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Principal Pacific salmon species: sockeye, chum, coastal cutthroat trout, chinook, coho, steelhead and pink
.Salmon is the common name for several species of fish of the family Salmonidae.^ Species Name : Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar ).
  • TED Case Study -- Alaska Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Species Name: Sockeye Salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ), also called Red, or Blueback Salmon.
  • TED Case Study -- Alaska Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Species Name: Silver Salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch ).
  • TED Case Study -- Alaska Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several other fish in the family are called trout; the difference is often said to be that salmon migrate and trout are resident, a distinction that holds true for the Salmo genus.^ Both of these, among other chemicals bioaccumulate via the fish feed, and have been found both under salmon cages and in the flesh of farmed salmon.
  • TED Case Study -- Alaska Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, after purchasing salmon or other fish, make sure to return it to a refrigerator as soon as possible.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Salmonidae other than trout or Pacific, Atlantic & Danube salmon, fresh or chilled, excluding fillets, other meat portions, livers & roes .
  • TED Case Study -- Alaska Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Salmon live in both the Atlantic (one migratory species Salmo salar) and Pacific Oceans, as well as the Great Lakes (approximately a dozen species of the genus Oncorhynchus).^ Species Name : Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar ).
  • TED Case Study -- Alaska Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is only one type of Atlantic salmon , Salmo salar .
  • TED Case Study -- Alaska Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salmon are usually classified either as Pacific ( Oncorhynchus family) or Atlantic ( Salmo family) salmon, according to the ocean in which they are found.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Typically, salmon are anadromous: they are born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to fresh water to reproduce.^ They found an increasing number of salmon were killed over the migration season, from 9% in early spring when the sea lice population was low to 95% cent in late spring when the sea lice population was higher.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While salmon are born in fresh water, they spend a good portion of their lives in the sea, only to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace in order to spawn.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rinse fresh salmon fillets under cold water.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

.However, there are rare species that can only survive in fresh water.^ While salmon are born in fresh water, they spend a good portion of their lives in the sea, only to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace in order to spawn.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Folklore has it that the fish return to the exact spot where they were born to spawn; tracking studies have shown this to be true but the nature of how this memory works has long been debated.^ While salmon are born in fresh water, they spend a good portion of their lives in the sea, only to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace in order to spawn.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Salmon are incredible fish traveling thousands of miles throughout their life cycle and within two to five years returning to the very location where they were born to spawn and die.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Wire cutters work good to remove the fish but watch how you cut the wire so no small wire pieces are in the fish.
  • GRILLED SALMON RECIPES - ALDER OR CEDAR PLANK SALMON, SALMON STEAK, FISH & SEAFOOD GRILLING 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Life cycle

Eggs in different stages of development. In some only a few cells grow on top of the yolk, in the lower right the blood vessels surround the yolk and in the upper left the black eyes are visible, even the little lens
Salmon fry hatching — the baby has grown around the remains of the yolk — visible are the arteries spinning around the yolk and little oildrops, also the gut, the spine, the main caudal blood vessel, the bladder and the arcs of the gills
Salmon eggs are laid in freshwater streams typically at high latitutes. The eggs hatch into alevin or sac fry. The fry quickly develop into parr with camouflaging vertical stripes. The parr stay for one to three years in their natal stream before becoming smolts, which are distinguished by their bright silvery colour with scales that are easily rubbed off. .It is estimated that only 10% of all salmon eggs survive to this stage.^ Unlike most other fish and salmon species (except chum), sockeye feed largely on zooplankton through all stages of life.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Everyone knows that only a small fraction of juvenile salmon survive to return as adults," said study co-author Dr. Mark Lewis.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] The smolt body chemistry changes, allowing them to live in salt water. .Smolts spend a portion of their out-migration time in brackish water, where their body chemistry becomes accustomed to osmoregulation in the ocean.^ Predation on out-migrating smolts by striped bass does occur.
  • Salmon Fishery Changes - News & FAQ 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.dfg.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While salmon are born in fresh water, they spend a good portion of their lives in the sea, only to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace in order to spawn.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Law enforcement efforts related to salmon in California's anadromous rivers (inland waters accessible to salmon migrating from the ocean) peak in the spring and in the fall.
  • Salmon Fishery Changes - News & FAQ 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.dfg.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The salmon spend about one to five years (depending on the species) in the open ocean where they become sexually mature.^ In 1996, two Pacific Northwest researchers announced their discovery of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation—a shift in the currents of the North and Central Pacific that moves the salmon food in the open oceans north or south every 25-30 years.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They’re telling us that the Earth is ruled by an irregular solar cycle that lasts about 1500 years.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nutrient levels in the North Carolina “hog rivers” are just about what they were 15 years ago before the hog expansion.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The adult salmon return primarily to their natal stream to spawn.^ While salmon are born in fresh water, they spend a good portion of their lives in the sea, only to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace in order to spawn.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Everyone knows that only a small fraction of juvenile salmon survive to return as adults," said study co-author Dr. Mark Lewis.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.In Alaska, the crossing-over to other streams allows salmon to populate new streams, such as those that emerge as a glacier retreats.^ Like other fish, in addition to being consumed fresh, preservation techniques such as smoking or salting were used to preserve the salmon.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some kinds of prostaglandins are pro-inflammatory while others, like those derived from the omega-3s in salmon are anti-inflammatory.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the salmon collapse in the Columbia—as they did during the 1980s—other salmon were thriving in the Gulf of Alaska.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The precise method salmon use to navigate has not been established, though their keen sense of smell is involved. .Atlantic salmon spend between one and four years at sea.^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That's what I did with my Salmon and even my wife of 42 years said "You gotta publish this one!"
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

^ Since juveniles are only one to two inches long, it takes just one or two sea lice to kill a juvenile pink or chum salmon.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

(When a fish returns after just one year's sea feeding it is called a grilse in the UK and Ireland.) Prior to spawning, depending on the species, salmon undergo changes. .They may grow a hump, develop canine teeth, develop a kype (a pronounced curvature of the jaws in male salmon).^ Such shifts in oceanic "temperature fences" may shrink the "grazing grounds" where salmon feed and grow.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All will change from the silvery blue of a fresh run fish from the sea to a darker color. .Salmon can make amazing journeys, sometimes moving hundreds of miles upstream against strong currents and rapids to reproduce.^ The salmon must swim upstream, against the water current.

^ The arduous upriver journey is a struggle against swift currents, tumbling rapids and obstructing waterfalls, sometimes for hundreds of kilometres.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On their journey home, adult salmon make many changes—much as they did on their first trip to the ocean.

.Chinook and sockeye salmon from central Idaho, for example, travel over 900 miles (1,400 km) and climb nearly 7,000 feet (2,100 m) from the Pacific ocean as they return to spawn.^ In 1996, two Pacific Northwest researchers announced their discovery of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation—a shift in the currents of the North and Central Pacific that moves the salmon food in the open oceans north or south every 25-30 years.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This amount of DHA+EPA would be found in just 20 grams (just 2/3 of one ounce) of Chinook salmon or in 100 grams (about 3 ounces) of cod.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While salmon are born in fresh water, they spend a good portion of their lives in the sea, only to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace in order to spawn.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Condition tends to deteriorate the longer the fish remain in fresh water, and they then deteriorate further after they spawn, when they are known as kelts.^ If it is still too salty, place the fish back into a fresh bowl of water for about an hour.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

^ While salmon are born in fresh water, they spend a good portion of their lives in the sea, only to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace in order to spawn.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We went to the fish market in search of Swordfish, but alas it was not in.............we only get in fresh daily and today they had salmon, so we tried this recipe and it was just wonderful.

.In all species of Pacific salmon, the mature individuals die within a few days or weeks of spawning, a trait known as semelparity.^ Will all the wild species die from overheating?
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bottomline: all men receive at least a 43% reduction in prostate cancer risk from enjoying salmon at least once each week, with the majority lowering their risk by 72%!
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

Between 2% and 4% of Atlantic salmon kelts survive to spawn again, all females. .However, even in those species of salmon that may survive to spawn more than once (iteroparity), post-spawning mortality is quite high (perhaps as high as 40 to 50%.^ Eating more cold water fish such as salmon, tuna, or sardines may help.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prostate cancer growth is stimulated by inflammation, so a likely explanation is that in men with this genetic variation, the omega-3s provided by salmon cause the COX-2 enzyme to produce even more anti-inflammatory prostaglandins than in other men.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ AMD is the leading cause of blindness in people over 50, affecting more than 30 million people worldwide.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

)
To lay her roe, the female salmon uses her tail (caudal fin), to create a low-pressure zone, lifting gravel to be swept downstream, excavating a shallow depression, called a redd. .The redd may sometimes contain 5,000 eggs covering 30 square feet (2.8 m2).^ More important, the Greenhouse Theory says the additional CO2 will collect heat in the lower atmosphere, from the Earth’s surface up to 30,000 feet.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More important, the Greenhouse Theory says the additional CO2 will collect heat in the lower atmosphere - up to 30,000 feet.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .The eggs usually range from orange to red.^ Their colors range from pink to red to orange.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Their flesh ranges in color from pink to red to orange with some varieties richer in important omega 3 fatty acids than others.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.One or more males will approach the female in her redd, depositing his sperm, or milt, over the roe.^ An attending male releases sperm or "milt" over the eggs and they are quickly covered with gravel.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority that return to the rivers are large females that have spent two winters at sea and males that have been at sea for one winter.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 800 eggs are produced for each pound of body weight, so an average size fish may lay several thousands eggs in one or more redds.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .The female then covers the eggs by disturbing the gravel at the upstream edge of the depression before moving on to make another redd.^ An attending male releases sperm or "milt" over the eggs and they are quickly covered with gravel.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Gulf of Maine rivers they spawn in October and early November, on sandy or gravelly bottom, the females smoothing a shallow trough or redd and covering the eggs with gravel.
  • Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.gma.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the spawning grounds are reached, the female, by using her tail, makes a nest (called a redd)in the gravel.

.The female will make as many as 7 redds before her supply of eggs is exhausted.^ After the redd is filled with fertilized eggs, the female swims a little farther and digs a new redd.

^ Once the spawning grounds are reached, the female, by using her tail, makes a nest (called a redd)in the gravel.

^ When the redd is finished, the female lays her round, pink eggs.

[3]
male ocean phase Chinook
male freshwater phase Chinook
.Each year, the fish experiences a period of rapid growth, often in summer, and one of slower growth, normally in winter.^ Thus, several St. John fish which were tagged and released in the river in the autumn after spawning and which were recaptured the following summer after wintering in the sea had gained 2 to 8 pounds in weight, one of them more than 6 inches in length.
  • Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.gma.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, each year over half of the returning fish were small ones spawning for the first time and producing only a third of the total eggs laid.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It follows from this that large salmon are to be found in the sea throughout the year, though fewer of them in summer when the spawning fish are in the rivers, than in winter when the whole stock is in salt water except for the "parr," a few immature grilse ( p.
  • Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.gma.org [Source type: Original source]

This results in rings (annuli) analogous to the growth rings visible in a tree trunk. Freshwater growth shows as densely crowded rings, sea growth as widely spaced rings; spawning is marked by significant erosion as body mass is converted into eggs and milt.
.Freshwater streams and estuaries provide important habitat for many salmon species.^ How many different species of salmon occur in the Northwest?
  • ::: American Indians of the Pacific Northwest ::: 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC content.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Delta smelt and many other species live in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, but these species use the habitat much differently than do Chinook salmon.
  • Salmon Fishery Changes - News & FAQ 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.dfg.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These, and many similar activities, are slowly rejuvenating aquatic habitats and raising hopes that someday salmon might return in abundance.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They feed on terrestrial and aquatic insects, amphipods, and other crustaceans while young, and primarily on other fish when older.^ Unlike most other fish and salmon species (except chum), sockeye feed largely on zooplankton through all stages of life.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chinook, on the other hand, feast on insects and sideswimmers when young, then consume a variety of fish, especially smelt and ciscoes, a type of lake herring, as they mature.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subject: that white stuf that oozes out after cooking salmon the white stuff that oozes out of cooked salmon is not normal.....this indicates it is farmed!...this is the crud they feed and inject into the fish.

.Eggs are laid in deeper water with larger gravel, and need cool water and good water flow (to supply oxygen) to the developing embryos.^ Also, there are still rivers in the region that are relatively pristine, with good water quality and gravel beds suitable for spawning.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unsuitable water temperatures or flows, Poor water quality conditions, Entrainment in water diversions, Predation, Disease, and Lack of food supply Back to Question List .
  • Salmon Fishery Changes - News & FAQ 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.dfg.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They demand cool, clean, flowing water.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mortality of salmon in the early life stages is usually high due to natural predation and human-induced changes in habitat, such as siltation, high water temperatures, low oxygen concentration, loss of stream cover, and reductions in river flow.^ Eating more cold water fish such as salmon, tuna, or sardines may help.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They found an increasing number of salmon were killed over the migration season, from 9% in early spring when the sea lice population was low to 95% cent in late spring when the sea lice population was higher.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Note that salmon is high in omega-3 but that it is also a predator, and thus concentrates heavy metals and other pollutants in the sea.

Estuaries and their associations wetlands provide vital nursery areas for the salmon prior to their departure to the open ocean. .Wetlands not only help buffer the estuary from silt and pollutants, but also provide important feeding and hiding areas.^ Projects have ranged from replanting streamside buffer vegetation to restoring the silted-over gravel substrate in salmon spawning areas.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Species

.The various species of salmon have many names, and varying behaviors.^ The characteristics of salmon vary with the species.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The appearance of salmon varies greatly from species to species.
  • Salmon - Defenders of Wildlife 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.defenders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are so many variations of smoked salmon.
  • Smoked Salmon recipes - Baked Salmon recipes & fantastic seafood appetizers - Choose Wild Salmon, a sustainable seafood. Direct from the Fisherman 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.eatalaskasalmon.com [Source type: General]

Atlantic Ocean species

Atlantic salmon
.Atlantic ocean species belong to the genus Salmo.^ Salmon are usually classified either as Pacific ( Oncorhynchus family) or Atlantic ( Salmo family) salmon, according to the ocean in which they are found.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

They include,
  • Atlantic salmon or Salmon (Salmo salar), was the first salmon to be classified.

Pacific Ocean species

Pacific species belong to the anus Oncorhynchus, some examples include;
.
  • Cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masu or O. masou) is found only in the western Pacific Ocean in Japan, Korea and Russia and also landlocked in central Taiwan's Chi Chia Wan Stream.^ In 1996, two Pacific Northwest researchers announced their discovery of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation—a shift in the currents of the North and Central Pacific that moves the salmon food in the open oceans north or south every 25-30 years.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Salmon are usually classified either as Pacific ( Oncorhynchus family) or Atlantic ( Salmo family) salmon, according to the ocean in which they are found.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For the past 30 years my family, and I have fished and harvested wild salmon and steelhead that migrate up the Rogue River from the Pacific Ocean.
    • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

    [4]
  • .
  • Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is also known in the USA as King or Blackmouth Salmon, and as Spring Salmon in British Columbia.^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wild chinook salmon from British Columbia were found to have the highest levels of PBDE contamination of any of the salmon Hites tested.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ CHURCHVILLE, VA—British Columbia’s Fraser River is suffering a salmon collapse, says Canada’s Globe and Mail .
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Chinook are the largest of all Pacific salmon, frequently exceeding 30 lb (14 kg).^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Overall, frequent eaters of fatty fish reduced their risk for all forms of lymphomas by 30%.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For the past 30 years my family, and I have fished and harvested wild salmon and steelhead that migrate up the Rogue River from the Pacific Ocean.
    • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

    [5] .The name Tyee is used in British Columbia to refer to Chinook over 30 pounds.^ Wild chinook salmon from British Columbia were found to have the highest levels of PBDE contamination of any of the salmon Hites tested.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Chinook salmon are known to range as far north as the Mackenzie River and Kugluktuk in the central Canadian arctic.^ Recent Fraser River fish runs: “Canadian report says Fraser River salmon fishery in danger of collapse,” Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce , Jan.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Portland, OR Top of Page Campbell River Candy This recipe is becoming quite popular in Campbell River, BC, Canada, known as "The Salmon Capital Of The World".
    • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

    [6]
  • Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) is known as Dog, Keta, or Calico salmon in some parts of the USA. This species has the widest geographic range of the Pacific species:[7] south to the Sacramento River in California in the eastern Pacific and the island of Kyūshū in the Sea of Japan in the western Pacific; north to the Mackenzie River in Canada in the east and to the Lena River in Siberia in the west.
.
Male ocean phase Coho salmon
  • Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) is also known in the USA as Silver salmon.^ Salmon are usually classified either as Pacific ( Oncorhynchus family) or Atlantic ( Salmo family) salmon, according to the ocean in which they are found.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    .This species is found throughout the coastal waters of Alaska and British Columbia and up most clear-running streams and rivers.^ Wild chinook salmon from British Columbia were found to have the highest levels of PBDE contamination of any of the salmon Hites tested.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    It is also now known to occur, albeit infrequently, in the Mackenzie River.[6]
  • .
  • Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), known as humpies in south east and south west Alaska, are found from northern California and Korea, throughout the northern Pacific, and from the Mackenzie River[6] in Canada to the Lena River in Siberia, usually in shorter coastal streams.^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Canada’s government has closed its ‘biggest salmon river’ to commercial and recreational fishing for the third year in a row.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The salmon catch data for the past 100 years of the Columbia River and Gulf of Alaska fisheries clearly reveal a 25-year cycle.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is the smallest of the Pacific species, with an average weight of 3.5 lb (1.6 kg) to 4 lb (1.8 kg).[8]
  • .
  • Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) is also known in the USA as Red salmon.^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    [9] This lake-rearing species is found south as far as the Klamath River in California in the eastern Pacific and northern Hokkaidō Island in Japan in the western Pacific and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. .Although most adult Pacific salmon feed on small fish, shrimp and squid; sockeye feed on plankton that they filter through gill rakers.^ For the past 30 years my family, and I have fished and harvested wild salmon and steelhead that migrate up the Rogue River from the Pacific Ocean.
    • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Joe Ellis, Aberdeen, WA Top of Page SMOKED SALMON INDIAN CANDY 8 lbs Wild Pacific Sockeye Salmon Fillets Sliced into 3 in.
    • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

    [3]

True salmon

Rainbow trout
Male ocean phase steelhead salmon
.Steelhead are true salmon belonging to the taxonomic family Salmonidae; all modern texts list it being as such.^ For the past 30 years my family, and I have fished and harvested wild salmon and steelhead that migrate up the Rogue River from the Pacific Ocean.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

There is much confusion on this, and many books do not state this clearly.[10]
.
  • Rainbow trout or Steelhead trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) are river spawners, usually found in the same rivers that produce chinook, especially the Columbia, Snake, Skeena, and other large rivers on the Pacific Coast of North America.^ I bank and boat fished for Steelhead and Salmon on the Columbia River at Ringold, above McNary Dam, below Priest Rapids dam, on the Snake River, and many of the rivers in central Washington and northern Oregon.
    • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For the past 30 years my family, and I have fished and harvested wild salmon and steelhead that migrate up the Rogue River from the Pacific Ocean.
    • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ During the past 25 years, however, the salmon extinction claims pushed scientists to look closely at North America’s Pacific Coast salmon.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Steelhead have also been introduced into some rivers surrounding the Laurentian Great Lakes.

Other species

.
  • Land-locked salmon (Salmo salar sebago) live in a number of lakes in eastern North America.^ Salmon Salmo salar Linnaeus 1758 .
    • Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.gma.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Species Name : Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar ).
    • TED Case Study -- Alaska Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There is only one type of Atlantic salmon , Salmo salar .
    • TED Case Study -- Alaska Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This subspecies of Atlantic Salmon is non-migratory, even when access to the sea is not barred. Another kind of landlocked salmon exists in the Qijiawan Stream in Taiwan.
  • Kokanee salmon is a land-locked form of sockeye salmon.
  • Huchen or Danube salmon (Hucho hucho), the largest permanent fresh water salmonid

Salmon fisheries

Spawning sockeye salmon in Becharof Creek, Becharof Wilderness, Alaska
.The salmon has long been at the heart of the culture and livelihood of coastal dwellers.^ We have seen that salmon have a long, complex life cycle spread over thousands of kilometres of river, estuary, coastal water and open sea.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many people of the Northern Pacific shore had a ceremony to honor the first return of the year. .For many centuries, people caught salmon as they swam upriver to spawn.^ Most Pacific salmon die within a week or two after they return to their home stream and spawn.  This trait of dying after reproduction is called semelparity .

^ Prior to the advent of modern salmon farming in the 1960s, the fish were caught in the spring as they moved toward their spawning grounds.
  • The Wine News Magazine - Salmon - Wine's friendliest fish 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.thewinenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Many people are concerned about their possible detrimental effects on wild salmon stocks.
  • salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A famous spearfishing site on the Columbia River at Celilo Falls was inundated after great dams were built on the river.^ But in the fall of 2002, the Columbia River had a record salmon run, and the salmon numbers have recovered to their former abundance.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nor does the Fraser have dams to blame like the Columbia River.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Ainu, of northern Japan, taught dogs how to catch salmon as they returned to their breeding grounds en masse.^ While salmon are born in fresh water, they spend a good portion of their lives in the sea, only to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace in order to spawn.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Now, salmon are caught in bays and near shore.^ In addition to off-shore ocean fishery regulations, there is a public process for developing near-shore ocean and in-river salmon fishery laws.
  • Salmon Fishery Changes - News & FAQ 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.dfg.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Salmon population levels are of concern in the Atlantic and in some parts of the Pacific but in Alaska stocks are still abundant.^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Salmon are usually classified either as Pacific ( Oncorhynchus family) or Atlantic ( Salmo family) salmon, according to the ocean in which they are found.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While some fish are not considered safe for pregnant or nursing mothers or young children to eat, eating wild pacific salmon does not pose a safety concern.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Fish farming of Pacific salmon is outlawed in the United States Exclusive Economic Zone,[11] however, there is a substantial network of publicly funded hatcheries,[12] and the State of Alaska's fisheries management system is viewed as a leader in the management of wild fish stocks.^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wild Salmon is typically darker red and farmed is lighter pink.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

.Some of the most important Alaskan salmon sustainable wild fisheries are located near the Kenai River, Copper River, and in Bristol Bay.^ I have a freezer full of wild alaskan salmon that does the same thing.

^ We suggest that you choose wild, rather than farmed salmon, and if purchasing chinook salmon, choose Alaskan chinook.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The salmon catch data for the past 100 years of the Columbia River and Gulf of Alaska fisheries clearly reveal a 25-year cycle.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Canada, returning Skeena River wild salmon support commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries, as well as the area's diverse wildlife on the coast and around communities hundreds of miles inland in the watershed.^ Recent Fraser River fish runs: “Canadian report says Fraser River salmon fishery in danger of collapse,” Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce , Jan.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canada’s government has closed its ‘biggest salmon river’ to commercial and recreational fishing for the third year in a row.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the state has never released any water quality data supporting the claims of river pollution from well-run (and state-regulated) confinement hog farms.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The status of wild salmon in Washington is mixed. .Out of 435 wild stocks of salmon and steelhead, only 187 of them were classified as healthy; 113 had an unknown status, 1 was extinct, 12 were in critical condition and 122 were experiencing depressed populations.^ We recommend that you eat only wild salmon.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I just grilled the freshest wild salmon on a grill but when I did, white "stuff" (for lack of a better word) oozed out.

^ For the past 30 years my family, and I have fished and harvested wild salmon and steelhead that migrate up the Rogue River from the Pacific Ocean.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

[13] .The Columbia River salmon population is now less than 3% of what it was when Lewis and Clark arrived at the river.^ Columbia River had a record salmon run, and the salmon numbers have recovered to their former abundance.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the group eating smoked salmon, blood levels of omega-3s rose about one-third less than in the salmon group.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They recommend that U.S. farmed salmon should be consumed at rates of less than 10 portions per month.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] .The commercial salmon fisheries in California have been either severely curtailed or closed completely in recent years, due to critically low returns on the Klamath and or Sacramento Rivers, causing millions of dollars in losses to commercial fishermen.^ However, it got less than 4 million fish in 1999, and this year’s still-smaller run seems to confirm that the Fraser will have only a small salmon fishery production for the next 25-30 years.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canada’s government has closed its ‘biggest salmon river’ to commercial and recreational fishing for the third year in a row.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The salmon catch data for the past 100 years of the Columbia River and Gulf of Alaska fisheries clearly reveal a 25-year cycle.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] Both Atlantic and Pacific salmon are popular sportfish.

Aquaculture

Salmon farm in the archipelago of Finland.
.Salmon aquaculture is the major economic contributor to the world production of farmed fin-fish, representing over $1 billion US annually.^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

^ Farmed salmon is predominantly Atlantic salmon, so choose Alaskan or Pacific salmon, but if in doubt, skip the fish!
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subject: that white stuf that oozes out after cooking salmon the white stuff that oozes out of cooked salmon is not normal.....this indicates it is farmed!...this is the crud they feed and inject into the fish.

.Other commonly cultured fish species include: tilapia, catfish, sea bass, carp, bream, and trout.^ Unlike most other fish and salmon species (except chum), sockeye feed largely on zooplankton through all stages of life.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Salmon farming is very big in Chile, Norway, Scotland, Canada and the Faroe Islands, and is the source for most salmon consumed in America and Europe.^ Today we know there are great benefits to consuming fish like Salmon because it's an excellent source of Omega-3 fatty acids.

.Atlantic salmon are also, in very small volumes, farmed in Russia and the island of Tasmania, Australia.^ Farmed salmon is predominantly Atlantic salmon, so choose Alaskan or Pacific salmon, but if in doubt, skip the fish!
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Norwegian salmon, a popular type of salmon often offered on restaurant menus, is actually Atlantic salmon that is farm-raised in Norway.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Salmon are carnivorous and are currently fed a meal produced from catching other wild fish and other marine organisms.^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also marinated the fish for 5 days in an air tight seal-a-meal tpye bag.

^ For the past 30 years my family, and I have fished and harvested wild salmon and steelhead that migrate up the Rogue River from the Pacific Ocean.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

.Salmon farming leads to a high demand for wild forage fish.^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

^ Always ask if the salmon you are ordering in a restaurant or purchasing at your grocery is wild or farmed.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In both farmed and wild salmon, approximately 50% of the total PBDEs were in the form of one compound: brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 47.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Salmon require large nutritional intakes of protein, and consequently, farmed salmon consume more fish than they generate as a final product.^ The fact is that they lack such evidence because modern farmers are doing a better, more sustainable, more productive job of farming today than ever before in history.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Primarily because high-yield farming eliminated the need to clear more land for food production.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet, while the world trade organization helped cut the average nonfarm tariff from 40 percent to 4 percent since 1947, the average farm product tariff is still more than 60 percent.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To produce one pound of farmed salmon, products from several pounds of wild fish are fed to them.^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

^ Always ask if the salmon you are ordering in a restaurant or purchasing at your grocery is wild or farmed.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In both farmed and wild salmon, approximately 50% of the total PBDEs were in the form of one compound: brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 47.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.As the salmon farming industry expands, it requires more wild forage fish for feed, at a time when seventy five percent of the worlds monitored fisheries are already near to or have exceeded their maximum sustainable yield.^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

^ We criticize the activists for telling falsehoods-but we don’t tell the public about our core motives: making sure that all the little kids in the world get high-quality nutrition while protecting the wildlands from expanded low-yield farming.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first and foremost rule of organic farming is that ‘thou shalt not use industrial fertilizer.” This means organic farming needs more land to make up for its lower yields (typically 10 to 40 percent lower) and it needs more land for green manure crops or more cattle to produce more manure.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .The industrial scale extraction of wild forage fish for salmon farming then impacts the survivability of the wild predator fish who rely on them for food.^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

^ Always ask if the salmon you are ordering in a restaurant or purchasing at your grocery is wild or farmed.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In both farmed and wild salmon, approximately 50% of the total PBDEs were in the form of one compound: brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 47.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

Work continues on substituting vegetable proteins for animal proteins in the salmon diet. .Unfortunately though, this substitution results in lower levels of the highly valued Omega-3 content in the farmed product.^ The authors theorize that daily fish consumption is highly protective largely due to the resulting daily supply of omega-3 fatty acids, which not only reduce platelet aggregation, but also decrease the production of pro-inflammatory compounds called leukotrienes.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In all of these studies, fish consumption and the resulting increase in blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly lessened mental decline over time.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Replacing normal household fats with flaxseed oil, in which the ratio of omega-6:omega:3 fats is 1:4, might result in an even larger drop in triglyceride levels.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Intensive salmon farming now uses open-net cages which have low production costs but have the drawback of allowing disease and sea lice to spread to local wild salmon stocks.^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And now, industrial farming has created Mad Cow disease.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will use 3 bowls of Alder chips during smoking and allow times where no smoke is coming out of the smoker so that the smoke flavor doesn't over power the taste of my wild salmon.7.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

[17]
.On a dry-dry basis, it takes 2–4 kg of wild caught fish to produce one kg of salmon.^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

^ Marinade recipe: Take 1/3 cup butter, melted Whisk in: 1/3 cup dry white wine 3 Tablespoons soy sauce 3 Tablespoons lemon juice 1 to 3 cloves garlic, pressed through a garlic press This is best with wild salmon, because the natural fat content yields a truly delectable piece of grilled fish.

^ Fish that was caught the day before you purchased it can be stored for about four days, while fish that was caught the week before can only be stored for about one or two days.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[18]
Artificially-incubated chum salmon
.Another form of salmon production, which is safer but less controllable, is to raise salmon in hatcheries until they are old enough to become independent.^ They help keep the salmon together on the grill (especially if you don't pay attention and overcook them so they become flaky).

.They are then released into rivers, often in an attempt to increase the salmon population.^ I too recently reintroduced salmon into my family's diet to increase our omega-3 intake.

^ They found an increasing number of salmon were killed over the migration season, from 9% in early spring when the sea lice population was low to 95% cent in late spring when the sea lice population was higher.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subject: that white stuf that oozes out after cooking salmon the white stuff that oozes out of cooked salmon is not normal.....this indicates it is farmed!...this is the crud they feed and inject into the fish.

.This practice was very common in countries like Sweden before the Norwegians developed salmon farming, but is seldom done by private companies, as anyone may catch the salmon when they return to spawn, limiting a company's chances of benefiting financially from their investment.^ Note: The cooking time may very depending on thickness of Salmon.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

^ Subject: that white stuf that oozes out after cooking salmon the white stuff that oozes out of cooked salmon is not normal.....this indicates it is farmed!...this is the crud they feed and inject into the fish.

.Because of this, the method has mainly been used by various public authorities and non profit groups like the Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association as a way of artificially increasing salmon populations in situations where they have declined due to overharvest, construction of dams, and habitat destruction or fragmentation.^ I like a strong smoked taste so I use about 1 1/2 cups of water for a 20lb fish and then I use 3 pans of alder in my electric smoker; because I like the taste of alder for my fish.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

^ They found an increasing number of salmon were killed over the migration season, from 9% in early spring when the sea lice population was low to 95% cent in late spring when the sea lice population was higher.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organic farmers can’t use conservation tillage because they don’t allow themselves to use herbicides.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unfortunately, there can be negative consequences to this sort of population manipulation, including genetic "dilution" of the wild stocks, and many jurisdictions are now beginning to discourage supplemental fish planting in favour of harvest controls and habitat improvement and protection.^ Now, with the end of the population surge, high-yield farming is at last beginning to get the support it has so long deserved from the intellectual leadership of the First World.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the past 30 years my family, and I have fished and harvested wild salmon and steelhead that migrate up the Rogue River from the Pacific Ocean.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

A variant method of fish stocking, called ocean ranching, is under development in Alaska. .There, the young salmon are released into the ocean far from any wild salmon streams.^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While some fish are not considered safe for pregnant or nursing mothers or young children to eat, eating wild pacific salmon does not pose a safety concern.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Makens: 4 Large wild salmon fillets cut into hand size chucks.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

.When it is time for them to spawn, they return to where they were released where fishermen can then catch them.^ While salmon are born in fresh water, they spend a good portion of their lives in the sea, only to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace in order to spawn.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

An alternative method to hatcheries is to use spawning channels. These are artificial streams, usually parallel to an existing stream with concrete or rip-rap sides and gravel bottoms. .Water from the adjacent stream is piped into the top of the channel, sometimes via a header pond to settle out sediment.^ I sometimes miss trying, though.Here is the method I have settled on: Brining : Cut the unscaled filets into 7” pieces.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

.Spawning success is often much better in channels than in adjacent streams due to the control of floods which in some years can wash out the natural redds.^ This brand is a little more expensive than some, but it is much stronger than any other bay leaves I have tried.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

^ At any rate it is much better undercooked than overcooked.

^ In fact, some of the plots at Britain’s famed Rothamsted experiment station have gotten inorganic fertilizers for more than 150 years with rising yields.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Because of the lack of floods, spawning channels must sometimes be cleaned out to remove accumulated sediment. The same floods which destroy natural redds also clean them out. .Spawning channels preserve the natural selection of natural streams as there is no temptation, as in hatcheries, to use prophylactic chemicals to control diseases.^ There should be no stream pollution.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Farm raised salmon are fed the carotenoids astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, so that their flesh color matches wild salmon.^ Always ask if the salmon you are ordering in a restaurant or purchasing at your grocery is wild or farmed.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We suggest that you choose wild, rather than farmed salmon, and if purchasing chinook salmon, choose Alaskan chinook.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[19]

Diseases and parasites

Henneguya salminicola, a protozoan parasite commonly found in the flesh of salmonids on the West Coast of Canada. Coho salmon
According to Canadian biologist Dorothy Kieser, protozoan parasite Henneguya salminicola is commonly found in the flesh of salmonids. It has been recorded in the field samples of salmon returning to the Queen Charlotte Islands. The fish responds by walling off the parasitic infection into a number of cysts that contain milky fluid. This fluid is an accumulation of a large number of parasites.
.Henneguya and other parasites in the myxosporean group have a complex lifecycle where the salmon is one of two hosts.^ One result of the lack of methyl groups is that molecules that would normally be quickly changed into other types of molecules not only do not change, but accumulate.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the group eating smoked salmon, blood levels of omega-3s rose about one-third less than in the salmon group.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One group was given a daily 4 gram omega-3 fish oil supplement, while the other group received olive oil.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

The fish releases the spores after spawning. In the Henneguya case, the spores enter a second host, most likely an invertebrate, in the spawning stream. .When juvenile salmon out-migrate to the Pacific Ocean, the second host releases a stage infective to salmon.^ For the past 30 years my family, and I have fished and harvested wild salmon and steelhead that migrate up the Rogue River from the Pacific Ocean.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

The parasite is then carried in the salmon until the next spawning cycle. The myxosporean parasite that causes whirling disease in trout, has a similar lifecycle.[20] .However, as opposed to whirling disease, the Henneguya infestation does not appear to cause disease in the host salmon — even heavily infected fish tend to return to spawn successfully.^ Therefore, after purchasing salmon or other fish, make sure to return it to a refrigerator as soon as possible.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While salmon are born in fresh water, they spend a good portion of their lives in the sea, only to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace in order to spawn.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cold-water fatty fish like salmon have often been thought of as a "brain food," not only because of their ability to navigate hundreds of miles to return to their birthplace to spawn, but because of their high concentration of omega-3 fats.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

According to Dr. Kieser, a lot of work on Henneguya salminicola was done by scientists at the Pacific Biological Station in Nanaimo in the mid-1980s, in particular, an overview report[21] which states that "the fish that have the longest fresh water residence time as juveniles have the most noticeable infections. Hence in order of prevalence coho are most infected followed by sockeye, chinook, chum and pink." .As well, the report says that, at the time the studies were conducted, stocks from the middle and upper reaches of large river systems in British Columbia such as Fraser, Skeena, Nass and from mainland coastal streams in the southern half of B.C. "are more likely to have a low prevalence of infection."^ Nor does the Fraser have dams to blame like the Columbia River.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the study was conducted in British Columbia, the results apply globally.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A recent Purdue University study showed that kids low in omega-3 essential fatty acids are significantly more likely to be hyperactive, have learning disorders, and to display behavioral problems.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

The report also states "It should be stressed that Henneguya, economically deleterious though it is, is harmless from the view of public health. It is strictly a fish parasite that cannot live in or affect warm blooded animals, including man".
.According to Klaus Schallie, Molluscan Shellfish Program Specialist with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, "Henneguya salminicola is found in southern B.C. also and in all species of salmon.^ It works equally well with all species of salmon.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

^ Unlike most other fish and salmon species (except chum), sockeye feed largely on zooplankton through all stages of life.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Looking at all these toxins, Foran's team concluded that the TEQ (toxic equivalency) average for farmed salmon is greater than that reported in any other food.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.I have previously examined smoked chum salmon sides that were riddled with cysts and some sockeye runs in Barkley Sound (southern B.C., west coast of Vancouver Island) are noted for their high incidence of infestation."^ Sweet southern Oregon smoked salmon .
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

^ Then, I placed the salmon flesh side down on the grill over high heat for three minutes.

^ Note that salmon is high in omega-3 but that it is also a predator, and thus concentrates heavy metals and other pollutants in the sea.

.Sea lice, particularly Lepeophtheirus salmonis and various Caligus species, including Caligus clemensi and Caligus rogercresseyi, can cause deadly infestations of both farm-grown and wild salmon.^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wild Salmon is typically darker red and farmed is lighter pink.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

^ Farming and Logging Cause the Salmon Decline in the Pacific Northwest .
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22][23] .Sea lice are ectoparasites which feed on mucous, blood, skin, and muscle tissue, and normally latch onto the skin of wild salmon in the open ocean during free-swimming, planktonic naupli and copepodid larval stages, which can persist for several days.^ Wild salmon can be consumed once a day.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Large numbers of highly populated, open-net salmon farms can create exceptionally large concentrations of sea lice; when exposed in river estuaries containing large numbers of open-net farms, many young wild salmon are infected, and do not survive as a result.^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Makens: 4 Large wild salmon fillets cut into hand size chucks.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

.Adult salmon may survive otherwise critical numbers of sea lice, but small, thin-skinned juvenile salmon migrating to sea are highly vulnerable.^ Adult salmon are the primary hosts of sea lice.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They found an increasing number of salmon were killed over the migration season, from 9% in early spring when the sea lice population was low to 95% cent in late spring when the sea lice population was higher.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.On the Pacific coast of Canada, the louse-induced mortality of pink salmon in such affected areas is commonly over 80%.^ Much of the salmon available in today's market comes from the waters of Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, eastern Canada, Norway and Greenland.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During the past 25 years, however, the salmon extinction claims pushed scientists to look closely at North America’s Pacific Coast salmon.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

Environmental pressures

.
All species of Pacific Salmon die shortly after spawning.
^ Will all the wild species die from overheating?
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It works equally well with all species of salmon.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

This one was photographed at a spawning site along Eagle Creek in Oregon.
.The population of wild salmon declined markedly in recent decades, especially north Atlantic populations which spawn in the waters of western Europe and eastern Canada, and wild salmon in the Snake and Columbia River system in northwestern United States.^ The salmon numbers in the Columbia River of Oregon and Washington began to decline in 1977.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The myth is that farmers demanded dams to irrigate their crops; the crops stole the salmon’s river water while the dams and sediment from the crops stifled the salmon’s reproduction.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States recently passed a lavish farm bill-but did it during a period of supposed budget surplus.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The decline is attributed to the following factors:
.
  • Disease transfer from open net cage salmon farming, especially sea lice.^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In natural conditions, adults are located far offshore when the juveniles are migrating out to sea, but fish farms put adult salmon in pens along the migration routes of juveniles, producing a cloud of sea lice through which the juveniles must migrate.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The European Commission (2002) concluded “The reduction of wild salmonid abundance is also linked to other factors but there is more and more scientific evidence establishing a direct link between the number of lice-infested wild fish and the presence of cages in the same estuary.”[25] It is reported that wild salmon on the west coast of Canada are being driven to extinction by sea lice from nearby salmon farms.^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

    ^ I've made this twice and it's the only time I've ever heard someone ask if there was more salmon.

    [26]
  • .
  • For Atlantic salmon smolts, it takes as few as eight sea lice to kill the fish.^ They found an increasing number of salmon were killed over the migration season, from 9% in early spring when the sea lice population was low to 95% cent in late spring when the sea lice population was higher.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Adult salmon are the primary hosts of sea lice.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    On the Pacific Coast where the smolt are much smaller, only one or two can be critical, often resulting in death. .In the Atlantic, sea lice have been a proven factor in both Norwegian and Scottish salmon declines.^ They found an increasing number of salmon were killed over the migration season, from 9% in early spring when the sea lice population was low to 95% cent in late spring when the sea lice population was higher.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Adult salmon are the primary hosts of sea lice.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    .In the Western Atlantic there has been little research at sea, but sea lice numbers in the period post-2000 do not appear to be a significant factor in the critical decline of endangered inner Bay of Fundy salmon.^ I had salmon last night with a garlic & rosemary olive oil on it and a little sea salt - it was awesome.

    ^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The situation may have been different in the 1980s and 1990s, but we are unlikely ever to know the factual history in that regard.
  • Overfishing in general but especially commercial netting in the Faroes and Greenland. .Several seafood sustainability guides have recommendations on which salmon fisheries are sustainable and which have negative impacts on Salmon populations.
  • Ocean and river warming which can delay spawning and accelerate transition to smolting.
  • Ulcerative dermal necrosis (UDN) infections of the 1970s and 1980s which severely affected adult salmon in freshwater rivers.
  • Loss of suitable freshwater habitat, especially degradation of stream pools and reduction of suitable material for the excavation of redds.^ Recent Fraser River fish runs: “Canadian report says Fraser River salmon fishery in danger of collapse,” Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce , Jan.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For the past 30 years my family, and I have fished and harvested wild salmon and steelhead that migrate up the Rogue River from the Pacific Ocean.
    • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The salmon catch data for the past 100 years of the Columbia River and Gulf of Alaska fisheries clearly reveal a 25-year cycle.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Historically stream pools were, to a large extent, created by beavers (see section below). With the extirpation of the beaver, the nurturing function of these ponds was lost.
  • Reduction of the retention of the nutrients brought by the returning adult salmon in stream pools. .Without stream pools, dead adult salmon tend to be washed straight back down the streams and rivers.
  • The construction of dams, weirs, barriers and other "flood prevention" measures, which bring severe adverse impacts to river habitat and on the accessibility of those habitats to salmon.^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some kinds of prostaglandins are pro-inflammatory while others, like those derived from the omega-3s in salmon are anti-inflammatory.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ He thinks this may be due to the chinooks' tendency to feed higher in the food chain throughout their adult life, eating mainly fish, unlike other salmon species that tend to consume more invertebrates and plankton.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    .This is particularly true in the northwest USA, where large numbers of dams have been built in many river systems, including over 400 in the Columbia River Basin.^ Columbia River had a record salmon run, and the salmon numbers have recovered to their former abundance.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nor does the Fraser have dams to blame like the Columbia River.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But in the fall of 2002, the Columbia River had a record salmon run, and the salmon numbers have recovered to their former abundance.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [27]
  • .
  • Other environmental factors such as light intensity, water flow, or change in temperature dramatically affects salmon during their migration season.^ Eating more cold water fish such as salmon, tuna, or sardines may help.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ When the salmon collapse in the Columbia—as they did during the 1980s—other salmon were thriving in the Gulf of Alaska.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They found an increasing number of salmon were killed over the migration season, from 9% in early spring when the sea lice population was low to 95% cent in late spring when the sea lice population was higher.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    .[28]
  • Loss of invertebrate diversity and population density in rivers because of modern farming methods and various sources of pollution, thus reducing food availability.
  • Reduction in freshwater base flow in rivers and disruption of seasonal flows, because of diversions and extractions, hydroelectric power generation, irrigation schemes, barge transportation, and slackwater reservoirs, which inhibit normal migratory processes and increase predation for salmon.^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

    ^ Note that salmon is high in omega-3 but that it is also a predator, and thus concentrates heavy metals and other pollutants in the sea.

    ^ However, the state has never released any water quality data supporting the claims of river pollution from well-run (and state-regulated) confinement hog farms.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [29]
  • Loss of suitable low gradient stream habitats due to agricultural practices such as the removal of riparian plants, destabilization of stream banks by livestock and irrigation processes.[30][31]
There are efforts to relieve this situation. As such, several governments and NGOs are sharing in research and habitat restoration efforts.
.
  • In the western Atlantic, the Atlantic Salmon Federation has developed a major sonic tracking technology program to understand the high at-sea mortality since the early 1990s.^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Note that salmon is high in omega-3 but that it is also a predator, and thus concentrates heavy metals and other pollutants in the sea.

    ^ Since juveniles are only one to two inches long, it takes just one or two sea lice to kill a juvenile pink or chum salmon.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    Ocean arrays are deployed across the Baie des Chaleurs and between Newfoundland and Labrador at the Strait of Belle Isle. .Salmon have now been tracked half way from rivers such as the Restigouche to Greenland feeding grounds.^ Thanks for posting such a nice and easy way to prepare salmon.

    Now the first line of the Ocean Tracking Network initiative is installed by DFO and Dalhousie University of Halifax from Halifax to the edge of the continental shelf. First results include Atlantic salmon travelling from the Penobscot River in Maine, the "anchor river" for US Atlantic salmon populations.
Results overall are showing that estuary problems exist for some rivers, but issues involving feeding grounds at sea are impacting populations as well. .In 2008 returns were markedly improved for Atlantic salmon on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, but no one knows if this is a temporary improvement or sign of a trend.^ In both farmed and wild salmon, approximately 50% of the total PBDEs were in the form of one compound: brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 47.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Brush the FROZEN salmon with olive oil on both sides.

^ Salmon are usually classified either as Pacific ( Oncorhynchus family) or Atlantic ( Salmo family) salmon, according to the ocean in which they are found.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

Salmon and beavers

Beavers are archetypal ecosystem engineers; in the process of clearcutting and damming, beavers alter their ecosystem extensively. Beaver ponds can provide critical habitat for juvenile salmon. .An example of this was seen in the years following 1818 in the Columbia River Basin.^ The salmon catch data for the past 100 years of the Columbia River and Gulf of Alaska fisheries clearly reveal a 25-year cycle.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1818, the British government made an agreement with the U.S. government to allow U.S. citizens access to the Columbia catchment (see Treaty of 1818). At the time, the Hudson's Bay Company sent word to trappers to extirpate all furbearers from the area in an effort to make the area less attractive to U.S. fur traders. .In response to the elimination of beavers from large parts of the river system, salmon runs plummeted, even in the absence of many of the factors usually associated with the demise of salmon runs.^ Columbia River had a record salmon run, and the salmon numbers have recovered to their former abundance.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in the fall of 2002, the Columbia River had a record salmon run, and the salmon numbers have recovered to their former abundance.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent Fraser River fish runs: “Canadian report says Fraser River salmon fishery in danger of collapse,” Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce , Jan.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Salmon recruitment can be affected by beavers' dams because dams can:[33][34][35]
  • Slow the rate at which nutrients are flushed from the system; nutrients provided by adult salmon dying throughout the fall and winter remain available in the spring to newly-hatched juveniles
  • Provide deeper water pools where young salmon can avoid avian predators
  • Increase productivity through photosynthesis and by enhancing the conversion efficiency of the cellulose-powered detritus cycle
  • Create low-energy environments where juvenile salmon put the food they ingest into growth rather than into fighting currents
  • Increase structural complexity with many physical niches where salmon can avoid predators
.Beavers' dams are able to nurture salmon juveniles in Estuarine tidal marshes where the salinity is less than 10ppm.^ The Watershed Watch Salmon Society says the Fraser should have had 10–13 million spawning sockeye salmon this season—but has gotten less than 2 million.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Beavers build small dams of generally less than 2 feet (0.61 m) high in channels in the Myrtle zone. These dams can be overtopped at high tide and hold water at low tide. .This provides refuges for juvenile salmon so they don't have to swim into large channels where they are subject to predation.^ Makens: 4 Large wild salmon fillets cut into hand size chucks.
  • JUST SMOKED SALMON BRINE & ALDER WOOD SMOKER RECIPES FOR FISH, MEATS, & SEAFOOD 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.justsmokedsalmon.com [Source type: General]

^ They help keep the salmon together on the grill (especially if you don't pay attention and overcook them so they become flaky).

^ First I took a large fillet of salmon and cut into pieces, each about 8 oz.

[36]

Salmon as food

Edouard Manet: Still Life with Salmon
Salmon is a popular food. .Classified as an "oily fish",[37] salmon is considered to be healthy due to the fish's high protein, high Omega-3 fatty acids, and high vitamin D[38] content.^ Salmon is an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, and selenium.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in women.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fish contain a type of essential fatty acid called the omega-3 fatty acids .
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

Salmon is also a source of cholesterol, with a range of 23–214 mg/100g depending on the species.[39] .According to reports in the journal Science, however, farmed salmon may contain high levels of dioxins.^ A primary concern was farmed salmon's concentration of dioxin.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So, Foran and colleagues investigated the toxicity of organic contaminants, including dioxin, in farmed salmon from Europe and America, and in wild salmon.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent Fraser River fish runs: “Canadian report says Fraser River salmon fishery in danger of collapse,” Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce , Jan.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) levels may be up to eight times higher in farmed salmon than in wild salmon.^ Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in farmed versus wild salmon sold in the United States.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research published by the Environmental Working Group (July 30, 2003) indicates that farmed salmon poses a cancer risk because it may be carrying high levels of carcinogenic chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Foran's group are the same researchers who collaborated on an earlier study (summarized above), which was published in Science in January 2004 and found farmed salmon contain substantially higher concentrations of organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, dieldrin, dioxins, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[40] .Omega-3 content may also be lower than in wild caught specimens, and in a different proportion to what is found naturally.^ More learning and health problems were also found in the children in the study who had lower total omega-3 fatty acid concentrations.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Wild-caught cold water fish, like salmon, are higher in omega-3 fatty acids than warm water fish.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Omega-3 comes in three types, ALA, DHA and EPA; wild salmon has traditionally been an important source of DHA and EPA, which are important for brain function and structure, among other things.^ Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the omega-3 in nuts and seeds, can be converted - albeit inefficiently - in the body to the omega-3s found in fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenioc acid (DHA).
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By providing greater variability between beats, the marine omega 3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, reduce the risk of arrhythmia and/or sudden death.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Salmon is low in calories and saturated fat, yet high in protein, and a unique type of health-promoting fat, the omega-3 essential fatty acids.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.This means if the farmed salmon is fed on a meal which is partially grain, then the amount of omega-3 it contains will be present as ALA (alpha-linolenic acid).^ Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the omega-3 in nuts and seeds, can be converted - albeit inefficiently - in the body to the omega-3s found in fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenioc acid (DHA).
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As with other toxins, it is thought that farm-raised salmon contain higher PBDE levels than wild due to the "salmon chow," a mixture of ground fish and oil, they are fed.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fish contain a type of essential fatty acid called the omega-3 fatty acids .
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.The body can itself convert ALA omega-3 into DHA and EPA, but at a very inefficient rate (2–15%).^ Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the omega-3 in nuts and seeds, can be converted - albeit inefficiently - in the body to the omega-3s found in fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenioc acid (DHA).
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Once absorbed, omega-3s are converted by the body from their triglyceride to ester forms as needed.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By providing greater variability between beats, the marine omega 3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, reduce the risk of arrhythmia and/or sudden death.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nonetheless, according to a 2006 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, the benefits of eating even farmed salmon still outweigh any risks imposed by contaminants.^ While the American Heart Association recommends consumption of at least 2 portions of fish per week due to well documented health benefits of consuming fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, Jeffrey Foran from the Midwest Center for Environmental Science and Public Policy, Milwaukee, US, and colleagues from various institutes were concerned that the health risks of consuming farmed salmon might outweigh the benefits.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While as little as a weekly serving of fish lowers risk of ischemic stroke, enjoying a daily serving omega-3-rich fish provides significantly greater reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease than eating fish even as frequently as a couple of times a week, show the findings of a study published in the January 17, 2006 issue of Circulation , the journal of the American Heart Association.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research published by the Environmental Working Group (July 30, 2003) indicates that farmed salmon poses a cancer risk because it may be carrying high levels of carcinogenic chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[41] .The type of omega-3 present may not be a factor for other important health functions.^ Their flesh ranges in color from pink to red to orange with some varieties richer in important omega 3 fatty acids than others.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Salmon is low in calories and saturated fat, yet high in protein, and a unique type of health-promoting fat, the omega-3 essential fatty acids.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.A simple rule of thumb is that the vast majority of Atlantic salmon available on the world market are farmed (greater than 99%), whereas the majority of Pacific salmon are wild-caught (greater than 80%).^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

^ Salmon are usually classified either as Pacific ( Oncorhynchus family) or Atlantic ( Salmo family) salmon, according to the ocean in which they are found.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

Farmed Atlantic salmon outnumber wild Atlantic salmon 85-to-1.[42]
Raw salmon sashimi
.Salmon flesh is generally orange to red, although there are some examples of white fleshed wild salmon.^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I just grilled the freshest wild salmon on a grill but when I did, white "stuff" (for lack of a better word) oozed out.

^ There is just one species of Atlantic salmon, while there are five species of Pacific salmon including chinook (or king), sockeye (or red), coho (or silver), pink and chum.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

The natural colour of salmon results from carotenoid pigments, largely astaxanthin but also canthaxanthin, in the flesh.[43] .Wild salmon get these carotenoids from eating krill and other tiny shellfish.^ We recommend that you eat only wild salmon.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Salmon goes great with roasted potato's, wild rice, mashed potato's, roasted tomatoes, asparagus, brussel sprouts, and many other wonderful veggies and starches.

^ While some fish are not considered safe for pregnant or nursing mothers or young children to eat, eating wild pacific salmon does not pose a safety concern.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

Because consumers have shown a reluctance to purchase white-fleshed salmon, astaxanthin (E161j), and very minutely canthaxanthin (E161g), are added as artificial colorants to the feed of farmed salmon, because prepared diets do not naturally contain these pigments. In most cases, the astaxanthin is made chemically; alternatively it is extracted from shrimp flour. Another possibility is the use of dried red yeast, which provides the same pigment. However, synthetic mixtures are the least expensive option. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant that stimulates the development of healthy fish nervous systems and enhances the fish's fertility and growth rate. .Research has revealed canthaxanthin may have negative effects on the human eye, accumulating in the retina at high levels of consumption.^ Research published by the Environmental Working Group (July 30, 2003) indicates that farmed salmon poses a cancer risk because it may be carrying high levels of carcinogenic chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The positive effects of DHA on LR11 levels and the protection against Alzheimer's was again seen human brain cells were used.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[43] .Today, the concentration of carotenoids (mainly canthaxanthin and astaxanthin) exceeds 8 mg/kg of flesh, and all fish producers try to reach a level that represents a value of 16 on the "Roche Color Card", a colour card used to show how pink the fish will appear at specific doses.^ We went to the fish market in search of Swordfish, but alas it was not in.............we only get in fresh daily and today they had salmon, so we tried this recipe and it was just wonderful.

This scale is specific for measuring the pink colour due to astaxanthin and is not for the orange hue obtained with canthaxanthin. The development of processing and storage operations, which can be detrimental on canthaxanthin flesh concentration, has led to an increased quantity of pigments added to the diet to compensate for the degrading effects of the processing. .In wild fish, carotenoid levels of up to 25 mg are present, but levels of canthaxanthin are, in contrast, minor.^ When farmed salmon from U.S. grocery stores was tested, the farmed salmon, which contains up to twice the fat of wild salmon, was found to contain 16 times the PCBs found in wild salmon, 4 times the levels in beef, and 3.4 times the levels found in other seafood.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[43]
Canned salmon in the U.S. is usually wild Pacific catch, though some farmed salmon is available in canned form. Smoked salmon is another popular preparation method, and can either be hot or cold smoked. Lox can refer either to cold smoked salmon or to salmon cured in a brine solution (also called gravlax). .Traditional canned salmon includes some skin (which is harmless) and bone (which adds calcium).^ Skin the salmon and remove the bones before cooking if possible.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Skinless and boneless canned salmon is also available.^ Salmon is also available frozen, canned, dried or smoked.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

Raw salmon flesh may contain Anisakis nematodes, marine parasites that cause Anisakiasis. .Before the availability of refrigeration, the Japanese did not consume raw salmon.^ Subject: Re: Glazed Salmon Mark wrote: The receipe for glazed salmon did not say how long to marinate the salmon in the refrigerator or did I miss it?

^ Subject: Glazed Salmon The receipe for glazed salmon did not say how long to marinate the salmon in the refrigerator or did I miss it?

.Salmon and salmon roe have only recently come into use in making sashimi (raw fish) and sushi.^ Using a sharp flat edge (not serrated) knife, eyeball the serving pieces you want to end up with after cooking and slice the raw salmon into serving size pieces.

^ I too recently reintroduced salmon into my family's diet to increase our omega-3 intake.

^ Recent Fraser River fish runs: “Canadian report says Fraser River salmon fishery in danger of collapse,” Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce , Jan.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Salmon in mythology

The salmon is an important creature in several strands of Celtic mythology and poetry, which often associated them with wisdom and venerability. In Irish mythology, a creature called the Salmon of Wisdom plays key role in the tale known as The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn. The Salmon will grant powers of knowledge to whoever eats it, and has been sought by the poet Finn Eces for seven years. Finally Finn Eces catches the fish and gives it to his young pupil, Fionn mac Cumhaill, to prepare it for him. .However, Fionn burns his thumb on the salmon's juices, and he instinctively puts it in his mouth.^ Subject: salmon en foil my wife puts orange slices, orange juice (?

As such, he inadvertently gains the Salmon's wisdom. .Elsewhere in Irish mythology, the salmon is also one of the incarnations of both Tuan mac Cairill[44] and Fintan mac Bóchra.^ In both farmed and wild salmon, approximately 50% of the total PBDEs were in the form of one compound: brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 47.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[45]
Salmon also figure into Welsh mythology. .In the prose tale Culhwch and Olwen, the Salmon of Llyn Llyw is the oldest animal in Britain, and the only creature who knows the location of Mabon ap Modron.^ "Everyone knows that only a small fraction of juvenile salmon survive to return as adults," said study co-author Dr. Mark Lewis.
  • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

After speaking to a string of other ancient animals who do not know his whereabouts, King Arthur's men Cai and Bedwyr are led to the Salmon of Llyn Llyw, who lets them ride its back to the walls of Mabon's prison in Gloucester.[citation needed]
In Norse mythology, after Loki tricked the blind god Höðr into killing his brother Baldr, Loki jumped into a river and transformed himself into a salmon in order to escape punishment from the other gods. When they held out a net to trap him he attempted to leap over it but was caught by Thor who grabbed him by the tail with his hand, and this is why the salmon's tail is tapered.[citation needed]
.Salmon are central to Native American mythology on the Pacific coast, from the Haida to the Nootka.^ During the past 25 years, however, the salmon extinction claims pushed scientists to look closely at North America’s Pacific Coast salmon.
  • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "A Salmon's Life: An Incredible Journey". U.S. Bureau of Land Management. http://www.blm.gov/education/00_resources/articles/Columbia_river_basin/posterback.html. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  2. ^ McGrath, Susan. "Spawning Hope". Audubon Society. http://www.audubonmagazine.org/features0309/hope.html. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  3. ^ a b c "Pacific Salmon, (Oncorhynchus spp.)". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services. http://www.fws.gov/species/species_accounts/bio_salm.html. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  4. ^ "Formosan salmon". Taiwan Journal. http://taiwanjournal.nat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=10710&CtNode=122. Retrieved 2006-12-13. 
  5. ^ "Chinook Salmon". Alaska Department of Fish and Game. http://www.adfg.state.ak.us/pubs/notebook/fish/chinook.php. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  6. ^ a b c http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/321160.pdf
  7. ^ "Chum Salmon". Alaska Department of Fish and Game. http://www.adfg.state.ak.us/pubs/notebook/fish/chum.php. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  8. ^ "Pink Salmon". Alaska Department of Fish and Game. http://www.adfg.state.ak.us/pubs/notebook/fish/pink.php. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  9. ^ "Sockeye Salmon". Alaska Department of Fish and Game. http://www.adfg.state.ak.us/pubs/notebook/fish/sockeye.php. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  10. ^ Books after 1990 seem to have it correct. For a good reference see Salmon by Peter Coates ISBN 1-86189-295-0
  11. ^ http://aprn.org/2007/12/24/new-research-raises-concern-over-effects-of-farmed-salmon-on-wild-stocks/ New research raises concern over effects of farmed salmon on wild stocks
  12. ^ http://media.aprn.org/2008/ann-20080922.mp3|low fish returns in Southeast this summer have been tough on the region’s hatcheries
  13. ^ (Johnson et al. 1997)
  14. ^ "Endangered Salmon". U.S. Congressman Jim McDermott. http://www.house.gov/mcdermott/issues_salmon.shtml. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  15. ^ Hackett, S., and D. Hansen. "Cost and Revenue Characteristics of the Salmon Fisheries in California and Oregon". http://www.dfg.ca.gov/marine/salmonfisheries.asp. Retrieved 2009-06-01. 
  16. ^ Seafood Choices Alliance (2005) It's all about salmon
  17. ^ Wright, Matt. "Fish farms drive wild salmon populations toward extinction", EurekAlert, December 13, 2007.
  18. ^ Naylor, Rosamond L.. "Nature's Subsidies to Shrimp and Salmon Farming" (PDF). Science; 10/30/98, Vol. 282 Issue 5390, p883. http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/solutions/documents/science1998.pdf. 
  19. ^ "Pigments in Salmon Aquaculture: How to Grow a Salmon-colored Salmon". http://www.seafoodmonitor.com/sample/salmon.html. Retrieved 2007-08-26. "Astaxanthin (3,3'-hydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a carotenoid pigment, one of a large group of organic molecules related to vitamins and widely found in plants. In addition to providing red, orange, and yellow colors to various plant parts and playing a role in photosynthesis, carotenoids are powerful antioxidants, and some (notably various forms of carotene) are essential precursors to vitamin A synthesis in animals." 
  20. ^ Crosier, Danielle M.; Molloy, Daniel P.; Bartholomew, Jerri. "Whirling Disease – Myxobolus cerebralis" (PDF). http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/ansrp/myxobolus_cerebralis.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  21. ^ N.P. Boyce, Z. Kabata and L. Margolis (1985). "Investigation of the Distribution, Detection, and Biology of Henneguya salminicola (Protozoa, Myxozoa), a Parasite of the Flesh of Pacific Salmon". Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (1450): 55. 
  22. ^ Sea Lice and Salmon: Elevating the dialogue on the farmed-wild salmon story Watershed Watch Salmon Society, 2004.
  23. ^ Bravo, S. (2003). "Sea lice in Chilean salmon farms". Bull. Eur. Assoc. Fish Pathol. 23, 197–200.
  24. ^ Martin Krkoek, et al. Report: "Declining Wild Salmon Populations in Relation to Parasites from Farm Salmon", Science: Vol. 318. no. 5857, pp. 1772 - 1775, 14 December 2007.
  25. ^ Scientific Evidence of Sea Lice from Fishfarms Seriously Harming Wild Stocks.
  26. ^ "Martin Krkosek, Jennifer S. Ford, Alexandra Morton, Subhash Lele, Ransom A. Myers, and Mark A. Lewis Declining Wild Salmon Populations in Relation to Parasites from Farm Salmon. (14 December 2007) ''Science'' 318 (5857), 1772". Sciencemag.org. 2007-12-14. doi:10.1126/science.318.5857.1711. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/318/5857/1711. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  27. ^ Moscrip, A., Montgomery, D. “Urbanization, Flood Frequency, and Salmon Abundance in Puget Lowland Streams”. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association.
  28. ^ "Aquaculture : Seasonal downstream movements of juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., with evidence of solitary migration of smolts". ScienceDirect. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4D-4PW0554-5&_user=582538&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000029718&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=582538&md5=2b63b3674aab3980392c2ab215901870. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  29. ^ Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission “When Salmon Are Dammed”. Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, 1997.
  30. ^ Bradford, MJ., Irvine, JR. “Land use, fishing, climate change, and the decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon”. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2000.
  31. ^ Orr, Raymond I. http://www.indiancountrytoday.com/archive/28215419.html "Northwest Salmon Make Legal Headway." Indian Country Today
  32. ^ "Project Bear Lake". http://www.ciaanet.org/content_sub1.asp?SUB1_ID=21&CAT_ID=5&SUB_ID=10. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  33. ^ Northwest Power and Conservation Council. "Extinction". http://www.nwcouncil.org/history/Extinction.asp. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  34. ^ K. D. Hyatt, D. J. McQueen, K. S. Shortreed and D. P. Rankin. "Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) nursery lake fertilization: Review and summary of results". http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/nrc/er/2004/00000012/00000003/art00001. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  35. ^ M. M. Pollock, G. R. Pess and T. J. Beechie. "The Importance of Beaver Ponds to Coho Salmon Production in the Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, USA" (PDF). http://rocky.ess.washington.edu/grg/publications/pdfs/Pollock.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  36. ^ "An overlooked ecological web". http://skagitwatershed.org/rpapers_overlooked.html. 
  37. ^ "What's an oily fish?". Food Standards Agency. 2004-06-24. http://www.food.gov.uk/news/newsarchive/2004/jun/oilyfishdefinition. 
  38. ^ "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 2007-12-13. http://www.webcitation.org/5Rl5u0LB5. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  39. ^ "Cholesterol: Cholesterol Content in Seafoods (Tuna, Salmon, Shrimp)". http://www.dietaryfiberfood.com/cholesterol-shrimp.php. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  40. ^ "Global Assessment of Organic Contaminants in Farmed Salmon". Science (journal). 2004-01-09. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/303/5655/226. 
  41. ^ "JAMA - Abstract: Fish Intake, Contaminants, and Human Health: Evaluating the Risks and the Benefits, October 18, 2006, Mozaffarian and Rimm 296 (15): 1885". Jama.ama-assn.org. 2006-10-18. doi:10.1001/jama.296.15.1885. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/296/15/1885. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  42. ^ Montaigne, Fen. "Everybody Loves Atlantic Salmon: Here's the Catch...". National Geographic. http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0307/feature5/?fs=www3.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  43. ^ a b c "Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition on the use of canthaxanthin in feedingstuffs for salmon and trout, laying hens, and other poultry." (PDF). European Commission — Health & Consumer Protection Directorate. pp. 6–7. http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scan/out81_en.pdf. Retrieved 2006-11-13. 
  44. ^ "The Story of Tuan mac Cairill". Maryjones.us. http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/tuan.html. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  45. ^ "The Colloquy between Fintan and the Hawk of Achill". Ucc.ie. http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G109001/index.html. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 

Further reading

.
  • Atlas of Pacific Salmon, Xanthippe Augerot and the State of the Salmon Consortium, University of California Press, 2005, hardcover, 152 pages, ISBN 0-520-24504-0
  • Making Salmon: An Environmental History of the Northwest Fisheries Crisis, Joseph E. Taylor III, University of Washington Press, 1999, 488 pages, ISBN 0-295-98114-8
  • Trout and Salmon of North America, Robert J. Behnke, Illustrated by Joseph R. Tomelleri, The Free Press, 2002, hardcover, 359 pages, ISBN 0-7432-2220-2
  • Come back, salmon, By Molly Cone, Sierra Club Books, 48 pages, ISBN 0-87156-572-2 - A book for juveniles describes the restoration of 'Pigeon Creek'.
  • The salmon: their fight for survival, By Anthony Netboy, 1973, Houghton Mifflin Co., 613 pages, ISBN 0-395-14013-7
  • A River Lost, by Blaine Harden, 1996, WW Norton Co., 255 pages, ISBN 0-393-31690-4. (Historical view of the Columbia River system).
  • River of Life, Channel of Death, by Keith C. Peterson, 1995, Confluence Press, 306 pages, ISBN 978-0-87071-496-2. (Fish and dams on the Lower Snake river.^ But in the fall of 2002, the salmon came back.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1996, two Pacific Northwest researchers announced their discovery of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation—a shift in the currents of the North and Central Pacific that moves the salmon food in the open oceans north or south every 25-30 years.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, the U.S. Forest Service and the University of California/Berkeley have now proved the cause of the frog decline: hungry trout .
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )
  • .
  • Salmon, by Dr Peter Coates, 2006, ISBN 1-86189-295-0
  • NEWS January 31, 2007: U.S. Orders Modification of Klamath River - Dams Removal May Prove More Cost-Effective for allowing the passage of Salmon
  • Salmon age and sex composition and mean lengths for the Yukon River area, 2004 / by Shawna Karpovich and Larry DuBois. Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program.
  • Trading Tails: Linkages Between Russian Salmon Fisheries and East Asian Markets.^ Eating more cold water fish such as salmon, tuna, or sardines may help.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Salmon May Help) found a significant inverse correlation between adolescent hostility and fish consumption.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Much of the salmon available in today's market comes from the waters of Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, eastern Canada, Norway and Greenland.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    Shelley Clarke. (November 2007). 120pp. ISBN 978-1-85850-230-4.
  • The Salmons Tale one of the twelve Ionan Tales by Jim MacCool
  • "Last Stand of the American Salmon," G. Bruce Knecht for Men's Journal
  • Sea Lice and Salmon: Elevating the dialogue on the farmed-wild salmon story Watershed Watch Salmon Society, 2004.

External links

.
  • Plea for the Wanderer, an NFB documentary on West Coast salmon
  • Fish farms drive wild salmon populations toward extinction Biology News Net.^ Wild is better than fish farmed, probably because a major element in fish food is offal of fish processing--which concentrates things one more step.

    ^ Out on the West Coast, for decades farmers have been accused of causing the decline of the region’s fabulous salmon runs.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .December 13, 2007.
  • Salmonid parasites University of St Andrews Marine Ecology Research Group.
  • Watershed Watch Salmon Society A British Columbia advocacy group for wild salmon
  • Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine: Interim Report (2002) Online book
  • University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Salmon Collection A collection of documents describing salmon of the Pacific Northwest.
  • Salmon-omics: Effect of Pacific Decadal Oscillation on Alaskan Chinook Harvests and Market Price Kevin Ho, Columbia University, 2005.
  • Salmon Nation A movement to create a bioregional community, based on the historic spawning area of Pacific salmon (CA to AK).
  • The Distribution of Pacific Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.^ In 1996, two Pacific Northwest researchers announced their discovery of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation—a shift in the currents of the North and Central Pacific that moves the salmon food in the open oceans north or south every 25-30 years.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The authors of this new study, Ronald Hites of Indiana University and colleagues, analyzed the same group of 700 wild and farmed salmon collected from around the world from which the data was drawn for their initial research on other contaminants in salmon, which was published in Science in January 2004.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ) in the Canadian Western Arctic, by S. A. Stephenson
  • Sea Lice - Coastal Alliance for Aquaculture Reform. .An overview of farmed- to wild-salmon interactive effects.
  • Salmon Farming Problems - Coastal Alliance for Aquaculture Reform.^ Always ask if the salmon you are ordering in a restaurant or purchasing at your grocery is wild or farmed.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ We suggest that you choose wild, rather than farmed salmon, and if purchasing chinook salmon, choose Alaskan chinook.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    .An overview of environmental impacts of salmon farming.
  • Aquacultural Revolution: The scientific case for changing salmon farming - Watershed Watch Salmon Society.^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    Short video documentary by filmmakers Damien Gillis and Stan Proboszcz. .Prominent scientists and First Nation representatives speak about the salmon farming industry
  • Wild Salmon in Trouble: The Link Between Farmed Salmon, Sea Lice and Wild Salmon - Watershed Watch Salmon Society.^ Others say salmon farms are infecting the wild salmon with sea lice.
    • Salmon | Center for Global Food Issues 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Always ask if the salmon you are ordering in a restaurant or purchasing at your grocery is wild or farmed.
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "This paper brings our understanding of farm-origin sea lice and Pacific wild salmon to the point where we know there is a clear severe impact."
    • WHFoods: Salmon 16 January 2010 10:12 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

    Animated short film based on peer-reviewed scientific research, with subject background article Watching out for Wild Salmon.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to John Tenison Salmon article)

From Wikispecies

(28.VI.1910 - 4.V.1999)
New Zealand entomologist.

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


Meaning: garment
The son of Nashon (Ruth 4:20; Mt 1:4f), possibly the same as Salma in 1Chr 2:51.
This person is part of the genealogy of Jesus.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
Facts about SalmonRDF feed
Child of Nashon  +

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Contents

  • Sex : Male

Pedigree

Son of Nahshon

Full Name

Salmon

Biography

Siblings

Spouse(s)

Offspring

Sources

First Chronicles, Holy Bible.

References


This article uses material from the "Salmon" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

of a breeding season]]
was opened and loosened]]

Salmon is a kind of teleost fish. There are many different kinds of salmon. Salmon belong to the same family of fish as the trout. Most kinds of salmon live in salt water, or migrate between rivers and the sea. Many people like to eat salmon, so the fish is also grown in fish farms. Usual ways to make food out of salmon are smoking, cold smoking and graving. Salmon are killed by people, other fish and their environment.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 21, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Salmon, which are similar to those in the above article.








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