Salicylic acid: Wikis

  
  

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Salicylic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 69-72-7 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 338
ChemSpider 331
EC number 200-712-3
SMILES
Properties
Molecular formula C7H6O3
Molar mass 138.12 g mol−1
Density 1.443 g/cm3
Melting point
159.0 °C, 432 K, 318 °F
Boiling point
211 °C (20 mmHg)
Solubility in water 0.2 g/100 mL H2O (20 °C)
Solubility in chloroform, ethanol, methanol Chloroform 0.19 M, ethanol 1.84 M, methanol 2.65 M [1]
Related compounds
Related compounds Methyl salicylate,
Benzoic acid,
Phenol, Aspirin,
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid,
Magnesium salicylate,
Choline salicylate,
Bismuth subsalicylate,
Sulfosalicylic acid
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree, from the bark of which the substance is obtained) is a beta hydroxy acid.^ Salicylic acid was first obtained from the bark of the willow tree, Salix.
  • Product Ingredients 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC reverseskinaging.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was further re-crystallized with ethanol-water to obtain pure crystals of acetyl salicylic acid and was characterized by melting point, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy.
  • GREEN CATALYTIC PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID - Patent application 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A newly introduced agent, beta-lipohydroxy acid, is a salicylic acid derivative and has properties that could possibly expand the clinical use of peels.
  • Chemical Peels: eMedicine Dermatology 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This colorless crystalline organic acid is widely used in organic synthesis and functions as a plant hormone.^ Salicylates (pronounced sall as in sally - i as in ink - sill as in silly - ate) are compounds formed from a plant hormone called salicylic acid and are in nearly every mouthful we eat.

^ The drawback of the synthesis is the use of water-soluble 12-tungustophosphoric acid, which cannot be recovered and results in acid waste effluent.
  • GREEN CATALYTIC PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID - Patent application 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ TABLE -US-00001 TABLE 1 Synthetic technique and characterization of various solid acid catalysts used for the synthesis of acetyl salicylic acid.
  • GREEN CATALYTIC PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID - Patent application 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

It is derived from the metabolism of salicin. .In addition to being a compound that is chemically similar to but not identical to the active component of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), it is probably best known for its use in anti-acne treatments.^ The best known salicylate is aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which was originally extracted from willow bark.

^ Induction by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and characterization.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Aspirin is an effective non-steroidal analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug and is one of the most widely used medicine around the world.
  • GREEN CATALYTIC PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID - Patent application 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The salts and esters of salicylic acid are known as salicylates.^ WO 95/30641 discloses derivatives of acetyl salicylic acid wherein a moiety bearing a nitrooxy group is linked to the carboxylic group through an ester bond.
  • Salicylic Acid Derivatives - Patent application - The present invention refers to O-acyl salicylic acid derivatives bearing a NO donor moiety a process for their preparation 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BACKGROUND OF INVENTION [0002] Acetyl salicylic acid is commonly known by its trade name Aspirin.
  • GREEN CATALYTIC PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID - Patent application 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates.
  • Product Ingredients 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC reverseskinaging.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Chemistry

.Salicylic acid has the formula C6H4(OH)COOH, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group.^ WO 95/30641 discloses derivatives of acetyl salicylic acid wherein a moiety bearing a nitrooxy group is linked to the carboxylic group through an ester bond.
  • Salicylic Acid Derivatives - Patent application - The present invention refers to O-acyl salicylic acid derivatives bearing a NO donor moiety a process for their preparation 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatively compounds of general formula (IX) in which D' is an hydroxyl group can be converted into compounds of general formula (VIII) in which D is ONO 2 , by reaction with nitric acid in a suitable solvent, such as acetic acid.
  • Salicylic Acid Derivatives - Patent application - The present invention refers to O-acyl salicylic acid derivatives bearing a NO donor moiety a process for their preparation 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Free acid availability Molecules found in chemical peels are either alcohols that contain a carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups or regular acids.
  • Chemical Peels: eMedicine Dermatology 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

It is also known as 2-hydroxybenzenecarboxcylic acid. .It is poorly soluble in water (0.2 g/100 ml H2O at 20 °C).^ The leaves were vacuum-infiltrated with trypan-blue stain prepared in 10 mL acidic phenol, 10 mL glycerol, and 20 mL sterile water with 10 mg of trypan blue.
  • PLoS Genetics: Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated Signaling 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ From strongest to weakest, these methods are dilutions of a saturated solution, the weight-to-weight method, the weight-to-volume method, and grams of acid crystal mixed to 100 mL of water.
  • Chemical Peels: eMedicine Dermatology 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA) can be prepared by the esterification of the phenolic hydroxyl group of salicylic acid.^ Induction by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and characterization.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If any contain aspirin or other salicylates (including bismuth subsalicylate [e.g., Pepto-Bismol] or any shampoo or skin medicine that contains salicylic acid or any other salicylate), check with your health care professional .
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salicylic acid is the principal metabolite of aspirin, aspirin having a half-life of <30 min.
  • Salicylic acid: a link between aspirin, diet and the prevention of colorectal cancer -- Paterson and Lawrence 94 (8): 445 -- QJM 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC qjmed.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Plant hormone

.Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic phytohormone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport.^ Lebwohl M. The role of salicylic acid in the treatment of psoriasis.
  • Arch Dermatol -- Topical Tacrolimus Ointment Combined With 6% Salicylic Acid Gel for Plaque Psoriasis Treatment, January 2005, Carroll et al. 141 (1): 43 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC archderm.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Find this article online Yaeno T, Matsuda O, Iba K (2004) Role of chloroplast trienoic fatty acids in plant disease defense responses.
  • PLoS Genetics: Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated Signaling 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, the key role of the sigB operon in executing the antivirulence properties of salicylic acid was shown in two distinct genetic background strains (RN6390 and COL).
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Salicylic acid attenuates virulence in endovascular infections by targeting global regulatory pathways in Staphylococcus aureus 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

SA also induces specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast structure. .SA is involved in endogenous signaling, mediating in plant defense against pathogens.^ (D) Endogenous SA levels in the leaves of 4-week-old plants.
  • PLoS Genetics: Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated Signaling 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (E) Endogenous SA levels in the leaves of 4-week-old soil-grown plants.
  • PLoS Genetics: Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated Signaling 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results showed that both EDS1 and SA have redundant functions in ssi2 -mediated resistance to TCV in HRT plants.
  • PLoS Genetics: Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated Signaling 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .It plays a role in the resistance to pathogens by inducing the production of pathogenesis-related proteins.^ Murphy AM, Otto B, Brearley CA, Carr JP, Hanke DE. A role for inositol hexakisphosphate in the maintenance of basal resistance to plant pathogens.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The discovery that SIPK encodes a 48-kDa kinase that is strongly activated by wounding raised questions as to the identity of the wounding-induced protein kinase ( WIPK ) gene product.
  • Nitric oxide and salicylic acid signaling in plant defense — PNAS 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.pnas.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hong JK, Hwang BK. The promoter of the pepper pathogen-induced membrane protein gene CaPIMP1 mediates environmental stress responses in plants.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

[4] .It is involved in the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in which a pathogenic attack on one part of the plant induces resistance in other parts.^ Fobert PR, Despres C. Redox control of systemic acquired resistance.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mishina TE, Zeier J. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition rather than development of tissue necrosis contributes to bacterial induction of systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dong X. Genetic dissection of systemic acquired resistance.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The signal can also move to nearby plants by salicyclic acid being converted to the volatile ester, methyl salicylate.^ Nitric oxide and salicylic acid signaling in plant defense .
  • Nitric oxide and salicylic acid signaling in plant defense — PNAS 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.pnas.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Park SW, Kaimoyo E, Kumar D, Mosher S, Klessig DF. Methyl salicylate is a critical mobile signal for plant systemic acquired resistance.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Salicylates (pronounced sall as in sally - i as in ink - sill as in silly - ate) are compounds formed from a plant hormone called salicylic acid and are in nearly every mouthful we eat.

[5]

Production

.Salicylic acid is biosynthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine.^ Mauch-Mani B, Slusarenko AJ. Production of salicylic acid precursors is a major function of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the resistance of Arabidopsis to Peronospora parasitica.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In Arabidopsis thaliana it can also be synthesized via a phenylalanine-independent pathway.^ To identify components involved in the SA signaling pathway, Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that exhibit altered disease resistance have been generated and characterized by several laboratories.
  • Nitric oxide and salicylic acid signaling in plant defense — PNAS 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.pnas.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, NO may activate PR-1 expression via an NO-dependent, cADPR-independent pathway.
  • Nitric oxide and salicylic acid signaling in plant defense — PNAS 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.pnas.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent data has shown that EDS1 signals resistance via both SA-dependent as well as SA-independent pathways [46] .
  • PLoS Genetics: Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated Signaling 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.Sodium salicylate is commercially prepared by treating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide at high pressure (100 atm) and high temperature (390K) -a method known as the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.^ In this process, phenol is treated with a sodium base generating sodium phenoxide, which is then reacted with carbon dioxide under high temperature (125° C.) and pressure (100 atmosphere) to yield sodium salicylate, which on acidification yields salicylic acid.
  • GREEN CATALYTIC PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID - Patent application 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Compounds of formula (XI) are commercially available or can be prepared by methods well known in the art.
  • Salicylic Acid Derivatives - Patent application - The present invention refers to O-acyl salicylic acid derivatives bearing a NO donor moiety a process for their preparation 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Yet another object of the present invention is to synthesize acetyl salicylic acid using solid acid catalyst with high yield and purity at atmospheric pressure and moderate temperature.
  • GREEN CATALYTIC PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID - Patent application 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Acidification of the product with sulfuric acid gives salicylic acid:
Kolbe-Schmitt.png

.It can also be prepared by the hydrolysis of Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)[6] or methyl salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen) with a strong acid or base.^ Induction by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and characterization.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If any contain aspirin or other salicylates (including bismuth subsalicylate [e.g., Pepto-Bismol] or any shampoo or skin medicine that contains salicylic acid or any other salicylate), check with your health care professional .
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The present invention refers to O-acyl salicylic acid derivatives bearing a NO donor moiety, a process for their preparation and pharmaceutical compositions containing them.
  • Salicylic Acid Derivatives - Patent application - The present invention refers to O-acyl salicylic acid derivatives bearing a NO donor moiety a process for their preparation 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

History

White willow (Salix alba) is a natural source of salicylic acid
.The Greek physician Hippocrates wrote in the 5th century BC about a bitter powder extracted from willow bark that could ease aches and pains and reduce fevers.^ Salicylates are used to relieve pain and reduce fever.
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best known salicylate is aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which was originally extracted from willow bark.

This remedy was also mentioned in texts from ancient Sumer, Lebanon, and Assyria. .The Cherokee and other Native Americans used an infusion of the bark for fever and other medicinal purposes for centuries.^ Golden seal has long been used for medicinal purposes in North America.
  • Product Ingredients 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC reverseskinaging.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other medicines— Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur.
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buffered aspirin, choline and magnesium salicylates, or magnesium salicylate can keep many other medicines, especially some medicines used to treat infections, from working properly.
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .The medicinal part of the plant is the inner bark and was used as a pain reliever for a variety of ailments.^ Salicylates are used to relieve pain and reduce fever.
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most salicylates are also used to relieve some symptoms caused by arthritis (rheumatism), such as swelling, stiffness, and joint pain.
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you need a medicine to relieve pain, a fever, or arthritis, your doctor may not want you to take extra aspirin.
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Reverend Edward Stone, a vicar from Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, England, noted in 1763 that the bark of the willow was effective in reducing a fever.[8]
.The active extract of the bark, called salicin, after the Latin name for the white willow (Salix alba), was isolated and named by the German chemist Johann Andreas Buchner in 1826. A larger amount of the substance was isolated by in 1828 by Henri Leroux a French pharmacist.^ The best known salicylate is aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which was originally extracted from willow bark.

^ Salicylic acid was first obtained from the bark of the willow tree, Salix.
  • Product Ingredients 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC reverseskinaging.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Raffaele Piria, an Italian chemist was able to convert the substance into a sugar and a second component, which on oxidation becomes salicylic acid.^ Furthermore, to recover and crystallize the crude acetyl salicylic acid product from the reaction mixture is also a time consuming tedious process and results into low yield of the product.
  • GREEN CATALYTIC PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID - Patent application 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Special Considerations, make sure your doctor knows if you are pregnant or if you may become pregnant, especially if you will be using salicylic acid on large areas of your body.
  • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salicylic acid and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 are important components of resistance gene-mediated defense signaling against diverse pathogens in a variety of plants.
  • PLoS Genetics: Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated Signaling 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

[9]
.Salicylic acid was also isolated from the herb meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria, formerly classified as Spiraea ulmaria) by German researchers in 1839. While their extract was somewhat effective, it also caused digestive problems such as gastric irritation, bleeding, diarrhea, and even death when consumed in high doses.^ The dose of salicylic acid will be different for different patients.
  • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acetylsalicylic acid may also cause gastric irritation.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Not as effective, can cause irritation .
  • Dog Shampoos: The Function of Common Ingredients 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

Medicinal and cosmetic uses

.Salicylic acid is known for its ability to ease aches and pains and reduce fevers.^ Salicylates are used to relieve pain and reduce fever.
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, salicylic acid reduced the expression of the α-hemolysin gene promoter, hla , and the fibronectin gene promoter, fnbA .
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Salicylic acid attenuates virulence in endovascular infections by targeting global regulatory pathways in Staphylococcus aureus 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BACKGROUND OF INVENTION [0002] Acetyl salicylic acid is commonly known by its trade name Aspirin.
  • GREEN CATALYTIC PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID - Patent application 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.These medicinal properties, particularly fever relief, have been known since ancient times, and it was used as an anti-inflammatory drug.^ Aspirin is an effective non-steroidal analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug and is one of the most widely used medicine around the world.
  • GREEN CATALYTIC PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID - Patent application 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the days of ancient Egypt, people have been using chemexfoliation methods, also known as chemical peeling, to rejuvenate skin.
  • Chemical Peels: eMedicine Dermatology 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antithrombotic activities and vasodilating, platelet-antiaggregatory properties together with a reduced risk of gastric lesions and bleeding.
  • Salicylic Acid Derivatives - Patent application - The present invention refers to O-acyl salicylic acid derivatives bearing a NO donor moiety a process for their preparation 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[10]
.In modern medicine, salicylic acid and its derivatives are used as constituents of some rubefacient products.^ To use the soap form of salicylic acid: .
  • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To use the gel form of salicylic acid: .
  • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Impact of salicylic acid on α-hemolysin production.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Salicylic acid attenuates virulence in endovascular infections by targeting global regulatory pathways in Staphylococcus aureus 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.For example, methyl salicylate is used as a liniment to soothe joint and muscle pain, and choline salicylate is used topically to relieve the pain of aphthous ulcers.^ Salicylates are used to relieve pain and reduce fever.
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children Since salicylic acid is used topically, the above concentration and dosage may be applied in children with caution.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To use the topical solution form of salicylic acid for warts, corns, or calluses: .
  • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cotton pads soaked in salicylic acid can be used to chemically exfoliate skin
.As with other beta hydroxy acids, salicylic acid is a key ingredient in many skin-care products for the treatment of acne, psoriasis, calluses, corns, keratosis pilaris, and warts.^ Impact of salicylic acid on α-hemolysin production.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Salicylic acid attenuates virulence in endovascular infections by targeting global regulatory pathways in Staphylococcus aureus 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Salicylic Acid is best on acne-prone, sensitive skin types.
  • Salicylic Acid Acne Products & Proper Usage 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC skincarerx.com [Source type: General]

^ Salicylic Acid is a Beta Hydroxy Acid derived from the bark of the willow tree.
  • Salicylic Acid Acne Products & Proper Usage 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC skincarerx.com [Source type: General]

[11] .It works as both a keratolytic and comedolytic agent by causing the cells of the epidermis to shed more readily, opening clogged pores and neutralizing bacteria within, preventing pores from clogging up again by constricting pore diameter, and allowing room for new cell growth.^ Full-strength phenol (88%) is a very caustic agent that causes immediate keratin agglutination, preventing further penetration of the agent deeper into the dermis.
  • Chemical Peels: eMedicine Dermatology 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fine date seed powder physically exfoliates dead, pore-clogging skin cells while salicylic acid and triclosan deeply cleanse the pores.
  • Salicylic Acid Products Details 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.dermstore.com [Source type: General]

^ T-Zone Pore Refining Gel by Murad This exceptional formula is designed to banish shine and prevent clogged pores for a clear, smooth complexion.
  • Salicylic Acid Products Details 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.dermstore.com [Source type: General]

[12] .Because of its effect on skin cells, salicylic acid is used in several shampoos used to treat dandruff.^ Effects of salicylic acid.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To use the soap form of salicylic acid: .
  • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To use the gel form of salicylic acid: .
  • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Use of concentrated solutions of salicylic acid may cause hyperpigmentation on unpretreated skin for those with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick phototypes IV, V, VI), as well as with the lack of use of a broad spectrum sunblock.^ To use the topical solution form of salicylic acid for acne: .
  • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To use the soap form of salicylic acid: .
  • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To use the gel form of salicylic acid: .
  • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][14]
.Bismuth subsalicylate, a salt of bismuth and salicyclic acid, is the active ingredient in stomach relief aids such as Pepto-Bismol.^ If any contain aspirin or other salicylates (including bismuth subsalicylate [e.g., Pepto-Bismol] or any shampoo or skin medicine that contains salicylic acid or any other salicylate), check with your health care professional .
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Middle Ages, old wine with tartaric acid as its active ingredient was used for the same purpose.
  • Chemical Peels: eMedicine Dermatology 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suppositories for rectal administration of the drug can be prepared by mixing the active ingredient with a suitable non-irritating excipient, such as cocoa butter and polyethylene glycols.
  • Salicylic Acid Derivatives - Patent application - The present invention refers to O-acyl salicylic acid derivatives bearing a NO donor moiety a process for their preparation 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Bismuth subsalicylate helps control nausea, heartburn, indigestion, upset stomach, and diarrhea.^ Abdominal or stomach cramps, pain, or discomfort (mild to moderate); heartburn or indigestion; nausea or vomiting .
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is also a very mild antibiotic.

Other uses

.
  • Although toxic in large quantities, salicylic acid is used as a food preservative.^ To use the soap form of salicylic acid: .
    • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To use the gel form of salicylic acid: .
    • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To use the pad form of salicylic acid: .
    • Salicylic Acid (Topical) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC allnutritionals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .August 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] For some people with salicylate sensitivity even these small doses can be harmful.
  • Sodium salicylate is a useful phosphor in the vacuum ultraviolet with nearly flat quantum efficiency for wavelengths between 10 to 100 nm.^ I tend not to use the word sensitivity cause people think that makes like lactose intolerant and I just get an upset tummy, rather than the hardcore reaction I do get.
    • Salicylate Sensitivity Forum - Salicylate Sensitivity; READ ME FIRST! Step by Step Suggestions to Help You on Your Road to Health 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC salicylatesensitivity.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Gout—Salicylates can make this condition worse and can also lessen the effects of some medicines used to treat gout Heart disease—The chance of some side effects may be increased.
    • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Small children are at particular risk of overdose especially when fever, sweating and tachycardia of salicylate intoxication are attributed to the underlying illness and are used as indications for increasing the dose (Proudfoot, 1983).
    • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    [15] It fluoresces in the blue at 420 nm. It is easily prepared on a clean surface by spraying a saturated solution of the salt in methanol followed by evaporation.

Safety

.Salicylic acid has an ototoxic effect by inhibiting prestin.^ Salicylate inhibition of antiplatelet effect of aspirin.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies of the potential effects of salicylic acid on candidate sarA homologs are in progress in our laboratories.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Salicylic acid attenuates virulence in endovascular infections by targeting global regulatory pathways in Staphylococcus aureus 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PDF » Effects of DICER-like proteins 2, 3 and 4 on cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus infections in salicylic acid-treated plants.
  • Increase in Salicylic Acid at the Onset of Systemic Acquired Resistance in Cucumber -- Métraux et al. 250 (4983): 1004 -- Science 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.sciencemag.org [Source type: Academic]

[16] It can induce transient hearing loss in zinc-deficient individuals.
This finding is based on clinical studies with rats. .An injection of salicylic acid induced hearing loss in zinc-deficient rats, while a simultaneous injection of zinc reversed the hearing loss.^ Monitor for signs and symptoms of salicylate toxicity: nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tinnitus, loss of hearing, lethargy, diarrhea, psychic disturbances .
  • Salicylic Acid 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Salicylic Acid - Nature's Oasis 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.shopnaturesoasis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Salicylic Acid - Whole Health - WholeLiving.com 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.wholeliving.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hyperventilation, sweating, flushing, fever, irritability, tinnitus and loss of hearing are the common clinical features of mild to moderate salicylate intoxication.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Poecke RMP, Dicke M. Signal transduction downstream of salicylic and jasmonic acid in herbivory-induced parasitoid attraction by Arabidopsis is independent of JAR1 and NPR1.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

.An injection of magnesium in the zinc-deficient rats did not reverse the salicylic acid-induced hearing loss.^ Acetylsalicylic acid Artificial food coloring and flavoring Aspirin Benzoates Beta-hydroxy acid Magnesium salicylate Menthol Mint Salicylate Salicylic acid Penylethyl salicylate Peppermint Sodium salicylate Spearmint .
  • Tufts Medical Center - Low-Salicylate Diet 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monitor for signs and symptoms of salicylate toxicity: nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tinnitus, loss of hearing, lethargy, diarrhea, psychic disturbances .
  • Salicylic Acid 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Salicylic Acid - Nature's Oasis 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.shopnaturesoasis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Salicylic Acid - Whole Health - WholeLiving.com 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.wholeliving.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, enhancement of the sigB operon was demonstrated fluorometrically by salicylic acid–induced increases in the expression of the sigB -dependent promoter asp23 .
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Salicylic acid attenuates virulence in endovascular infections by targeting global regulatory pathways in Staphylococcus aureus 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Salicylic acid is used to treat acne, warts and other dermatological problems.^ Salicylic acid is used to treat warts and calluses, scaly skin conditions and sometimes acne.
  • Salicylic acid | Medicine | Patient UK 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Salicylic acid preparations for treating warts Topic Contents .
  • Health Information 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.altru.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can salicylic acid cause problems .
  • Salicylic acid | Medicine | Patient UK 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

.There are no studies specifically looking at topical salicylic acid in pregnancy.^ Do not swallow topical salicylic acid.
  • Salicylic Acid Topical: MedlinePlus Drug Information 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: General]

^ What does salicylic acid look like?
  • salicylic acid Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about salicylic acid 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What is salicylic acid and urea topical (Kerasal)?
  • Kerasal (salicylic acid and urea topical) Drug Side Effects, Interactions, and Medication Information on eMedicineHealth. 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oral salicylic acid has not been associated with an increase in malformations if used during the first trimester, but use in late pregnancy has been associated with bleeding, especially intracranial bleeding.^ Although skin types 5 and 6 are not ideal for peels, they can be peeled using superficial agents such as salicylic acid or glycolic acid.
  • Chemical Peels: eMedicine Dermatology 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, the caffeine present in some aspirin products can make some kinds of heart disease worse Hemophilia or other bleeding problems—The chance of bleeding may be increased, especially with aspirin .
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children Since salicylic acid is used topically, the above concentration and dosage may be applied in children with caution.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .The risks of aspirin late in pregnancy are probably not relevant for a topical exposure to salicylic acid, even late in the pregnancy, because of its low systemic levels.^ Do not swallow topical salicylic acid.
  • Salicylic Acid Topical: MedlinePlus Drug Information 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: General]

^ Save or Share salicylic acid topical .
  • salicylic acid topical medical facts from Drugs.com 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Levels of salicylic acid , an active component of Aspirin, are higher in vegetarians.
  • salicylic acid Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about salicylic acid 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Topical salicylic acid is common in many over-the-counter dermatological agents, and the lack of adverse reports suggests a low teratogenic potential.^ Salicylic acid topical side effects .
  • salicylic acid topical medical facts from Drugs.com 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Save or Share salicylic acid topical .
  • salicylic acid topical medical facts from Drugs.com 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salicylic acid (Topical route) .
  • Salicylic acid (Topical route) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.allina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.Salicylic acid overdose can lead to salicylate intoxication, which often presents clinically in a state of metabolic acidosis with compensatory respiratory alkalosis.^ Percutaneous salicylic acid intoxication.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Toxic doses of salicylate stimulate the respiratory centre leading to respiratory alkalosis.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Urine 8.3.1.3 Other fluids 8.3.2 Arterial blood gas analyses In adults with severe salicylate poisoning an initial respiratory alkalosis is followed by metabolic acidosis.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In patients presenting with an acute overdose, a 16% morbidity rate and a 1% mortality rate are observed.^ Mortality from chronic salicylate intoxication is considerably higher (25%) than from acute overdose (1 to 2%) (Anderson et al., 1976).
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[19]
.Some people are hypersensitive to salicylic acid and related compounds.^ Salicylates (pronounced sall as in sally - i as in ink - sill as in silly - ate) are compounds formed from a plant hormone called salicylic acid and are in nearly every mouthful we eat.

^ Salicylic acid may cause excessive drying and irritation in some people (Parish, 1991).
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For some people, any amount of dietary salicylates is too much.

.The United States Food and Drug Administration recommends the use of sun protection when using skincare products containing salicylic acid (or any other BHA) on sun-exposed skin areas.^ Salicylic Acid 6% is for use on the skin only.
  • Buy Generic Salicylic Acid 6% Lotion Online 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.universaldrugstore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maybe it's because my skin is used to salicylic acid.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Salicylic Acid 20% Gel Peel, 30ml (Professional) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The body may absorb too much salicylic acid if used over large areas of the skin.
  • National Psoriasis Foundation - Over-the-counter (OTC) topicals 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.psoriasis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.There is data to support an association between exposure to salicylic acid and Reye's Syndrome.^ Other clinical effects The relationship between the use of salicylate and Reye's syndrome in children and adolescents (mostly 5 to 15 years) has been demonstrated by epidemiological studies (Sullivan-Bolyai & Corey, 1981).
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fan W, Dong X. In vivo interaction between NPR1 and transcription factor TGA2 leads to salicylic acid-mediated gene activation in Arabidopsis.
  • References - salicylic - HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology - Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Purdue University 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I have searched and searched online to see if there's a connection between overuse of Ibuprofen and Salicylate sensitivity AND food allergies.
  • Salicylate Sensitivity Forum - Salicylate Sensitivity; READ ME FIRST! Step by Step Suggestions to Help You on Your Road to Health 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC salicylatesensitivity.com [Source type: General]

.The National Reye's Syndrome Foundation cautions against the usage of these substances, and other substances similar to aspirin, on children and adolescents.^ Other clinical effects The relationship between the use of salicylate and Reye's syndrome in children and adolescents (mostly 5 to 15 years) has been demonstrated by epidemiological studies (Sullivan-Bolyai & Corey, 1981).
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reye's syndrome associated with long-term aspirin overdose.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatic encephalopathy (Reye's Syndrome) has been reported in children taking aspirin for treatment of viral infections such as influenza.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Epidemiological research has shown an association between the development of Reye's Syndrome and the use of aspirin (a salicylate compound) for treating the symptoms of influenza-like illnesses, chicken pox, colds, etc.^ Reye's syndrome associated with long-term aspirin overdose.
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other clinical effects The relationship between the use of salicylate and Reye's syndrome in children and adolescents (mostly 5 to 15 years) has been demonstrated by epidemiological studies (Sullivan-Bolyai & Corey, 1981).
  • Salicylic acid (PIM 642) 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of a compound according to claim 1 for the preparation of an medicament for treating inflammation, pain, fever and cardiovascular diseases.
  • Salicylic Acid Derivatives - Patent application - The present invention refers to O-acyl salicylic acid derivatives bearing a NO donor moiety a process for their preparation 9 January 2010 22:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.The U.S. Surgeon General, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that aspirin and combination products containing aspirin not be given to children under 19 years of age during episodes of fever-causing illnesses.^ Also, the caffeine present in some aspirin products can make some kinds of heart disease worse Hemophilia or other bleeding problems—The chance of bleeding may be increased, especially with aspirin .
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children 4 to 6 years of age—Three-fourths of a 325-mg tablet every four hours as needed.
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children up to 6 years of age—This medicine is too strong for use in children younger than 6 years of age.
  • Salicylates consumer information from Drugs.com 25 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]

See also

External links

Footnotes

  1. ^ Solubility of salicylic acid in non-aqueous solvents
  2. ^ "Salicilyc acid". http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0563.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  3. ^ S. Hayat, A. Ahmad (2007). Salicylic acid - A Plant Hormone. Springer. ISBN 1402051832. 
  4. ^ HOOFT VAN HUIJSDUIJNEN. Induction by Salicylic Acid of Pathogenesis-related Proteins and Resistance to Alfalfa Mosaic Virus Infection in Various Plant Species. http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/67/10/2135.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-28. 
  5. ^ Plant Physiology Third Edition, Taiz and Zeiger, 2002, page 306
  6. ^ "Hydrolysis of ASA to SA". http://www.crscientific.com/article-aspirin.html. Retrieved July 31 2007. 
  7. ^ Paul B. Hemel and Mary U. Chiltoskey, Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History, Sylva, NC: Herald Publishing Co. (1975); cited in Dan Moerman, A Database of Foods, Drugs, Dyes and Fibers of Native American Peoples, Derived from Plants.[1] A search of this database for "salix AND medicine" finds 63 entries.
  8. ^ Stone, E (1763). "An Account of the Success of the Bark of the Willow in the Cure of Agues". Philosophical Transactions 53: 195–200. doi:10.1098/rstl.1763.0033. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0260-7085&volume=53&spage=195. 
  9. ^ Diarmuid Jeffreys. (2005). Aspirin : the remarkable story of a wonder drug. New York, NY: Bloomsbury. pp. 38–40. ISBN 9781582346007. http://books.google.de/books?id=x-sL4iNQOgcC&pg=PA38. 
  10. ^ Philip A. Mackowiak (2000). "Brief History of Antipyretic Therapy". Clinical Infectious Diseases, 31: 154–156. doi:10.1086/317510. 
  11. ^ http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119449119/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
  12. ^ Salicylic Acid Essential Actives, KAVI.
  13. ^ Grimes P.E. (1999). "The Safety and Efficacy of Salicylic Acid Chemical Peels in Darker Racial-ethnic Groups". Dermatologic Surgery 25 (1): 18–22. doi:10.1046/j.1524-4725.1999.08145.x. PMID 9935087. 
  14. ^ Roberts W. E. (2004). "Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin". Dermatologic Therapy 17 (2): 196. doi:10.1111/j.1396-0296.2004.04020.x. PMID 15113287. 
  15. ^ JAR Samson Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
  16. ^ Wecker, H.; Laubert, A. (2004). "Reversible hearing loss in acute salicylate intoxication" (in German). HNO 52 (4): 347–51. doi:10.1007/s00106-004-1065-5. PMID 15143764. 
  17. ^ Rumack, Cm; Guggenheim, Ma; Rumack, Bh; Peterson, Rg; Johnson, Ml; Braithwaite, Wr (Nov 1981). "Neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and maternal use of aspirin.". Obstetrics and gynecology 58 (5 Suppl): 52S–6S. ISSN 0029-7844. PMID 7312229. 
  18. ^ Acne and Pregnancy
  19. ^ http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/818242-overview
  20. ^ "Beta Hydroxy Acids in Cosmetics". http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/cos-bha.html. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  21. ^ "Asprin / Salicylates and Reye's Syndrome". http://www.reyessyndrome.org/aspirin.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 

Simple English

File:Salicylic
Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid is a chemical substance. It is an acid. It forms the base ingredient for a drug called aspirin. It is also used as a food preservative, and to treat diseases of the skin, like acne or warts. It is also used in shampoos to treat dandruff (flaking skin on the head).



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