Samuel Palmer: Wikis

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Samuel Palmer
Self portrait, circa 1826
Birth name Samuel Palmer
Born 27 January 1805(1805-01-27)
London
Died 24 May 1881 (aged 76)
Redhill, Surrey
Nationality English
Field Painting, Printmaking, Drawing,
Movement The Ancients
Works Garden In Shoreham,

Samuel Palmer (27 January 1805 – 24 May 1881) was an English landscape painter, etcher and printmaker. He was also a prolific writer. Palmer was a key figure in English Romanticism and produced visionary pastoral paintings.

Contents

Early life

Palmer, who was born in Newington, London in Surrey Square off the Old Kent Road [1], was the son of a bookseller and sometime Baptist minister, and was raised by a pious nurse. Palmer painted churches from around age twelve, and first exhibited Turner-inspired works at the Royal Academy at the age of fourteen. He had little formal training, and did not have a formal schooling, although he was educated briefly at Merchant Taylors' School.[2]

The Shoreham years

Garden in Shoreham. 1820s or early 1830s.

Through John Linnell, he met William Blake in 1824. Blake's influence can be seen in the works he produced over the next ten years or so, which are generally reckoned to be his greatest. These works were of landscapes around Shoreham, near Sevenoaks in the east of the county of Kent. He purchased a run-down cottage, nicknamed "Rat Abbey", and it was there that he lived from 1826 to 1835, depicting the area as a demi-paradise, mysterious and visionary, and often shown in sepia shades under moon and star light. There Palmer also associated with the group of Blake-influenced artists known as The Ancients (including George Richmond and Edward Calvert). They were among the few who ever saw the Shoreham paintings since, as a result of attacks by critics in 1825, he only ever opened those early portfolios to selected friends.

Palmer's somewhat disreputable father – Samuel Palmer senior – also moved to the area, his brother Nathaniel having offered him an allowance that would "make him a gentlemen" and so restore the good name of the family. Samuel Palmer senior rented half of the Queen Anne-era 'Waterhouse' which still stands by the River Darent at Shoreham and is now given the slightly grander-sounding name of 'Water House'. Palmer's nurse, Mary Ward, and his other son William joined him there. The Waterhouse was used to accommodate overflow guests from "Rat Abbey". In 1828 Samuel Palmer left "Rat Abbey" to join his father at Water House. He lived there for the rest of his time in Shoreham. Later in the Shoreham period he fell in love with the fourteen year old Hannah Linnell, whom he would later marry.

Mature life

A Cornfield by Moonlight with the Evening Star c.1830

After returning to London in 1835, and using a small legacy to purchase a house there in Marylebone, Palmer produced less mystical and more conventional work. Part of his reason in returning to London was to better sell his work and earn money from private teaching. He had better health on his return to London, and he was recently married to Hannah daughter of John Linnell. He had known Hannah since she was a child, and when they married she was nineteen, he thirty-two. He sketched in Devonshire and Wales at around this time. His peaceful vision of rural England had been disillusioned by the violent rural discontent of the early 1830s, his small financial legacy was running out, and so he decided that he needed to produce work which was more in line with public taste if he was to earn an income for himself and his wife. In this he was also following the advice of his father-in-law. Linnell, who had earlier shown a remarkable understanding of the uniqueness of Blake's genius, was not as generous with his son-in-law, towards whom his attitude was authoritarian and often harsh. Palmer began to turn more to watercolour, then gaining great popularity in England. To further a commercial career, in 1837 the couple embarked on a two-year honeymoon to Italy, made possible by money from Hannah's parents. In Italy Palmer's palette became brighter, sometimes to the point of garishness, but he made many fine sketches and studies that would later be useful in producing new paintings. Yet, on his return to London, Palmer sought patrons with only limited success. For more than two decades was obliged to work as a private drawing master, until he moved away from London in 1862. To add to his financial worries, he had returned to London to find that his dissolute brother William had pawned all of his early paintings, and Samuel was obliged to pay a large sum to redeem them. By all accounts Samuel was an excellent teacher, but the work with uninspired students inevitably reduced the time he could devote to his own art.

The later work

A Dream in the Apennine (c.1864).

From the early 1860s he gained some measure of critical success for his later landscapes, which once again had a touch of the early Shoreham work about them – most notable of these is the etching of The Lonely Tower (1879). He had become a full member of the Water Colour Society in 1854, and its annual show gave him a yearly goal to work towards.

His best late works include a series of large watercolours illustrating Milton's poems L’allegro and Il Penseroso and his etchings, a medium in which he worked from 1850 onwards, including a set illustrating Virgil.

Palmer's later years were darkened by the death in 1861, at the age of 19, of his beloved elder son Thomas More Palmer – a devastating blow from which the father never fully recovered. He lived in various places later in his life, including a small cottage and then an unaffordable villa both at Kensington, then a cottage at Reigate. But it was only when a small measure of financial security came his way at last, that was he able to move to Furze Hill House in Redhill, Surrey, from 1862. Nevertheless he could not even afford to have a daily newspaper delivered to Redhill, suggesting that his financial circumstances there were still tight.

Samuel Palmer died in Redhill, Surrey, and is buried, with his wife, in Reigate churchyard.

Legacy

Samuel Palmer was largely forgotten after his death. In 1909, large amounts of his Shoreham work were destroyed by his surviving son Alfred Herbert Palmer, who burnt "a great quantity of father's handiwork ... Knowing that no one would be able to make head or tail of what I burnt; I wished to save it from a more humiliating fate". The destruction "included sketchbooks, notebooks, and original works, and lasted for days". It wasn't until 1926 that Palmer's rediscovery began through a show curated by Martin Hardie at the Victoria & Albert Museum, Drawings, Etchings and Woodcuts made by Samuel Palmer and other Disciples of William Blake. But it took until the early 1950s for his reputation to really start to recover, stimulated by Geoffrey Grigson's 280-page book Samuel Palmer (1947) and later by an exhibition of the Shoreham work in 1957 and by Grigson's 1960 selection of Palmer's writing. His reputation now rests mainly on his Shoreham work, but some of his later work has recently received more appreciation.

The Shoreham work has had a powerful influence on many English artists since being rediscovered. Palmer was a notable influence on F.L. Griggs, Robin Tanner, Graham Sutherland, Paul Drury, Eric Ravilious, the glass engraving of Laurence Whistler, and Clifford Harper. He also inspired a resurgence in twentieth-century landscape printmaking, which began amongst students at Goldsmiths' College in the 1920s. (See: Jolyon Drury, 2006)

In 2005 the British Museum collaborated with the Metropolitan Museum of Art to stage the first truly major retrospective of his work, timed to coincide with the bicentenary of Palmer's birth. The show ran from October 2005 – January 2006, and at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, March - May 2006.

Palmer's style was frequently crudely mimicked by the art forger Tom Keating.

References

  1. ^ Samuel Palmer on the British Museum Website
  2. ^ Minchin, J. G. C., Our public schools, their influence on English history; Charter house, Eton, Harrow, Merchant Taylors', Rugby, St. Paul's Westminster, Winchester (London, 1901), p. 195.
  • Lister,Raymond (1974). Samuel Palmer,A Biography Faber and Faber,London ISBN 0 571 09732 4
  • Lister,Raymond ed The Letters of Samuel Palmer OUP,Oxford 1974 ISBN 978-0198173090
  • Palmer,A.H (1892) The life and Letters of Samuel Palmer Painter and Etcher London 1892 (facsimile reprint 1972).
  • Lister, Raymond (1988). ''Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of Samuel Palmer. Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  • Lister, Raymond (1986). The Paintings of Samuel Palmer. Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Herring, Sarah (1988). "Samuel Palmer's Shoreham drawings in Indian ink: a matter of light and shade". Apollo vol. 148, no. 441 (November 1998), pp. 37–42.
  • Drury, Jolyon (2006) Revelation to Revolution: The Legacy of Samuel Palmer - The Revival and Evolution of Pastoral Printmaking by Paul Drury and the Goldsmiths School in the 20th Century.

Writings

  • An address to the Electors of West Kent, Pamphlet 1832
  • The 1861 Lives Balance Sheet Epitaph on death of his son Thomas More Palmer
  • On going to Shoreham,Kent to design from Ruth .A prayer 1826
  • With pipe and rural chaunt along A poem, Samuel Palmer's Sketchbook 1824,British Museum Facsimile Published by William Blake Trust 1862

External links

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Samuel Palmer (1805-01-271881-05-24) was an English landscape painter, etcher, printmaker and writer. He was a key figure in English Romanticism and produced visionary pastoral paintings.

Sourced

  • It seems to me the charm of etching is the glimmering through of the white paper even in the shadows so that almost everything sparkles or suggest sparkles.
    • Letter to Thomas Oldham Barlow (1876), from The Letters of Samuel Palmer, ed. Raymond Lister (Oxford, 1974)
  • Rural poetry is the pleasure ground of those who live in cities.
    • Introduction to Palmer's translation of Virgil's Eclogues
  • When less than four years old I was standing with my nurse, Mary Ward, watching the shadows on the wall from branches of an elm behind which the moon had risen. I have never forgot those shadows and am often trying to paint them.
    • The Life and Letters of Samuel Palmer, Painter and Etcher (AH Palmer, London, 1892)
  • I hope to begin a new plan... not sitting down to local matter but walking and watching.
    • The Life and letters of Samuel Palmer, Painter and Etcher (AH Palmer, London, 1892)

External links

Wikipedia
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SAMUEL PALMER (1805-1881), English landscape painter and etcher, was born in London on the 27th of January 1805. He was delicate as a child, but in 1819 he exhibited both at the Royal Academy and the British Institution; and shortly afterwards he became intimate with John Linnell, who introduced him to Varley, Mulready, and, above all, to William Blake, whose strange and mystic genius had the most powerful effect on Palmer's art. An illness led to a residence of seven years at Shoreham in Kent, and the characteristics of the scenery of the district are constantly recurrent in his works. Among the more important productions of this time are the "Bright Cloud" and the "Skylark," paintings in oil, which was Palmer's usual medium in earlier life. In 1839 he married a daughter of Linnell. The wedding tour was to Italy, where he spent over two years in study. Returning to London, he was in 1843 elected an associate and in 1854 a full member of the Society of Painters in Water Colours, a method to which he afterwards adhered in his painted work. His productions are distinguished by an excellent command over the forms of landscape, and by mastery of rich, glowing and potent colouring. Among the best and most important paintings executed by Palmer during his later years was a noble series of illustrations to Milton's L' Allegro and Il Penseroso. In 1853 the artist was elected a member of the English Etching Club. Considering his reputation and success in this department of art, his plates are few in number. Their virtues are not those of a rapid and vivid sketch; they aim rather at truth and completeness of tonality, and embody many of the characteristics of other modes of engraving - of mezzotint, of line, and of woodcut. Readily accessible and sufficiently representative plates maybe studied in the "Early Ploughman," in Etching and Etchers (1st ed.), and the "Herdsman's Cottage," in the third edition of the same work. In 1861 Palmer removed to Reigate, where he died on the 24th of May 1881. One of his latest efforts was the production of a series of etchings to illustrate his English metrical version of Virgil's Eclogues, which was published in 1883, illustrated with reproductions of the artist's water-colours and with etchings, of which most were completed by his son, A. H. Palmer.


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