Same-sex: Wikis

  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Same-sex

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Homosexuality article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sexual orientation
Orientations
Asexual · Bisexual · Heterosexual · Homosexual · Pansexual · Polysexual
Gender-based alternative concepts
Human female sexuality · Human male sexuality · Intersexuality · Third sex · Two-Spirit
Research
Biology · Demographics · Environment · Kinsey scale · Klein Grid · Neuroscience · Non-heterosexual · Psychology · Queer studies · Sexology · Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine
Non-human animals:
Homosexual behavior in animals (List)
Category:Sexual orientation
Sexuality portal

Homosexuality is romantic or sexual attraction or behavior among members of the same sex. As a sexual orientation, homosexuality refers to "an enduring pattern of or disposition to experience sexual, affectional, or romantic attractions primarily to" people of the same sex; "it also refers to an individual’s sense of personal and social identity based on those attractions, behaviors expressing them, and membership in a community of others who share them."[1][2][3]

Homosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation, along with bisexuality and heterosexuality, within the heterosexual-homosexual continuum. Currently the most common adjectives in use are lesbian for women and gay for men, though gay can to refer to either men or women. The number of people who identify as gay or lesbian — and the proportion of people who have same-sex sexual experiences — are difficult for researchers to estimate reliably for a variety of reasons.[4] In the modern West, major studies indicate a prevalence of 2% to 13% of the population.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] A 2006 study suggested that 20% of the population anonymously reported some homosexual feelings, although relatively few participants in the study identified themselves as homosexual.[16] Homosexuality is also widely encountered in the animal kingdom.[17][18]

Homosexual relationships and acts have been admired as well as condemned throughout recorded history, depending on the form they took and the culture in which they occurred. Since the end of the 1800s, there has been a movement towards increased visibility, recognition and legal rights for homosexual people, including the rights to marriage and civil unions, adoption and parenting, employment, military service, and equal access to health care.

The explanation for why some people are homosexual are, like the bases of sexual orientation in general, still poorly understood, and attempts to understand it have been somewhat hampered historically by misinformation and prejudice,[19] such as the once widely held view that homosexuality is a negative thing, and either the product of abnormal environmental influences, or an immoral "choice". The now longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality per se is an example of normal and positive variation in human sexual orientation.[20] The current literature and most scholars in the field state that one’s sexual orientation is not a choice; that is, individuals do not choose to be homosexual or heterosexual. There is, moreover, no scientific evidence that parenting, sexual abuse, other adverse life events, or early childhood experiences influence sexual orientation.[21][22] Historically, efforts to change sexual orientation were fruitless or damaging, and because the professional consensus is that homosexuality is an expression of normal human variation, then the possibility and need for change is seen as unwarranted. None have sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and most have policy statements, directed at professionals and the public, advising caution in relation to treatments claiming to change sexual orientation.

Contents

Etymology and usage

The word homosexual is a Greek and Latin hybrid with the first element derived from Greek homos, 'same' (not related to the Latin homo, 'man', such as in Homo sapiens), thus connoting sexual acts and affections between members of the same sex, including lesbianism.[23] Gay generally refers to male homosexuality, but may be used in a broader sense to refer to all LGBT people. In the context of sexuality, lesbian refers only to female homosexuality. The word "lesbian" is derived from the name of the Greek island Lesbos, where the poet Sappho wrote largely about her emotional relationships with young women.[24][25]

The adjective homosexual describes behavior, relationships, people, orientation, etc. The adjectival form literally means "same sex", being a hybrid formed from Greek homo- (a form of homos "same"), and "sexual" from Medieval Latin sexualis (from Classical Latin sexus). Many modern style guides in the U.S. recommend against using homosexual as a noun, instead using gay man or lesbian.[26] Similarly, some recommend completely avoiding usage of homosexual as it has a negative, clinical history and because the word only refers to one's sexual behavior (as opposed to romantic feelings) and thus it has a negative connotation.[26] Gay and lesbian are the most common alternatives. The first letters are frequently combined to create the initialism LGBT (sometimes written as GLBT), in which B and T refer to bisexual and transgender people.

The first known appearance of homosexual in print is found in an 1869 German pamphlet by the Austrian-born novelist Karl-Maria Kertbeny, published anonymously,[27] arguing against a Prussian anti-sodomy law.[28][29] In 1879, Gustav Jager used Kertbeny's terms in his book, Discovery of the Soul (1880).[29] In 1886, Richard von Krafft-Ebing used the terms homosexual and heterosexual in his book Psychopathia Sexualis, probably borrowing them from Jager. Krafft-Ebing's book was so popular among both layman and doctors that the terms "heterosexual" and "homosexual" became the most widely accepted terms for sexual orientation.[29][30]

As such, the current use of the term has its roots in the broader 19th-century tradition of personality taxonomy.

Although early writers also used the adjective homosexual to refer to any single-sex context (such as an all-girls' school), today the term is used exclusively in reference to sexual attraction, activity, and orientation. The term homosocial is now used to describe single-sex contexts that are not specifically sexual. There is also a word referring to same-sex love, homophilia. Other terms include men who have sex with men or MSM (used in the medical community when specifically discussing sexual activity), homoerotic (referring to works of art), heteroflexible (referring to a person who identifies as heterosexual, but occasionally engages in same-sex sexual activities), and metrosexual (referring to a non-gay man with stereotypically gay tastes in food, fashion, and design). Pejorative terms in English include queer, faggot, fairy, poof, and homo. Beginning in the 1990s, some of these have been reclaimed as positive words by gay men and lesbians, as in the usage of queer studies, queer theory, and even the popular American television program Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. The word homo occurs in many other languages without the pejorative connotations it has in English. As with ethnic slurs and racial slurs, however, the misuse of these terms can still be highly offensive; the range of acceptable use depends on the context and speaker. Conversely, gay, a word originally embraced by homosexual men and women as a positive, affirmative term (as in gay liberation and gay rights), has come into widespread pejorative use among young people.

Sexuality and gender identity

Sexual orientation, identity, behavior

The American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the National Association of Social Workers state:

Sexual orientation refers to an enduring pattern of or disposition to experience sexual, affectional, or romantic attractions primarily to men, to women, or to both sexes. It also refers to an individual’s sense of personal and social identity based on those attractions, behaviors expressing them, and membership in a community of others who share them. Although sexual orientation ranges along a continuum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual, it is usually discussed in terms of three categories: heterosexual (having sexual and romantic attraction primarily or exclusively to members of the other sex), homosexual (having sexual and romantic attraction primarily or exclusively to members of one’s own sex), and bisexual (having a significant degree of sexual and romantic attraction to both men and women). Sexual orientation is distinct from other components of sex and sexuality, including biological sex (the anatomical, physiological, and genetic characteristics associated with being male or female), gender identity (the psychological sense of being male or female), and social gender role (adherence to cultural norms defining feminine and masculine behavior).

Sexual orientation is commonly discussed as a characteristic of the individual, like biological sex, gender identity, or age. This perspective is incomplete because sexual orientation is always defined in relational terms and necessarily involves relationships with other individuals. Sexual acts and romantic attractions are categorized as homosexual or heterosexual according to the biological sex of the individuals involved in them, relative to each other. Indeed, it is by acting – or desiring to act – with another person that individuals express their heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality. This includes actions as simple as holding hands with or kissing another person. Thus, sexual orientation is integrally linked to the intimate personal relationships that human beings form with others to meet their deeply felt needs for love, attachment, and intimacy. In addition to sexual behavior, these bonds encompass nonsexual physical affection between partners, shared goals and values, mutual support, and ongoing commitment.

Consequently, sexual orientation is not merely a personal characteristic that can be defined in isolation. Rather, one’s sexual orientation defines the universe of persons with whom one is likely to find the satisfying and fulfilling relationships that, for many individuals, comprise an essential component of personal identity.[3]

Sexual identity development: "coming-out process"

Many people who feel attracted to members of their own sex have a so-called "coming out" at some point in their lives. Generally, coming out is described in three phases. The first phase is the phase of "knowing oneself," and the realization or decision emerges that one is open to same-sex relations. This is often described as an internal coming out. The second phase involves one's decision to come out to others, e.g. family, friends, and/or colleagues. This occurs with many people as early as age 11, but others do not clarify their sexual orientation until age 40 or older. The third phase more generally involves living openly as an LGBT person.[31] In the United States today, people often come out during high school or college age. At this age, they may not trust or ask for help from others, especially when their orientation is not accepted in society. Sometimes their own families are not even informed.

According to Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, Braun (2006), "the development of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) sexual identity is a complex and often difficult process. Unlike members of other minority groups (e.g., ethnic and racial minorities), most LGB individuals are not raised in a community of similar others from whom they learn about their identity and who reinforce and support that identity. Rather, LGB individuals are often raised in communities that are either ignorant of or openly hostile toward homosexuality."[32]

Outing is the practice of publicly revealing the sexual orientation of a closeted person.[33] Notable politicians, celebrities, military service people, and clergy members have been outed, with motives ranging from malice to political or moral beliefs. Many commentators oppose the practice altogether,[34] while some encourage outing public figures who use their positions of influence to harm other gay people.[35]

Explanations for homosexuality

The current literature and most scholars in the field agree that an individual's sexual orientation is not a matter of choice; that is, individuals do not choose to be homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual. There is, moreover, no scientific evidence that early childhood experiences, parenting, troubled family dynamics, sexual abuse, "faulty psychological development", or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation, as was formerly believed;[21][22] those assumptions are now understood to have been based on misinformation and prejudice.[19] Nevertheless, the reasons why some people are homosexual remain poorly understood;[19][21] experts generally believe, however, that sexual orientation is not determined by a single factor, but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences.[21][36] Biological explanations are becoming more favoured, based chiefly on genetics and prenatal exposure to hormones.[21]

Sexual orientation change efforts

In 2009 the American Psychological Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed journal literature on sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) and concluded:

Efforts to change sexual orientation are unlikely to be successful and involve some risk of harm, contrary to the claims of SOCE practitioners and advocates. Even though the research and clinical literature demonstrate that same-sex sexual and romantic attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality, regardless of sexual orientation identity, the task force concluded that the population that undergoes SOCE tends to have strongly conservative religious views that lead them to seek to change their sexual orientation. Thus, the appropriate application of affirmative therapeutic interventions for those who seek SOCE involves therapist acceptance, support, and understanding of clients and the facilitation of clients’ active coping, social support, and identity exploration and development, without imposing a specific sexual orientation identity outcome.[37]

No major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation. These include the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, American Counseling Association, National Association of Social Workers in the USA[38], the Royal College of Psychiatrists[39], and the Australian Psychological Society[40].

The American Psychological Association and the Royal College of Psychiatrists expressed concerns that the positions espoused by NARTH are not supported by the science and create an environment in which prejudice and discrimination can flourish.[39][41]

Gender identity

The earliest writers on a homosexual orientation usually understood it to be intrinsically linked to the subject's own sex. For example, it was thought that a typical female-bodied person who is attracted to female-bodied persons would have masculine attributes, and vice versa.[42] This understanding was shared by most of the significant theorists of homosexuality from the mid 19th to early 20th centuries, such as Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Magnus Hirschfeld, Havelock Ellis, Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud, as well as many gender variant homosexual people themselves. However, this understanding of homosexuality as sexual inversion was disputed at the time, and through the second half of the 20th century, gender identity came to be increasingly seen as a phenomenon distinct from sexual orientation.

Transgender and cisgender people may be attracted to men, women or both, although the prevalence of different sexual orientations is quite different in these two populations (see sexual orientation of transwomen). An individual homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual person may be masculine, feminine, or androgynous, and in addition, many members and supporters of lesbian and gay communities now see the "gender-conforming heterosexual" and the "gender-nonconforming homosexual" as negative stereotypes. However, studies by J. Michael Bailey and K.J. Zucker have found that a majority of gay men and lesbians report being gender-nonconforming during their childhood years.[43] Richard C. Friedman, in Male Homosexuality published in 1990,[44] writing from a psychoanalytic perspective, argues that sexual desire begins later than the writings of Sigmund Freud indicate, not in infancy but between the ages of 5 and 10 and is not focused on a parent figure but on peers. As a consequence, he reasons, homosexual men are not abnormal, never having been sexually attracted to their mothers anyway.[45]

Social construct

Because a homosexual orientation is complex and multi-dimensional, some academics and researchers, especially in Queer studies, have argued that it is a historical and social construction. In 1976 the historian Michel Foucault argued that homosexuality as an identity did not exist in the eighteenth century; that people instead spoke of "sodomy", which referred to sexual acts. Sodomy was a crime that was often ignored but sometimes punished severely (see sodomy law).

The term homosexual is often used in European and American cultures to encompass a person’s entire social identity, which includes self and personality. In Western cultures some people speak meaningfully of gay, lesbian, and bisexual identities and communities. In other cultures, homosexuality and heterosexual labels don’t emphasize an entire social identity or indicate community affiliation based on sexual orientation.[46] Some scholars, such as David Green, state that homosexuality is a modern Western social construct, and as such cannot be used in the context of non-Western male-male sexuality, nor in the pre-modern West.[47]

Same-sex romance and relationships

People with a homosexual orientation can express their sexuality in a variety of ways, and may or may not express it in their behaviors.[48] Some have sexual relationships predominately with people of their own gender identity, another gender, bisexual relationships or they can be celibate.[48] Research indicates that many lesbians and gay men want, and succeed in having, committed and durable relationships. For example, survey data indicate that between 40% and 60% of gay men and between 45% and 80% of lesbians are currently involved in a romantic relationship.[49] Survey data also indicates that between 18% and 28% of gay couples and between 8% and 21% of lesbian couples in the U.S. have lived together ten or more years.[50] Studies have found same-sex and opposite-sex couples to be equivalent to each other in measures of satisfaction and commitment in romantic relationships,[51][52] that age and gender are more reliable than sexual orientation as a predictor of satisfaction and commitment to a romantic relationship,[52] and that people who are heterosexual or homosexual share comparable expectations and ideals with regard to romantic relationships.[53]

Demographics

Reliable data as to the size of the gay and lesbian population is of value in informing public policy.[54] For example, demographics would help in calculating the costs and benefits of domestic partnership benefits, of the impact of legalizing gay adoption, and of the impact of the U.S. military's Don't Ask Don't Tell policy.[54] Further, knowledge of the size of the "gay and lesbian population holds promise for helping social scientists understand a wide array of important questions—questions about the general nature of labor market choices, accumulation of human capital, specialization within households, discrimination, and decisions about geographic location."[54]

Measuring the prevalence of homosexuality may present difficulties.[4] The research must measure some characteristic that may or may not be defining of sexual orientation. The class of people with same-sex desires may be larger than the class of people who act on those desires, which in turn may be larger than the class of people who self-identify as gay/lesbian/bisexual.[54]

In 1948 and 1953, Alfred Kinsey reported that nearly 46% of the male subjects had "reacted" sexually to persons of both sexes in the course of their adult lives, and 37% had had at least one homosexual experience.[55] Kinsey's methodology was criticized.[56][57] A later study tried to eliminate the sample bias, but still reached similar conclusions.[58]

Estimates of the occurrence of exclusive homosexuality range from one to twenty percent of the population, usually finding there are slightly more gay men than lesbians.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][59][60][61]

Estimates of the frequency of homosexual activity also vary from one country to another. A 1992 study reported that 6.1% of males in Britain had had a homosexual experience, while in France the number was 4.1%.[62] According to a 2003 survey, 12% of Norwegians have had homosexual sex.[14] In New Zealand, a 2006 study suggested that 20% of the population anonymously reported some homosexual feelings, few of them identifying as homosexual. Percentage of persons identifying homosexual was 2–3%.[16] According to a 2008 poll, while only 6% of Britons define their sexual orientation as homosexual or bisexual, more than twice that number (13%) of Britons have had some form of sexual contact with someone of the same sex.[15]

In the United States, according to exit polling on 2008 Election Day for the 2008 Presidential elections, 4% of electorate self-identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, the same percentage as in 2004.”[63]

Psychology

Psychology was one of the first disciplines to study a homosexual orientation as a discrete phenomenon. The first attempts to classify homosexuality as a disease were made by the fledgling European sexologist movement in the late 19th century. In 1886 noted sexologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing listed homosexuality along with 200 other case studies of deviant sexual practices in his definitive work, Psychopathia Sexualis. Krafft-Ebing proposed that homosexuality was caused by either "congenital [during birth] inversion" or an "acquired inversion". In the last two decades of the 19th century, a different view began to predominate in medical and psychiatric circles, judging such behavior as indicative of a type of person with a defined and relatively stable sexual orientation. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, pathological models of homosexuality were standard.

The American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the National Association of Social Workers state:

In 1952, when the American Psychiatric Association published its first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, homosexuality was included as a disorder. Almost immediately, however, that classification began to be subjected to critical scrutiny in research funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. That study and subsequent research consistently failed to produce any empirical or scientific basis for regarding homosexuality as a disorder or abnormality, rather than a normal and healthy sexual orientation. As results from such research accumulated, professionals in medicine, mental health, and the behavioral and social sciences reached the conclusion that it was inaccurate to classify homosexuality as a mental disorder and that the DSM classification reflected untested assumptions based on once-prevalent social norms and clinical impressions from unrepresentative samples comprising patients seeking therapy and individuals whose conduct brought them into the criminal justice system.

In recognition of the scientific evidence,[64] the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the DSM in 1973, stating that “homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities.” After thoroughly reviewing the scientific data, the American Psychological Association adopted the same position in 1975, and urged all mental health professionals “to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual orientations.” The National Association of Social Workers has adopted a similar policy.

Thus, mental health professionals and researchers have long recognized that being homosexual poses no inherent obstacle to leading a happy, healthy, and productive life, and that the vast majority of gay and lesbian people function well in the full array of social institutions and interpersonal relationships.[3]

The research and clinical literature demonstrate that same-sex sexual and romantic attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality. The longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality per se is a normal and positive variation of human sexual orientation.[65] The World Health Organization's ICD-9 (1977) listed homosexuality as a mental illness; it was removed from the ICD-10, endorsed by the Forty-third World Health Assembly on May 17, 1990.[66][67] Like the DSM-II, the ICD-10 added ego-dystonic sexual orientation to the list, which refers to people who want to change their gender identities or sexual orientation because of a psychological or behavioral disorder (F66.1). The Chinese Society of Psychiatry removed homosexuality from its Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders in 2001 after five years of study by the association.[68] According to the Royal College of Psychiatrists "This unfortunate history demonstrates how marginalisation of a group of people who have a particular personality feature (in this case homosexuality) can lead to harmful medical practice and a basis for discrimination in society.[22] There is now a large body of research evidence that indicates that being gay, lesbian or bisexual is compatible with normal mental health and social adjustment. However, the experiences of discrimination in society and possible rejection by friends, families and others, such as employers, means that some LGB people experience a greater than expected prevalence of mental health and substance misuse problems. Although there have been claims by conservative political groups in the USA that this higher prevalence of mental health difficulties is confirmation that homosexuality is itself a mental disorder, there is no evidence whatever to substantiate such a claim."[69]

Most lesbian, gay, and bisexual people who seek psychotherapy do so for the same reasons as heterosexual people (stress, relationship difficulties, difficulty adjusting to social or work situations, etc.); their sexual orientation may be of primary, incidental, or no importance to their issues and treatment. Whatever the issue, there is a high risk for anti-gay bias in psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients.[70] Psychological research in this area has been relevant to counteracting prejudicial ("homophobic") attitudes and actions, and to the LGBT rights movement generally.[71]

The appropriate application of affirmative psychotherapy is based on the following scientific facts[65]:

  • Same-sex sexual attractions, behavior, and orientations per se are normal and positive variants of human sexuality; in other words, they are not indicators of mental or developmental disorders.
  • Homosexuality and bisexuality are stigmatized, and this stigma can have a variety of negative consequences (e.g., minority stress) throughout the life span (D’Augelli & Patterson, 1995; DiPlacido, 1998; Herek & Garnets, 2007; Meyer, 1995, 2003).
  • Same-sex sexual attractions and behavior can occur in the context of a variety of sexual orientations and sexual orientation identities (Diamond, 2006; Hoburg et al., 2004; Rust, 1996; Savin-Williams, 2005).
  • Gay men, lesbians, and bisexual individuals can live satisfying lives as well as form stable, committed relationships and families that are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential respects (APA, 2005c; Kurdek, 2001, 2003, 2004; Peplau & Fingerhut, 2007).
  • There are no empirical studies or peer-reviewed research that support theories attributing same-sex sexual orientation to family dysfunction or trauma (Bell et al., 1981; Bene, 1965; Freund & Blanchard, 1983; Freund & Pinkava, 1961; Hooker, 1969; McCord et al., 1962; D. K. Peters & Cantrell, 1991; Siegelman, 1974, 1981; Townes et al., 1976).

Etiology

The American Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, and National Association of Social Workers stated in 2006:

Currently, there is no scientific consensus about the specific factors that cause an individual to become heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual — including possible biological, psychological, or social effects of the parents’ sexual orientation. However, the available evidence indicates that the vast majority of lesbian and gay adults were raised by heterosexual parents and the vast majority of children raised by lesbian and gay parents eventually grow up to be heterosexual.[3]

The Royal College of Psychiatrists stated in 2007:

Despite almost a century of psychoanalytic and psychological speculation, there is no substantive evidence to support the suggestion that the nature of parenting or early childhood experiences play any role in the formation of a person’s fundamental heterosexual or homosexual orientation. It would appear that sexual orientation is biological in nature, determined by a complex interplay of genetic factors and the early uterine environment. Sexual orientation is therefore not a choice.[22]

The American Academy of Pediatrics stated in Pediatrics in 2004:

Sexual orientation probably is not determined by any one factor but by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. In recent decades, biologically based theories have been favored by experts. Although there continues to be controversy and uncertainty as to the genesis of the variety of human sexual orientations, there is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse, or other adverse life events influence sexual orientation. Current knowledge suggests that sexual orientation is usually established during early childhood.[21][22]

The main reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual, gay, or lesbian orientation cited include genetic and environmental factors, likely in combination.[72][73] Other factors that may play a role include prenatal hormone exposure, where hormones play a role in determining sexual orientation as they do with sex differentiation;[74][75] and prenatal stress on the mother.[76][77][78]

The American Psychological Association has stated that "there are probably many reasons for a person's sexual orientation and the reasons may be different for different people". It stated that, for most people, sexual orientation is determined at an early age.[79] Research into how sexual orientation may be determined by genetic or other prenatal factors plays a role in political and social debates about homosexuality, and also raises fears about genetic profiling and prenatal testing.[80]

Professor Michael King states: "The conclusion reached by scientists who have investigated the origins and stability of sexual orientation is that it is a human characteristic that is formed early in life, and is resistant to change. Scientific evidence on the origins of homosexuality is considered relevant to theological and social debate because it undermines suggestions that sexual orientation is a choice."[81]

Innate bisexuality (or predisposition to bisexuality) is a term introduced by Sigmund Freud, based on work by his associate Wilhelm Fliess, that expounds that all humans are born bisexual but through psychological development – which includes both external and internal factors – become monosexual, while the bisexuality remains in a latent state.

The authors of a 2008 study stated that "there is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency". They hypothesized that "while genes predisposing to homosexuality reduce homosexuals' reproductive success, they may confer some advantage in heterosexuals who carry them". Their results suggested that "genes predisposing to homosexuality may confer a mating advantage in heterosexuals, which could help explain the evolution and maintenance of homosexuality in the population".[82] A 2009 study also suggested a significant increase in fecundity in the females related to the homosexual people from the maternal line (but not in those related from the paternal one).[83] A 2010 study stated: "The fetal brain develops during the intrauterine period in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. In this way, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation are programmed or organized into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. There is no indication that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation."[84]

Parenting

LGBT parenting is when lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are parents to one or more children, either as biological or non-biological parents. Gay men face options which include: "foster care, variations of domestic and international adoption, diverse forms of surrogacy (whether "traditional" or gestational), and kinship arrangements, wherein they might coparent with a woman or women with whom they are intimately but not sexually involved."[85][86][87][88][89] LGBT parents can also include single people who are parenting; to a lesser extent, the term sometimes refers to families with LGBT children.

In the 2000 U.S. Census, 33 percent of female same-sex couple households and 22 percent of male same-sex couple households reported at least one child under eighteen living in their home.[90] Some children do not know they have an LGB parent; coming out issues vary and some parents may never come out to their children.[91][92] LGBT parenting in general, and adoption by LGBT couples may be controversial in some countries. In January 2008, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that same-sex couples have the right to adopt a child.[93][94] In the U.S., LGB people can legally adopt in all states except for Florida.[95]

There is ample evidence to show that children raised by same-gender parents fare as well as those raised by heterosexual parents. More than 25 years of research have documented that there is no relationship between parents' sexual orientation and any measure of a child's emotional, psychosocial, and behavioral adjustment. These data have demonstrated no risk to children as a result of growing up in a family with 1 or more gay parents.[96] No research supports the widely held conviction that the gender of parents matters for child well-being.[97] If gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents were inherently less capable than otherwise comparable heterosexual parents, their children would evidence problems regardless of the type of sample. This pattern clearly has not been observed. Given the consistent failures in this research literature to disprove the null hypothesis, the burden of empirical proof is on those who argue that the children of sexual minority parents fare worse than the children of heterosexual parents.[98]

Professor Judith Stacey, of New York University, stated: “Rarely is there as much consensus in any area of social science as in the case of gay parenting, which is why the American Academy of Pediatrics and all of the major professional organizations with expertise in child welfare have issued reports and resolutions in support of gay and lesbian parental rights”.[99] These organizations include the American Academy of Pediatrics,[96] the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,[100] the American Psychiatric Association,[101] the American Psychological Association [102], the American Psychoanalytic Association [103], the National Association of Social Workers,[3] the Child Welfare League of America,[104] the North American Council on Adoptable Children,[105] and Canadian Psychological Association (CPA). CPA is concerned that some persons and institutions are mis-interpreting the findings of psychological research to support their positions, when their positions are more accurately based on other systems of belief or values.[106]

The vast majority of families in the United States today are not the "middle class family with a bread-winning father and a stay-at-home mother, married to each other and raising their biological children" that has been viewed as the norm. Since the end of the 1980’s, it has been well established that children and adolescents can adjust just as well in nontraditional settings as in traditional settings.[107]

Health

Physical

These safer sex recommendations are agreed upon by public health officials for women who have sex with women to avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs):
  • Avoid contact with a partner’s menstrual blood and with any visible genital lesions.
    • Cover sex toys that penetrate more than one person’s vagina or anus with a new condom for each person; consider using different toys for each person.
    • Use a barrier (e.g., latex sheet, dental dam, cut-open condom, plastic wrap) during oral sex.
    • Use latex or vinyl gloves and lubricant for any manual sex that might cause bleeding.[108]
These safer sex recommendations are agreed upon by public health officials for men who have sex with men to avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
  • Avoid contact with a partner’s bodily fluids and with any visible genital lesions.
    • Use condoms for anal and oral sex.
    • Use a barrier (e.g., latex sheet, dental dam, cut-open condom, plastic wrap) during anal–oral sex.
    • Cover sex toys that penetrate more than one person with a new condom for each person; consider using different toys for each person and use latex or vinyl gloves and lubricant for any sex that might cause bleeding.[109][110]

Men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) refers to people who engage in sexual activity with others of the same sex regardless of how they identify themselves as many choose not to accept social identities as lesbian, gay and bisexual.[111][112][113][114][115] These terms are often used in medical literature and social research to describe such groups for study, without needing to consider the issues of sexual self-identity. The terms are seen as problematic, however, because it "obscures social dimensions of sexuality; undermines the self-labeling of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people; and does not sufficiently describe variations in sexual behavior".[116] MSM and WSW are sexually active with each other for a variety of reasons with the main ones arguably sexual pleasure, intimacy and bonding. In contrast to its benefits, sexual behavior can be a disease vector. Safe sex is a relevant harm reduction philosophy.[117] The United States prohibits men who have sex with men from donating blood "because they are, as a group, at increased risk for HIV, hepatitis B and certain other infections that can be transmitted by transfusion."[118] Many European countries have the same prohibition.[118]

Mental

When it was first described in medical literature, homosexuality was often approached from a view that sought to find an inherent psychopathology as its root cause. Much literature on mental health and homosexual patients centered on their depression, substance abuse, and suicide. Although these issues exist among people who are non-heterosexual, discussion about their causes shifted after homosexuality was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) in 1973. Instead, social ostracism, legal discrimination, internalization of negative stereotypes, and limited support structures indicate factors homosexual people face in Western societies that often adversely affect their mental health.[119] Stigma, prejudice, and discrimination stemming from negative societal attitudes toward homosexuality lead to a higher prevalence of mental health disorders among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals compared to their heterosexual peers.[120] Evidence indicates that the liberalization of these attitudes over the past few decades is associated with a decrease in such mental health risks among younger LGBT people.[121]

Gay and lesbian youth

Gay and lesbian youth bear an increased risk of suicide, substance abuse, school problems, and isolation because of a "hostile and condemning environment, verbal and physical abuse, rejection and isolation from family and peers".[122] Further, LGB youths are more likely to report psychological and physical abuse by parents or caretakers, and more sexual abuse. Suggested reasons for this disparity are that (1) LGBT youths may be specifically targeted on the basis of their perceived sexual orientation or gender non-conforming appearance, and (2) that "risk factors associated with sexual minority status, including discrimination, invisibility, and rejection by family members...may lead to an increase in behaviors that are associated with risk for victimization, such as substance abuse, sex with multiple partners, or running away from home as a teenager."[123] A 2008 study showed a correlation between the degree of rejecting behavior by parents of LGB adolescents and negative health problems in the teenagers studied:

Higher rates of family rejection were significantly associated with poorer health outcomes. On the basis of odds ratios, lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults who reported higher levels of family rejection during adolescence were 8.4 times more likely to report having attempted suicide, 5.9 times more likely to report high levels of depression, 3.4 times more likely to use illegal drugs, and 3.4 times more likely to report having engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse compared with peers from families that reported no or low levels of family rejection.[124]

Crisis centers in larger cities and information sites on the Internet have arisen to help youth and adults.[125] The Trevor Helpline, a suicide prevention helpline for gay youth, was established following the 1998 airing on HBO of the Academy Award winning short film Trevor.

History

Societal attitudes towards same-sex relationships have varied over time and place, from expecting all males to engage in same-sex relationships, to casual integration, through acceptance, to seeing the practice as a minor sin, repressing it through law enforcement and judicial mechanisms, and to proscribing it under penalty of death.

In a detailed compilation of historical and ethnographic materials of Preindustrial Cultures, "strong disapproval of homosexuality was reported for 41% of 42 cultures; it was accepted or ignored by 21%, and 12% reported no such concept. Of 70 ethnographies, 59% reported homosexuality absent or rare in frequency and 41% reported it present or not uncommon." [126]

In cultures influenced by Abrahamic religions, the law and the church established sodomy as a transgression against divine law or a crime against nature. The condemnation of anal sex between males, however, predates Christian belief. It was frequent in ancient Greece; "unnatural" can be traced back to Plato.[127]

Many historical figures, including Socrates, Lord Byron, Edward II, and Hadrian,[128] have had terms such as gay or bisexual applied to them; some scholars, such as Michel Foucault, have regarded this as risking the anachronistic introduction of a contemporary construction of sexuality foreign to their times,[129] though others challenge this.[130]

A common thread of constructionist argument is that no one in antiquity or the Middle Ages experienced homosexuality as an exclusive, permanent, or defining mode of sexuality. John Boswell has countered this argument by citing ancient Greek writings by Plato,[131] which describe individuals exhibiting exclusive homosexuality.

Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum. Illustration from photograph © 1999 Greg Reeder.

Africa

Though often ignored or suppressed by European explorers and colonialists, homosexual expression in native Africa was also present and took a variety of forms. Anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called motsoalle.[132] E. E. Evans-Pritchard also recorded that male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands. The practice had died out by the early 20th century, after Europeans had gained control of African countries, but was recounted to Evans-Pritchard by the elders to whom he spoke.[133]

The first recorded homosexual couple in history is commonly regarded as Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum, an Egyptian male couple, who lived around the 2400 BCE. The pair are portrayed in a nose-kissing position, the most intimate pose in Egyptian art, surrounded by what appear to be their heirs.

Americas

Dance to the Berdache
Sac and Fox Nation ceremonial dance to celebrate the two-spirit person. George Catlin (1796–1872); Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC

Among indigenous peoples of the Americas prior to European colonization, a common form of same-sex sexuality centered around the figure of the Two-Spirit individual. Typically this individual was recognized early in life, given a choice by the parents to follow the path and, if the child accepted the role, raised in the appropriate manner, learning the customs of the gender it had chosen. Two-Spirit individuals were commonly shamans and were revered as having powers beyond those of ordinary shamans. Their sexual life was with the ordinary tribe members of the same sex.

Homosexual and transgender individuals were also common among other pre-conquest civilizations in Latin America, such as the Aztecs, Mayans, Quechuas, Moches, Zapotecs, and the Tupinambá of Brazil.[134][135]

Balboa setting his war dogs upon Indian practitioners of male love in 1513; New York Public Library

The Spanish conquerors were horrified to discover sodomy openly practiced among native peoples, and attempted to crush it out by subjecting the berdaches (as the Spanish called them) under their rule to severe penalties, including public execution, burning and being torn to pieces by dogs.[136]

East Asia

In East Asia, same-sex love has been referred to since the earliest recorded history.

Homosexuality in China, known as the pleasures of the bitten peach, the cut sleeve, or the southern custom, has been recorded since approximately 600 BCE. These euphemistic terms were used to describe behaviors, not identities (recently some fashionable young Chinese tend to euphemistically use the term "brokeback," 斷背 duanbei to refer to homosexual men, from the success of director Ang Lee's film Brokeback Mountain).[137] The relationships were marked by differences in age and social position. However, the instances of same-sex affection and sexual interactions described in the classical novel Dream of the Red Chamber seem as familiar to observers in the present as do equivalent stories of romances between heterosexual people during the same period.

Homosexuality in Japan, variously known as shudo or nanshoku has been documented for over one thousand years and was an integral part of Buddhist monastic life and the samurai tradition. This same-sex love culture gave rise to strong traditions of painting and literature documenting and celebrating such relationships.

Similarly, in Thailand, Kathoey, or "ladyboys," have been a feature of Thai society for many centuries, and Thai kings had male as well as female lovers. While Kathoey may encompass simple effeminacy or transvestism, it most commonly is treated in Thai culture as a third gender. They are generally accepted by society, and Thailand has never had legal prohibitions against homosexuality or homosexual behavior.

Europe

Roman man penetrating a youth, possibly a slave, middle of the 1st century AD. Found in Bittir (?), near Jerusalem

The earliest Western documents (in the form of literary works, art objects, and mythographic materials) concerning same-sex relationships are derived from ancient Greece.

In regard of male homosexuality such documents depict a world in which relationships with women and relationships with youths were the essential foundation of a normal man's love life. Same-sex relationships were a social institution variously constructed over time and from one city to another. The formal practice, an erotic yet often restrained relationship between a free adult male and a free adolescent, was valued for its pedagogic benefits and as a means of population control, though occasionally blamed for causing disorder. Plato praised its benefits in his early writings[138] but in his late works proposed its prohibition.[139] In the Symposium (182B-D), Plato equates acceptance of homosexuality with democracy, and its suppression with despotism, saying that homosexuality "is shameful to barbarians because of their despotic governments, just as philosophy and athletics are, since it is apparently not in best interests of such rulers to have great ideas engendered in their subjects, or powerful friendships or physical unions, all of which love is particularly apt to produce".[131] Aristotle, in the Politics, dismissed Plato's ideas about abolishing homosexuality (2.4); he explains that barbarians like the Celts accorded it a special honour (2.6.6), while the Cretans used it to regulate the population (2.7.5).[131]

Youth females are depicted as surrounding Sappho in this painting of Lafond "Sappho sings for Homer", 1824

Little is known of female homosexuality in antiquity. Sappho, born on the island of Lesbos, was included by later Greeks in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. The adjectives deriving from her name and place of birth (Sapphic and Lesbian) came to be applied to female homosexuality beginning in the 19th century.[140][141] Sappho's poetry centers on passion and love for various personages and both genders. The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love (sometimes requited, sometimes not) for various females, but descriptions of physical acts between women are few and subject to debate.[142][143] There is no evidence that she ran an academy for girls.

Sappho reading to her companions on an Attic vase of c. 435 BC.

In Ancient Rome the young male body remained a focus of male sexual attention, but relationships were between older free men and slaves or freed youths who took the receptive role in sex. All the emperors with the exception of Claudius took male lovers. The Hellenophile emperor Hadrian is renowned for his relationship with Antinous, but the Christian emperor Theodosius I decreed a law on August 6, 390, condemning passive males to be burned at the stake. Justinian, towards the end of his reign, expanded the proscription to the active partner as well (in 558), warning that such conduct can lead to the destruction of cities through the "wrath of God". Notwithstanding these regulations, taxes on brothels of boys available for homosexual sex continued to be collected until the end of the reign of Anastasius I in 518.

During the Renaissance, wealthy cities in northern ItalyFlorence and Venice in particular—were renowned for their widespread practice of same-sex love, engaged in by a considerable part of the male population and constructed along the classical pattern of Greece and Rome.[144][145] But even as many of the male population were engaging in same-sex relationships, the authorities, under the aegis of the Officers of the Night court, were prosecuting, fining, and imprisoning a good portion of that population. The eclipse of this period of relative artistic and erotic freedom was precipitated by the rise to power of the moralizing monk Girolamo Savonarola. In northern Europe the artistic discourse on sodomy was turned against its proponents by artists such as Rembrandt, who in his Rape of Ganymede no longer depicted Ganymede as a willing youth, but as a squalling baby attacked by a rapacious bird of prey.

The relationships of socially prominent figures, such as King James I and the Duke of Buckingham, served to highlight the issue, including in anonymously authored street pamphlets: "The world is chang'd I know not how, For men Kiss Men, not Women now;...Of J. the First and Buckingham: He, true it is, his Wives Embraces fled, To slabber his lov'd Ganimede" (Mundus Foppensis, or The Fop Display'd, 1691).

Love Letters Between a Certain Late Nobleman and the Famous Mr. Wilson was published in 1723 in England and was presumed by some modern scholars to be a novel. The 1749 edition of John Cleland's popular novel Fanny Hill includes a homosexual scene, but this was removed in its 1750 edition. Also in 1749, the earliest extended and serious defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplified, written by Thomas Cannon, was published, but was suppressed almost immediately. It includes the passage, "Unnatural Desire is a Contradiction in Terms; downright Nonsense. Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts."[146] Around 1785 Jeremy Bentham wrote another defense, but this was not published until 1978.[147] Executions for sodomy continued in the Netherlands until 1803, and in England until 1835.

Between 1864 and 1880 Karl Heinrich Ulrichs published a series of twelve tracts, which he collectively titled Research on the Riddle of Man-Manly Love. In 1867 he became the first self-proclaimed homosexual person to speak out publicly in defense of homosexuality when he pleaded at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich for a resolution urging the repeal of anti-homosexual laws. Sexual Inversion by Havelock Ellis, published in 1896, challenged theories that homosexuality was abnormal, as well as stereotypes, and insisted on the ubiquity of homosexuality and its association with intellectual and artistic achievement.[148] Although medical texts like these (written partly in Latin to obscure the sexual details) were not widely read by the general public, they did lead to the rise of Magnus Hirschfeld's Scientific Humanitarian Committee, which campaigned from 1897 to 1933 against anti-sodomy laws in Germany, as well as a much more informal, unpublicized movement among British intellectuals and writers, led by such figures as Edward Carpenter and John Addington Symonds. Beginning in 1894 with Homogenic Love, Socialist activist and poet Edward Carpenter wrote a string of pro-homosexual articles and pamphlets, and "came out" in 1916 in his book My Days and Dreams. In 1900, Elisar von Kupffer published an anthology of homosexual literature from antiquity to his own time, Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur. His aim was to broaden the public perspective of homosexuality beyond its being viewed simply as a medical or biological issue, but also as an ethical and cultural one. In a backlash to this, the Third Reich specifically targeted LGBT people in the Holocaust.

Middle East, South and Central Asia

Dance of a bacchá (dancing boy)
Samarkand, (ca 1905–1915), photo Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii. Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Among many Middle Eastern Muslim cultures egalitarian or age-structured homosexual practices were, and remain, widespread and thinly veiled. The prevailing pattern of same-sex relationships in the temperate and sub-tropical zone stretching from Northern India to the Western Sahara is one in which the relationships were—and are—either gender-structured or age-structured or both. In recent years, egalitarian relationships modeled on the western pattern have become more frequent, though they remain rare. Same-sex intercourse officially carries the death penalty in several Muslim nations: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Mauritania, northern Nigeria, Sudan, and Yemen.[149]

A tradition of art and literature sprang up constructing Middle Eastern homosexuality. Muslim—often Sufi—poets in medieval Arab lands and in Persia wrote odes to the beautiful wine boys who served them in the taverns. In many areas the practice survived into modern times, as documented by Richard Francis Burton, André Gide, and others.

In Persia homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were tolerated in numerous public places, from monasteries and seminaries to taverns, military camps, bathhouses, and coffee houses. In the early Safavid era (1501–1723), male houses of prostitution (amrad khane) were legally recognized and paid taxes. Persian poets, such as Sa’di (d. 1291), Hafez (d. 1389), and Jami (d. 1492), wrote poems replete with homoerotic allusions. The two most commonly documented forms were commercial sex with transgender young males or males enacting transgender roles exemplified by the köçeks and the bacchás, and Sufi spiritual practices in which the practitioner admired the form of a beautiful boy in order to enter ecstatic states and glimpse the beauty of god.

Today, governments in the Middle East often ignore, deny the existence of, or criminalize homosexuality. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, during his 2007 speech at Columbia University, asserted that there were no gay people in Iran. Gay people do live in Iran, but most keep their sexuality a secret for fear of government sanction or rejection by their families.[150]

The Laws of Manu, the foundational work of Hindu law, mentions a "third sex", members of which may engage in nontraditional gender expression and homosexual activities.[151]

South Pacific

In many societies of Melanesia, especially in Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture until the middle of the last century. The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as sinful and celebrated homosexuality instead. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty. Many Melanesian societies, however, have become hostile towards same-sex relationships since the introduction of Christianity by European missionaries.[152]

Law, politics, society and sociology

Legality

     No information
Homosexuality legal      Same-sex marriage      Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation)      Foreign same-sex marriages recognized      No recognition of same-sex couples
Homosexuality illegal      Minimal penalty      Large penalty      Life in prison      Death penalty

  

Most nations do not impede consensual sex between unrelated persons above the local age of consent. Some jurisdictions further recognize identical rights, protections, and privileges for the family structures of same-sex couples, including marriage. Some nations mandate that all individuals restrict themselves to heterosexual relationships; that is, in some jurisdictions homosexual activity is illegal. Offenders can face the death penalty in some fundamentalist Muslim areas such as Iran and parts of Nigeria. There are, however, often significant differences between official policy and real-world enforcement. See Violence against LGBT people.

Although homosexual acts were decriminalized in some parts of the Western world, such as Poland in 1932, Denmark in 1933, Sweden in 1944, and the United Kingdom in 1967, it was not until the mid-1970s that the gay community first began to achieve limited civil rights in some developed countries. On July 2, 2009, homosexuality was decriminalized in India by a High Court ruling.[153] A turning point was reached in 1973 when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, thus negating its previous definition of homosexuality as a clinical mental disorder. In 1977, Quebec became the first state-level jurisdiction in the world to prohibit discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. During the 1980s and 1990s, most developed countries enacted laws decriminalizing homosexual behavior and prohibiting discrimination against lesbian and gay people in employment, housing, and services. On the other hand, many countries today in the Middle East and Africa, as well as several countries in Asia, the Caribbean and the South Pacific, outlaw homosexuality. In six countries, homosexual behavior is punishable by life imprisonment; in ten others, it carries the death penalty.[154]

Sexual orientation and the law

  • Employment discrimination refers to discriminatory employment practices such as bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, and compensation, and various types of harassment. In the United States there is "very little statutory, common law, and case law establishing employment discrimination based upon sexual orientation as a legal wrong."[155] Some exceptions and alternative legal strategies are available. President Bill Clinton's Executive Order 13087 (1998) prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation in the competitive service of the federal civilian workforce,[156] and federal non-civil service employees may have recourse under the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution.[157] Private sector workers may have a Title VII action under a quid pro quo sexual harassment theory,[158] a "hostile work environment" theory,[159] a sexual stereotyping theory,[160] or others.[155]
  • Housing discrimination refers to discrimination against potential or current tenants by landlords. In the United States, there is no federal law against such discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity, but at least thirteen states and many major cities have enacted laws prohibiting it.[161]
  • Hate crimes (also known as bias crimes) are crimes motivated by bias against an identifiable social group, usually groups defined by race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender, gender identity, or political affiliation. In the United States, 45 states and the District of Columbia have statutes criminalizing various types of bias-motivated violence or intimidation (the exceptions are AZ, GA, IN, SC, and WY). Each of these statutes covers bias on the basis of race, religion, and ethnicity; 32 of them cover sexual orientation, 28 cover gender, and 11 cover transgender/gender-identity.[162] In October 2009, the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, which "...gives the Justice Department the power to investigate and prosecute bias-motivated violence where the perpetrator has selected the victim because of the person's actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or disability," was signed into law and makes hate crime based on sexual orientation, amongst other offenses, a federal crime in the United States.[163]

Political activism

Since the 1960s, many LGBT people in the West, particularly those in major metropolitan areas, have developed a so-called gay culture. To many, gay culture is exemplified by the gay pride movement, with annual parades and displays of rainbow flags. Yet not all LGBT people choose to participate in "queer culture", and many gay men and women specifically decline to do so. To some it seems to be a frivolous display, perpetuating gay stereotypes. To some others, the gay culture represents heterophobia and is scorned as widening the gulf between gay and non-gay people.

With the outbreak of AIDS in the early 1980s, many LGBT groups and individuals organized campaigns to promote efforts in AIDS education, prevention, research, patient support, and community outreach, as well as to demand government support for these programs. Gay Men's Health Crisis, Project Inform, and ACT UP are some notable American examples of the LGBT community's response to the AIDS crisis.

The bewildering death toll wrought by the AIDS epidemic at first seemed to slow the progress of the gay rights movement, but in time it galvanized some parts of the LGBT community into community service and political action, and challenged the heterosexual community to respond compassionately. Major American motion pictures from this period that dramatized the response of individuals and communities to the AIDS crisis include An Early Frost (1985), Longtime Companion (1990), And the Band Played On (1993), Philadelphia (1993), and Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt (1989), the last referring to the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt, last displayed in its entirety on the Mall in Washington, D.C., in 1996.

Publicly gay politicians have attained numerous government posts, even in countries that had sodomy laws in their recent past. Examples include Peter Mandelson, a British Labour Party cabinet minister, and Per-Kristian Foss, formerly Norwegian Minister of Finance.

LGBT movements are opposed by a variety of individuals and organizations. Some social conservatives believe that all sexual relationships with people other than an opposite-sex spouse undermine the traditional family[164] and that children should be reared in homes with both a father and a mother.[165][166] There is concern that gay rights may conflict with individuals' freedom of speech,[167][168][169][170][171] religious freedoms in the workplace,[172][173] the ability to run churches,[174] charitable organizations[175][176] and other religious organizations[177] in accordance with one's religious views, and that the acceptance of homosexual relationships by religious organizations might be forced through threatening to remove the tax-exempt status of churches whose views don't align with those of the government.[178][179][180][181]

Critics charge that political correctness has led to the association of sex between males and HIV being downplayed.[182][183]

Relationships

In 2006, the American Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association and National Association of Social Workers stated in an Amicus Brief presented to the Supreme Court of the State of California: "Gay men and lesbians form stable, committed relationships that are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential respects. The institution of marriage offers social, psychological, and health benefits that are denied to same-sex couples. By denying same-sex couples the right to marry, the state reinforces and perpetuates the stigma historically associated with homosexuality. Homosexuality remains stigmatized, and this stigma has negative consequences. California’s prohibition on marriage for same-sex couples reflects and reinforces this stigma". They concluded: "There is no scientific basis for distinguishing between same-sex couples and heterosexual couples with respect to the legal rights, obligations, benefits, and burdens conferred by civil marriage."[3]

Military service

Policies and attitudes toward gay and lesbian military personnel vary widely around the world. Some countries allow gay men, lesbians, and bisexual people to serve openly and have granted them the same rights and privileges as their heterosexual counterparts. Many countries neither ban nor support LGB service members. A few countries continue to ban homosexual personnel outright.

Most Western military forces have removed policies excluding sexual minority members. Of the 26 countries that participate militarily in NATO, more than 20 permit openly gay, lesbian and bisexual people to serve. Of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, two (United Kingdom and France) do so. The other three generally do not: China bans gay and lesbian people outright, Russia excludes all gay and lesbian people during peacetime but allows some gay men to serve in wartime (see below), and the United States (see Don't ask, don't tell) technically permits gay and lesbian people to serve, but only in secrecy and celibacy. Israel is the only country in the Middle East region that allows openly LGB people to serve in the military.

While the question of homosexuality in the military has been highly politicized in the United States, it is not necessarily so in many countries. Generally speaking, sexuality in these cultures is considered a more personal aspect of one's identity than it is in the United States.

According to American Psychological Association empirical evidence fails to show that sexual orientation is germane to any aspect of military effectiveness including unit cohesion, morale, recruitment and retention.[184] Sexual orientation is irrelevant to task cohesion, the only type of cohesion that critically predicts the team’s military readiness and success.[185]

Religion

Though the relationship between homosexuality and religion can vary greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and sects, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality, current authoritative bodies and doctrines of the world's largest religions generally view homosexuality negatively. This can range from quietly discouraging homosexual activity, to explicitly forbidding same-sex sexual practices among adherents and actively opposing social acceptance of homosexuality. Some teach that homosexual orientation itself is sinful,[186] while others assert that only the sexual act is a sin. Some claim that homosexuality can be overcome through religious faith and practice. On the other hand, voices exist within many of these religions that view homosexuality more positively, and liberal religious denominations may bless same-sex marriages. Some view same-sex love and sexuality as sacred, and a mythology of same-sex love can be found around the world. Regardless of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue. However, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and interpretations are hotly disputed.

Heterosexism and homophobia

In many cultures, homosexual people are frequently subject to prejudice and discrimination. Like members of many other minority groups that are the objects of prejudice, they are also subject to stereotyping, which further adds to marginalization. The prejudice, discrimination and stereotyping are all likely tied to forms of homophobia and heterosexism, which is negative attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. Heterosexism can include the presumption that everyone is heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the norm and therefore superior. Homophobia is a fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexual people. It manifests in different forms, and a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, and others.[187] Similar is lesbophobia (specifically targeting lesbians) and biphobia (against bisexual people). When such attitudes manifest as crimes they are often called hate crimes and gay bashing.

Negative stereotypes characterize LGB people as less romantically stable, more promiscuous and more likely to abuse children, but there is no scientific basic to such assertions. Gay men and lesbians form stable, committed relationships that are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential respects.[3] Sexual orientation does not affect the likelihood that people will abuse children.[107][188] Claims that there is scientific evidence to support an association between being gay and being a pedophile are based on misuses of those terms and misrepresentation of the actual evidence.[189][190][191]

Violence against gay and lesbian people

In the United States, the FBI reported that 15.6% of hate crimes reported to police in 2004 were based on perceived sexual orientation. Sixty-one percent of these attacks were against gay men.[192] The 1998 murder of Matthew Shepard, a gay student, is one of the most notorious incidents in the U.S.

Homosexual behavior in animals

Roy and Silo, two New York Central Park Zoo male Chinstrap Penguins similar to those pictured, became internationally known when they coupled and later were given an egg that needed hatching and care, which they successfully did.[193]

Homosexual behavior in animals refers to the documented evidence of homosexual, bisexual and transgender behavior in non-human animals. Such behaviors include sex, courtship, affection, pair bonding, and parenting. Homosexual and bisexual behavior are widespread in the animal kingdom: a 1999 review by researcher Bruce Bagemihl shows that homosexual behavior has been observed in close to 1500 species, ranging from primates to gut worms, and is well documented for 500 of them.[17][18] Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. The motivations for and implications of these behaviors have yet to be fully understood, since most species have yet to be fully studied.[194] According to Bagemihl, "the animal kingdom [does] it with much greater sexual diversity -- including homosexual, bisexual and nonreproductive sex -- than the scientific community and society at large have previously been willing to accept."[195]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality", APAHelpCenter.org, http://www.apahelpcenter.org/articles/article.php?id=31, retrieved 2007-09-07 
  2. ^ APA California Amicus Brief Please fix this cite and remove this comment when done.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365(…)
  4. ^ a b LeVay, Simon (1996). Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality. Cambridge: The MIT Press ISBN 0-262-12199-9
  5. ^ a b ACSF Investigators (1992). AIDS and sexual behaviour in France. Nature, 360, 407–409.
  6. ^ a b Billy, J. O. G., Tanfer, K., Grady, W. R., & Klepinger, D. H. (1993). The sexual behavior of men in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, 25, 52–60.
  7. ^ a b Binson, D., Michaels, S., Stall, R., Coates, T. J., Gagnon, & Catania, J. A. (1995). Prevalence and social distribution of men who have sex with men: United States and its urban centers. Journal of Sex Research, 32, 245–254.
  8. ^ a b Bogaert, A. F. (2004). The prevalence of male homosexuality: The effect of fraternal birth order and variation in family size. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 230, 33–37. [1] Bogaert argues that: "The prevalence of male homosexuality is debated. One widely reported early estimate was 10% (e.g., Marmor, 1980; Voeller, 1990). Some recent data provided support for this estimate (Bagley and Tremblay, 1998), but most recent large national samples suggest that the prevalence of male homosexuality in modern western societies, including the United States, is lower than this early estimate (e.g., 1–2% in Billy et al., 1993; 2–3% in Laumann et al., 1994; 6% in Sell et al., 1995; 1–3% in Wellings et al., 1994). It is of note, however, that homosexuality is defined in different ways in these studies. For example, some use same-sex behavior and not same-sex attraction as the operational definition of homosexuality (e.g., Billy et al., 1993); many sex researchers (e.g., Bailey et al., 2000; Bogaert, 2003; Money, 1988; Zucker and Bradley, 1995) now emphasize attraction over overt behavior in conceptualizing sexual orientation." (p. 33) Also: "...the prevalence of male homosexuality (in particular, same-sex attraction) varies over time and across societies (and hence is a ‘‘moving target’’) in part because of two effects: (1) variations in fertility rate or family size; and (2) the fraternal birth order effect. Thus, even if accurately measured in one country at one time, the rate of male homosexuality is subject to change and is not generalizable over time or across societies." (p. 33)
  9. ^ a b Fay, R. E., Turner, C. F., Klassen, A. D., & Gagnon, J. H. (1989). Prevalence and patterns of same-gender sexual contact among men. Science, 243, 338–348.
  10. ^ a b Johnson, A. M., Wadsworth, J., Wellings, K., Bradshaw, S., & Field, J. (1992). Sexual lifestyles and HIV risk. Nature, 360, 410–412.
  11. ^ a b Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  12. ^ a b Sell, R. L., Wells, J. A., & Wypij, D. (1995). The prevalence of homosexual behavior in the United States, the United Kingdom and France: Results of national population-based samples. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 24, 235–248.
  13. ^ a b Wellings, K., Field, J., Johnson, A., & Wadsworth, J. (1994). Sexual behavior in Britain: The national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. London, UK: Penguin Books.
  14. ^ a b c Norway world leader in casual sex, Aftenposten
  15. ^ a b c Sex uncovered poll: Homosexuality, Guardian
  16. ^ a b c McConaghy et al., 2006
  17. ^ a b (Bagemihl 1999)
  18. ^ a b Harrold, Max (February 16, 1999). "Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity". The Advocate, reprinted in Highbeam Encyclopedia. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Biological+Exuberance:+Animal+Homosexuality+and+Natural+Diversity.-a053877996. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  19. ^ a b c American Psychiatric Association Sexual Orientation
  20. ^ American Psychological Association: Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts
  21. ^ a b c d e f Pediatrics: Sexual Orientation and Adolescents, American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Report. Retrieved 2009-12-08.
  22. ^ a b c d e Royal College of Psychiatrists: Submission to the Church of England’s Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality.
  23. ^ "Etymology of Homosexuality", University of Waterloo, http://www.drama.uwaterloo.ca/Gross%20Indecency/homosexuality_word.shtml, retrieved 2007-09-07 
  24. ^ Marguerite Johnson, Terry Ryan: Sexuality in Greek and Roman society and literature: a sourcebook p.4
  25. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/lesbian
  26. ^ a b Media Reference Guide (citing AP, NY Times, Washington Post style guides), GLAAD. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
  27. ^ "Kertbeny Coins "Homosexual"", GayHistory.com, http://www.gayhistory.com/rev2/events/1869b.htm, retrieved 2007-09-07 
  28. ^ Feray, Jean-Claude; Herzer, Manfred (1990). "Homosexual Studies and Politics in the 19th Century: Karl Maria Kertbeny". Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 19, No. 1.
  29. ^ a b c "Biography: Karl Maria Kertbeny", GayHistory.com, http://www.gayhistory.com/rev2/events/kertbeny.htm, retrieved 2007-09-07 
  30. ^ "Psychopathia Sexualis", Kino.com, http://www.kino.com/psychopathia/history.html, retrieved 2007-09-07 
  31. ^ "The Coming Out Continuum", Human Rights Campaign, archived from the original on 2007-11-02, http://web.archive.org/web/20071102101657/http://dev.hrc.org/issues/3333.htm, retrieved 2007-05-04 
  32. ^ Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E., Hunter, J., & Braun, L. (2006, February). Sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: Consistency and change over time. Journal of Sex Research, 43(1), 46–58. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from PsycINFO database.
  33. ^ Neumann, Caryn E (2004), "Outing", glbtq.com, http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/outing.html 
  34. ^ Maggio, Rosalie (1991), The Dictionary of Bias-Free Usage: A Guide to Nondiscriminatory Language, Oryx Press, p. 208, ISBN 0897746538 
  35. ^ Tatchell, Peter (April 23, 2007), "Outing hypocrites is justified", The New Statesman, http://www.newstatesman.com/life-and-society/2007/04/human-rights-gay-outing-outed, retrieved 2007-05-04 
  36. ^ Perrin, E. C. (2002). Sexual Orientation in Child and Adolescent Health Care. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 
  37. ^ Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation
  38. ^ [Expert affidavit of Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D. http://www.glad.org/uploads/docs/cases/2009-11-17-doma-aff-herek.pdf]
  39. ^ a b Royal College of Psychiatrists: Statement from the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Gay and Lesbian Mental Health Special Interest Group
  40. ^ Australian Psychological Society: Sexual orientation and homosexuality
  41. ^ Statement of the American Psychological Association
  42. ^ Minton, H. L. (1986). Femininity in men and masculinity in women: American psychiatry and psychology portray homosexuality in the 1930s, Journal of Homosexuality, 13(1), 1–21.
    *Terry, J. (1999). An American obsession: Science, medicine, and homosexuality in modern society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
  43. ^ Bailey, J.M., Zucker, K.J. (1995), Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: a conceptual analysis and quantitative review. Developmental Psychology 31(1):43
  44. ^ Friedman, Richard C. (1990). Male Homosexuality. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 312. ISBN 0300047452. http://books.google.com/books?id=molFuFC_ap8C&dq=Sexual%2BOrientation%2Band%2BPsychoanalysis:%C2%A0Sexual%2BScience%2Band%2BClinical%2BPractice. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  45. ^ Goode, Erica. "On Gay Issue, Psychoanalysis Treats Itself". - The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1998/12/12/arts/on-gay-issue-psychoanalysis-treats-itself.html?sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  46. ^ Zachary Green and Michael J. Stiers. Multiculturalism and Group Therapy in the United States: A Social Constructionist Perspective. Springer Netherlands 2002. Pages 233–246.
  47. ^ Pflugfelder, Gregory (1999). Cartographies of Desire: Male-male Sexuality in Japanese Discourse, 1600-1950. University of California Press. ISBN 0520209095. 
  48. ^ a b APA Help Center
  49. ^ What is Nature
  50. ^ APA - What is Nature
  51. ^ Relationship Satisfaction and Commitment
  52. ^ a b Duffy, S.M/; C.E. Rusbult (1985). "Satisfaction and commitment in homosexual and heterosexual relationships". Journal of Homosexuality 12 (2): 1–23. http://www.labmeeting.com/paper/17688909/duffy-rusbult-1985-satisfaction-and-commitment-in-homosexual-and-heterosexual-relationships. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  53. ^ Charlotte, Baccman; Per Folkesson, Torsten Norlander (1999). "Expectations of romantic relationships: A comparison between homosexual and heterosexual men with regard to Baxter's criteria". Social Behavior and Personality. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3852/is_199901/ai_n8845504/pg_7/?tag=content;col1. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  54. ^ a b c d "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources", Dan Black, Gary Gates, Seth Sanders, Lowell Taylor, Demography, Vol. 37, No. 2 (May, 2000), pp. 139–154 (available on JSTOR).
  55. ^ Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, p. 656
  56. ^ David Leonhardt (July 28, 2000). "John Tukey, 85, Statistician; Coined the Word 'Software'". The New York Times. 
  57. ^ "Biography 15.1, John W. Tukey (1915-2000)". http://www.swlearning.com/quant/kohler/stat/biographical_sketches/bio15.1.html. Retrieved 2009-05-19.  John Tukey criticizes sample procedure
  58. ^ "Book Review by Martin Duberman, The Nation, November 3, 1997". http://www.kinseyinstitute.org/publications/duberman.html.  Martin Duberman on Gebhart's "cleaning" of data
  59. ^ S. Hite, The Hite Report on Male Sexuality, New York, A. Knopf, 1991.
  60. ^ S. S. et C. L. Janus, The Janus Report on Sexual Behavior, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1993.
  61. ^ Alfred C. Kinsey, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, 1948, ISBN 0-7216-5445-2(o.p.), ISBN 0-253-33412-8(reprint).
  62. ^ TERESA L. WAITE, December 8, 1992 "Sexual Behavior Levels Compared in Studies In Britain and France" in the New York Times[2]
  63. ^ "27% of Gay Voters Sided with McCain". The Advocate. 7 November 2008. http://www.advocate.com/news_detail_ektid65015.asp. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  64. ^ JAMA: Gay Is Okay With APA (American Psychiatric Association); available online: http://www.soulforce.org/article/642
  65. ^ a b American Psychological Association: Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation
  66. ^ ILGA | The decision of the World Health Organisation 15 years ago constitutes a historic date and powerful symbol for members of the LGBT community
  67. ^ Shoffman, Marc (May 17, 2006), "Homophobic stigma - A community cause", PinkNews.co.uk, http://www.pinknews.co.uk/news/articles/2005-1496.html, retrieved 2007-05-04 
  68. ^ The New York Times: Homosexuality Not an Illness, Chinese Say
  69. ^ Royal College of Psychiatrists: Royal College of Psychiatrists response to comments on Nolan Show regarding homosexuality as a mental disorder
  70. ^ Cabaj, R; Stein, T. eds. Textbook of Homosexuality and Mental Health, p. 421
  71. ^ ed. Sandfort, T; et al. Lesbian and Gay Studies: An Introductory, Interdisciplinary Approach. Chapter 2.
  72. ^ Iemmola, F.; Camperio Ciani, A. (Jun 2009). "New evidence of genetic factors influencing sexual orientation in men: female fecundity increase in the maternal line". Archives of sexual behavior 38 (3): 393–399. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9381-6. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 18561014.  edit
  73. ^ [3] What the gay brain looks like, Time Magazine;
  74. ^ Dörner G, Rohde W, Stahl F, Krell L, Masius WG (January 1975). "A neuroendocrine predisposition for homosexuality in men". Arch Sex Behav 4 (1): 1–8. PMID 165797. 
  75. ^ Ellis & Ames (1987). Neurohormonal functioning and sexual orientation: A theory of homosexuality-heterosexuality. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 233–258.
  76. ^ Dörner G, Geier T, Ahrens L, et al. (June 1980). "Prenatal stress as possible aetiogenetic factor of homosexuality in human males". Endokrinologie 75 (3): 365–8. PMID 7428712. 
  77. ^ Dörner G, Schenk B, Schmiedel B, Ahrens L (January 1983). "Stressful events in prenatal life of bi- and homosexual men". Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. 81 (1): 83–7. PMID 6682786. 
  78. ^ Ellis, L., & Cole-Harding, S. (2001). The effects of prenatal stress, and of prenatal alcohol and nicotine exposure, on human sexual orientation. Physiology and Behavior, 74, 213–226.
  79. ^ "Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality", American Psychological Association, http://www.apahelpcenter.org/articles/article.php?id=31, retrieved 2009-02-03 
  80. ^ Mitchum, Robert (August 12, 2007), "Study of gay brothers may find clues about sexuality", Chicago Tribune, http://archives.chicagotribune.com/2007/aug/12/news/chi-gaygene_bd12aug12, retrieved 2007-05-04 
  81. ^ Church Times: How much is known about the origins of homosexuality?
  82. ^ Zietsch et al. (2008)
  83. ^ Iemmola, Francesca and Camperio Ciani, Andrea (2009). "New Evidence of Genetic Factors Influencing Sexual Orientation in Men: Female Fecundity Increase in the Maternal Line". Archives of Sexual Behavior (Springer Netherlands) 38. 
  84. ^ Garcia-Falgueras A, Swaab DF (2010). "New Evidence of Genetic Factors Influencing Sexual Orientation in Men: Female Fecundity Increase in the Maternal Line". Pediatric Neuroendocrinology 17. 
  85. ^ Berkowitz, D & Marsiglio, W (2007). Gay Men: Negotiating Procreative, Father, and Family Identities. Journal of Marriage and Family 69 (May 2007): 366–381
  86. ^ Butler, Katy (March 7, 2006). "Many Couples Must Negotiate Terms of 'Brokeback' Marriages". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/07/health/07broke.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin. 
  87. ^ The Married Lesbian
  88. ^ Gay fathers in straight marriages
  89. ^ Bozett, Frederick W.. "The Heterosexually Married Gay and Lesbian Parent". Gay and Lesbian Parents. p. 138. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=yffzsKWvP6AC&oi=fnd&pg=PA138&ots=8RVKJpMsQh&sig=cV1xTjj9Is2BYObvw7DLb4bd7fw#PPA138,M1. 
  90. ^ APA Policy Statement on Sexual Orientation, Parents & Children, American Psychological Association, July 28 & 30, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  91. ^ Helping gay fathers come out to their children
  92. ^ A Family Matter: When a Spouse Comes Out as Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual
  93. ^ EMRK is for the LGBT adoption
  94. ^ Euronews: Gleichgeschlechtliche Adoptiveltern - Gerichtshof rügt Frankreich (german)
  95. ^ "Adoption Laws: State by State". Human Rights Campaign. http://www.hrc.org/issues/parenting/adoptions/2375.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  96. ^ a b Pawelski JG, Perrin EC, Foy JM, et al. (July 2006). "The effects of marriage, civil union, and domestic partnership laws on the health and well-being of children". Pediatrics 118 (1): 349–64. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1279. PMID 16818585. 
  97. ^ (How) Does the Sexual Orientation of Parent's Matter?
  98. ^ Herek GM (September 2006). "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: a social science perspective". The American Psychologist 61 (6): 607–21. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.61.6.607. PMID 16953748. http://wedding.thejons.net/homework/optional_readings.pdf. 
  99. ^ cited in Cooper & Cates, 2006, p. 36; citation available on http://www.psychology.org.au/Assets/Files/LGBT-Families-Lit-Review.pdf
  100. ^ Children with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Parents
  101. ^ Adoption and Co-parenting of Children by Same-sex Couples
  102. ^ Sexual Orientation, Parents, & Children
  103. ^ Position Statement on Gay and Lesbian Parenting
  104. ^ Position Statement on Parenting of Children by Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults
  105. ^ NACAC Position Statements
  106. ^ Marriage of Same-Sex Couples – 2006 Position Statement Canadian Psychological Association
  107. ^ a b Michael Lamb, Ph.D.: Affidavit - United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts (2009)
  108. ^ Mravack, Sally A. (July 2006)."Primary Care for Lesbians and Bisexual Women", American Family Physician 74 (2) p. 279–286.
  109. ^ Catalyst, Sr. Kitty, Staff of San Francisco City Clinic; "Reading This Might Save Your Ass"; 2001, San Francisco HIV Prevention and STD Prevention and Control.
  110. ^ Men Like Us: The GMHC Complete Guide to Gay Men's Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Well-being; Wolfe, Daniel; Gay Men's Health Crisis, Inc; Published by Ballantine Books, 2000; ISBN 0345414969, 9780345414960.
  111. ^ MSM in Africa: highly stigmatized, vulnerable and in need of urgent HIV prevention
  112. ^ "UNAIDS: Men who have sex with men" (asp). UNAIDS. http://www.unaids.org/en/PolicyAndPractice/KeyPopulations/MenSexMen/default.asp. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  113. ^ Greenwood, Cseneca; Mario Ruberte (9 April 2004). "African American Community and HIV (Slide 14 mentions TG women)" (ppt). East Bay AIDS Education and Training Center. http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/African_American_Transgenders_and_HIV.ppt. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  114. ^ Operario D, Burton J, Underhill K, Sevelius J (January 2008). "Men who have sex with transgender women: challenges to category-based HIV prevention". AIDS Behav 12 (1): 18–26. doi:10.1007/s10461-007-9303-y. PMID 17705095. 
  115. ^ Operario D, Burton J (April 2000). "HIV-related tuberculosis in a transgender network--Baltimore, Maryland, and New York City area, 1998-2000". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49 (15): 317–20. PMID 10858008. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4915a1.htm. 
  116. ^ Young RM, Meyer IH (July 2005). "The trouble with "MSM" and "WSW": erasure of the sexual-minority person in public health discourse". Am J Public Health 95 (7): 1144–9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.046714. PMID 15961753. 
  117. ^ "STI Epi Update: Oral Contraceptive and Condom Use". Public Health Agency of Canada. April 23, 1998. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/epiu-aepi/std-mts/std511_e.html. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  118. ^ a b FDA Policy on Blood Donations from Men Who Have Sex with Other Men
  119. ^ Schlager, Neil, ed. (1998). Gay & Lesbian Almanac. St. James Press. ISBN 1558623582, p. 152.
  120. ^ Meyer, Ilan H. (September 2003). "Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence". Psychological Bulletin (Psychological Bulletin) 129 (5): 674–697. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674. PMID 12956539. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2072932. 
  121. ^ Black gay men, lesbians, have fewer mental disorders than whites, says Mailman School of PH study
  122. ^ Gibson, P. (1989), "Gay and Lesbian Youth Suicide", in Fenleib, Marcia R. (ed.), Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, United States Government Printing Office, ISBN 0160025087 
  123. ^ Balsam, Kimberly F.; Esther D. Rothblum (June 2005) (PDF). Victimization Over the Life Span: A Comparison of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Siblings. 73. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. pp. 477–487. http://www.apa.org/journals/features/ccp733477.pdf. 
  124. ^ Ryan, Caitlin; David Huebner, Rafael M. Diaz and Jorge Sanchez (January 2009). Family Rejection as a Predictor of Negative Health Outcomes in White and Latino Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Young Adults. 123. PEDIATRICS. pp. 346=352. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/123/1/346. 
  125. ^ Caruso, Kevin, "Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Suicide", Suicide.org, http://www.suicide.org/gay-and-lesbian-suicide.html, retrieved 2007-05-04 
  126. ^ Adolescence and puberty By John Bancroft, June Machover Reinisch, p.162
  127. ^ "... sow illegitimate and bastard seed in courtesans, or sterile seed in males in defiance of nature." Plato in THE LAWS (Book VIII p.841 edition of Stephanus) or p.340, edition of Penguin Books, 1972.
  128. ^ Roman Homosexuality By Craig Arthur Williams, p.60
  129. ^ (Foucault 1986)
  130. ^ Thomas K. Hubbard, Review of David M. Halperin, How to Do the History of Homosexuality. in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2003.09.22
  131. ^ a b c (Boswell 1980)
  132. ^ Murray, Stephen (ed.); Roscoe, Will (ed.) (1998). Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312238290. 
  133. ^ Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (December, 1970). Sexual Inversion among the Azande. American Anthropologist, New Series, 72(6), 1428–1434.
  134. ^ Pablo, Ben (2004), "Latin America: Colonial"], glbtq.com, http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/latin_america_colonial.html, retrieved 2007-08-01 
  135. ^ Murray, Stephen (2004). "Mexico". in Claude J. Summers. glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture. glbtq, Inc.. http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/mexico.html. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  136. ^ Mártir de Anglería, Pedro. (1530). Décadas del Mundo Nuevo. Quoted by Coello de la Rosa, Alexandre. "Good Indians", "Bad Indians", "What Christians?": The Dark Side of the New World in Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés (1478-1557), Delaware Review of Latin American Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2002.
  137. ^ "Most frequently used new coinages in daily Chinese", Jongo News, August 20, 2007, http://news.jongo.com/articles/07/0820/30157/MzAxNTcoluZIoia.html, retrieved 2007-09-07 
  138. ^ Plato, Phaedrus in the Symposium
  139. ^ Plato, Laws, 636D & 835E
  140. ^ Douglas Harper (2001). "Lesbian". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=lesbian. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  141. ^ Douglas Harper (2001). "Sapphic". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Sapphic. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  142. ^ Denys Page, Sappho and Alcaeus, Oxford UP, 1959, pp. 142-146.
  143. ^ (Campbell 1982, p. xi-xii)
  144. ^ Rocke, Michael, (1996), Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and male Culture in Renaissance Florence, ISBN 0-195122-92-5
  145. ^ Ruggiero, Guido, (1985), The Boundaries of Eros, ISBN 0-195034-65-1
  146. ^ Gladfelder, Hal (May 2006) In Search of Lost Texts: Thomas Cannon's 'Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplified", Institute of Historical Research
  147. ^ Journal of Homosexuality (ISSN 0091-8369) Volume: 3 Issue: 4 , Volume: 4 Issue: 1
  148. ^ Ellis, Havelock; Symonds, John Addington (1975), Sexual Inversion, Arno Press, ISBN 0405073631  (reprint)
  149. ^ ILGA:7 countries still put people to death for same-sex acts
  150. ^ Fathi, Nazila (September 30, 2007). "Despite Denials, Gays Insist They Exist, if Quietly, in Iran". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/30/world/middleeast/30gays.html?_r=1&hp&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2007-10-01. 
  151. ^ Penrose, Walter (2001). Hidden in History: Female Homoeroticism and Women of a "Third Nature" in the South Asian Past, Journal of the History of Sexuality 10.1 (2001), p.4
  152. ^ Herdt, Gilbert H. (1984), Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia, University of California Press, pp. 128–136, ISBN 0520080963 
  153. ^ , http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Delhi-High-Court-legalizes-homosexuality/articleshow/4726608.cms 
  154. ^ Ottosson, Daniel (November, 2006) (PDF), LGBT world legal wrap up survey, ILGA, http://www.ilga.org/statehomophobia/World_legal_wrap_up_survey_November2006.pdf, retrieved 2007-09-21 
  155. ^ a b Donovan, James M; American Association of Law Libraries Standing Committee on Lesbian and Gay Issues (2007), Sexual Orientation and the Law, William S. Hein & Co., ISBN 083770166X  § 5:17
  156. ^ "Executive Order 13087 of May 28, 1998" (PDF), Federal Register 63 (105), June 2, 1998, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1998_register&docid=fr02jn98-135.pdf, retrieved 2007-09-07 
  157. ^ Ashton v. Civiletti, 613 F.2d 923, 20 Fair Empl. Prac. Cas. (BNA) 1601, 21 Empl. Prac. Dec. (CCH) P 30297 (D.C. Cir. 1979)
  158. ^ Kelly v. City of Oakland, 198 F.3d 779, 81 Fair Empl. Prac. Cas. (BNA) 1455, 77 Empl. Prac. Dec. (CCH) P 46281 (9th Cir. 1999)
  159. ^ Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., 523 U.S. 75, 118 S. Ct. 998, 1002 (1998)
  160. ^ Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989)
  161. ^ Renter's Rights Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination, archived from the original on 2007-12-10, http://web.archive.org/web/20071210161544/http://realestate.findlaw.com/tenant/tenant-fair-housing/tenant-fair-housing-orientation.html, retrieved 2007-09-07 
  162. ^ "State Hate Crime Laws" (PDF), Anti-Defamation League, June 2006, http://www.adl.org/99hatecrime/state_hate_crime_laws.pdf, retrieved 2007-05-04 
  163. ^ http://www.hrc.org/13699.htm
  164. ^ First Presidency Message on Same-Gender Marriage
  165. ^ Brownback, Sam (July 9, 2004). "Defining Marriage Down - We need to protect marriage.". National Review. http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/brownback200407090921.asp. 
  166. ^ The Family: A Proclamation to the World
  167. ^ Doughty, Steve (November 28, 2007). "Gay hate law 'threat to Christian free speech'". Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=496871&in_page_id=1770. 
  168. ^ Doughty, Steve (September 6, 2006). "Christian faces court over 'offensive' gay festival leaflets". Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=403815&in_page_id=1770. 
  169. ^ Gove, Michael (December 24, 2002). "I'd like to say this, but it might land me in prison". London: The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/michael_gove/article805241.ece. 
  170. ^ "Christian group likens Tory candidate review to witch hunt". CBC News. November 28, 2007. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/calgary/story/2007/11/28/chandler-meeting.html. 
  171. ^ Kempling, Chris (April 9, 2008). "Conduct unbecoming a free society". National Post. http://www.nationalpost.com/opinion/story.html?id=431535&p=2. 
  172. ^ Moldover, Judith (October 31, 2007). "Employer's Dilemma: When Religious Expression and Gay Rights Cross". New York Law Journal. http://www.law.com/jsp/ihc/PubArticleIHC.jsp?id=1193735028038. 
  173. ^ Ritter, Bob (January-February, 2008). "Collision of religious and gay rights in the workplace". Humanist. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1374/is_1_68/ai_n24944645. 
  174. ^ "Bishop loses gay employment case". BBC News. July 18, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/6904057.stm. 
  175. ^ Beckford, Martin (June 5, 2008). "Catholic adoption service stops over gay rights". Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2080669/Catholic-adoption-service-stops-over-gay-rights.html. 
  176. ^ LeBlanc, Steve (March 10, 2006). "Catholic Charities to halt adoptions over issue involving gays". Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2006/03/11/catholic_charities_stuns_state_ends_adoptions/. 
  177. ^ Mercer, Greg (April 24, 2008). "Christian Horizons rebuked: Employer ordered to compensate fired gay worker, abolish code of conduct". The Record. http://news.therecord.com/News/CanadaWorld/article/341201. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  178. ^ Gallagher, Maggie (May 15, 2006). "Banned in Boston:The coming conflict between same-sex marriage and religious liberty". 011. http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/012/191kgwgh.asp. 
  179. ^ Capuzzo, Jill (August 14, 2007). "Church Group Complains of Civil Union Pressure". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/14/nyregion/14civil.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. 
  180. ^ Capuzzo, Jill. "Group Loses Tax Break Over Gay Union Issue". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/18/nyregion/18grove.html. 
  181. ^ Moore, Carrie (May 15, 2008). "LDS Church expresses disappointment in California gay marriage decision". Deseret News. http://www.deseretnews.com/article/1,5143,700226242,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  182. ^ Chin, James (March 12, 2007). "The risks in hiding the HIV/AIDS truth". 9. Business Day. http://www.netassets.co.za/medical/medical.asp?websiteContentItemID=67274. 
  183. ^ "The people punish Mr Blair". Daily Mail (UK). May 6, 2005. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-347665/The-people-punish-Mr-Blair.html. 
  184. ^ American Psychological Association Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 2004. Minutes of the meeting of the Council of Representatives July 28 & 30, 2004, Honolulu, HI. Retrieved November 18, 2004
  185. ^ American Psychological Association: [Report of the APA Joint Divisional Task Force on Sexual Orientation & Military Service]
  186. ^ "Charge #1 and specifications preferred by the Presbytery of Southern California against The Rev. C. Lee Irons" (PDF). Presbytery of Southern California of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. http://www.upper-register.com/irons_trial/charges.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-27. "claiming that homosexuality is an unchosen "condition," rather than a sin of the heart, [...] contradicts the teaching of Scripture that both the desire and the act are sin." 
  187. ^ The Riddle Homophobia Scale from Allies Committee website, Department of Student Life, Texas A&M University
  188. ^ American Psychological Association: Lesbian & Gay Parenting
  189. ^ Dr. James Cantor
  190. ^ Buchanan, Wyatt (October 7, 2006). "Foley incident stirs up a stereotype about gay men". http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/10/07/MNG9HLKTVH1.DTL. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  191. ^ Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D.: Facts About Homosexuality and Child Molestation
  192. ^ "Crime in the United States 2004: Hate Crime", FBI, http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius_04/offenses_reported/hate_crime/index.html, retrieved 2007-05-04 
  193. ^ Smith, Dinitia (February 7, 2004). "Love That Dare Not Squeak Its Name". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0C1EF83A5F0C748CDDAB0894DC404482. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  194. ^ Gordon, Dr Dennis (10 April 2007). "‘Catalogue of Life’ reaches one million species". National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. Archived from the original on 2007-07-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20070713004634/http://www.niwascience.co.nz/pubs/mr/archive/2007-04-10-3. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  195. ^ Gay Lib for the Animals: A New Look At Homosexuality in Nature - 2/1/1999 - Publishers Weekly

Bibliography

Books

1990s
2000s

Journal articles

Online articles

External links








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message