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Same-sex marriage in Vermont: Wikis

  
  

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Legal recognition of
same-sex couples
Same-sex marriage

Belgium
Canada
Netherlands
Norway

South Africa
Spain
Sweden

Performed in some jurisdictions

Mexico: DF*
United States: CT, DC*, IA, MA, NH, VT, Coquille

Recognized, not performed

Israel
United States: CA (conditional), NY

Civil unions and
registered partnerships

Andorra
Austria
Colombia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Ecuador
Finland
France
Germany
Greenland

Hungary
Iceland
Luxembourg
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Slovenia
Switzerland
Wallis and Futuna
United Kingdom
Uruguay

Performed in some jurisdictions

Argentina: BA, RC, RN, VCP
Australia: ACT, TAS, VIC
Mexico: COA
United States: CA, CO, HI, ME, NJ, NV, OR, WA, WI
Venezuela: ME

Recognized, not performed

Isle of Man (UK only)

Unregistered co-habitation

Argentina
Australia
Brazil

Croatia
Israel
Portugal

In some regions

United States: MD, RI

Status in other jurisdictions

Albania
Aruba
Bolivia
Bulgaria
Burundi
Cambodia
Chile
China (PRC)
ROC (Taiwan)
Congo (DRC)
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Estonia
European Union
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India
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Jamaica
Japan
Jersey

Kosovo
Latvia
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Panama
Paraguay
Philippines
Poland
Romania
Russia
Serbia
Slovakia
Singapore
South Korea
Uganda
Ukraine
Venezuela
Vietnam

United States: AL, AS, AZ, DE, FL, GU, IL, LA, ME, MI, MN, MT, NM, NC, OH, PA, PR, RI, SC, UT, WV, WY, Native Americans

Notes

*DC (subject to Congressional review) and Mexico City same-sex marriage laws are effective from 1 March and 4 March 2010, respectively.

See also

Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage legislation
Timeline of same-sex marriage
Civil union
Domestic partnership
Registered partnership
Civil partnership
Listings by country

LGBT portal

Same-sex marriage in the U.S. state of Vermont began on September 1, 2009.[1][2] Vermont was the first state to introduce civil unions in July 2000, and the first state to approve same-sex marriage legislatively (as opposed to judicially).[1][3]

Contents

History

Civil unions

On December 20, 1999 the Vermont Supreme Court ruled in Baker v. Vermont that same-sex couples are “entitled under Chapter I, Article 7, of the Vermont Constitution to obtain the same benefits and protections afforded by Vermont law to married opposite-sex couples”. The Court did not rule on whether Vermont was required to grant marriage licenses to same-sex couples, but suggested that the legislature could enact a parallel licensing scheme affording the same substantial benefits as marriage to same-sex couples. After very contentious debate, the legislature followed the Court’s suggestion and passed H.B. 847, which was signed on April 26, 2000 by Governor Howard Dean.[4] The law went into effect on July 1, 2000. Vermont thus became the second U.S. state (after California) to offer legal status to same-sex couples, and the first to offer a civil union status encompassing the same legal rights and responsibilities of marriage.

Recognition outside of Vermont

Civil unions are generally not recognized outside of the state of Vermont in the absence of specific legislation. The Defense of Marriage Act prevents obligatory recognition of same-sex unions in other jurisdictions. As far as voluntary recognition of civil unions in other jurisdictions is concerned, California’s domestic partnership laws recognize Vermont civil unions as of January 1, 2005. New York City's Domestic Partnership Law, passed in 2002, also recognizes civil unions formalized in other jurisdictions. Germany's international private law (Art. 17b EGBGB) also accords to Vermont civil unions the same benefits and responsibilities that apply in Vermont, as long as they do not exceed the standard accorded by German law to a German civil union. The United Kingdom fully recognises civil unions contracted in Vermont. Schedule 20 of the Civil Partnership Act 2004 provides for automatic recognition of specified overseas relationships to the same extent as British civil partnerships. Since legal recognition available in the United Kingdom under the Civil Partnership Act greatly exceeds the capabilities of Vermont state law, the rights and responsibilities attached are greatly enhanced.

Civil unions can be dissolved in Vermont family court in exactly the same manner as divorce of married couples. But while there is no residency requirement to contract a civil union, there is a six-month residency requirement to dissolve one. An attempt of a Connecticut resident for a formal dissolution of his Vermont civil union with a New York City resident was rejected by the court of appeals on the basis of lack of jurisdiction.

Marriage

On February 9, 2007, bill H275 was introduced to allow marriage for same sex couples[5] and on July 25, 2007, Democratic House and Senate leaders in the state legislature announced the creation of a committee to study the issue of same-sex marriage. The committee reported in April 2008 but declined to make a recommendation.[6] A bill that would allow same-sex couples to marry was introduced February 6, 2009.[7]

On March 20, 2009 the Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously recommended implementation of same-sex marriage,[8] and the measure passed the State Senate on March 23, on a 26–4 vote.[9] However, Governor Jim Douglas publicly announced his intention to veto the bill two days later on March 25.[10]

On April 1, 2009, the judiciary committee of the Vermont House of Representatives passed the bill 8–2 and sent the bill to the full House with several amendments.[11] On April 3, the House passed the bill 95–52,[11] five votes shy of a veto-proof majority.

On April 6, 2009, the Vermont Senate approved the amendments made by the House. The Senate then immediately presented the amended bill to the governor, after which he immediately vetoed the bill.[12]

On April 7, 2009, the veto was overridden by the Senate 23–5, and by the House 100–49, making it the first time since 1990 that a Vermont governor's veto was overridden.[13] The law went into effect on September 1, 2009.[1]

Economic impact

A comprehensive UCLA study from March 2009 concludes that extending marriage to same-sex couples would boost Vermont's economy by over $30.6 million in business activity over three years, which would in turn generate increases in state and local government sales tax and fee revenues by $3.3 million and create approximately 700 new jobs.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Vt. legalizes same-sex marriage". The Burlington Free Press. 2009-04-07. http://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/article/20090407/NEWS03/90407016. Retrieved 2009-04-07.  
  2. ^ Lester, Paul (1 September 2009). "Gay couples tie the knot in Vermont: New law takes effect as Vermont becomes the latest state to allow same-sex marriage". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/deadlineusa/2009/sep/01/gay-marriage-vermont.  
  3. ^ "Vermont Legislature Makes Same-Sex Marriage Legal". The New York Times. 2009-04-07. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/08/us/08vermont.html.  
  4. ^ "Planning in Vermont-5 years after the civil union law". http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4419755/Planning-in-Vermont-5-years.html.  
  5. ^ "H.0275". Vermont General Assembly. 2009-02-09. http://www.leg.state.vt.us/database/status/summary.cfm?Bill=H.0275&Session=2008. Retrieved 2009-04-05.  
  6. ^ Gram, Dave (2008-04-21). "Vt. commission stops short of recommending gay marriage". Associated Press (The Boston Globe). http://www.boston.com/news/local/vermont/articles/2008/04/21/vt_commission_struggles_to_remain_neutral_on_gay_marriage/. Retrieved 2009-02-07.  
  7. ^ Porter, Louis (2009-02-06). "Vt. House to introduce same-sex marriage bill". Rutland Herald. http://www.rutlandherald.com/article/20090206/NEWS04/902060326/1004/NEWS03. Retrieved 2009-02-07.  
  8. ^ Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously recommends authorizing same-sex marriage
  9. ^ Vermont Senate Passes Gay Marriage Bill
  10. ^ Cavner, Brian. "Vermont Governor Pledges to Veto Marriage Bill". http://familyfairness.org/blog/news/vermont-governor-pledges-to-veto-marriage-bill/. Retrieved March 25, 2009.  
  11. ^ a b "S. 115". Vermont General Assembly. 2009-04-03. http://www.leg.state.vt.us/database/status/summary.cfm?Bill=S.0115&Session=2010. Retrieved 2009-04-05.  
  12. ^ VT Governor Vetoes Gay Marriage Bill
  13. ^ "Governor Vetoes Same-Sex Marriage Bill". Local Vermont News. http://www.wcax.com/Global/story.asp?S=10139384. Retrieved 2009-04-06.  
  14. ^ Economic Impact of Extending Marriage to Same Sex Couples in Vermont







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