Samatha: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on


Dharma Wheel
Portal of Buddhism
Outline of Buddhism

History of Buddhism

Timeline - Buddhist councils

Major figures

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists

Dharma or concepts

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Three marks of existence
Dependent origination
Saṃsāra · Nirvāṇa
Skandha · Cosmology
Karma · Rebirth

Practices and attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
4 stages of enlightenment
Wisdom · Meditation
Smarana · Precepts · Pāramitās
Three Jewels · Monastics

Countries and regions


Theravāda · Mahāyāna


Chinese canon · Pali canon
Tibetan canon

Related topics

Comparative studies
Cultural elements

Samatha (Pāli), śamatha (Sanskrit; also orthographically romanized to shamatha) "calm abiding," comprises a suite, type or style of Buddhist meditation or concentration practices designed to enhance sustained voluntary attention, and culminates in an attention that can be sustained effortlessly and for hours on end.[1] Samatha is a subset of the broader family of samadhi ("concentration") meditation practices.[2]



The Tibetan term for samatha is shiney (wylie: zhi gnas). According to Jamgon Kongtrul, insight may be garnered by an exegesis of the etymology of shamatha and shiney:

The Tibetan term is shiné [shi-ne] (SHi-gNas) and the Sanskrit is Shamatha. In the case of the Tibetan, the first syllable, shi, and in the case of the Sanskrit, the first two syllables, shama, refer to "peace" and "pacification". The meaning of peace or pacification in this context is that normally our mind is like a whirlwind of agitation. The agitation is the agitation of thought. Our thoughts are principally an obsessive concern with past, conceptualization about the present, and especially an obsessive concern with the future. This means that usually our mind is not experiencing the present moment at all.[3]

The semantic field of shi and shama is "pacification", "the slowing or cooling down", "rest".[4] The semantic field of is "to abide or remain" and this is cognate or equivalent with the final syllable of the Sanskrit, tha.[5]

General discussion

Buddhists consider meditation to be an act of concentration on a particular object or idea, sometimes in conjunction with inquiry into the nature of the object, as with "wisdom" (P: paññā, S: prajñā) or "insight" (P: vipassanā; S: vipaśyanā) practices such as Dzogchen.[6] Therefore, meditations from other religious traditions are sometimes referred to as a variation of samatha meditation that differ in the focus of concentration; such as breathing, scriptural passage, mantra, religious picture, a rock, body (as a representation of death), and so on. In this sense, samatha is not a strictly Buddhist meditation. Anapanasati (S. ānāpānasmṛti), or mindfulness (sati) of breathing (ānāpāna), is the most common samatha practice, although it is also used for vipassanā meditation. Samatha in its single-pointed focus and concentration of mind is cognate with the sixth 'limb' of Ashtanga Yoga or Raja Yoga which is Dharana or 'concentration'. For further discussion refer Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

For Buddhists, it is commonly practiced as a prelude to and in conjunction with "wisdom" practices.[6] Traditionally, in Buddhist meditation there are 40 objects of meditation, although the breath as an object of meditation enjoys the widest popularity in contemporary society. Samatha can include other samādhi practices as well.

Śamatha is commonly used in Theravada Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism and various branches of the Pure Land tradition.

In the early Suttas

The Buddha is said to have identified two paramount mental qualities that arise from wholesome meditative practice:

  • calm abiding (Pali: samatha) which steadies, composes, unifies and concentrates the mind;
  • insight (Pali: vipassana) which enables one to see, explore and discern "formations" (conditioned phenomena based on the five aggregates).[7]

Through the meditative development of calm abiding, one is able to suppress obscuring hindrances; and, with the suppression of the hindrances, it is through the meditative development of insight that one gains liberating wisdom.[8] Moreover, the Buddha is said to have extolled serenity and insight as conduits for attaining Nibbana (Pali; Skt.: Nirvana), the unconditioned state. For example, in the "Kimsuka Tree Sutta" (SN 35.245), the Buddha provides an elaborate metaphor in which serenity and insight are "the swift pair of messengers" who deliver the message of Nibbana via the Noble Eightfold Path.[9]

In the "Four Ways to Arahantship Sutta" (AN 4.170), Ven. Ananda reports that people attain arahantship using calm abiding and insight in one of three ways:

  1. they develop calm abiding and then insight (Pali: samatha-pubbangamam vipassanam)
  2. they develop insight and then calm abiding (Pali: vipassana-pubbangamam samatham)[10]
  3. they develop calm abiding and insight in tandem (Pali: samatha-vipassanam yuganaddham), for instance, obtaining the first jhana and then seeing in the associated aggregates the three marks of existence, before proceeding to the second jhana.[11]

In the Pali canon, the Buddha never mentions independent samatha and vipassana meditation practices; instead, samatha and vipassana are two qualities of mind to be developed through meditation. As Thanissaro Bhikkhu writes, "when [the Pali suttas] depict the Buddha telling his disciples to go meditate, they never quote him as saying 'go do vipassana,' but always 'go do jhana.' And they never equate the word vipassana with any mindfulness techniques. In the few instances where they do mention vipassana, they almost always pair it with samatha — not as two alternative methods, but as two qualities of mind that a person may 'gain' or 'be endowed with,' and that should be developed together.[12] Similarly, referencing MN 151, vv. 13-19, and AN IV, 125-27, Ajahn Brahm (who, like Bhikkhu Thanissaro, is of the Thai Forest Tradition) writes, some traditions speak of two types of meditation, insight meditation (vipassana) and calm meditation (samatha). In fact, the two are indivisible facets of the same process. Calm is the peaceful happiness born of meditation; insight is the clear understanding born of the same meditation. Calm leads to insight and insight leads to calm.[13]

Nonetheless, some meditation practices (such as contemplation of a kasina object) favor the development of samatha, others are conducive to the development of vipassana (such as contemplation of the aggregates), while others (such as mindfulness of breathing) are classically used for developing both mental qualities.[14]

Contemporary Theravāda intepretations

In the "New Burmese Method" or "Vipassana school" approach to samatha and vipassana developed by Mingun Jetavana Sayādaw U Nārada and popularized by Mahasi Sayadaw, samatha is considered an optional but not necessary component of the practice--vipassana is possible without it. Another Burmese method, derived from Ledi Sayadaw via U Ba Khin and S. N. Goenka, takes a similar approach. The Thai Forest tradition deriving from Ajahn Mun and popularized by Ajahn Chah, in contrast, stresses the inseparability of the two practices, and the essentialness of both practices. Other Burmese traditions popularized in the west, notably that of Pa Auk Sayadaw, uphold the pronounced emphasis on samatha found in the commentarial tradition of the Visuddhimagga.

A 2008 book by Richard Shankman entitled The Experience of Samadhi: An In-depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation comparatively surveys the treatment of samatha in the suttas, in the commentarial tradition of the Visuddhimagga, and among a number of prominent contemporary Theravāda teachers of various orientations.[15]

In the Indo-Tibetan tradition

Relevant sutras

A number of Mahayana sutras address śamatha, usually in conjuction with vipaśyanā. One of the most prominent, the Ârya Ratnamegha Sutra (Cloud of Jewels Sutra, Tib. 'phags pa dkon mchog sprin gyi mdo) divides all forms of meditation into either śamatha or vipaśyanā, defining śamatha as "single-pointed consciousness" and vipaśyanā as "seeing into the nature of things."[16] The Samdhinirmocana Sutra (Sutra Unlocking the Mysteries), a Yogācāra sutra, is also often used as a source for teachings on śamatha. The Samādhirāja Sutra is often cited as an important source for śamatha instructions by the Kagyu tradition, particularly via commentary by Gampopa,[17] although scholar Andrew Skilton, who has studied the Samādhirāja Sutra extensively, reports that the sutra itself "contains no significant exposition of either meditational practices or states of mind."[18]

Factors in śamatha

In a formulation originating with Asanga (4th CE), śamatha practice is said to progress through Nine Mental Abidings (S. navākārā cittasthiti, Tib. sems gnas dgu), leading to a tenth stage, an exceptional state of meditative concentration called the first dhyana (Pali: jhāna; Tib. bsam gtan) which is often said to be a state of tranquillity or bliss.[1] Thus, it furthers the right concentration aspect of the Noble Eightfold Path. The successful result of samatha is also sometimes characterized as meditative absorption (samādhi, ting nge ’dzin) and meditative equipoise (samāhita, mnyam bzhag), and freedom from the five obstructions (āvarana, sgrib pa). It may also result in siddhis of clairvoyance (abhijñā, mgon shes) and magical emanation (nirmāna, sprul pa).[19]

Asanga dilineates the Nine Mental Abidings in his Abhidharmasamuccaya and the Śrāvakabhūmi chapter of his Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra. It is also found in the Mahāyānasūtrālaṅkāra of Maitreyanātha. The system of the five faults and eight anedotes orginates with Maitreyanātha's Madhyānta-vibhāga. The whole system is elaborated further in the three Bhāvanākrama texts of Kamalaśīla (particularly the second one), a later author, and by generations of Tibetan commentators.[20] Thus the following shamatha formulation derives originally from the Yogācāra tradition.

To practice śamatha, one must select an object of observation (ālambana, dmigs pa). Then one must overcome the five faults (ādīnava, nyes dmigs):[19][21]

1. laziness (kausīdya, le lo)
2. forgetting the instruction (avavādasammosa, gdams ngag brjed pa)
3. laxity (laya, bying ba) & excitement (auddhatya, rgod pa). Laxity may be coarse (audārika, rags pa) or subtle (sūksma, phra mo). Lethargy (styana, rmugs pa) is often also present, but is said to be less common.
4. non-application (anabhisamskāra, ’du mi byed pa)
5. [over]application (abhisamskāra, ’du byed pa)

Using the eight antidodes (pratipaksa, gnyen po) or applications (abhisamskāra, ’du byed pa):[19]

for laziness:
1. faith (śraddhā, dad pa)
i. contemplate faults of distraction (viksepa, rnam par gyen ba)
2. aspiration (chanda, ’dun pa)
3. exertion (vyayama, rtsol ba)
4. pliancy (praśrabdhi, shin sbyangs)
for forgetting the instruction:
5. mindfulness (smrti, dran pa)
for laxity and excitement
6. awareness (samprajanya, shes bzhin)
for non-application
7. application (abhisamskāra, ’du byed pa)
for overapplication
8. non-application (anabhisamskāra, ’du mi byed pa)

Six powers (bala, stobs) are also needed for śamatha:[22]

1. hearing (śruta, thos pa)
2. thinking (cintā, bsam pa)
3. mindfulness (smrti, dran pa)
4. awareness (samprajanya, shes bzhin)
5. effort (vīrya, brtson ’grus)
6. familiarity (paricaya, yong su ’dris pa)

Four modes of mental enagagement (manaskāra, yid la byed pa) are said to be possible:[19]

1. forcible engagement (balavāhana, sgrim ste ’jug pa)
2. interrupted engagement (sacchidravāhana, chad cing ’jug pa)
3. uninterrupted engagement (niśchidravāhana, med par ’jug pa)
4. spontaneous engagement (anābhogavāhana, lhun grub tu ’jug pa)

The Nine Mental Abidings (navākārā cittasthiti, sems gnas dgu) are:[19]

1. placement of the mind (cittasthāpana, sems ’jog pa)
2. continuous placement (samsthāpana, rgyun du ‘jog pa)
3. re-placement (avasthāpana, slan te ’jog pa)
4. close placement (upasthāpana, nye bar ’jog pa)
5. disciplining (damana, dul bar byed pa)
6. pacifying (śamana, zhi bar byed pa)
7. thorough pacification (vyupaśamana, nye bar zhi bar byed pa)
8. one-pointedness (ekotīkarana, rtse gcig tu byed pa)
9. placement in equipoise (samādhāna, mnyam par ’jog pa)

Śamatha in Mahāmudrā and Dzogchen

Śamatha is approached somewhat differently in the Mahāmudrā tradition as practiced in the Kagyu lineage. As Traleg Kyabgon Rinpoche explains,

In the practice of Mahamudra tranquilty meditation . . we treat all thoughts as the same in order to gain sufficient distance and detachment from our current mental state, which will allow us to ease naturally into a state of tranquility without effort or contrivance. . .In order for the mind to settle, we need to suspend the value judgments that we impose on our mental activities. . . it is essential that we not try to create a state of tranquility but allow the mind to enter into tranquility naturally. This is an important notion in the Mahamudra tradition, that of nondoing. We do not do tranquility mediation, we allow tranquility to arise of its own accord, and it will do so only if we stop thinking of the meditative state as a thing that we need to do actively. . . In a manner of speaking, catching yourself in the act of distraction is the true test of tranquility meditation, for what counts is not the ability to prevent thoughts or emotions from arising but the ability to catch ourselves in a particular mental or emotional state. This is the very essence of tranquility meditation [in the context of Mahāmudrā]. . . The Mahamudra style of mediation does not encourage us toward the different levels of meditative concentration traditionally described in the exoteric mediation manuals. . . From the Mahamudra point of view, we should not desire meditative equipoise nor have an aversion to discursive thoughts and conflicting emotions but view both of these states with equanimity. Again, the significant point is not whether meditative equipoise is present but whether we are able to maintain awareness of our mental states. If disturbing thoughts do arise, as they certainly will, we should simply recognize these thoughts and emotions as transient phenomena.[23]

For the Kagyupa, in the context of mahāmudrā, śamatha by means of mindfulness of breathing is thought to be the ideal way for the meditator to transition into taking the mind itself as the object of meditation and generating vipaśyanā on that basis.[24]

Quite similar is the approach to śamatha found in Dzogchen Semde (Sanskrit: Mahāsandhi Cittavarga). In the Semde system, śamatha is the first of the "four yogas" (Tib. naljor, wylie: rnal ’byor),[25] the others being vipaśyanā (wylie: lhag mthong), advaya ("nonduality," Tib. nyimed, wylie: gnyis med),[26] and anābogha or nirābogha ("spontaneous presence," Tib. lhundrub, wylie: lhun grub).[27] These parallel the Four Yogas of Mahamudra.

Ajahn Amaro, one of the abbots of Abhayagiri Monastery and a longtime student in the Thai Forest Theravadin tradition of Ajahn Chah, has also trained in the Dzogchen Semde śamatha approach under Tsoknyi Rinpoche. He found similarities in the approaches of the two traditions to śamatha.[28]

Relationship with vipashyana

Dzogchen Pönlop Rinpoche clearly charts the developmental relationship of the practices of śamatha and vipashyana:

The ways these two aspects of meditation are practised is that one begins with the practice of shamatha; on the basis of that, it becomes possible to practice vipashyana or lhagthong. Through one's practrice of vipashyana being based on and carried on in the midst of shamatha, one eventually ends up practicing a unification [yuganaddha] of shamatha and vipashyana. The unification leads to a very clear and direct experience of the nature of all things. This brings one very close to what is called the absolute truth.[29]

See also

External links


  1. ^ a b Wallace, A: 'The Attention Revolution', Wisdom Publications, 1st ed., 2006, p.6
  2. ^ Wallace, A: 'The Attention Revolution', Wisdom Publications, 1st ed., 2006, p.131
  3. ^ Ray, Reginald A. (Ed.)(2004). In the Presence of Masters: Wisdom from 30 Contemporary Tibetan Buddhist Teachers. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-57062-849-1 (pbk.: alk. paper) p.69.
  4. ^ Ray, Reginald A. (Ed.)(2004). In the Presence of Masters: Wisdom from 30 Contemporary Tibetan Buddhist Teachers. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Shambhala. ISBN 1-57062-849-1 (pbk.: alk. paper) p.69.
  5. ^ Ray, Reginald A. (Ed.)(2004). In the Presence of Masters: Wisdom from 30 Contemporary Tibetan Buddhist Teachers. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Shambhala. ISBN 1-57062-849-1 (pbk.: alk. paper) p.70.
  6. ^ a b Wallace, A: 'The Attention Revolution', Wisdom Publications, 1st ed., 2006, p.164
  7. ^ These definitions of samatha and vipassana are based on the "Four Kinds of Persons Sutta" (AN 4.94). This article's text is primarily based on Bodhi (2005), pp. 269-70, 440 n. 13. See also Thanissaro (1998d).
  8. ^ See, for instance, AN 2.30 in Bodhi (2005), pp. 267-68, and Thanissaro (1998e).
  9. ^ Bodhi (2000), pp. 1251-53. See also Thanissaro (1998c) (where this sutta is identified as SN 35.204). See also, for instance, a discourse (Pali: sutta) entitled, "Serenity and Insight" (SN 43.2), where the Buddha states: "And what, bhikkhus, is the path leading to the unconditioned? Serenity and insight...." (Bodhi, 2000, pp. 1372-73).
  10. ^ While the Nikayas identify that the pursuit of vipassana can precede the pursuit of samatha, a fruitful vipassana-oriented practice must still be based upon the achievement of stabilizing "access concentration" (Pali: upacara samadhi).
  11. ^ Bodhi (2005), pp. 268, 439 nn. 7, 9, 10. See also Thanissaro (1998f).
  12. ^ Thanissaro 1997 [1]
  13. ^ Brahm, 2006, p. 25.
  14. ^ See, for instance, Bodhi (1999) and Nyanaponika (1996), p. 108.
  15. ^ The Experience of Samadhi: An In-depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation by Richard Shankman. Shambhala: 2008. ISBN: 1590305213
  16. ^ "How to practice Calm-Abiding Meditation," Dharma Fellowship, [2],
  17. ^ Collected Works of Chogyam Trungpa, Vol. II Shambhala Publications. pg 19
  18. ^ "State or Statement?: Samādhi in Some Early Mahāyāna Sūtras" The Eastern Buddhist. 34-2. 2002 pg 57
  19. ^ a b c d e Meditative States in Tibetan Buddhism By Lati Rinpoche, Denma Locho Rinpoche, Leah Zahler, Jeffrey Hopkins Wisdom Publications: December 25, 1996. ISBN-10: 086171119X pgs 53-85
  20. ^ Study and Practice of Meditation: Tibetan Interpretations of the Concentrations and Formless Absorptions by Leah Zahler. Snow Lion Publications: 2009 pg 23)
  21. ^ Study and Practice of Meditation: Tibetan Interpretations of the Concentrations and Formless Absorptions by Leah Zahler. Snow Lion Publications: 2009 pg 5)
  22. ^ Meditative States in Tibetan Buddhism By Lati Rinpoche, Denma Locho Rinpoche, Leah Zahler, Jeffrey Hopkins Wisdom Publications: December 25, 1996. ISBN-10: 086171119X pgs 54-58
  23. ^ Mind at Ease, by Traleg Kyabgon, Shambhala Publications pgs 149-152, 157
  24. ^ Pointing Out the Great Way: The Stages of Meditation in the Mahamudra tradition by Dan Brown. Wisdom Publications: 2006 pg 221-34
  25. ^ [3]
  26. ^ Unbounded Wholeness by Anne C. Klein, Tenzin Wangyal. ISBN 0195178491 pg 349)
  27. ^ Unbounded Wholeness by Anne C. Klein, Tenzin Wangyal. ISBN 0195178491 pg 357, 359
  28. ^ Ajahn Chah's 'View of the View'", in Broad View, Boundless Heart by Ajahn Amaro.[4]
  29. ^ Ray, Reginald A. (Ed.)(2004). In the Presence of Masters: Wisdom from 30 Contemporary Tibetan Buddhist Teachers. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Shambala. ISBN 1-57062-849-1 (pbk.: alk. paper) p.76.


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Alternative spellings

  • Samata


From Sanskrit (śamatha) meaning "tranquility" and "concentration" (referring to Buddhist meditation) or "equality".

Proper noun




  1. A female given name.


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address