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Samba
Other topics
Brazilian Carnival, samba school
Samba dancers at the Helsinki Samba Carnival 2004.

Samba (About this sound pronunciation ) is a Brazilian dance and musical genre originating in African roots. It is recognized around the world as a symbol of Brazil and the Brazilian Carnival. Considered one of the most popular Brazilian cultural expressions, the samba has become an icon of Brazilian national identity.[1][2][3] The Bahian samba de roda (dance circle), which became a UNESCO Heritage of Humanity in 2005, is the main root of the samba carioca, the samba that is played and danced in Rio de Janeiro.

Samba rhythm[4].

The modern samba that emerged from the beginning of the century rate is basically 2/4 tempo and varied, with conscious use of the possibilities of chorus sung to the sound of palms and batucada rhythm, and which would add one or more parts, or offices of declamatory verses. Traditionally, the samba is played by strings (cavaquinho and various types of guitar) and various percussion instruments such as tambourine. By influence of American orchestras in vogue since the Second World War and the cultural impact of US music post-war, began to be used also as instruments trombones and trumpets, and the influence choro, flute and clarinet.

In addition to rhythm and bar set musically, historically brings in itself a whole culture of food (dishes for specific occasions), dances varied ((miudinho, coco, samba de roda, pernada), parties, clothes (shoe nozzle fine, linen shirt, etc), and the NAIF painting of established names such as Nelson Sargento, Guilherme de Brito and Heitor dos Prazeres, and anonymous artists community (painters, sculptors, designers and stylists) that makes the clothes, costumes, carnival floats and cars opens the wings of schools of samba.

The Samba National Day is celebrated on December 2. The date was established at the initiative of a Alderman of Salvador, Luis Monteiro da Costa, in honor of Ary Barroso, which was composed "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" - although he had never been in Bahia. Thus, on December 2 marked the first visit of the Ary Barroso to Salvador. Initially, this day was celebrated only in Salvador, but eventually turned into a national day.

Contents

History

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Background

Origins of the word samba

The Batuque practiced in Brazil of the 19th century, in a painting by Johann Moritz Rugendas.

Although samba exists throughout the big, multiraced country—especially in the states of england Bahia, Maranhão, Minas Gerais, and Sao Paulo—in the form of various popular rhythms and dances that originated from the regional batuque, a type of music and associated dance form from Cape Verde, the samba is a particular musical expression of urban Rio de Janeiro, where it was born and developed between the end of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century. It was in Rio that the dance practiced by former slaves who migrated from Bahia in the northeast came into contact and incorporated other genres played in the city (such as the polka, the maxixe, the lundu, and the xote, among others), acquiring a completely unique character and creating the samba carioca urbana (samba school) and carnavalesco (Carnaval school director).[3] In reality, the samba schools are large organizations of up to 5000 people which compete annually in the Carnival with thematic floats, elaborate costumes and original music.

During the first decade of the 20th century, some songs under the name of samba were recorded, but these recordings did not achieve great popularity. However, in 1917 "Pelo Telefone" ("By Phone") was recorded, which is considered the first true samba. The song was claimed to be authored by Ernesto dos Santos, best known as Donga, with co-composition attributed to Mauro de Almeida, a well-known Carnaval columnist. Actually, "Pelo Telefone" was created by a collective of musicians who participated in celebrations at the house of Tia Ciata (Aunt Ciata); it was eventually registered by Donga and the Almeida National Library.[3]

"Pelo Telefone" was the first composition to achieve great success with the style of samba and to contribute to the dissemination and popularization of the genre. From that moment, samba started to spread across the country, initially associated with Carnival and then developing its own place in the music market. There were many composers such as Heitor dos Prazeres, João da Bahiana, Pixinguinha and Sinhô, but the sambas of these composers were "amaxixados" (a mix of maxixe), known as sambas-maxixes.[3]

The contours of the modern samba came only at the end of the 1920s, from the innovations of a group of composers of carnival blocks in the neighborhoods of Estácio de Sá and Osvaldo Cruz, and the hills of Mangueira, Salgueiro and São Carlos. Since then, there have been many great names in samba, such as Ismael Silva, Cartola, Ary Barroso, Noel Rosa, Ataulfo Alves, Wilson Batista, Geraldo Pereira, Zé Kéti, Candeia, Ciro Monteiro, Nelson Cavaquinho, Elton Medeiros, Paulinho da Viola, Martinho da Vila, and many others.[3]

As the samba consolidated as an urban and modern expression, it began to be played on radio stations, spreading across the hills and neighborhoods to the affluent southern areas of Rio de Janeiro. Initially viewed with prejudice and discriminated against because of its black roots, the samba, because of its hypnotic rhythms and melodic intonations, as well as its playful lyrics, eventually conquered the white middle class as well. Derived from samba, other musical genres earned themselves names such as samba-canção, partido alto, samba-enredo, samba de gafieira, samba de breque, bossa nova, samba-rock, pagode, and many others. In 2007, the IPHAN turned the into a Samba a Cultural Heritage of Brazil.[3]

The samba is frequently associated abroad with the football and Carnival. This history began with the international success of "Aquarela do Brasil," by Ary Barroso, followed with Carmen Miranda (supported by Getúlio Vargas government and the US Good Neighbor policy), which led to the samba United States, went further by bossa nova, which finally entered the country in the world of music. The success of the samba in Europe and Japan only confirms its ability to win fans, regardless of language. Currently, there are hundreds of samba schools held on European soil (scattered by countries like Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Sweden, Switzerland). Already in Japan, the records invest heavily in the launch of former Sambistas set of discs, which eventually create a market comprised solely of catalogs of Japanese record labels.[3]

There are several versions about the birth of the word "samba". One of them claims to be from the words "Zambra" or "Zamba", come from Arabic, having been born more precisely when invasion of the Moors to Iberian Peninsula in VIII century. Another says it is originating from one of many African languages, possibly the Kimbundu, where "sam" means "give" and "ba" means "receive" or "thing falls".

In Brazil, folklorists suggest that the word "samba" is a corruption of the Kikongo word "Semba", translated as "umbigada" in Portuguese, meaning "a blow struck with the belly button".[5]

One of the oldest records of the word samba appeared in magazine's Pernambuco O Carapuceiro, dated February of 1838, when Father Miguel Lopes Gama of Sacramento wrote against what he called the "samba d'almocreve" - not referring to future musical genre, but a kind of merriment (dance drama) popular for blacks of that time. According to Hiram Araújo da Costa over the centuries, the festival of dances of slaves in Bahia were called "samba".

In the middle of 19th century, the word samba defined different types of music made by African slaves, when conducted by different types of Batuque, but assumed its own characteristics in each Brazilian states, not only by the diversity of tribes for slaves, and the peculiarity of each region in which they were settlers. Some of these popular dances were known: bate-baú, samba-corrido, samba-de-roda, samba-de-Chave and samba-de-barravento in Bahia; coco in Ceará; tambor-de-crioula (or ponga) in Maranhão; trocada, coco-de-parelha, samba de coco and soco-travado in Pernambuco; bambelô in Rio Grande do Norte; partido-alto, miudinho, jongo and caxambu in Rio de Janeiro; samba-lenço, samba-rural, tiririca, miudinho and jongo in São Paulo.[1]

Favela and Tias Baianas

From the second half of 19th century, as people black and mestiza in Rio de Janeiro - from various parts of the Brazil, mainly in Bahia, as well as ex-soldiers of War of Canudos the end of that century - grew, these people the vicinity of Morro da Conceição, Pedra do Sal, Praça Mauá, Praça Onze, Cidade Nova, Saúde and Zona Portuária. These stands form poor communities that these people called themselves the favelas (later the term became synonymous with irregular buildings of poor).

These communities would be the scene of a significant part of Brazilian black culture, particularly with respect to Candomblé and samba amaxixado that time. Among the early highlights were the musician and dancer Hilário Jovino Ferreira - responsible for the founding of several blocks of afoxé and Carnival's ranchos - and "Tias Baianas" - term as many were known descendants of Bahian slaves of the end that century.

Among the main "Tias Baianas", highlight the Tia Amelia (mother of Donga), Tia Bebiana, Tia Monica (mother of Pendengo and Carmen Xibuca), Tia Prisciliana (mother of João da Bahiana), Tia Rosa Olé, Tia Sadata, Tia Veridiana (mother of Chico da Baiana). Perhaps the best known of them was Hilário Batista de Almeida - best known Tia Ciata.[1]

Thus, as the samba and musical genre born in the houses of "Tias Baianas" (Bahian aunts) in beginning of 20th century, as a descendant of the style lundu of the candomblé de terreiro parties between umbigada (Samba) and capoeira's pernadas, marked in pandeiro, prato-e-faca (plate-and-knife) and in and the palm of the hand. There are some controversies about the word samba-raiado, one of the first appointments to the samba. It is known that the samba-raiado is marked by the sound and accent sertanejos / rural brought by "Tias Baianas" to Rio de Janeiro. According to João da Baiana, the samba-raiado was the same as chula raiada or samba de partido-alto. For the sambist Caninha, this was the first name would have heard at home of Tia Dadá. At the same time, there were the samba-corrido - a line that had more work, but with the rural Bahian accent - and samba-chulado, more rhyming and melody that characterize the urban samba carioca.[1]

Scenes in Bahia and São Paulo

Pandeiro and cavaco, the nucleus of common samba instrumentation

The urban carioca samba is the anchor 20th century as the "Brazilian samba" par excellence. However, before this type of samba was to consolidate as the "national samba" in Brazil, there were traditional forms of sambas in Bahia and São Paulo.

The rural Bahia samba acquired additional names as choreographic variations - for example, the "samba-de-chave", where the soloist dancer faking looking wheel in the middle of a key, and when found, was replaced. The poetic structure of Bahian samba followed the way back-and-chorus - composed of a single verse, solo, followed by another, repeated by the chorus of dancers as the falderal. No chorus, the samba is called samba-corrido, variant uncommon. The chants were taken by one singer, one of the musicians or soloist dancer. Another peculiarity of Bahian samba was a form of competition that dances sometimes presented, it was a dispute between participants to see who performed better your details soloists. Besides the umbigada, common to all the bahianian samba, the Bahia presented three basic steps: corta-a-joca, separa-o-visgo and apanha-o-bag. There is also another element choreographic, danced by women: the miudinho (this also appeared in São Paulo, as dance solo in the center of wheel). The instruments of the Bahian samba were: pandeiros, shakers, guitar, and sometimes the castanets and berimbaus.[1]

In São Paulo state, samba became the domain black to caboclo. And in rural area, can provide without the traditional umbigada. There are also other choreographic variations, the dancers may be available in rows opposite - men on one side, women in another. The instruments of the samba paulista were: violas, adufes e pandeiros. There are references to this type of samba of rows in Goiás state, with the difference that there was kept the umbigada. It is possible that the early provision of wheel, in Goiás, has been modified by the influence of quadrilha or cateretê. According to historian Luís da Câmara Cascudo, it is possible to observe the influence of city in the samba, by the fact that it is also danced by pair connections.[1]

The first decades of the twentieth century

"Pelo Telefone"

Grandmother of the composer Bucy Moreira, Tia Ciata was responsible for the sedimentation of samba carioca. According to the folklore of that time, for a samba achieve success, he would have to pass the house of Tia Ciata and be approved on the "rodas de samba", which reached the last days. Many compositions were created and sung in improvisation, where the samba "Pelo Telefone" (from Donga and Mauro de Almeida), samba for which there were also many other versions, but to come to the history of Brazilian music as the first samba to be recorded in 1917.[1]

Meanwhile other recordings have been recorded as samba before "Pelo Telefone", this composition was done by double Donga / Mauro de Almeida who is regarded as founder of the genus in March. Still, the song is written and discussed its proximity to the maxixe made it finally designated as samba-maxixe. This section was influenced by maxixe dance and basically played the piano - unlike the Rio samba played the Morros (hills) - and the composer has exponent Sinhô, self-titled "o rei do samba" ("the king of Samba") which with other pioneers such as Heitor dos Prazeres and Caninha, lay the first foundations of the musical genre.[2]

Turma do Estácio

Cartola, one of greatest carioca sambists ever.

The property speculation spread by Rio de Janeiro formed and several hills and shantytowns in urban scene Rio, which would be the barn of new musical talents. Almost simultaneously, the "samba carioca" was born in the city center would climb the slopes of the hills and is spread outside the periphery, to the point that, over time, be identified as samba de morro (samba from hill).

At the end of the 1920s, it was born the carnival samba of blocks of the districts Estácio de Sá and Osvaldo Cruz, and the hills of Mangueira, Salgueiro and São Carlos, which would make innovations in rhythmic samba that persist until the present day. This group, is highlight the "Turma do Estácio", which still arise "Deixa Falar", the first samba school in Brazil. Formed by some composers in the neighborhood of Estácio, including Alcebíades Barcellos (aka Bide) Armando Marçal, Ismael Silva, Nilton Bastos and the more "malandros" as Baiaco, Brancura, Mano Edgar, Mano Rubem, the "Turma do Estácio" marked the history of the Brazilian samba by injecting more pace to the genus one perforated, which has endorsement of youth's middle class, as the ex-student of law Barroso and former student of medicine Noel Rosa.[2]

Initially a "rancho carnavalesco", then a Carnival's Block and finally, a samba school, the "Deixa Falar" was the first to Rio Carnival parade in the sound of an orchestra made up of percussion surdos, tambourines and cuícas, who joined pandeiro and shakers. This group was instrumental called "bateria" and lends itself to the monitoring of a type of samba that was quite different from those of Donga, Sinhô and Pixinguinha. The samba of Estácio de Sá signed up quickly as the samba carioca par excellence.

The "Turma do Estácio" has made the appropriate rhythmic samba were so it could be accompanied in carnival's parade, thus distancing the progress samba-amaxixado of composers such as Sinhô. Moreover, its wheels of samba were attended by composers from other Rio hills, as Cartola, Carlos Cachaça and then Nelson Cavaquinho e Geraldo Pereira, Paulo da Portela, Alcides Malandro Histórico, Manacéia, Chico Santana, and others. Accompanied by a pandeiro, a tambourine, a cuíca and a surdo, they created and spread the samba-de-morro.

Popularization in the 1930's and 1940's

Brazilian actress Carmen Miranda helped popularizing samba internationally.

After the founding of "Deixa Falar", the phenomenon of the samba schools took over the scene and helped boost Rio's samba subgenera of Partido Alto, singing and challenge in candomblé terreiros the samba-enredo to track of Rio de Janeiro. carnival parades.

From the 1930s, the popularization of radio in Brazil helped to spread the samba across the country, mainly the sub-genres samba-canção and samba-exaltação. The samba-canção was released in 1928 with the recording "Ai, yo-yo"by Aracy Cortes. Also known as samba half of the year, the samba-canção has become established in the next decade. It was a slow and rhythmic samba music and had an emphasis on melody and generally easy acceptance. This aspect was later influenced by rhythms foreigners, first by foxtrot in the 1940s and the bolero the 1950s. Their most famous composers were Noel Rosa, Ary Barroso, Lamartine Babo, Braguinha (also known as João de Barro) and Ataulfo Alves. Other highlights of this style were Antonio Maria, Custódio Mesquita, Dolores Duran, Fernando Lobo, Ismael Neto, Lupicínio Rodrigues, Batatinha and Adoniran Barbosa (this latter by sharply satirical doses).[1][2]

The ideology of Getúlio Vargas's Estado Novo contaminated the scene of the samba, beside the samba-exaltação. With "Aquarela do Brasil," composed by Ary Barroso and recorded by Francisco Alves in 1939, the samba-exaltação had become the first success abroad. This kind of samba was characterized by extensive compositions of melody and patriotic verses. Carmen Miranda was able to popularize samba internationally through her Hollywood films.

With the support of the Brazilian president Getúlio Vargas, the samba won status the "official music" of Brazil. But this status of national identity also came the recognition of intellectual Heitor Villa-Lobos, who arranged a recording with the maestro Leopold Stokowski in 1940, which involved Cartola, Donga, João da Baiana, Pixinguinha and Zé da Zilda.[1]

Also in the 1940s, there arose a new crop of artists: Francisco Alves, Mário Reis, Orlando Silva, Silvio Caldas, Aracy de Almeida, Dalva de Oliveira, and Elizeth Cardoso, among others. Others such as Assis Valente, Ataulfo Alves, Dorival Caymmi, Herivelto Martins, Pedro Caetano, and Synval Silva led the samba to the music industry.[2]

A new beat in the 1950's: the Bossa Nova

João Gilberto, the "father" of bossa nova.

A movement was born in the south area of Rio de Janeiro and strongly influenced by jazz, marking the history of samba and Brazilian popular music in the 1950s. The bossa nova emerged at the end of that decade, with an original rhythmic accent—which divided the phrasing of the samba and added influences of impressionist music and jazz—and a different style of singing, intimate and gentle. After precursors as Johnny Alf, João Donato and musicians as Luis Bonfá and Garoto, this sub-genre was inaugurated by João Gilberto, Tom Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes, and would have a generation of disciples, followers and Carlos Lyra, Roberto Menescal, Durval Ferreira and groups as Tamba Trio, Bossa 3, Zimbo Trio and The Cariocas.[1]

The sambalanço also began at the end of the 1950s. It was a branch of the popular bossa nova (most appreciated by the middle class) which also mingled samba rhythms and American jazz. Sambalanço was often found at suburban dances of 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. This style was developed by artists such as Bebeto, Bedeu, Scotland 7, Djalma Ferreira, the Daydreams, Dhema, Ed Lincoln, Elza Soares, and Miltinho, among others. In the 21st century, groups such as Funk Como Le Gusta and Clube do Balanço continue to keep this sub-genre alive.

Rediscovered of the samba's roots in the 1960s and 1970s

In the 1960s, Brazil became politically divided with the arrival of a military dictatorship, and the leftist musicians of bossa nova started to gather attention to the music made in the favelas. Many popular artists were discovered at this time. Names like Cartola, Nelson Cavaquinho & Guilherme de Brito, Velha Guarda da Portela, Zé Keti, and Clementina de Jesus recorded their first albums.[1]

In the 1970s, samba returned strongly to the air waves with composers and singers like Paulinho da Viola, Martinho da Vila, Clara Nunes, and Beth Carvalho dominating the hit parade. Great samba lyricists like Paulo César Pinheiro (especially in the praised partnership with João Nogueira) and Aldir Blanc started to appear around that time.

Rapprochement with the hill

... and Baden Powell transcend the bossa nova beat by syncretizing Afro-Brazilian forms such as Candomblé, Umbanda and Capoeira.

With bossa nova, samba is further away from its popular roots. The influence of jazz is deepened and techniques have been incorporated classical music. From a festival in Carnegie Hall of New York, in 1962, the bossa nova reached worldwide success. But over the 1960s and 1970s, many artists who emerged—like Chico Buarque, Billy Blanco, Martinho da Vila and Paulinho da Viola—advocated the return of the samba beat its traditional, with the return of veterans as Candeia, Cartola, Nelson Cavaquinho e Zé Kéti. In the early the 1960s was the "Movement for Revitalization of Traditional Samba", promoted by Center for Popular Culture, in partnership with the Brazilian National Union of Students. It was the time of the appearance of the bar Zicartola of the samba shows at the Teatro de Arena and the Teatro Santa Rosa and musical as "Rosa de Ouro". Produced by Herminio Bello de Carvalho, the "Rosa de Ouro" revealed Araci Cortes and Clementina de Jesus. During the sixties, some samba groups appeared and formed by previous experiences with the world of samba and songs recorded by great names of Brazilian music. Among them were The Cinco Crioulos, The Voz do Morro, Mensageiros do Samba and The Cinco Só.[1]

By that time, emerged a dissent within the bossa nova with afro-sambas, by Baden Powell and Vinicius de Moraes. Moreover, the movement approached traditional sambistas revised the samba of the hill, especially Cartola, Elton Medeiros, Nelson Cavaquinho, Zé Kéti and further Candeia, Monarco, Monsueto and Paulinho da Viola.[1] Following the steps of Paulo da Portela, that intermediate the relationship of the hill with the city where the samba was pursued, Paulinho da Viola—also the Portela samba school—would be a sort of ambassador of traditional gender before a more public art, including the tropicalists. Also within the bossa nova appears Jorge Ben; his contribution to merge with American rhythm and blues, which would further the emergence of a subgenus called swing (or samba-rock).[2]

Outside the main scene of the so-called Brazilian Popular Music festivals, the sambists found the Bienal do Samba, in the late sixties, the space for the big names of the genus and followers. Even in the final decade, came the so-called samba-empolgação 'samba-excitement' of carnival blocks Bafo da Onça, Cacique de Ramos, and Boêmios de Irajá.[1]

A fusion: the samba-funk

Also in the 1960s, came the samba funk. The samba-funk emerged at the end of the 1960s with pianist Dom Salvador and its group, which merge the samba with American funk newly arrived in the Brazilian lands. With the final journey of Dom Salvador for United States, the band closed the business, but at the beginning of 1970s some ex-members as hit Luiz Carlos, José Carlos Barroso and Oberdan joined Christopher Magalhaes Bastos, Jamil Joanes, Cláudio Lúcio da Silva Stevenson and to form Banda Black Rio. The new group has deepened the work of Don Salvador in the binary mixture of the bar with the Brazilian samba funk of the American Quaternary, based on the dynamics of implementation, driven by drums and bass. Even after the Banda Black Rio in 1980s, British djs began to disclose the group's work was rediscovered and pace throughout the Europe, mainly in UK and Germany.[1]

Partido-Alto for the masses

At the turn of the 1960s to the 1970s, the young Martinho da Vila would give a new face to the traditional sambas-enredo established by authors such as Silas de Oliveira and Mano Decio da Viola, compressing them and expanding its potential in the music market. Furthermore, Martin popularize the style of the Partido alto (with songs like "Casa de Bamba" and "Pequeno Burguês"), launched on its first album in 1969.

Although the term arose in the beginning of century in Tia Ciata house (initially to describe instrumental music), the term partido alto came to be used to signify a type of samba which is characterized by a highly percussive beat of pandeiro, using the palm of the hand in the center of the instrument in place. The harmony of Partido alto is always higher in pitch, usually played by a set of percussion (usually surdo, pandeiro, and tambourine) and accompanied by a cavaquinho and/or a guitar. But from this high-assimilated by the record industry was made of written soil, and no more spontaneous and improvised, according to traditional canons.

Also in that decade, some popular singers and composers appeared in the samba, as Alcione, Beth Carvalho, Clara Nunes. As highlighted in city of São Paulo, Geraldo Filme was one of the leading names in samba paulistano, next to Germano Mathias, Osvaldinho of Cuíca, Tobias da Vai-Vai, Aldo Bueno, and Adoniran Barbosa; this latter has duly recognized nationally before being recalled and rewritten more often in the seventies.

1980s until 1990s

Zeca Pagodinho, one of popular contemporany sambists.

In the early 1980s, after having been eclipsed by the popularity of disco and Brazilian rock, Samba reappeared in the media with a musical movement created in the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro. It was the pagode, a renewed samba, with new instruments—like the banjo and the tan-tan—and a new language that reflected the way that many people actually spoke with the inclusion of heavy gíria (slang). The most popular artists were Zeca Pagodinho, Almir Guineto, Grupo Fundo de Quintal, Jorge Aragão, and Jovelina Pérola Negra.[6]

In 1995, the world saw come out from Savador one of the moust popular Pagode group, the Gera Samba, later renamed É o Tchan. This group created the most sexual dannce of the Pagode from 1990s, a music with a strange like. Some groups like Patrulha do Samba and Harmonia do Samba, also mixtured a bit of Axé. Samba, as a result, morphed during this period, embracing types of music that were growing popular in the Caribbean such as rap, reggae, and rock. Examples of Samba fusions with popular Caribbean music is samba-rap, samba-rock and samba-reggae, all of which were efforts to not only entertain, but to unify all Blacks throughout the Americas culturally and politically, through song. In other words, samba-rap and the like, often carried lyrics that encouraged Black pride, and spoke out against social injustices.[7] Samba, however, is not accepted by all as the national music of Brazil, or as a valuable art form. What appears to be new is the local response flow, in that instead of simply assimilating outside influences into a local genre or movement, the presence of foreign genres is acknowledged as part of the local scene: samba-rock, samba-rap. But this acknowledgment does not imply mere imitation of the foreign models or, for that matter, passive consumption by national audiences. Light-skinned, "upper-class," Brazilians often associated Samba with dark-skinned blacks because of its arrival from West Africa. As a result, there are some light-skinned Brazilians who claim that samba is the music of low-class, dark-skinned Brazilians and, therefore, is a "thing of bums and bandits." [8]

Samba continued to act as a unifying agent during the 1990s, when Rio stood as a national Brazilian symbol. Even though it was not the capital city, Rio acted as a Brazilian unifier, and the fact that samba originated in Rio helped the unification process. In 1994, the World Cup had its own samba composed for the occasion, "Copa 94." The 1994 FIFA World Cup, in which samba played a major cultural role, holds the record for highest attendance in World Cup history. Samba is thought to be able to unify because individuals participate in it regardless of social or ethnic group. Today, samba is viewed as perhaps the only uniting factor in a country fragmented by political division [9].

The Afro-Brazilians played a significant role in the development of the samba over time. This change in the samba was an integral part of Brazilian nationalism, which was called "Brazilianism".

"What appears to be new is the local response to that flow, in that instead of simply assimilating outside influences into a local genre or movement, the presence of foreign genres is acknowledged as part of the local scene: samba-rock, samba-reggae, samba-rap. But this acknowledgment does not imply mere imitation of the foreign models or, for that matter, passive consumption by national audiences." — Gerard Béhague Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology ) Pg. 84

Samba in the 21st century

From year 2000, there were some artists who were looking to reconnect most popular traditions of samba. Were the cases of Marquinhos of Oswaldo Cruz, Teresa Cristina among others, that contributed to the revitalization of the region of Lapa, in the Rio de Janeiro. In São Paulo, samba resumed the tradition with concerts in Sesc Pompéia Club and also by the work of several groups, including the group Quinteto em Branco e Preto who developed the event "Pagode da Vela" ("Pagoda of Sail"). This all helped to attract many artists from Rio de Janeiro, who shows, established residence in neighborhoods of the capital paulistana.

In 2004, the minister of culture Gilberto Gil submitted to the Unesco the application of damping off of samba as Cultural Heritage of Humanity in category "Intangible Goods" by Institute of National Historical and Artistic Heritage. In the following year, the samba-de-roda of Baiano Recôncavo was proclaimed part of the Heritage of Humanity by Unesco, in the category of "Oral and intangible expressions."

In 2007, IPHAN gave the official record, the Book of Registration of Forms of Expression, the matrices of the samba of Rio de Janeiro: samba de terreiro, partido-alto e samba-enredo.Samba ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a Brazilian dance and musical genre originating in African and European roots. The word is derived from the Portugese verb sambar, meaning "to dance to rhythm." It is a worldwide recognized symbol of Brazil and the Carnival and is the national dance of Brazil. Considered one of the most popular Brazilian cultural expressions, the samba has become an icon of Brazilian national identity.[1][2][3] The Bahian samba de roda (dance circle), which became a UNESCO Heritage of Humanity in 2005, was a basis of the samba carioca, the samba that is played and danced in Rio de Janeiro.

Although samba exists throughout the country—especially in the states of Bahia, Maranhão, Minas Gerais, and Sao Paulo—in the form of various popular rhythms and dances that originated from the regional batuque, a type of music and associated dance form from Cape Verde, the samba is a particular musical expression of urban Rio de Janeiro, where it was born and developed between the end of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century. It was in Rio that the dance practiced by former slaves who migrated from Bahia in the northeast came into contact and incorporated other genres played in the city (such as the polka, the maxixe, the lundu, and the xote, among others), acquiring a completely unique character and creating the samba carioca urbana (samba school) and carnavalesco (Carnaval school director).[3] In reality, the samba schools are large organizations of up to 5000 people which compete annually in the Carnival with thematic floats, elaborate costumes and original music.

During the 1910s, some songs under the name of samba were recorded, but these recordings did not achieve great popularity; however, in 1917, was recorded in disc "Pelo Telefone" ("By Phone"), which is considered the first samba. The song has the authority claimed by Ernesto dos Santos, best known as Donga, with co-authors attributed to Mauro de Almeida, a known carnaval columnist. Actually, "Pelo Telefone" was creating a collective of musicians who participated in the celebrations of the house Tia Ciata (Ciata aunt), but eventually registed by Donga and the Almeida National Library.[3]

"Pelo Telefone" was the first composition to achieve success with the brand of samba and contribute to the dissemination and popularization of the genre. From that moment, samba started to spread across the country, initially associated with Carnival and then buying a place in the music market. There were many composers as Heitor dos Prazeres, João da Bahia, Pixinguinha and Sinhô, but the sambas of these composers were "amaxixados" (a mix of maxixe), known as sambas-maxixes.[3]

The contours of the modern samba came only at the end of the 1920s, from the innovations of a group of composers of carnival blocks of neighborhoods of Estácio de Sá and Osvaldo Cruz, and the hills of Mangueira, Salgueiro and São Carlos. Since then, there were great names in samba, and some as Ismael Silva, Cartola, Ary Barroso, Noel Rosa, Ataulfo Alves, Wilson Batista, Geraldo Pereira, Zé Kéti, Candeia, Ciro Monteiro, Nelson Cavaquinho, Elton Medeiros, Paulinho da Viola, Martinho da Vila, and many others.[3]

As the samba is consolidated as an urban and modern expression, he began to be played in radio stations, spreading the hills and neighborhoods to south area of Rio de Janeiro. Initially viewed with prejudice and criminalized by their black backgrounds, the samba to conquer the public middle class as well. Derived from samba, other musical earned themselves names such as samba-canção, partido alto, samba-enredo, samba de gafieira, samba de breque, bossa nova, samba-rock, pagode, and many others. In 2007, the IPHAN became the Samba a Cultural Heritage of Brazil.[3]

The samba is the most popular musical genre in Brazil, well known associated abroad with the football and Carnival. This history began with the international success of "Aquarela do Brasil," by Ary Barroso, followed with Carmen Miranda (supported by Getúlio Vargas government and the US Good Neighbor policy), which led to the samba United States, went further by bossa nova, which finally entered the country in the world of music. The success of the samba in Europe and Japan only confirms its ability to win fans, regardless of language. Currently, there are hundreds of samba schools held on European soil (scattered by countries like Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Sweden, Switzerland). Already in Japan, the records invest heavily in the launch of former Sambistas set of discs, which eventually create a market comprised solely of catalogs of Japanese record labels.[3]

The modern samba that emerged from the beginning of the century rate is basically 2/4 tempo and varied, with conscious use of the possibilities of chorus sung to the sound of palms and batucada rhythm, and which would add one or more parts, or offices of declamatory verses. Traditionally, the samba is played by strings (cavaquinho and various types of guitar) and various percussion instruments such as tambourine. By influence of American orchestras in vogue since the Second World War and the cultural impact of US music post-war, began to be used also as instruments trombones and trumpets, and the influence choro, flute and clarinet.

In addition to rhythm and bar set musically, historically brings in itself a whole culture of food (dishes for specific occasions), dances varied ((miudinho, coco, samba de roda, pernada), parties, clothes (shoe nozzle fine, linen shirt, etc), and the NAIF painting of established names such as Nelson Sargento, Guilherme de Brito and Heitor dos Prazeres, and anonymous artists community (painters, sculptors, designers and stylists) that makes the clothes, costumes, carnival floats and cars opens the wings of schools of samba.

The Samba National Day is celebrated on December 2. The date was established at the initiative of a Alderman of Salvador, Luis Monteiro da Costa, in honor of Ary Barroso, which was composed "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" - although he had never been in Bahia. Thus, on December 2 marked the first visit of the Ary Barroso Salvador. Initially, this day was celebrated only Samba in Salvador, but eventually turned into a national day.

Instruments of samba

Basics

Others

  • Cuíca
  • Trumpet

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Samba - Dicionário Cravo Albin da Música Popular Brasileira - Google translation
  2. ^ a b c d e f Samba - Cliquemusic - Google translation
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Samba - All Brazilian Music
  4. ^ Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice, p.28. ISBN 0415974402.
  5. ^ Browning, Barbara. Samba - Resistance in Motion. Indiana University Press. 1995. p 18
  6. ^ "Pagode, O samba que vem do fundo do quintal". http://cliquemusic.uol.com.br/br/Generos/Generos.asp?Nu_Materia=20. Retrieved 2008-08-23.  (Google translation
  7. ^ "The Local and the Global in Brazilian Popular Music" Latin American Music Review 27, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2006).
  8. ^ R.J.'s Gringo Guides, "The Roots of Racism in Samba in Brazil", retrieved 14 Feb 2008.
  9. ^ Behague, Gerard. "Rap, Reggae, Rock, or Samba: The Local and the Global in Brazilian Popular Music )." Latin American Music Review 27, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2006).

References

  • The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil. by McGowan, Chris and Pessanha, Ricardo. 2nd edition. Temple University Press. 1998.
  • Samba on Your Feet by Eduardo Montes-Bradley documentary on the history of samba in Brazil with particular emphasis on Rio de Janeiro. The film is in Portuguese with English subtitles and approaches the subject from an interesting perspective.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also samba

German

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Samba

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Noun

Samba m.

  1. samba (Latin-American dance)

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

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What follows is intended to be a Practical Guide to Samba Administration using a variety of methods and tools commonly available on most Unixes. You, the reader, will be guided through a simple introduction to Samba, Primer on the technology behind Samba, and 'How To Guide' for various methods for setting up Samba in common real world configurations. In short, this is intended as a handy reference for Samba Administrators of all skill levels.

Feel free to dive right in and learn. If you are experienced with Samba, contributions are welcome, as are discussions on how best to improve this Wikibook.

Samba Table of Contents

Installation Methods

Basic Workgroup Configuration

Domain Controller Configuration

  • Setting up a PDC the Easy Way
  • Setting up a PDC Manually

Samba and Printing


Simple English

]] Samba is a kind of music, dancing, and singing, which originated in Brazil. It began as a music/dance movement in the 1930s. Samba is said to have originated in Africa, It is believed that it emerged from a dance for couples which was performed amongst African-Americans.

Contents

The dance

Samba is a lively, rhythmical dance of Brazilian origin in 2/4 time. In ballroom dance there are three steps to every bar (slow, quick-quick), making the samba feel something like a 3/4 timed dance.

There are two major streams of samba that differ considerably: the modern ballroom samba, and the traditional samba of Brazil. Traditional Brazilian samba includes the samba which is danced solo at Carnival. In that case, the dancers take just one step on each beat.

Origins

The ballroom samba has its origins in Brazil at the beginning of the 20th century. Many steps can be traced back to the Maxixe danced in 1910s. A book published in France in 1928 already described how to perform the samba.[1] The modern ballroom dance was created in England, mostly with steps adapted from those seen in Brazil. This version is now danced all over the world in international competitive dancing as regulated by the World Dance Council.

Style

Ballroom samba, like other ballroom dances, is a form adapted for its suitability as a partner dance. The dance movements, which do not change depending on the style of samba music being played, borrows some movements from Afro-Brazilian traditional dances such those used in candomblé rituals.

The ballroom samba is danced to music in 2/4 time. The basic movements are counted either 1-2 or 1-a-2, and are danced with a slight bouncing action. This action is created through the bending and straightening of the knees, with bending occurring on the beats of 1 and 2, and the straightening occurring on the "a". Samba is notable for its constantly changing rhythms however, with cross-rhythms being a common feature. Thus, common step values (in beats are):

3/4 1/4 1  
3/4 1/4 3/4 1/4
1 1/2 1/2  
3/4 1/2 3/4  

The music

The music is played with different instruments – bass drums (a surdo drum, used for keeping a steady beat), snare drums, a whistle (called an apito[a-peet-oh], used for beginning and ending sections of music), other types of untuned percussion, and different varieties of bells.

Other sections are when the apito blasts one rhythm, and all other instruments respond using another rhythm (that lasts the same amount of time as the first), called a call and response section; and a Samba piece can have instrument solos, when one instrument is playing an exciting rhythm. The apito caller signals the end of one section and the beginning of the next by blasting a short call. Pieces always have clear beginnings and ends.

.

Other websites

  • Dance Resources Samba syllabus [1]
  • Samba show by Bryan Watson and Carmen Vincelj, former World Professional Latin Dance champions [2]
  • Demonstration of basic figures by experts Allan Tornsberg and Serena Lecca [3]

References


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