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Kosal (Western Orissa)
Kosal (Western Orissa)
Location of Kosal (Western Orissa)
in Orissa and India
Coordinates 21°17′N 84°23′E / 21.28°N 84.39°E / 21.28; 84.39
Country  India
State Orissa
District(s) Sambalpur Balangir Bargarh Sonepur Kalahandi Sundargarh Jharsuguda Boudh Deogarh Nuapada
Population 9,001,406 (2001)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area
Elevation

115 m (377 ft)

Kosal (Western Orissa) comprises the vast geographical and culturally homogeneous area of western Orissa, India. Dakshina Kosala Kingdom(Dakhin Kosal) is one of the several names by which this region was known in the ancient period, i.e. prior to the 5th century A.D. The region exhibits a great degree of cultural uniformity in terms of demography and life-style, and extends from Kalahandi district in the south to the Sundargarh district in the northwest, thereby including whole of the pre-1993 districts of Sambalpur, Kalahandi, Sundargarh and Balangir district and some part of the then-undivided Koraput, Dhenkanal and Phulbani districts.

Contents

Separate Koshal state movement

People of this region are demanding a politically separate Koshal state from the State of Orissa.[1][2] The movement is gaining momentum due the involvements of political parties and various groups of intellectuals.[3]

Demographics

Proposed Kosal state Map consisting of 10 district of present Western Orissa

Nearly 40% of the population of the Kosal region are autochthonous tribal or Adivasis and rest belongs to the general and other backward castes. Since the last five decades, a large number of Hindi speaking populace, belonging to communities like Gujaratis, Marwaris (Rajasthanis), Punjabis etc. have migrated into the region and adopted themselves well to the local culture. They boosted the economy of western Orissa, adopting Sambalpuri or Kosali as their language of communication, thus making them a part of the kosali culture and heritage. The people in the region have tied and dyed colourful sarees (Sambalpuri Saree) for several hundred years..This Part of the state is also famous for its Sakti Cult.Acc. to Hindu traditions people in most of the district in kosal region worships goddess in comparison to god being worshipped in most part of coastal orissa. In koshal region, each and every district has its own Tutelary Goddesses like Sambalpur's prime deity is Maa Samaleswari, Balangir's primary deity is Maa Pataneswari, Titilagarh's primary daities are Maa Ghantasuni and Baba Dhabaleshwara, Kalahandi's Primary deity is Maa Manikeswari, Sonepur's primary deity is Maa Sureswari, Sundergarh Primary deity is Maa Sekharbasini and Maa Banadurga, Bargarh's primary deity is Maa Metakani ...and so on...

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Population

District District Head quarter Area (km2.) Population 1991 Census Population 2001 Census
Balangir Balangir 6,575 1,230,938 1,335,760
Bargarh Bargarh 5,837 1,207,172 1,345,601
Baudh (Boudh) Baudh 3,098 317,622 373,038
Debagarh (Deogarh) Debagarh 2,940 234,238 274,095
Jharsuguda Jharsuguda 2,081 446,726 509,056
Kalahandi Bhawanipatna 7,920 1,130,903 1,334,372
Nuapada Nuapada 3,852 469,482 530,524
Sambalpur Sambalpur 6,675 809,017 928,889
Subarnapur Sonepur 2,337 476,815 540,659
Sundargarh Sundargarh 9,712 1,573,617 1,829,412

(Source: Census of India, 2001)[4]

In addition to the ten districts listed above and shown on the map, the Western Orissa Development Council includes Anugul on its website.[5]

Kosal Region comprises 24.34% of the total population of Orissa state out of which 24.41% are males and 24.26% are females. Tribal population comprises 40% of Western orissa’s (Kosal's) total population. 23.38% of Scheduled caste and 33.9% of Scheduled Tribe population of Orissa are residing in this region. This area has 29.75% of the total economically backward people, 25.8% of the cultivators, 27.52% of the agricultural labourers, 32.18% of the house-hold industrial worker, 25.36% of the workers, 30.54% of the marginal workers and 22.87% of the non-workers of Orissa state.

People

Tribals

  • Sahara (Sabar)
  • Kurmee
  • Kandh
  • GanId (gonds)
  • Binjhal
  • Bhuiyan
  • Khadia
  • Kohl
  • Kishan
  • Koda
  • Oram
  • Munda
  • Santhali

Other Native Castes

Aghria, Bamhan/Brahmin (Jhadua, Odia, Raghunatia, Halua, Kanajia, Laria),Karan (Odia), Bhulia, Chamar, Chasa, Dumbal, Gana, Gaud (Laria, odia, Maghada, Nanda), Ghansia, Khandayat, Khyatria, Kosta, Kulta, Mali, Odra/Udia (Sahasia, Rana/ Maharana, OdaChasa), Panra, Shuda, Sunari, Teli, etc.

Geography

Latest Geographical Map of Proposed Kosal state consisting of 10 district of present Western Orissa

Geographically, this tract of land is mostly mountainous and hilly, interspersed with rivers and valleys. The floral diversity and topographical variety ensures the experience of all the six seasons in this area. In the last few decades, western Orissa is suffering from repeated drought.[6] This region is considered the poorest region in India.[7]

Kosli language

Kosli also known as Samalpuri/Sambalpuri is an ancient language and it is one of the five Prakrit languages existing since Vedic era with Sanskrit. The stone inscriptions of Kharvela in Khandagiri [Pandit Suryanarayan & Griyarsen etal] which is an amalgam of Kosli and Prachya Magdhi further reinforce its existence. However, with the course of time due to many reasons the language has lost its identity up to a certain level; lack of unprejudiced research and studies is one among those. However, some recent research done at Sambalpur University claimed Kosli as a distinct language as a result of which the University introduced an One year Diploma course in Sambalpuri Studies.[8]

A large area encompassing the western part of Odisha; Sundargarh, Jharsuguda, Sambalpur, Bargarh, Deogarh, Balangir, Sonepur, Kalahandi, Nuapada, Boud, Phulbani and Northern Koraput regions; parts of Chattisgarh; Bhatri region of Bastar district, and from eastern part of Debhog , Phuljhar, Raigarh, Sarangarh to Jashpur uses Kosli as its mother tongue.

Kosli is a direct derivative of Sanskrit. Each and every word is enriched with deep meaning and full of life. The soulful representation of its culture and environment is its insignia and represents its independency. Once upon a time Kosal region was abundant with gems and jungle. Henceforth the region is also described in literatures as BajRagarBha MaharaNyA. For example, let discuss the origin of the word khaman meaning jungle.

Khaman originates from Sanskrit word Khaban.

Kh = AakaSh [sky]

Khaban= AakaShaspaRShI bana

According to the rule of Prakrit: Ba > Ma

Hence, Khaban = Khaman.

Kosli is not the dialect of any language. All the words of this language originate and developed from Sanskrit through Prakrit.

Example:

Sanskrit > Prakrit> Kosli

AtasI > AlasI > Alasi

AamRam >AmbNGa >Aam

AadRam > Aallam, AdhNGa > Ol, Uda

Education

Besides these above premiere institutes there are various academic govt colleges in each districts of Kosal region.

Art and culture

The Koshal region is culturally influenced by several different cults and religions. Its history dates back to the Mahabharat and Buddhist period. Folk songs and dances of this area have been revived and recognised during the last quarter of a century. Beginning from "Dand" (Danda Yatra and Danda Nata), which is considered to be one of the oldest forms of variety entertainment in India, to the modern "Krushnaguru Bhajan", a type of folk lyrics and songs. Sambalpuri songs are immensely popular throughout Orissa. Some of the super hit songs are Rangabati, Ekda Ekda, Dalkhai, Panbala Babu etc

Dance

Traditional Sambalpuri folk dancers performing on Dalkhai

The children's verses are known as "Chhiollai", "Humobauli" and "Dauligit", the adolescent poems are "Sajani", "Chhata", "Daika", "Bhekani" : the eternal youth composes "Rasarkeli", "Jaiphul", "Maila Jada", "Bayamana", "Gunchikuta" and "Dalkhai", The work-man's poetry comprises "Karma" and "Jhumer" pertaining to Lord Vishwakarma and the "Karamashani" goddess. The professional entertainers perform Dand, Danggada, Mudgada, Ghumra, Sadhana, sabar – Sabaren, Disdigo, Nachina – Bajnia, Samparda and Sanchar. They are for all occasions, for all time with varieties of rhythm and rhyme.

Folk musical instruments

The folk musical instruments which are in vogue in the Koshal region are as follows: Dhulak, Pakhoj, Dugitabla, Mridanga, Mardal, Nalbaja, Dhapada, Timkidi, Nagara, Behela, Khanjani, Dhapli, Muhuri, Bansi, Singh-Kahali, Bir-Ka-hali, Ghulghula, Ghunguru, Kendera, Khadkhadi, Ektara, Ghumra, Gini, Kathi, Jhanj, Dhol, Madal, Nishan and Tasha.

Out of these the Dhol, Madal, Nishan and Tasha are the four oldest percussion instruments without any modification which have been used in combination or in to two in almost all types of folk songs. Dhol is the oldest instrument of this region, which is the easiest to make. Madal is the second percussion instrument which shows craftsmanship and research. Nishan is the miniature of Nagara which is supposed to be carried by the dancer over his shoulder or around his waist, while he dances.

Indoor Games of Kosal

There are many Indoor games in Kosal region,many of which are extinct and currently not being played anymore but the following two games despite modernization are still unaffected. Though these games are played only by some of the tribal villagers and they are also on the verge of extinction.

  • CHHAKA: Chhaka is an indoor game popular among women folk of the kosal/sambalpuri region. It is played with the help of 6 pieces of large-sized shell (couri) and 16 pieces of multi coloured wooden dots. The game is so popular that a complete set of "Couris’ and dots is taken by the bride to her husband’s house after marriage.
  • GANJAPA: The game is probably named after ist inventor Gajapada. It is played with circular shaped cards one and half inches diameter. The pack consists 144 cards divided in to 12 suits of 12 cards each, six of the suit belongs to Ram’s division and rest six suits to Ravan’s division. Thus the game centers round the famous epic episode of the fight between Ram and Ravana. The village Champamal in Sonepur district is traditionally famous for manufacture of beautiful Ganjapa Cards.

Rangabati

Rangabati is a modern folk song written about 1975, which enjoyed international popularity in the 1970s and 1980s.It was sung by Jitendra Haripal.[9]

Kosli movie

Bhukha

Upcoming movie

  • BHOLA PAGAL
  • ULGULAN

Kosli Cuisine or Sambalpuri Food

Kosli cuisine or popularly Sambalpuri food has a great significance with the Kosli cultural identity as it is quite different in every sense from the rest of Orissa. Some of the important Kosli food are Kardi(Bamboo Shoot), Hendua Chutchuta, Chaul bara, bhuja etc.

To know the details about Kosli cuisines, method of preparation visit:- http://jaikosal.blogspot.com/

The Sambalpuri saree

Sambalpuri Saptapad Saree.The oldest form of sambalpuri tye and dye hand woven textile

The Sambalpuri sari is made from fabric woven on a hand-loom, and is popular throughout India.[10] Varieties of the Sambalpuri sari include Sonepuri, Pasapali, Bomkai, Barpali, Bapta saris which have substantial demand. Most of them have been named after the places of their origin, and are popularly known as Pata. Paintings on Tussar saris depicting Mathura Vijay, Raslila and Ayodhya Vijay owe their origin to ‘Raghurajpur patta paintings’.

Terracotta

Terracotta is also a traditional Kosali art of making things using clay.

Traditional costumes of Sambalpuri women

A Sambalpuri urban women wearing a traditional Sambalpuri bapta Pata saree

Koshali tribal women wear a type of necklace known as Khagla, a round ornament made from silver. In the upper part of the ear they use an ornament known as Jhalka, in the earlobe they wear an ornament called Gathia, and in the nose, an ornament known as Jharaguna.

In their hair they wear Panpatri, Belkhadi, (a small stick used to clip flowerbuds onto hair). They wear two types of ornaments in their hands, known as Katria and Bandria. (In the arms they used to wear one type of ornament known as Tadla). In the legs they wear Painry or Tudal. Rings are also used on fingers and toes.

They also wear Janyiphool and Karai Phool, two types of flower. The cloth which local women wear is known as Kapta, that is same as Sambalpuri Saree but is shorter, less wide and thicker.

Large structures and monuments

  • The Hirakud Dam, Sambalpur
  • Samaleswari Temple
  • Chausat Jogini Temple,Ranipur Jharial
  • Sailashree Palace,Balangir

Major industries

Badmal Balangir is the only Ordnance factory of Orissa.

Eminent Personalities of Western Orissa

Born in the year 1850, Baisakh Purnima, the celebrated religious poet and devotee Bhima Bhoi, it is said, was bron in a Kandha Family in village Granadihs of Rairakhol Sub-Division in Sambalpur District of Koshal region. Bhima Bhoi died on 1895, Siva Chaturdasi. He was born blind. According to the poet him-self, he could acquire his poetic prowess and knowledge about religion only by the blessings of his guru Mahima Mahaprabhu, A list of books written by Bhima Bhoi are Stuti Chintamani, Sruti Nisedha Gita, Ashtaka Bihari Gita, Bhajanamal etc.

  • PARBATI GIRI

Born on 19 January 1926 in village Samaleipadar of Bargarh district, Parbati Giri was just 16 when she was in the forefront of agitation following Mahatma Gandhi’s “Quit India” call. She continued to serve the nation socially after independence. She opened an orphanage at Paikmal village and devoted rest of her life for the welfare of orphans.

  • ISAAC SANTARA

Known for his service and benevolence par excellence, Isaac Santra was born in the year 1892 at Sambalpur. He graduated as a Doctor from Cuttack and entered into Leprosy Eradication Mission. He established a Lepers’ home at Hatibari, a village surrounded by dense forests and spent his time in serving the patients. Highly admired by the patients, academic circles in abroad, even by Mahatma Gandhi during later's visit to Sambalpur for his humanitarianism and philanthropy, Isaac Santara was honoured by Government of India with Padmashree award. He also edited a magazine Prabhatee, propounding human values and qualities. He died on 29 August, 1968.

  • PADMASHREE KRUTHARTHA ACHARYA

Born on 20 March 1900 in a brahmin family in Dabkatikra village of Bargarh district, Padmashree Krutartha Acharya pioneered in making the Sambalpuri design and fabric based on “Tie and Dye” method inside and outside the country. He established the Sambalpuri Bastralaya in 1930 and subsequently formed a Cooperative Societies of weavers of the district and the nearby districts.

  • SATYA NARAYAN BOHIDAR

Satya Narayan Bohidar was born on 1 August, 1913 at Sonepur. His formative and creative years were spent in Sambalpur that produced a large number of literary translations and biographies. Bohidar prepared the dictionary and basic grammar to the uncodified Sambalpuri Language.

  • DR NILAMADHAB PANIGRAHI

Dr.Nilamadhab Panigrahi is the most Eminent vatary of Koshali/Sambalpur language;Essayist,Litterateur,Poet-Author of many Books, Editor of 'Nishan' & many more literary works.Designated as 'Koshal-Vyasha'for having single handedly composed the epic 'Mahabharatar Katha',published by Sambalpur University,is still in the pursuit of literature,is in his Eighties now.Received 'D.Litt' from Sambalpur University for his lifetime works in the field of Literature.Himself floated a Honour & Reward of Rs.10,000 which is given by Sambalpur University every year for translation work of any Sanskrit work into Sambalpuri/Koshali language.Co-authored 'Sambalpuri-Koshali Grammer'Book with Dr.Prafulla Tripathy,which is published by Sambalpur University.Honoured by many Cultural & Literary Organisations, but refused 'Sarala Samman' which was to be given by IMFA Group because of his intense love for the Sambalpuri/Koshali language. Convenor of 'Koshal Sammellan'along with Mr.P.R.Dubey & Pandit Prayag Datta Joshi,which spearheaded socio-linguistic movement in Koshal region.He sat on hunger strike demanding Primers(Primary Books) for Total Literacy Campaign to be made in 'Sambalpuri/Koshali' language in Sambalpur,Jharsuguda & Bargarh districts & prevailed upon the district authorities.An erstwhile Sanskrit & Odia Scholar who abandoned writing in Odia language since about three decades.Also a prominent personality in India in the field of Indian Classical Music & was Principal of 'Gandharva Viswa-Vidyalaya',U.P.

  • HEMACHANDRA ACHARYA

Noted litterateur, translator and scholar, popularly known as the Balmiki of Koshali literature for his translation of The Ramayana into Koshali, Hemachandra Acharya was born on April 24 in 1926 in Garbhana village of Bargarh. A people’s poet, his milestone work of writing The Koshali Ramayana – Ram Raha, published by the Sambalpur University in 2001 - made him dearer to the masses in Western Orissa region where people speak Koshali (Sambalpuri) language. Even today, people in villages in the region religiously preserve and recite his translated version. He was also engaged in translation of the Upanishad into Koshali. His other major literary works include several plays, Sanchar geets and the traditional Keertan Geet. He was honoured by the Sambalpur University and the Western Orissa Cultural Forum, besides scores of literary organisations. He breathed his last on the 26th of August 2009.

  • PADMASHREE KUNJABIHARI MEHER

Kunjabihari Meher was born in 1928 at Barpali. He was an artist of Sambalpuri Ikat, and was called as Kala-Gourav (Glory of Art) for his extraordinary skill, invention of new designs and constant efforts for popularization Sambalpuri handloom fabrics (Tie & Dye). The artistry of Meher has been preserved in Port History Museum of U.S.A and Museum of Germany besides the State and National Museums of India. He was honoured with Padmashree Samman in 1998. He has also been presented the Honourary Felicitation of Liberty Bell by Governor of Philadelphia.

  • MANABODH RANA

Maharana was born in 1959 at Barpali and specialized in Terracotta roof tiles. Each roof tile made of mixture of black and red clays has a figure of an animal, bird or human being perched on top of it. He has given live demonstration of this indigenous art at N.H.&H. Museum, New Delhi, Craft Bazaars of Calcutta, Chennai, Bangalore, Surajkund. He has represented the country for live demonstration of this art in Japan (1988) and Denmark (1994). He is the recipient of National Award (1986) and Kalanidhi Award (1991) and Special Recognition from Japan. Doordarshan telecast a special feature on him is Surabhi Programme in September 1991 and STAR TV in 1996.

Tourist places of Kosal region

Places of natural beauty are in abundance in Western Orissa(Kosal). The Patala Ganga spot at Nuapada District is also a place of attraction for tourists. Ushakothi, Hirakud and Budrama in Sambalpur district attract the attention of tourists. Similarly, the Khandadhar Waterfall in Sundargarh district is also a tourist spot. The Mahanadi and the Tel river in Suvarnapur district present beautiful natural scenes and the confluence of the two rivers present a memorable sight.

The following tourist spots are there in the kosal Region:

Bargarh

  • Debrigarh - A peak in the Barapahar hills where Veer Surendra Sai the great Koshali freedom fighter was captured in 1864 by British soldiers and also has a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Other Places of Tourism- Nrusinghanath temple at Paikmal, Kedarnath Temple at Ambabhona, Baidyanath Temple at Deogaon, Balunkeswar Temple at Gaisama, Swapneswar Temple at Sorna, Visweswar Temple at Soranda, and Nilakantheswar Temple at Nilji.
  • Narsinghnath (Nrusinghanath)-This place has a beautiful waterfall and is one of the most popular tourist place of Kosal region.A 500 years old temple dedicated to the Hindu god Narasimha is also situated there.One more interesting fact is that the God is worshiped here in the form of a CAT as compared to the general Lion-man idol of the god.God Narsimha is called here as "Marzara Kesari" in Kosli language.

Balangir

  • Balangir - The modern capital of ex-patna state and the current district head quarter.It is famous for numerous Sambalpuri Saree shops, Samaleswari temple, Patneswari Temple, Nrusinghanath Temple, Santoshi mata temple, Gopal jee temple, Sailashree Palace, Rajendra Park and numerous lakes within the town.
  • Patnagarh- The ancient capital of the kingdom of Patna is famous for the 12th Century Someswar Siva Temple and Patneswari Temple.
  • Ranipur-Jharial- Famous for the Hypaethral Temple of sixty-four Yoginis and being a place of religious confluence of faiths like Saivism, Buddhism, Vaisnavism and Tantrism.
  • Kusang- Kusangei Temple,Kusang is an 11th century temple of Maa Kusangei and it's a fine example of the Koshali architecture.
  • Saintala, known for its Chandi temple and images depicting ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu.
  • Turekela Attractive for viewing colorful wild life, like tigers, dear, bears, monkeys etc. and

chirping birds perched on trees.

  • Dharpagarh- Religious importance with a big tank called "Dashamati Sagar" guarded with the shrines of Chandi, Duarsuni, Samaleswari, Patneswari, Siva and Vishnu.
  • Harishankar - The most popular tourist place of Kosal.Famous for 15th Century Vishnu,Shiva and Bhairavi Temple stands on the Southern slope of the Gandhamardan hills complemented by uncommon scenic charms and a perennial stream.It is also famous for its natural sliding rock where one can actually slide while having bath under the waterfall.

Boudh

  • Three remarkable Buddhist statues situated in Boudh town, shyamsundarpur village, and Pragalapur village; ninth century A.D.old Rameswar temple; Jogindra Villa Palace; Hanuman temple, Chandra Chuda & Matengeswar temple; Gandharadi temple, Padmatola Sanctuary, and Nayakpada Cave.

Deogarh

  • Pradhanpat- Waterfall on the Pradhanpat hill and a place of scenic beauty.

Jharsuguda

  • Gujapahar, Kuilighugar, Pikalghugar- Scenic Spot
  • Vikramkhol-Pictographic Inscriptions
  • Kolabira fort
  • Shiva shrine Mahadevpali (Samasingha, Laida and Sudhamal)
  • Koilighugar Waterfall (Lakhanpur)
  • Ranidarah (Samasingha)

Kalahandi

  • Dharmagarh (Historical Site, Paradeswar Temple, Bhim Khoj)
  • Talguda (Fort)
  • Mardiguda, Thuamul- Rampur, and Jakam (Scenic Spot)
  • Kusurla and Sapagaranda (Religious Centre).
  • Phurlijharan (Waterfall)
  • Bhawanipatna (Centuries old Manikeswari Temple and Royal Palace, Chhatar Jatra)
  • Junagrh (Lankeswari Temple, Khanda Basa festival)
  • Ampani
  • Mukhiguda-Japiatna (Indravati Dam)
  • Dokrichanchra
  • Asurgarh

Nuapada

  • Budhikomna and Patalaganga- Religious Centre
  • Patora, Sindursil and Thipakhol- Scenic Spot
  • Yogimatha- Cave Paintings

Sambalpur

  • Samalei Gudi - Is a 17th century shrine dedicated to the goddess Maa Samaleswari,the tutelary goddess of Kosal region.Samalei Gudi is the second most visited temple in the present Odisha state after Puri Jagannath Temple.
  • Huma- Famous for Leaning temple of Lord Siva where catching fishes are not allowed people say that if you kill any fishes from the river which flows behind Huma Temple you will become stone statue (Relatively more oldest and leaned than the leaning tower of Pisa).
  • Ushakothi- Wild life sanctuary harbours elephants, tigers, gours, sambars, black panthers, deer, spotted deer, and wild bears etc.
  • Hirakud Dam is situated 16 km away from Sambalpur which is one of the longest dams in the world, about 16 mi (26 km) in length and the dam extends a lake, 55 km long.
  • Kandhara- Birthplace of Poet Bhima Bhoi (the great propounder of Mahima Dharma), and a

pilgrimage-cum-sight seeing spot.

  • Debrigarh Wildlife Sanctuary - Sanctuary is like an emerald nestled in the serene blue waters of Hirakud Reservoir. Notified in 1985, it comprises Lohara and Debrigarh Reserve Forests of famous Barapahad Hills. Debrigarh means “The abode of Goddess”. It is located at 40 km from Sambalpur. Dhodrokusum, the main entry gate, is 12 km away from Hirakud Reservoir and it is at the end of the Right Dyke of Hirakud Dam. At Debrigarh you can enjoy Vehicle Safari and Boat ride to see more that 50,000 migratory birds from Syberia and other cold regions. Its a natural habitat for Jaguars, sambars, black panthers, deer, spotted deer and wild bears
  • Sambalpur town- Famous for several temples of Liakhai, Madanmohan, Satyabadi, Bariha, Brahampura, Dadhibamana, Timini, Gopalji, Budharaja Shiva Temple, Maneswar Shiva Temple, Gupteswar, Balunkeswar, Loknath, the Goddess Samaleswari, Pataneswari, Batmangala, Budhimaa, and Mahamayi etc. and Sambalpuri handlooms.
  • Other Tourist Places- Gudguda (Scenic Spot), Chipilima (Ghanteswari Temple, natural fall, State livestock Breeding Farm and Agricultural Farm) and Hatibari.
  • In Naktideul block a famous temple named kunjamura is situated. It is situated near tikira jora
  • Gudguda 35 km from kuchinda

Sonepur

  • Binika(Papakshya Ghat)-Religious Centre.
  • Chandalipat Puja Dunguri- Religious Centre.
  • Sonepur town- Known as the ‘Second Varanasi of India’ abode there several temples and gardens such as Suvarnameru (situated on the left bank of river Tel towards the southwest of the confluence of river Mahanadi and Tel), Gopinatha, Dadhivamana Deva, Sri Vrindavan Vihari, Gundicha, Sureswari, Stamv esvari or Khamvesvari, Bhagavati, Samalesvari, Budhi Samalei, Manikesvari, Narayani, Sitalei, Lankesvari, and Sasisena.
  • Charada- Historical Site.
  • Khaliapali- Mahima Shrine

Sundergarh

  • Rourkela- Steel Plant and Hanuman Temple,
  • Vedvyas, Ghogar- Religious Centre
  • Khandadhar, Miriglotah- Waterfall
  • Junagada- Fort
  • Chhatri Hill, Darjeeng, Deodaraha, Mandira- Scenic Spot

References

External links


Template:Infobox Indian Jurisdiction

The Koshal/Kosala region comprises the vast geographical and culturally homogeneous area of Western Orissa, India. Kosala is one of the several names by which Orissa was known in the ancient period, i.e. prior to the 5th century A.D. The region exhibits certain degree of cultural uniformity in terms of demography and life-style, and extends from Kalahandi district in the south to the Sundargarh district in the northwest, thereby including whole of the pre-1993 districts of Sambalpur, Kalahandi, Sundargarh and Balangir district and some part of the then-undivided Koraput, Dhenkanal and Phulbani districts.

Contents

Separate Koshal state movement

A separatist movement has emerged in this area and majority of the people in this region are demanding a politically separate Koshal state from the State of Orissa.[1][2]. The movement has failed to gain any large scale popularity earlier, but the momentum changed dramatically with the formation of a regional political party called Koshal Kranti Dal, who will fight for a separate koshal state in a democratic way by participating in the general elections.[3]

Demographics

Nearly 40% of the population of the Sambalpuri region are autochthonous tribal or Adivasis and rest belongs to the general and other backward castes. Since the last five decades, a large number of Hindi speaking populace, belonging to communities like Gujaratis, Marwaris (Rajasthanis), Punjabis etc. have migrated into the region and adopted themselves well to the local culture. They boosted the economy of western Orissa, adopting Sambalpuri as their language of communication, thus making them a part of the koshali culture and heritage. The people in the region have tied and dyed colourful sarees (Sambalpuri Saree) for several hundred years.Template:Fact.This Part of the state is also famous for its Sakti Cult.Acc. to Hindu traditions people in most of the district in sambalpuri region worships goddess in comparision to god being worshipped in most part of coastal orissa.In koshal region, each and every district has its own Tutelary Goddesses like Sambalpur's prime deity is Maa Samaleswari, Balangir's primary deity is Maa Pataneswari, Kalahandi's Primary deity is Maa Manikeswari, Sonepur's primary deity is Sureswari ...and so on...

Population

District District Head quarter Area (sq.km.) Population 1991 Census Population 2001 Census
Balangir Balangir 6,575 1,230,938 1,335,760
Bargarh Bargarh 5,837 1,207,172 1,345,601
Baudh (Boudh) Baudh 3,098 317,622 373,038
Debagarh (Deogarh) Debagarh 2,940 234,238 274,095
Jharsuguda Jharsuguda 2,081 446,726 509,056
Kalahandi Bhawanipatna 7,920 1,130,903 1,334,372
Nuapada Nuapada 3,852 469,482 530,524
Sambalpur Sambalpur 6,675 809,017 928,889
Subarnapur Sonepur 2,337 476,815 540,659
Sundargarh Sundargarh 9,712 1,573,617 1,829,412

(Source: Census of India, 2001)[4]

Kosal/Sambalpuri Region comprises 24.34% of the total population of Orissa state out of which 24.41% are males and 24.26% are females. Tribal population comprises 40% of western orissa’s (Kosal's) total population. 23.38% of Scheduled caste and 33.9% of Scheduled Tribe population of Orissa are residing in this region. This area has 29.75% of the total economically backward people, 25.8% of the cultivators, 27.52% of the agricultural labourers, 32.18% of the house-hold industrial worker, 25.36% of the workers, 30.54% of the marginal workers and 22.87% of the non-workers of Orissa state.

People

Tribals

  • Sahara (Sabar)
  • Kurmee
  • Kandh
  • GanId (gonds)
  • Binjhal
  • Bhuiyan
  • Khadia
  • Kohl
  • Kishan
  • Koda
  • Oram
  • Munda
  • Santhali

Other Native Castes

Aghria, Bamhan/Brahmin (Jhadua, Udia, Raghunatia, Halua, Kanajia, Laria), Bhulia, Chamar, Chasa, Dumbal, Gana, Gaud (Jhadua, Udia , Maghada, Nanda), Ghansia, Karan (Jhadua, Udia), Khandayat, Khyatria, Kosta, Kulta, Mali, Odra (Sahasia, Rana/ Maharana, OdaChasa ), Panra, Shuda, Sunari, Teli, etc.

Geography

Geographically, this tract of land is mostly mountainous and hilly, interspersed with rivers and valleys. The floral diversity and topographical variety ensures the experience of all the six seasons in this area. In the last few decades, western Orissa is suffering from repeated drought. [5]. Koshal region is considered the poorest region in India.[6]

Koshali language

The chief communicative language of the Koshal region is Sambalpuri. Not much research have been done on the accent and phonetics of the Sambalpuri language, and it is generally considered to be a dialect of Oriya[7]; however, some recent research done at Sambalpur University claimed Sambalpuri as a separate language and introduced a One year Diploma course in Sambalpuri Studies .[8] Popular belief is also that sambalpuri is a distinct language from Oriya[9][10] Sambalpuri is spoken in 10 district of Western Orissa.

Education

Art and culture

The Koshal region is culturally influenced by several different cults and religions. Its history dates back to the Mahabharat and Buddhist period. Folk songs and dances of this area have been revived and recognised during the last quarter of a century. Beginning from "Dand" (Danda Yatra and Danda Nata), which is considered to be one of the oldest forms of variety entertainment in India, to the modern "Krushnaguru Bhajan", a type of folk lyrics and songs. Sambalpuri songs are immensely popular throughout Orissa.Some of the super hit songs are Rangabati,Ekda Ekda,Dalkhai,Panbala Babu etc

Dance

The children's verses are known as "Chhiollai", "Humobauli" and "Dauligit", the adolescent poems are "Sajani", "Chhata", "Daika", "Bhekani" : the eternal youth composes "Rasarkeli", "Jaiphul", "Maila Jada", "Bayamana", "Gunchikuta" and "Dalkhai", The work-man's poetry comprises "Karma" and "Jhumer" pertaining to Lord Vishwakarma and the "Karamashani" goddess. The professional entertainers perform Dand, Danggada, Mudgada, Ghumra, Sadhana, sabar – Sabaren, Disdigo, Nachina – Bajnia, Samparda and Sanchar. They are for all occasions, for all time with varieties of rhythm and rhyme.

Folk musical instruments

The folk musical instruments which are in vogue in the Koshal region are as follows : Dhulak, Pakhoj, Dugitabla, Mridanga, Mardal, Nalbaja, Dhapada, Timkidi, Nagara, Behela, Khanjani, Dhapli, Muhuri, Bansi, Singh-Kahali, Bir-Ka-hali, Ghulghula, Ghunguru, Kendera, Khadkhadi, Ektara, Ghumra, Gini, Kathi, Jhanj, Dhol, Madal, Nishan and Tasha.

Out of these the Dhol, Madal, Nishan and Tasha are the four oldest percussion instruments without any modification which have been used in combination or in to two in almost all types of folk songs. Dhol is the oldest instrument of this region, which is the easiest to make. Madal is the second percussion instrument which shows craftsmanship and research. Nishan is the miniature of Nagara which is supposed to be carried by the dancer over his shoulder or around his waist, while he dances.

Indoor Games of Kosal

There are many Indoor games in Kosal region ,many of which are extinct and currently not being played anymore but the following two games despite modernization are still unaffected. Though these games are played only by some of the tribal villagers and they are also on the verge of extinction.

  • CHHAKA : Chhaka is an indoor game popular among women folk of the kosal/sambalpuri region. It is played with the help of 6 pieces of large-sized shell (couri) and 16 pieces of multi coloured wooden dots. The game is so popular that a complete set of "Couris’ and dots is taken by the bride to her husband’s house after marriage.
  • GANJAPA : The game is probably named after ist inventor Gajapada. It is played with circular shaped cards one and half inches diameter. The pack consists 144 cards divided in to 12 suits of 12 cards each, six of the suit belongs to Ram’s division and rest six suits to Ravan’s division. Thus the game centers round the famous epic episode of the fight between Ram and Ravana. The village Champamal in Sonepur district is traditionally famous for manufacture of beautiful Ganjapa Cards.

Rangabati

Rangabati is a modern folk song written about 1975, which enjoyed international popularity in the 1970s and 1980s.It was sung by Jitendra Haripal.[11]

Koshali movie

In the year 1989 the movie "Bhukha", which till date is the only feature movie in Sambalpuri language, was made. It was produced and directed by Sri Sabyasachi Mohapatra, under the banner of Kumar Productions. This film portrays the plight of the Bhajnias or folk drummers of Western Orissa and also focuses on effects of modern culture on tribal and folk culture. This movie has showcased the music, culture and tradition of Sambalpuri region. It has also got critical acclaim, and has won several awards.

  • Special Jury Award as the Best Feature Film at “28th Gijjon International Film Festival, Spain”
  • Entered in the competition section of World Rural Film Festival, Aurrilac, France
  • Actors: Sarat Pujari, Sadhu Meher, Bijaya Pujari, Swati Roy, Chitta Pattnaik, Mantu Mahapatra
  • Music Director: Ramesh Kumar
  • Screenplay,Produced & Directed : Sabyasachi Mohapatra
  • Release Year:1989
  • Audio:T-Series

The Sambalpuri sari

The Sambalpuri sari is made from fabric woven on a hand-loom, and is popular throughout India.[12] Varieties of the Sambalpuri sari include Sonepuri, Pasapali, Bomkai, Barpali, Bapta saris which have substantial demand. Most of them have been named after the places of their origin, and are popularly known as Pata. Paintings on Tussar saris depicting Mathura Vijay, Raslila and Ayodhya Vijay owe their origin to ‘Raghurajpur patta paintings’.

Fabric and Design

Sambalpuri fabrics have their original style of craft known as Baandha. Traditionally, craftsmen created Baandhas with images of flora or fauna or with geometrical patterns. More recently, new types of Baandha depicting portrait, landscape and flower pods are being designed. Baandha fabric is created using a tie-dye technique. The yarns are tied according to the desired patterns to prevent absorption of dyes, and then dyed. The yarns or set of yarns so produced is called 'Baandha'. The unique feature of this form of designing is that the designs get reflected almost identically on both side of the fabric. This versatile technique enables a craftsman to weave colourful designs, patterns and images into a fabric capable of inspiring a thought or convey a message. Thus Baandha can be defined as " A length of systematically arranged yarn, dyed according to a preconceived design in such a manner so as to enable a weaver to portray the design when the yarn is converted to a fabric through the process of weaving". It is believed that this art migrated to Western Orissa along with the Bhulia community who fled Northern India in the year 1192AD after the fall of chouhan empire at the hands of the Mughals. Since then up to the year 1925 it flourished in Western Orissa in a limited number of designs and in vegetable colours and consisted mostly of saris used by the womenfolk of the Kosal region. These saris were known as 'Bhulia-Kapta'. The demand was limited, distress sale was common and the craftsmen lived in penury.

Development

Today the Baandha fabric is popularly known by its geographical and cultural name Sambalpuri owing to the pioneering efforts of Sri Radhashyam Meher, who brought about a radical improvement in the skills of the craftsmen and the quality of the products. Other master craftsmen who contributed to the development of Sambalpuri textiles were Padmashree Kunja bihari Meher, Padmashree Chatrubhuja Meher and Padmashree Krutharth Acharya. Sambalpur textiles today include furnishing materials, dress materials and sarees in silk, cotton and mercirised cotton in a variety of colours and many different designs. Baandha craftsmen are also masters of the 'extra warp' and 'extra weft' style of designing which can be seen in almost all forms of Baandha textiles. Radhashyam Meher also produced Khadi textiles using the Baandha art.

In 1926, Radhashyam designed the first handloom to weave textiles of ninety inches width. This achievement made him the 'Parda agent' of the Government of Bihar for the production of furnishing materials. Later, after the formation of the state of Orissa, he became the 'Parda agent' of the government of Orissa. His dexterity in the Baandha art and his ability to motivate the weaving community in the region to improve their skills by providing the necessary training and incentives enabled the creation of new designs that received international fame and recognition.

Radhashyam Meher established his proprietary concern named 'Utkal Parda Agency' at Sambalpur, for research, production and marketing of Sambalpuri textiles. Acknowledging Radhashyam Meher's unparalleled contribution to the growth and popularity of 'Baandha art', the Ministry of Textiles, Government of India has sponsored textile exhibitions coinciding with his birth anniversary on November 20, which is organised by the Director of Textiles, Government of Orissa.

He also played an active role in the cooperative movement and organised the Meher Art Fabrics cooperative society ltd and the Sambalpur Regional cooperative Marketing Society Ltd. (RCMS) He was a member of the All India Handloom Board in the year 1953. Till his death he was always elected as the member of the Sambalpur Municipality.

Industry

Roughly 16 km from the district headquarters of Sonepur, Sagarpali is a big village hosting around 500 bhulia (weaver) families. This is one of the largest weaving villages in western Orissa, a bastion of the Sambalpuri sari. Other areas affluent with handloom weavers are Barpali, Tarbha, Bijepur, and Bargarh.

Terracotta

Terracotta is also a traditional Sambalpuri art of making things using clay.

Traditional costumes of Sambalpuri women

Koshali tribal women wear a type of necklace known as Khagla, a round ornament made from silver. In the upper part of the ear they use an ornament known as Jhalka, in the earlobe they wear an ornament called Gathia, and in the nose, an ornament known as Jharaguna.

In their hair they wear Panpatri, Belkhadi, (a small stick used to clip flowerbuds onto hair). They wear two types of ornaments in their hands, known as Katria and Bandria. (In the arms they used to wear one type of ornament known as Tadla). In the legs they wear Painry or Tudal. Rings are also used on fingers and toes.

They also wear Janyiphool and Karai Phool, two types of flower. The cloth which local women wear is known as Kapta, that is same as Sambalpuri Saree but is shorter, less wide and thicker.

Large structures and monuments

Badmal Balangir is the only Ordnance factory of Orissa.

Eminent Personalities of Koshal Region

  • VEER SURENDRA SAI
  • GANGADHAR MEHER
  • BHIMA BHOI

Born in the year 1850, Baisakh Purnima, the celebrated religious poet and devotee Bhima Bhoi, it is said, was bron in a Kandha Family in village Granadihs of Rairakhol Sub-Division in Sambalpur District of Koshal region. Bhima Bhoi died on 1895, Siva Chaturdasi. He was born blind. According to the poet him-self, he could acquire his poetic prowess and knowledge about religion only by the blessings of his guru Mahima Mahaprabhu, A list of books written by Bhima Bhoi are Stuti Chintamani, Sruti Nisedha Gita, Ashtaka Bihari Gita, Bhajanamal etc.

  • PARBATI GIRI

Born on 19th January 1926 in village Samaleipadar of Bargarh district, Parbati Giri was just 16 when she was in the forefront of agitation following Mahatma Gandhi’s “Quit India” call. She continued to serve the nation socially after independence. She opened an orphanage at Paikmal village and devoted rest of her life for the welfare of orphans.

  • ISAAC SANTARA

Known for his service and benevolence par excellence, Isaac Santra was born in the year 1892 at Sambalpur. He graduated as a Doctor from Cuttack and entered into Leprosy Eradication Mission. He established a Lepers’ home at Hatibari, a village surrounded by dense forests and spent his time in serving the patients. Highly admired by the patients, academic circles in abroad, even by Mahatma Gandhi during later's visit to Sambalpur for his humanitarianism and philanthropy, Isaac Santara was honoured by Government of India with Padmashree award. He also edited a magazine Prabhatee, propounding human values and qualities. He died on 29th August, 1968.

  • PADMASHREE KRUTHARTHA ACHARYA

Born on 20th March 1900 in a brahmin family in Dabkatikra village of Bargarh district, Padmashree Krutartha Acharya pioneered in making the Sambalpuri design and fabric based on “Tie and Dye” method inside and outside the country. He established the Sambalpuri Bastralaya in 1930 and subsequently formed a Cooperative Societies of weavers of the district and the nearby districts.

  • SATYA NARAYAN BOHIDAR

Satya Narayan Bohidar was born on 1st August, 1913 at Sonepur. His formative and creative years were spent in Sambalpur that produced a large number of literary translations and biographies. Bohidar prepared the dictionary and basic grammar to the uncodified Sambalpuri Language.

  • PADMASHREE KUNJABIHARI MEHER

Kunjabihari Meher was born in 1928 at Barpali. He was an artist of Sambalpuri Ikat, and was called as Kala-Gourav (Glory of Art) for his extraordinary skill, invention of new designs and constant efforts for popularization Sambalpuri handloom fabrics (Tie & Dye). The artistry of Meher has been preserved in Port History Museum of U.S.A and Museum of Germany besides the State and National Museums of India. He was honoured with Padmashree Samman in 1998. He has also been presented the Honourary Felicitation of Liberty Bell by Governor of Philadelphia.

  • MANABODH RANA

Maharana was born in 1959 at Barpali and specialized in Terracotta roof tiles. Each roof tile made of mixture of black and red clays has a figure of an animal, bird or human being perched on top of it. He has given live demonstration of this indigenous art at N.H.&H. Museum, New Delhi, Craft Bazaars of Calcutta, Chennai, Bangalore, Surajkund. He has represented the country for live demonstration of this art in Japan (1988) and Denmark (1994). He is the recipient of National Award (1986) and Kalanidhi Award (1991) and Special Recognition from Japan. Doordarshan telecast a special feature on him is Surabhi Programme in September 1991 and STAR TV in 1996.

Tourist places of Koshal region

Places of natural beauty are in abundance in Western Orissa(Kosal). The Patala Ganga spot at Nuapada District is also a place of attraction for tourists. Ushakothi, Hirakud and Budrama in Sambalpur district attract the attention of tourists. Similarly, the Khandadhar Waterfall in Sundargarh district is also a tourist spot. The Mahanadi and the Tel river in Suvarnapur district present beautiful natural scenes and the confluence of the two rivers present a memorable sight.

The following tourist spots are there in the kosal Region:

Bargarh

  • Debrigarh - A peak in the Barapahar hills where Veer Surendra Sai the great Koshali freedom fighter was captured in 1864 by British soldiers and also has a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Other Places of Tourism- Nrusinghanath temple at Paikmal,Kedarnath Temple at Ambabhona, Baidyanath Temple at Deogaon, Balunkeswar Temple at Gaisama, Swapneswar Temple at Sorna, Visweswar Temple at Soranda, and Nilakantheswar Temple at Nilji.

Balangir

  • Balangir - The modern capital of ex-patna state and the current district head quarter.It is famous for numerous Sambalpuri Saree shops,Samaleswari temple, Patneswari Temple, Nrusinghanath Temple, Santoshi mata temple, Gopal jee temple, Sailashree Palace, Rajendra Park and numerous lakes within the town.
  • Patnagarh- The ancient capital of the kingdom of Patna is famous for the 12th Century Someswar Siva Temple and Patneswari Temple.
  • Ranipur-Jharial- Famous for the Hypaethral Temple of sixty-four Yoginis and being a place of religious confluence of faiths like Saivism, Buddhism, Vaisnavism and Tantrism.
  • Kusang- Kusangei Temple,Kusang is an 11th century temple of Maa Kusangei and it's a fine example of the Koshali architecture.
  • Saintala, known for its Chandi temple and images depicting ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu.
  • Turekela Attractive for viewing colorful wild life, like tigers, dear, bears, monkeys etc. and

chirping birds perched on trees.

  • Dharpagarh- Religious importance with a big tank called "Dashamati Sagar" guarded with the shrines of Chandi, Duarsuni, Samaleswari, Patneswari, Siva and Vishnu.
  • Harishankar - Famous for 15th Centaury Vishnu and Bhairavi Temple stands on the Southern slope of the Gandhamardan hills complemented by uncommon scenic charms and a perennial stream.

Boudh

  • Three remarkable Buddhist statues situated in Boudh town, shyamsundarpur village, and Pragalapur village; ninth century A.D.old Rameswar temple; Jogindra Villa Palace; Hanuman temple, Chandra Chuda & Matengeswar temple; Gandharadi temple, Padmatola Sanctuary, and Nayakpada Cave.

Deogarh

  • Pradhanpat- Waterfall on the Pradhanpat hill and a place of scenic beauty.

Jharsuguda

  • Gujapahar, Kuilighugar, Pikalghugar- Scenic Spot
  • Vikramkhol-Pictographic Inscriptions
  • Kolabira fort
  • Shiva shrine Mahadevpali (Samasingha, Laida and Sudhamal)
  • Koilighugar Waterfall (Lakhanpur)
  • Ranidarah (Samasingha)

Kalahandi

  • Dharmagarh (Historical Site, Paradeswar Temple, Bhim Khoj)
  • Talguda (Fort)
  • Mardiguda, Thuamul- Rampur, and Jakam (Scenic Spot)
  • Kusurla and Sapagaranda (Religious Centre).
  • Phurlijharan (Waterfall)
  • Bhawanipatna (Centuries old Manikeswari Temple and Royal Palace, Chhatar Jatra)
  • Junagrh (Lankeswari Temple, Khanda Basa festival)
  • Ampani
  • Mukhiguda-Japiatna (Indravati Dam)
  • Dokrichanchra
  • Asurgarh

Nuapada

  • Budhikomna and Patalaganga- Religious Centre
  • Patora, Sindursil and Thipakhol- Scenic Spot
  • Yogimatha- Cave Paintings

Sambalpur

  • Huma- Famous for Leaning temple of Lord Siva where catching fishes are not allowed people say that if you kill any fishes from the river which flows behind Huma Temple you will become stone statue ( Relatively more oldest and leaned than the leaning tower of Pisa).
  • Ushakothi- Wild life sanctuary harbours elephants, tigers, gours, sambars, black panthers, deer, spotted deer, and wild bears etc.
  • Hirakud Dam is situated 16km away from Sambalpur which is one of the longest dams in the world, about 16 mi (26 km) in length and the dam extends a lake, 55 km long.
  • Kandhara- Birthplace of Poet Bhima Bhoi (the great propounder of Mahima Dharma), and a

pilgrimage-cum-sight seeing spot.

  • Sambalpur town- Famous for several temples of Liakhai, Madanmohan, Satyabadi, Bariha, Brahampura, Dadhibamana, Timini, Gopalji, Budharaja Shiva Temple, Maneswar Shiva Temple, Gupteswar, Balunkeswar, Loknath, the Goddess Samaleswari, Pataneswari, Batmangala, Budhimaa, and Mahamayi etc. and Sambalpuri handlooms.
  • Other Tourist Places- Gudguda (Scenic Spot), Chipilima (Ghanteswari Temple, natural fall, State livestock Breeding Farm and Agricultural Farm) and Hatibari.
  • In naktideul block a famous temple named kunjamura is situated. It is situated near tikira jora
  • Gudguda 35km from kuchinda

Sonepur

  • Binika(Papakshya Ghat)-Religious Centre.
  • Chandalipat Puja Dunguri- Religious Centre.
  • Sonepur town- Known as the ‘Second Varanasi of India’ abode there several temples and gardens such as Suvarnameru (situated on the on the left bank of river Tel towards the southwest of the confluence of river Mahanadi and Tel), Gopinatha, Dadhivamana Deva, Sri Vrindavan Vihari, Gundicha, Sureswari, Stamv esvari or Khamvesvari, Bhagavati, Samalesvari, Budhi Samalei, Manikesvari, Narayani, Sitalei, Lankesvari, and Sasisena.
  • Charada- Historical Site.
  • Khaliapali- Mahima Shrine

Sundergarh

  • Rourkela- Steel Plant and Hanuman Temple,
  • Vedvyas, Ghogar- Religious Centre
  • Khandadhar, Miriglotah- Waterfall
  • Junagada- Fort
  • Chhatri Hill, Darjeeng, Deodaraha, Mandira- Scenic Spot

References

External links


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