In the center of the town, if you're looking for pizza you can go to:

  • Il Vicolo della Neve one of the oldest restaurant in Salerno, located in the historic center. Pizza is served here, but they are also famous for their "pasta e fagioli" (pasta with beans).
  • Donna Margherita a very good pizzeria, serving also fish dishes. Not very expensive, with high quality.
  • Il Brigante serves mainly vegetable-based dishes. If you want to try local food, try the polpo! The food is basic but good and prices are low.
  • Hotel Terme Capasso, Via Nazionale Bagni km 100,2 - 84024 Contursi Terme (http://www.termecapasso.it/location.htm), +39 0828 995618, [3]. In Campania Hotel Terme Capasso awaits you inside a most modern and welcoming vacation facility with Spa, wellness center and park with swimming pools.  edit
  • Ostello Ave Gratia Plena, Via Dei Canali, +39089234776, [4]. checkin: 14.00; checkout: 10.00. A nice and good hostel in the heart of the Historic centre of Salerno. Friendly people, clean rooms and good service. Breakfast included, internet available. The Hostel also offers trips to Amalfi and other, adventurous hiking and biking trips. +15.  edit
  • Amalfi Coast - Venture out of Salerno towards Vietri sul Mare and head on one the most dramatic and breathtaking drives in the world, the Amalfi Coast Drive, passing trough:
  • Cetara, an enchanting fisherman's village, famous for anchovies and tuna fish,
  • Maiori, the only real beach along the Amalfi Coast, Minori, the old pasta factory of the Amalfi Coast
  • Atrani, tiny little village, once here the Doge's of the Amalfi Sea Republic were crowned here
  • Amalfi, the crown jewel and center of the Amalfi Coast
  • Conca dei Marini
  • Furore, with a unique fiord,
  • Praiano
and finally,
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SALERNO (anc. Salernum), a seaport and archiepiscopal see of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Salerno, on the west coast, 33 m. by rail S.E. of Naples. Pop. (1901), 28,936 (town); 45,313 (commune). The ruins of its old Norman castle stand on an eminence 9 05 ft. above the sea with a background of graceful limestone hills. The town walls were destroyed in the beginning of the 19th century; the seaward portion has given place to the Corso Garibaldi, the principal promenade. The chief buildings are the theatre, the prefecture, and the cathedral of St Matthew (whose bones were brought from Paestum to Salerno in 954), begun in 1076 by Robert Guiscard and consecrated in 1084 by Gregory VII. In front is a beautiful quadrangular court (112 by 102 ft.), surrounded by arcades formed of twenty-eight ancient pillars mostly of granite from Paestum, and containing twelve sarcophagi of various periods; the middle entrance into the church is closed by remarkable bronze doors of 11th-century Byzantine work. The nave and two aisles end in apses. Two magnificent marble ambones, the larger dating from 1175, a large 11th-century altar frontal in the south aisle, having scenes from the Bible carved on thirty ivory tablets, with 13th-century mosaics in the apse, given by Giovanni da Procida, the promotor of the Sicilian Vespers, and the tomb of Pope Gregory VII., and that of Queen Margaret of Durazzo, mother of King Ladislaus, erected in 1412, deserve to be mentioned. In the crypt is a bronze statue of St Matthew. The cathedral possesses a fine Exultet roll. S. Domenico near it has Norman cloisters, and several of the other churches contain paintings by Andrea Sabbatini da Salerno, one of the best of Raphael's scholars. A fine port constructed by Giovanni da Procida in 1260 was destroyed when Naples became the capital of the kingdom, and remained blocked with sand till after the unification of Italy, when it was cleared; but it is now unimportant. The chief industries are silk and cotton-spinning and printing. Good wine is produced in the neighbourhood. A branch railway runs N. up the Irno valley to Mercato S. Severino on the line from Naples to Avellino.

A Roman colony (Salernum) was founded in 194 B.C. to keep the Picentini in check. It was captured by the Samnites in the Social War. It was the point at which the coast road to Paestum diverged from the Via Popillia, rejoining it again E. of Buxentum. In the 4th century the correctores of Lucania and the territory of the Bruttii resided here, but it did not attain its full importance till after the Lombard conquest. Dismantled by order of Charlemagne, it became in the 9th century the capital of an independent principality, the rival of that of Benevento, and was surrounded by strong fortifications. The Lombard princes, who had frequently defended their city against the Saracens, succumbed before Robert Guiscard, who took the castle after an eight months' siege and made Salerno the capital of his new territory. The removal of the court to Palermo and the sack of the city by the emperor Henry VI. in 1194 put a stop to its development. The medical school of the Civitas Hippocratica (as it called itself on its seals) held a high position in medieval times. Salerno university, founded in 1150, and long one of the great seats of learning in Italy, was closed in 1817.

See A. Avena, Monumenti dell' Italia Meridionale (Naples, 1902), i. 37 1 sqq. (T. As.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

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Salerno

  1. A province of Campania, Italy.
  2. A town, the capital of Salerno.

Translations

Anagrams


German

Proper noun

Salerno

  1. Salerno (province)
  2. Salerno (town)

Italian

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Salerno

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Proper noun

Salerno f.

  1. Salerno (province)
  2. Salerno (town)

Derived terms


Simple English

Salerno is a southern Italian city with a beautiful port. It faces the Mediterranean Sea. [[File:|right|thumb|300px|Salerno]]

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