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|Island chain:||North Aegean|
|Area:||477.395 km² (184 sq.mi.)|
|Highest mountain:||Mt. Kerkis (1,434 m (4,705 ft))|
|Population:||33,814 (as of 2001)|
|Density:||71 /km² (183 /sq.mi.)|
|Postal code:||931 xx|
The area of the island is 478 km2 (184.6 sq mi), 43 km (27 mi) long and 13 km (8 mi) wide. It is separated from Anatolia, by the approximately 1 mile (1.6 km)-wide Mycale Strait. While largely mountainous, Samos has several relatively large and fertile plains.
A great portion of the island is covered with vineyards, from which wine is made, including that from the Vathy grapes. The most important plains are that of Pythagorio, in the southeast, Karlovasi in the northwest, and Marathokampos in the southwest. The island's population is 33,814, which is the 9th most populous of the Greek islands. The Samian climate is typically Mediterranean, with mild rainy winters, and warm rainless summers.
The largest mountain is the Ampelos massif, which occupies the center of the island and rises to 1,095 metres (3,593 ft). The island's highest point is the summit of the Kerkis range, at 1,434 metres (4,705 ft). The mountains are a continuation of the Mycale range on the Anatolian mainland.
The Samian economy depends mainly on agriculture and the tourist industry which has been growing steadily since the early 1980s. The main agricultural products include grapes, honey, olives, olive oil, citrus fruit, dried figs and almonds, and flowers. The Muscat grape is the main crop used for wine production. Samian wine is also exported under several other appellations. Samian wines have won several international and domestic awards.
With the neighbouring islands of Icaria and Fourni, the island of Samos is administered as part of the Samos Prefecture. Samos includes four of the eight municipalities of the prefecture, which constitute more than 77 percent of the prefecture's population (2001 census). The island's capital and main port is the city of Vathy, most commonly called Samos; other municipalities are Karlovasi and Pythagoreio. The smallest of the component municipalities is Marathokampos.
In classical antiquity the island was a centre of Ionian culture and luxury, renowned for its Samian wines and its red pottery (called Samian ware by the Romans). Its most famous building, was the Ionic order archaic Temple of goddess Hera - the Heraion.
Concerning the earliest history of Samos, literary tradition is singularly defective. At the time of the great migrations it received an Ionian population which traced its origin to Epidaurus in Argolis: Samos became one of the twelve members of the Ionian League. By the 7th century BC it had become one of the leading commercial centres of Greece. This early prosperity of the Samians seems largely due to the island's position near trade-routes, which facilitated the importation of textiles from inner Asia Minor, but the Samians also developed an extensive oversea commerce. They helped to open up trade with the population that lived around the Black sea as well as with Egypt, Cyrene (Libya), Corinth, and Chalcis. This caused them to become bitter rivals with Miletus. Samos was able to become so prominent despite the growing power of the Persian empire because of the alliance they had with the Egyptians and their powerful fleet. The Samians are also credited with having been the first Greeks to reach the Straits of Gibraltar. 
The feud between Miletus and Samos broke out into open strife during the Lelantine War (7th century BC), with which we may connect a Samian innovation in Greek naval warfare, the use of the trireme. The result of this conflict was to confirm the supremacy of the Milesians in eastern waters for the time being; but in the 6th century the insular position of Samos preserved it from those aggressions at the hands of Asiatic kings to which Miletus was henceforth exposed. About 535 BC, when the existing oligarchy was overturned by the tyrant Polycrates, Samos reached the height of its prosperity. Its navy not only protected it from invasion, but ruled supreme in Aegean waters. The city was beautified with public works, and its school, of sculptors, metal-workers and engineers achieved high repute.
In the 6th century BC Samos was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates. During his reign, two working groups under the lead of the engineer Eupalinos dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro to build an aqueduct to supply the ancient capital of Samos with fresh water, as this was of the utmost defensive importance (since being underground, it was not easily detected by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the supply). Eupalinos' tunnel is particularly notable because it is among the earliest tunnels in history to be methodically dug from both ends, an earlier example being the eighth century BCE Hezekiah Tunnel in Jerusalem. With a length of over 1 km, Eupalinos' subterranean aqueduct is today regarded as one of the masterpieces of ancient engineering. The aqueduct is now part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Pythagoreion.
After Polycrates death Samos suffered a severe blow when the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered and partly depopulated the island. It had regained much of its power when in 499 BC it joined the general revolt of the Ionian city-states against Persia; but owing to its long-standing jealousy of Miletus it rendered indifferent service, and at the decisive battle of Lade (494 BC) part of its contingent of sixty ships was guilty of outright treachery. In 479 BC the Samians led the revolt against Persia.
During the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), Samos took the side of Athens against Sparta, providing their port to the Athenian fleet. In the Delian League they held a position of special privilege and remained actively loyal to Athens until 440 when a dispute with Miletus, which the Athenians had decided against them, induced them to secede. With a fleet of sixty ships they held their own for some time against a large Athenian fleet led by Pericles himself, but after a protracted siege were forced to capitulate. It was punished, but Thucydides tells us not as harshly as other states which rebelled against Athens. Most in the past had been forced to pay tribute but Samos was only told to repay the damages that the rebellion cost the Athenians: 1,300 talents, to pay back in installments of 50 talents per annum.
At the end of the Peloponnesian War, Samos appears as one of the most loyal dependencies of Athens, serving as a base for the naval war against the Peloponnesians and as a temporary home of the Athenian democracy during the revolution of the Four Hundred at Athens (411 BC), and in the last stage of the war was rewarded with the Athenian franchise. This friendly attitude towards Athens was the result of a series of political revolutions which ended in the establishment of a democracy. After the downfall of Athens, Samos was besieged by Lysander and again placed under an oligarchy.
In 394 the withdrawal of the Spartan navy induced the island to declare its independence and reestablish a democracy, but by the peace of Antalcidas (387) it fell again under Persian dominion. It was recovered by the Athenians in 366 after a siege of eleven months, and received a strong body of military settlers, the cleruchs which proved vital in the Social War (357-355 BC). After the Lamian War (322), when Athens was deprived of Samos, the vicissitudes of the island can no longer be followed.
Other notable personalities include the philosopher Epicurus, who was of Samian birth and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, whom history credits with the first recorded heliocentric model of the solar system. The historian Herodotus, known by his Histories resided in Samos for a while.
Samos is also notable in the history of art, having produced a school of sculptors and architects that included Rhoecus, the architect of the temple of Hera, and the great sculptor and inventor Theodorus, who is said to have invented with Rhoecus the art of casting statues in bronze.
The vases of Samos were among the most characteristic products of lonian pottery in the 6th century.
For some time (about 275-270 B.C.) Samos served as a base for the Egyptian fleet of the Ptolemies, at other periods it recognized the overlordship of Seleucid Syria. In 189 B.C. it was transferred by the Romans to their vassal, the Attalid dynasty's Hellenistic kingdom of Pergamon, in Asia Minor.
Enrolled from 133 in the Roman province of Asia Minor, Samos sided with Aristonicus (132) and Mithridates (88) against its overlord, and consequently forfeited its autonomy, which it only temporarily recovered between the reigns of Augustus and Vespasian. Nevertheless, Samos remained comparatively flourishing, and was able to contest with Smyrna and Ephesus the title first city of lonia; it was chiefly noted as a health resort and for the manufacture of pottery. Since Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy it became part of the Provincia Insularum, in the diocese of Asiana in the eastern empire's pretorian prefecture of Oriens.
As part of the Byzantine Empire, Samos became the head of the Aegean theme (military district). After the 13th century it passed through much the same changes of government as Chios, and, like the latter island, became the property of the Genoese firm of Giustiniani (1346-1566; 1475 interrupted by an Ottoman period).
During the early years of the Ottoman Empire most Samians abandoned the island. Those remaining lived inland in small settlements up in the mountains, hiding from pirates and other invaders. Around the 17th century Samos was granted the status of a semi-independent state. Many Greeks of Samian decent as well as others from Greek speaking territories settled on the island. The village of Mytilinioi for example, was inhabited by people from the island of Mytilini. Other settlers followed from various provinces in mainland Greece and as far away as Albania. A substantial population came from Ipiros and therefore the accent of the Samians even till the present day resembles that of mainland Greece. Samos, (Ottoman Turkish: سيسام Sisam) belonged to the Ottoman Empire since 1533, as part of the Elayet of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i Sefid i.e. "of the White Sea" (Mediterranean) until the year 1821.
During the Greek War of Independence, Samos played a conspicuous part, setting up a revolutionary government under the following heads of local government:
In July 1824, an ottoman army assembled to invade the island, but Greek naval victories off Samos and at Gerontas averted the threat. The island remained free for the remainder of the war. Nevertheless, the treaties concluding the war, which established the independent Greek kingdom, again put Samos under Turkish suzerainty.
In 1835, the Samians achieved self-government as a semi-independent state tributary to Ottoman Turkey, paying the annual sum of £2700. It was governed by a Christian of Greek descent though nominated by the Porte, who bore the title of "Prince." The prince was assisted in his function as chief executive by a 4-member senate. These were chosen by him out of eight candidates nominated by the four districts of the island: Vathý, Khōra, Marathókampos, and Karlóvasi. The actual legislative power belonged to a chamber of 36 deputies, presided over by the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan. The seat of the government was the port of Vathý.
The consecutive 'princely' governors were:
The population in 1900 was about 54,830, not including the 15,000 Samians living nearby on the mainland. The predominant religion was the Greek Orthodox. The metropolitan district included Samos and Ikaria. In 1900 there were 634 foreigners on the island (523 Hellenes, 13 Germans, 29 French, 28 Austrians and 24 of other nationalities).
The modern capital of the island was, until the early 20th century, at Khora, about 2 miles (3.2 km) from the sea and from the site of the ancient city.
After reconsidering political conditions, the capital was moved to Vathý, at the head of a deep bay on the North coast. This became the residence of the prince and the seat of government.
Since then a new town has grown, with a harbour.
On August 3, 1989, a Shorts 330 aircraft of the Olympic Airways (now Olympic Airlines) crashed near Samos Airport; thirty-one passengers died. In the summer of 2000 a fire burned about 30% of the island's forests.
Samos is an island with a town of the same name in Samos Prefecture in the North Aegean Sea. The island lies very close to the Turkish mainland and is a popular stopping off point for travellers between the two countries as it lies on the route between Athens and Izmir. High season in Samos, when you can expect much higher prices, begins the first week of May.
Samos was the birthplace of Pythagoras although he left before beginning his explorations into mathematics. Consequently, the island is littered with various things named after him from the town of Pythagoreion, the ancient capital, to hotels and tavernas.
From the second week of May, two daily ferries from Kusadasi in Turkey. The trip takes two hours and costs €35 one-way. Ferries depart at 0830 and 1730. In low season, one ferry only departing Kusadasi at 0830 and returning from Samos at 1630.
You can fly into Samos from Athens and other Greek islands. Flights arrive near the old capital of Pythagoreion.
Ferries frequently arrive at the two main port towns of Samos and Karlovassi.
The island has buses although these will not operate on some public holidays e.g. May 1st. There are numerous rental agencies near the port in the city of Samos which rent out cars, motorbikes, scooters and quadbikes. Many of these are open late and so it is possible to rent a motorbike from early morning until 9 or 10PM for €10 per day. With your own transport, you could explore much of the island in a day or two. There are also taxis.
The main town of Samos can easily be explored on foot although there are some steep roads/steps away from the sea front as the town reaches the foot of the hills.
Off season (i.e. Oct-May) you can bargain rooms down to as little as €20 for a double.
Ferries to other Greek islands are numerous including many to Piraeus (for Athens). Usually, there's an overnight ferry leaving at 2230 and arriving in Piraeus 9 hours later via Ikaria and possibly Mykonos. Prices for Piraeus start at €42.50 on the comfortable Hellenic Seaways boats. Travel agents clustered around Samos port can sell you tickets.
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an island in the AEgean Sea, which Paul passed on his voyage from Assos to Miletus (Acts 20:15), on his third missionary journey. It is about 27 miles long and 20 broad, and lies about 42 miles south-west of Smyrna.
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[[File:|150px|right|thumb|a view of Samos]] Samos is a Greek island. It is the eighth biggest Greek island. It is located in the east of Aegean sea. Opposite Samos is the west coasts of Turkey. Also Samos is one of 51 prefectures of Greece. The prefecture in addition includes the Ikaria island and Fournoi Island. The capital of Samos is Samos City. The mathematician Pythagoras was from Samos.
The most interest sight of Samos is the ancient aqueduct. It was construct by the ancient Greek mechanic Eupalinos, so it is called "Eupalinio Orygma" in Greek. It is a big tunnel which is 1,030 metres (3,379.3 ft) long. It had been constructed to carry water in the town of ancient Samos. Other important places is the ancient town which is located in south of island and the contemporary beautiful villages of Samos.