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White Willow redirects here. See White Willow (band) for the Norwegian band.
Golden Willow redirects here. See Golden Willow for information on the horse of that name.
Salix alba
White Willow foliage; note white undersides of leaves
Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Salicaceae
Genus: Salix
Species: S. alba
Binomial name
Salix alba
L.

Salix alba (White Willow) is a species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia.[1][2] The name derives from the white tone to the undersides of the leaves.

It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree growing up to 10–30 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter and an irregular, often leaning crown. The bark is grey-brown, deeply fissured in older trees. The shoots in the typical species are grey-brown to green-brown. The leaves are paler than most other willows, due to a covering of very fine silky white hairs, particularly on the underside; they are 5–10 cm long and 0.5–1.5 cm wide. The flowers are produced in catkins in early spring, and pollinated by insects. It is dioecious, with male and female catkins on separate trees; the male catkins are 4–5 cm long, the female catkins 3–4 cm long at pollination, lengthening as the fruit matures. When mature in mid summer, the female catkins comprise numerous small (4 mm) capsules each containing numerous minute seeds embedded in white down which aids wind dispersal.[1][2][3]

Contents

Ecology

Tree, showing whitish foliage compared to surrounding trees

White Willows are fast-growing, but relatively short-lived, being susceptible to several diseases, including watermark disease caused by the bacterium Brenneria salicis (named because of the characteristic 'watermark' staining in the wood; syn. Erwinia salicis) and willow anthracnose, caused by the fungus Marssonina salicicola. These diseases can be a serious problem on trees grown for timber or ornament.

It readily forms natural hybrids with Crack Willow Salix fragilis, the hybrid being named Salix × rubens Schrank.[1]

Uses

The wood is tough, strong, and light in weight, but has minimal resistance to decay. The stems (withies) from coppiced and pollarded plants are used for basket-making. Charcoal made from the wood was important for gunpowder manufacture. The bark was used in the past for tanning leather.[1][2]

Cultivars and hybrids

A number of cultivars and hybrids have been selected for forestry and horticultural use:[1][2]

  • Salix alba 'Caerulea' (Cricket-bat Willow; syn. Salix alba var. caerulea (Sm.) Sm.; Salix caerulea Sm.) is grown as a specialist timber crop in Britain, mainly for the production of cricket bats, but also for other uses where a tough, lightweight wood that does not splinter easily, is required. It is distinguished mainly by its growth form, very fast growing with a single straight stem, and also by its slightly larger leaves (10–11 cm long, 1.5–2 cm wide) with a more blue-green colour. Its origin is unknown; it may be a hybrid between White Willow and Crack Willow, but this is not confirmed.[1]
  • Salix alba 'Vitellina' (Golden Willow; syn. Salix alba var. vitellina (L.) Stokes) is a cultivar grown in gardens for its shoots, which are golden yellow for 1–2 years before turning brown. It is particularly decorative in winter; the best effect is achieved by coppicing it every 2–3 years to stimulate the production of longer young shoots with better colour. Other similar cultivars include 'Britzensis', 'Cardinal', and 'Chermesina', selected for even brighter orange-red shoots.
  • Salix alba 'Sericea' (Silver Willow) is a cultivar where the white hairs on the leaves are particularly dense, giving it more strongly silvery-white foliage.
  • The Weeping Willow (Salix × sepulcralis 'Chrysocoma', syn. Salix 'Tristis') is a hybrid between White Willow and Peking Willow Salix babylonica.

Medicinal uses

Salix alba tincture

Hippocrates wrote in the 5th century BC about a bitter powder extracted from willow bark that could ease aches and pains and reduce fevers. This remedy is also mentioned in texts from ancient Egypt, Sumer, and Assyria. The Reverend Edmund Stone, a vicar from Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire England, noted in 1763 that willow bark was effective in reducing a fever.[4] The bark is often macerated in ethanol to produce a tincture.

The active extract of the bark, called salicin, after the Latin name Salix, was isolated to its crystalline form in 1828 by Henri Leroux, a French pharmacist, and Raffaele Piria, an Italian chemist, who then succeeded in separating out the acid in its pure state. Salicylic acid, like aspirin, is a chemical derivative of salicin.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Meikle, R. D. (1984). Willows and Poplars of Great Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook No. 4. ISBN 0-901158-07-0.
  2. ^ a b c d Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  3. ^ Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
  4. ^ Stone, E. (1763). An Account of the Success of the Bark of the Willow in the Cure of Agues. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 53.

Photographs and illustration

Willows
Tree in flower, early spring
Tree in summer
Salix alba 'Vitellina' in winter
Female catkins
Male catkins
Male catkins
Bark
Tree killed by watermark disease.
Weeping Willows are a hybrid between White Willow and Peking Willow
White Willow illustration

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Salix alba

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Malpighiales
Familia: Salicaceae
Genus: Salix
Subgenus: S. subg. Salix
Sectio: S. sect. Salix
Species: S.alba
Subspecies: S. a. subsp. alba - S. a. subsp. caerulea - S. a. subsp. vitellina

Name

Salix alba Linnaeus

References

  • Species Plantarum 2:1021. 1753

Vernacular names

Česky: Vrba bílá
Deutsch: Silberweide
Eesti: Hõberemmelgas
English: White Willow
Español: Sauce blanco
Français: Saule blanc
Italiano: Salice bianco
Русский: Ива белая, ветла
Türkçe: Ak söğüt
Українська: Верба біла
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Salix alba on Wikimedia Commons.







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