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Most Serene Republic of San Marino
Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino
Flag of San Marino Coat of arms of San Marino
Flag Coat of arms
MottoLibertas  (Latin)
"Liberty"
Anthem"Inno Nazionale della Repubblica"
Location of San Marino in Europe
Location of  San Marino  (green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital City of San Marino
43°56′N 12°26′E / 43.933°N 12.433°E / 43.933; 12.433
Largest city Dogana
Official language(s) Italian
Ethnic groups  Sammarinese, Italian
Demonym Sammarinese
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  Captains Regent Stefano Palmieri
Francesco Mussoni
Independence from the Roman Empire 
 -  Date 3 September 301 (traditional) 
 -  Constitution 8 October 1600 
EU accession 2 March 1992
Area
 -  Total 61.2 km2 [1](228th)
24 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0
Population
 -  July 2009 estimate 30,167 (212th)
 -  Density 501/km2 
1,297.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total US$1.662 billion (188th)
 -  Per capita US$41,900 (17th)
GDP (nominal) 2004 estimate
 -  Total US$1.084 billion (not ranked)
 -  Per capita US$35,900[2] (25th)
Currency Euro (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .sm
Calling code +378
Patron saint St. Agatha
[1][3]

The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (pronounced /ˌsæn məˈriːnoʊ/ ( listen) san mə-REE-noh; Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino) is a country situated in the Apennine Mountains. It is a landlocked enclave, completely surrounded by Italy. Its size is just over 61 km2 (24 sq mi) with an estimated population of almost 30,000. Its capital is the City of San Marino. One of the European microstates along with Liechtenstein, the Vatican, Monaco, Andorra, and Malta, San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe.

San Marino is the oldest recorded sovereign state and constitutional republic in the world, having been founded on 3 September 301 by stonecutter Marinus of Rab. Legend has it that Marinus left Rab, then a Roman colony, in 257 when the future emperor, Diocletian, issued a decree calling for the reconstruction of the city walls of Rimini, which had been destroyed by Liburnian pirates.[4]

The constitution of San Marino, enacted in 1600, is the world's oldest constitution still in effect.[5] The city's economy mainly relies on tourism, and San Marino's culture remains Italian, mainly Emilia-Romagnan in essence. The nation's small population also ensures that it is one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP (per capita), with a figure comparable to that of some of the more developed Italian regions, such as Lombardy and the Province of Bolzano-Bozen. San Marino is considered to be in a highly stable economic status, with the lowest unemployment rate in Europe, the world's highest male life expectancy (81 years), no national debt and a budget surplus.[1]

Contents

History

Illustration of Saint Marinus, the founder of the Republic of San Marino, and prominent cultural figure

According to tradition, Saint Marinus left the island of Rab in Croatia with his lifelong friend, Leo, and went to the city of Rimini as a mason. After the Diocletianic Persecution following his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titano, where he built a small church and thus founded what is now the city and the state of San Marino. The official date of foundation of the Republic is 3 September 301.

By the mid-fifth century, a community was formed; because of its relatively inaccessible location and its poverty, it has succeeded, with a few brief interruptions, in maintaining its independence. In 1631 its independence was recognized by the Papacy.

The advance of Napoleon's army in 1797 presented a brief threat to the independence of San Marino, but the country was spared its liberty thanks to one of its Regents, Antonio Onofri, who managed to gain the respect and friendship of Napoleon. Thanks to his intervention, Napoleon, with a letter delivered to Gasparre Monge, scientist and commissary of the French Government for Science and Art, promised to guarantee and protect the independence of the Republic, offering to extend its territory according to its needs. The offer was declined by San Marino, fearing to provoke future revanchism that might threaten its freedom.[6]

During the later phase of the Italian unification process in the nineteenth century, San Marino served as a refuge for numerous persons who were persecuted because of their opposition to the unification. In memory of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the wish of San Marino not to be incorporated into the new Italian state.

The government of San Marino made United States President Abraham Lincoln an honorary citizen. He wrote in reply, saying that the republic proved that "government founded on republican principles is capable of being so administered as to be secure and enduring."[7]

The front passes Mount Titano in September 1944
The San Marino constitution of 1600

In World War I, as Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915, San Marino remained neutral and Italy adopted a hostile view of Sammarinese neutrality, suspecting that San Marino could harbor Austrian spies who could be given access to its new radiotelegraph station. Italy tried to forcibly establish a detachment of Carabinieri on its territory and then suspended any telephone connections with the Republic when it did not comply. Two groups of ten volunteers each, however, joined Italian forces in the fighting on the Italian front, the first as combatants and the second as a Medical Corps operating a Red Cross field hospital. It was the presence of this hospital that later caused Austrian authorities to suspend diplomatic relations with San Marino.[8]

From 1923 to 1943, San Marino was under the rule of the Sammarinese Fascist Party (PFS).

During World War II San Marino remained neutral. Despite that, on 26 June 1944 it was bombed by the RAF, which mistakenly believed that the country had been overrun by German forces and was being used to amass stores and ammunition. At least thirty five people were killed during the operation. San Marino was refuge for thousands of civilians who sought safety on the passing of Allied forces over the Gothic Line.[9] It was briefly occupied by German forces in September 1944, who were attacked by Allied forces in the Battle of San Marino. Allied troops withdrew from the country shortly afterward.

The head of state is a committee (council) of two captains-regent. San Marino also had the world's first democratically elected communist government, which held office between 1945 and 1957 and again between 2006 and 2008.

San Marino is the world's smallest republic, although when Nauru gained independence in 1968 it challenged that claim, Nauru's land mass only being 21 km2 (8.1 sq mi). However Nauru's jurisdiction over its surrounding waters is much greater than the territory of San Marino.[citation needed]

San Marino became a member of the Council of Europe in 1988 and of the United Nations in 1992. It is not a member of the European Union.

Geography

San Marino is an enclave in Italy, on the border between the regioni of Emilia Romagna and Marche. Its topography is dominated by the Apennines mountain range, and it has a rugged terrain. The highest point in the country, the summit of Monte Titano, is situated at 749 m (2,457 ft) above sea level. There are no bodies of water of any significant size. San Marino is the third smallest country in Europe, with only Vatican City and Monaco being smaller. San Marino has no level natural land; 100% of the nation-state is built on top of the range.

Climate

The climate is Mediterranean with continental influences, having warm summers and cool winters. The National Centre of Meteorology and Climatology of San Marino provides local forecasts.[10]

Municipalities

San Marino is divided into the following nine municipalities, known locally as castelli (meaning "castles").

  • San Marino (City of San Marino, officially Città di San Marino) is the capital.

There are also eight minor municipalities:

The largest town of the Republic is Dogana, which is not an autonomous castello, but rather belongs to the Castello of Serravalle.

Similarly to an Italian comune, each castello includes a main town, called capoluogo, that is the seat of the castello, and some even smaller localities known as frazioni.

Hamlets

The republic is made up of 44 hamlets named curazie:
Cà Berlone, Cà Bertone, Cà Chiavello, Cà Giannino, Cà Melone, Cà Ragni, Cà Rigo, Cailungo, Caladino, Calligaria, Canepa, Capanne, Casole, Castellaro, Cerbaiola, Cinque Vie, Corianino, Crociale, Dogana, Falciano, Fiorina, Galavotto, Galazzano, Gualdicciolo, Laghi, La Serra, Lesignano, Molarini, Montalbo, Monte Pulito, Murata, Pianacci, Piandavello, Poggio Casalino, Poggio Chiesanuova, Ponte Mellini, Rovereta, San Giovanni sotto le Penne, Santa Mustiola, Teglio, Torraccia, Valdragone, Valgiurata and Ventoso.

Politics

Former Captains Regent Mirko Tomassoni, Alessandro Rossi, Alessandro Mancini, and Alberto Selva. (from left to right)

The politics of San Marino takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Captains Regent are the heads of state, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand and General Council. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

San Marino originally was led by the Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family. In the thirteenth century, power was given to the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council. This method of nomination is still in use today, as of 2008.

The legislature of the republic is the Grand and General Council (Consiglio grande e generale). The Council is a unicameral legislature which has sixty members, with elections occurring every five years under a proportional representation system in all nine administrative districts. These districts (townships) correspond to the old parishes of the republic.

Citizens eighteen years or older are eligible to vote. Beside general legislation, the Grand and General Council approves the budget and elects the Captains Regent, the State Congress (composed of ten Secretaries with executive power), the Council of Twelve (which forms the judicial branch during the period of legislature of the Council), the Advising Commissions, and the Government Unions. The Council also has the power to ratify treaties with other countries. The Council is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of fifteen councilors who examine, propose, and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on their way to being presented on the floor of the Council.

Every six months, the Council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so there is a balance of power. They serve a six-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have three days in which to file complaints about the Captains' activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the ex-head(s) of state can be initiated.

The practice of multiple heads of state, as well as the frequent re-election of the heads of state, are derived directly from the customs of the Roman Republic. The Council is equivalent to the Roman Senate; the Captains Regent, to the consuls of ancient Rome.

San Marino is a multi-party democratic republic. The two main parties are the San Marinese Christian Democratic Party (PDCS) and the Party of Socialists and Democrats (PSD, a merger of the Socialist Party of San Marino and the former communist Party of Democrats) in addition to several other smaller parties, such as the San Marinese Communist Refoundation. Due to the small size of San Marino and its low population, it is difficult for any party to gain a pure majority and most of the time the government is run by a coalition. In the June 2006 election the PSD won twenty seats on the Council and currently governs in coalition with the (liberal) Popular Alliance of Sammarinese Democrats for the Republic and United Left.

On 1 October 2007 Mirko Tomassoni was elected as one of the heads of state, making him the first disabled person to ever have been elected as captain regent.[11]

Economy

San Marino Euro 50 cent (2008)

Although San Marino is not a European Union member, it is allowed to use the euro as its currency by arrangement with the Council of the European Union; it is also granted the right to use its own designs on the national side of the euro coins. Before the euro, the Sammarinese lira was pegged to, and exchangeable with, the Italian lira. The small number of Sammarinese euro coins, as was the case with the lira before it, are primarily of interest to coin collectors.

Other key industries are banking, electronics, and ceramics. The main agricultural products are wine and cheese.

San Marino's postage stamps, which are only valid for mail within the country, are mostly sold to philatelists and are a source of income. San Marino is a member of the Small European Postal Administration Cooperation.

The per capita level of US$55,449 and standard of living are comparable to those of Switzerland. San Marino imports goods such as food from Italy.

Taxation

Borgo Maggiore, one of San Marino's tourist attractions.

The corporate profits tax rate in San Marino is 19 percent. Capital gains are subject to a five percent tax; interest is subject to a 13 percent withholding tax.

In 1972, a value added taxation (VAT) system was introduced in Italy, and was applied in San Marino, in accordance with the 1939 friendship treaty. In addition, a tax on imported goods, to be levied by San Marino, was established. Such taxes, however, were not, and are not, applied to national products. Until 1996, goods manufactured and sold in San Marino were not subject to indirect taxation.

Under the European Union customs agreement, San Marino continues to levy taxes, the equivalent of an import duty, on imported goods. Also, a general VAT was introduced, in replacement of the Italian VAT.

Tourism

The tourist sector contributes over 2.2% of San Marino's GDP, with approximately 2 million tourists visiting in 2009.[12][13]

Demographics

Basilica of Saint Marino (left) and church of Saint Peter (right) in San Marino City

The state has a population of approximately 30,000, including 1,000 foreigners, most of whom are Italians. About 5,000 Sammarinese live in foreign countries, predominantly in Italy.

The language spoken is Italian; the Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect is widely spoken, too.

According to the CIA World Factbook men in San Marino have an average life span of 81 years, women of 85.72 years, while the average combined average life span for the two sexes is 164, or 82 each, making it fifth in the world for longevity.[1]

Religion

The Roman Catholic denomination of Christianity is the most present in San Marino. Over 95% of the population practices or adheres to the Roman Catholic Christian faith. However, there are also some other faiths and religious minorities present in San Marino, such as the Jews, which have been in the country for 600–700 years, since about the late-1300s.

Military

The Guard of the Rock in dress uniform during the investiture of the new Captains Regent in the Piazza della Libertà

San Marino has one of the smallest military forces in the world. National defence is, by arrangement, the responsibility of Italy's armed forces. Different branches have varied functions including: performing ceremonial duties; patrolling borders; mounting guard at government buildings; and assisting police in major criminal cases.

Crossbow Corps

Although once at the heart of San Marino's army, the Crossbow Corps is now a ceremonial force of approximately eighty volunteers. Since 1295, the Crossbow Corps has provided demonstrations of crossbow shooting at festivals. Its uniform is medieval in design, and although a statutory military unit, it has no military function today.

Guard of the Rock

Three members of the Guard of the Rock

The Guard of the Rock is a front-line military unit in the San Marino armed forces, a state border patrol, with responsibility for patrolling borders and defending them. In their role as Fortress Guards they are responsible for guarding the Palazzo Pubblico in San Marino City, the seat of national Government. In this role they are the forces most visible to tourists, and are known for their colourful ceremony of Changing the Guard. Under the 1987 statute the Guard of the Rock are all enrolled as 'Criminal Police Officers' (in addition to their military role) and assist the police in investigating major crime. The uniform of the Guard of the Rock is a distinctive red and green.

Guard of the Council Great and General

Guard of the Council member

The Guard of the Council Great and General commonly known as The Guard of the Council or locally as the 'Guard of Nobles', formed in 1740, is a volunteer unit with ceremonial duties. Due to its striking blue, white, and gold uniform, it is perhaps the best-known part of the Sammarinese military, and appears on countless postcard views of the republic. The functions of the Guard of the Council are to protect the Captains Regent, and to defend the Great and General Council during its formal sessions. They also provide a ceremonial bodyguard to government officials on festivals of both state and church.

The Army Militia

In former times, all families with two or more adult male members were required to enroll half of them in the Army Militia. This unit remains the basic fighting force of the armed forces of San Marino, but is largely ceremonial. It is a matter of civic pride for many San-Marinese to belong to the force, and all citizens with at least six years residence in the republic are entitled to enroll.

The uniform is dark blue, with a kepi bearing a blue and white plume. The ceremonial form of the uniform includes a white cross-strap, and white and blue sash, white epaulets, and white decorated cuffs.

The Military Ensemble

Formally this is part of the Army Militia, and is the ceremonial military band of San Marino. It consists of approximately fifty musicians. The uniform is similar to that of the Army Militia. Military Ensemble music accompanies most state occasions in the republic.

The Gendarmerie

Established in 1842, the Gendarmerie of San Marino is a militarised law enforcement agency. Its members are full-time and have responsibility for the protection of citizens and property, and the preservation of law and order.

The entire military corps of San Marino depends upon the co-operation of full-time forces and their retained (volunteer) colleagues, known as the Corpi Militari Volontari, or Voluntary Military Force.

Transport

There are 220 km of roads in the country, the main road being the San Marino Superhighway. Sammarinese authorities license private vehicles with distinctive licence plates which are white with blue figures and the coat of arms, usually a letter followed by up to four numbers. Many vehicles also carry the international vehicle identification code (in black on a white oval sticker), which is "RSM".

There are no airports in San Marino, but there is an international heliport located in Borgo Maggiore. Most tourists who arrive by air land at Federico Fellini International Airport close to the city of Rimini, then make the transfer by bus.

Two rivers flow through San Marino, but there is no major water transport, and no major port or harbour.

Public transport

San Marino has limited public transport facilities. There is a regular bus service between Rimini and the city of San Marino, popular with both tourists and tourist industry workers commuting to San Marino from Italy. This service stops at approximately twenty locations in Rimini and within San Marino, with its two terminus stops at Rimini railway station and San Marino coach station, respectively.

A limited licensed taxi service operates nationwide. There are seven licensed taxi operating companies in the republic,[14] and Italian taxis regularly operate within San Marino when carrying passengers picked up in Italian territory.

Aerial tramway to Monte Titano

There is a 1.5 km (0.93 mi) aerial tramway connecting the city of San Marino on top of Monte Titano with Borgo Maggiore, a major town in the republic, with the second largest population of any Sammarinese settlement. For the visitor the aerial tramway gives the best views of Borgo Maggiore, as the cars sweep low over the rooftops of the main town square. From here a further connection is available to the nation's largest settlement, Dogana, via the local bus service.

Two aerial tramway cars (gondolas) operate in opposition on a cable, and a service is provided at roughly fifteen minute intervals throughout the day. A third vehicle is available on the system, being a service car for the use of engineers maintaining the tramway.

Railway

Today there is no railway in San Marino, but for a short period prior to World War II, it had a single narrow-gauge line, connecting the country with the Italian rail network at Rimini. Due to the difficulties in accessing the capital, San Marino City (which has a mountain-top location), the terminus station was to be located at the village of Valdragone, but was extended to reach the capital through a steep and winding track comprising many tunnels. The railway was opened on 12 June 1932.[15] An advanced system for its time, it was an electric railway, powered from overhead cables. It was well built and well used, but was almost completely destroyed during WW II. Many facilities such as bridges, tunnels, and stations remain visible today, and some have been converted to parks, public footpaths, or traffic routes.

Culture

Photo of Guaita
A painting in the Museo di Stato di San Marino by Pompeo Batoni

The Three Towers of San Marino are located on the three peaks of Monte Titano in the capital. They are depicted on both the Flag of San Marino and its coat of arms. The three towers are: Guaita, the oldest of the three (it was constructed in the eleventh century); the thirteenth-century Cesta, located on the highest of Monte Titano's summits; and the fourteenth-century Montale, on the smallest of Monte Titano's summits, still privately owned.

San Marino has a famous cake known as La Torta Di Tre Monti ("Cake of the Three Mountains" or "Cake of the Three Towers"), similar to a layered wafer cake covered in chocolate.

Love Orchestra, a Gian Luca "Luke" Mazza new age music project, comes from the Republic of San Marino. During concerts overseas, the San Marino flag is shown on the stage.

University

The Università degli Studi della Repubblica di San Marino (University of the Republic of San Marino)[16] is the main university, which includes the Scuola Superiore di Studi Storici in San Marino (Advanced School of Historical Studies), a distinguished research and advanced international study center governed by an international Scientific Committee coordinated by professor Luciano Canfora. Other important institutes are the Istituto Musicale Sammarinese (Sammarinese Musical Institute)[17] and the Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino or Accademia Internazionale delle Scienze San Marino (International Academy of Sciences San Marino).[18] The latter is known for adopting the Esperanto language as language for teaching and for scientific publications; further, it makes a wide use of e-learning.

Sport

San Marino, along with Italy, enjoy sports and football (soccer) is its most popular sport. Basketball and volleyball are also popular. The three sports have their own federations, the San Marino Football Federation, the San Marino Basketball Federation and the San Marino Volleyball Federation.

The San Marino Championship, founded under the auspices of the FSGC (San Marino Football Federation), is the premier footballing competition in San Marino. The fifteen teams that take part in the competition are split into two groups of eight and seven teams. The top three from each section at the end of the regular season progress into a semi-knockout style Championship Playoff. Prior to 2007, the playoff champion earned a spot in the preliminary rounds of the UEFA Cup. In 2007, UEFA granted San Marino a spot in the 1st Qualifying Round of the Champions League. The domestic cup winner also gets a spot in the UEFA Cup qualifying stages. 2007 league champions S.S. Murata was the first team to represent San Marino in the Champions League when they participated in the 2007–08 competition, losing to Finnish team Tampere United. San Marino also has a representative in the Italian system, with San Marino Calcio playing in the fourth tier of Italian football, Serie C2/B. San Marino play their home matches in the Sanmarinese at the Stadio Olimpico of Serravalle.

The San Marino national football team played its first unofficial international match in 1986, in which it suffered a 0–1 defeat to the Canadian Olympic team. Its first competitive outing was on 14 November 1990, a 0–4 loss against Switzerland in the European Championship qualifier. These defeats set the tone for most of the following outings of the team, who are regarded as easy victories in the qualifying sections of the European Championship and the World Cup.

2005 San Marino Grand Prix held in Imola, Italy

They had a brief moment of glory when they faced England in a World Cup qualifier on 17 November 1993 and took the lead through Davide Gualtieri after just 8.3 seconds—still the fastest goal in World Cup competition.[19] Despite this goal, only San Marino's third at international level, the microstate went on to lose 7–1.

Until recently, San Marino's international record was one of almost total failure, with famous draws against Turkey and Latvia being the only partial successes in an international career that contains over seventy defeats. However, on the 29 April 2004, San Marino recorded their first ever win, with a 1–0 victory over Liechtenstein in an international friendly. Andy Selva scored the only goal in a close game that finally gave this tiny republic a footballing victory.

On 6 September 2006, San Marino suffered their biggest ever defeat, losing 13–0 to world giants Germany in the Stadio Olimpico. It was also the largest goal margin defeat in European Championship Qualifying history. In the same competition on 7 February 2007, they came within eight seconds of the best result in their history. They were level at 1–1 with the Republic of Ireland after ninety-four minutes when Stephen Ireland scored within eight seconds of the final whistle. The goal scored by San Marino was their European Qualifying first goal since losing 4–1 to Austria in 1998.

As of February 2009, San Marino is 201st in the FIFA world rankings—jointly last with seven other teams.[20]

One of the Formula One races, the San Marino Grand Prix, is named after the state, although it does not take place there. It takes place at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari in the Italian town of Imola, about 100 km northwest of San Marino, along the Via Emilia. The race was etched in infamy after two fatal accidents occurred at the 1994 Grand Prix, when Ayrton Senna and Roland Ratzenberger were killed. The race was removed from the calendar in 2007.

The San Marino and Rimini's Coast motorcycle Grand Prix was reinstated in the schedule in 2007 and takes place at the Misano World Circuit.

Manuel Poggiali is one of San Marino's most successful sportsmen. He won two motorcycle World Championships, in 2001 with 125 cc bikes and in 2003 with 250 cc bikes. Another successful San Marino motorcycle rider is Alex De Angelis, a race winner in the 250 cc class, who is currently racing in the premiere MotoGP class.

San Marino has a rather successful professional baseball team, T & A San Marino, which play in the top division of Italian professional baseball, the Serie A1. It has participated in the European Cup tournament for the top European professional baseball teams several times, hosting the event in 1996, 2000, and 2004, and scheduled to host in 2007. It won the championship in 2006 and 2008.[21]

The long climb up to the top of San Marino has become a mecca for thousands of recreational road cyclists who train in nearby Misano every spring and autumn.

San Marino has had little success at the Olympic Games, winning no medals. At the 2004 and 2008 games, three clay target shooters achieved the highest positions. In this sport, San Marino also hosted a competition in the 2009 ISSF World Cup.

Cuisine

A piadina, a dish which is both unique to San Marino and its surrounding Italian region, Emilia Romagna.

The cuisine of San Marino is strongly similar to Italian, especially that of the adjoining Emilia-Romagna and Marche regions, but it has a number of its own unique dishes and products. Its best known is probably the Torta Tre Monti ("Cake of the Three Mountains" or "Cake of the Three Towers"), a chocolate layer cake depicting The Three Towers of San Marino. The country also has a small wine industry.

LGBT

The total ban on homosexuality was abolished in San Marino in 1864. In 1974 Parliament passed a new penal code containing Article 274, punishing with imprisonment from three months to one year those "regularly committing lustful acts with a person of the same sex, if from that act public scandal is derived". Article 274 was subsequently repealed in September 2004.

The age of consent is set at fourteen for both heterosexuals and homosexuals. There is no formal recognition of same-sex couples.

UNESCO

The site “San Marino: Historic Centre and Mount Titano” has become part of the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008. The decision was taken during the 32nd Session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee composed of 21 Countries convened in Quebec.

Music

The country has a long and rich musical traditional, closely linked to that of Italy, but which is also highly independent in itself. In the 17th century, composers like the Sammarinese Francesco Maria Marini di Pesaro wrote some of the finest pieces of the era.

San Marino entered the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time, in 2008, with the band, Miodio, singing Complice. The group failed to make it to the final from the first semi-final. San Marino gave its first ever highest (12) points to Greece. They were also one of only two countries—along with Ireland—to vote for the United Kingdom. The BBC subsequently published a magazine article on its website about San Marino, entitled "Britain's New Best Friend?".[22]

Public holidays and festivals

Data Name Explanation
1 January New Year's Day Festival marking the beginning of a new year
6 January Epiphany The three Wise Men or magi visit Jesus
5 February Feast of Saint Agatha Liberation from foreign rule and the feast celebrates the Republic
variable * Easter Resurrection of Jesus
variabile ** Easter Monday The monnday after Easter day
25 March Anniversary of the Arengo Anniversary of the Arengo and the Festa delle Milizie (Feast of the Militants)
1 May Labour Day A feast celebrating the workers and employees
variable *** Corpus Domini The Body and Blood of Jesus Christ
28 July Liberation from Fascism The Fall of the Sammarinese Fascist Party
15 August Ferragosto Assumption of Mary the mother of Jesus
3 September The Feast of San Marino and the Republic The national Feast of San Marino, celebrating the Republic dating back to 301
1 November All Saints' Day A feast dedicated to all the (Roman Catholic) saints
2 November Commemoration of all those who died at war A remebrance day of all those who gave their lives for San Marino in war
8 December Immaculate Conception The rembrance of how the Christians believe that Mary was relieved from sin
24 December Christmas Eve Eve of Jesus' birth
25 December Christmas Birth of Jesus
26 December Boxing Day The commemoration of Saint Stephen's death, the first Christian martyr
31 December New Year's Eve The celebration which closes and marks the end of the year
* Easter: the first Sunday after the full moon and the Spring-time equinox

** Easter Monday: the Monday after Easter day
*** Corpus Domini: the first Thursday after Trinity Sunday

See also

Related: Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari, the circuit that hosts the San Marino Grand Prix

References

  1. ^ a b c d San Marino entry at The World Factbook
  2. ^ The 2007 GDP nominal according to the CIA World Factbook was divided by the number of people to give this figure
  3. ^ "San Marino". UNECE Statistics Programme. UNECE. 2009. http://www.unece.org/stats/profiles2009/san_marino.pdf. Retrieved 13 March 2010. 
  4. ^ "San Marino Historical Origins and Legends". Sanmarinosite.com. http://www.sanmarinosite.com/eng/leggenda.html. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  5. ^ Law Library of United States Congress. "Guide to Law Online: San Marino". http://www.loc.gov/law/help/guide/nations/sanmarino.html. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  6. ^ "From 1500 to beginning 1800, Napoleon in San Marino". Sanmarinosite.com. http://www.sanmarinosite.com/eng/napoleone.html. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  7. ^ Irving Wallace, The Book of Lists 3
  8. ^ "San Marino e la Prima Guerra Mondiale". Educazione.sm. http://www.educazione.sm/scuola/servizi/CD_virtuali/lavori_scuole/sanmarino/prima_guerra_mondiale.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  9. ^ "Guerre Mondiali e Fascismo nella storia di San Marino". Sanmarinosite.com. http://www.sanmarinosite.com/storia/guerremo.html. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  10. ^ Meteo San Marino - The National Center of Meteorology And Climatology of San Marino
  11. ^ "San Marino, primo capo di Stato disabile "Via tutte le barriere architettoniche" - esteri". Repubblica.it. 2007-10-01. http://www.repubblica.it/2007/10/sezioni/esteri/disabile-san-marino/disabile-san-marino/disabile-san-marino.html. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  12. ^ "Background Note: San Marino". U.S. State Department. February 2010. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5387.htm. Retrieved 13 March 2010. 
  13. ^ "Turismo: San Marino fa i conti con la recessione economica, l'Italia guarda con fiducia al 2010" (in Italian). San Marino RTV. 11 January 2010. http://www.sanmarinortv.sm/economia/default.asp?id=33&id_n=39203. Retrieved 13 March 2010. 
  14. ^ Licensed taxi companies are listed on the Government tourism website.
  15. ^ Internacia Fervojisto (International Railways), 2005.6, p. 85. In Esperanto
  16. ^ "Università degli Studi di San Marino". Unirsm.sm. http://www.unirsm.sm/. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  17. ^ "Istituto Musicale Sammarinese". Ims.sm. http://www.ims.sm/. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  18. ^ "Accademia Internazionale delle Scienze". Ais-sanmarino.org. http://www.ais-sanmarino.org/. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  19. ^ "h2g2 - The Fastest Goal in the History of the World Cup". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3952361. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  20. ^ "The FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking". FIFA.com. 2009-08-20. http://www.fifa.com/worldfootball/ranking/lastranking/gender=m/fullranking.html#confederation=0&rank=179&page=5. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  21. ^ "2008 Mister-Baseball Final European Top 50 - fact, certain, about, 2008, European, baseball, season, club, dominated, This". Mister Baseball. 2007-11-06. http://www.mister-baseball.com/2008-misterbaseball-final-european-top-50/. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  22. ^ Jackson, Marie (2008-05-27). "UK | Magazine | Britain's new best friend?". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7421493.stm. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 

External links

Coordinates: 43°56′N 12°28′E / 43.933°N 12.467°E / 43.933; 12.467


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Italy : San Marino
For other places with the same name, see San Marino (disambiguation).
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:sm-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital San Marino
Government Republic
Currency euro (EUR)
Area 61.2 sq km
Population 27,730 (July 2002 est.)
Language Italian
Religion Roman Catholic
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European, Italian plug)
Calling Code +378 (+0549 From Italy)
Internet TLD .sm
Time Zone UTC+1

San Marino [1] (officially the Most Serene Republic of San Marino) is the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy City and Monaco), and claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in 301 A.D. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy, which surrounds it. Social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.

Map of San Marino
Map of San Marino
  • San Marino

Understand

San Marino is made up of a few towns dotted around the mountain sides. The capital of San Marino is itself called 'San Marino' and is situated high up on a mountain top. The capital is surrounded by a wall and three distinct towers overlook the rest of the country.

The towns surrounding the capital are more industrial and generally not as attractive as the main city. San Marino is 20 times bigger than Monaco and half the size of Liechtenstein.

View from San Marino
View from San Marino

Get in

By plane

San Marino has no airports. The nearest major airport is at Rimini. There are other airports at Ancona, Bologna and Forlì.

By train

San Marino has no railway stations. The nearest major railway station is at Rimini.

By car

You should have no problems driving into San Marino. Border controls do not exist.

San Marino is highly accessible but can take 3-4 hours from the West.

Mostly all free parking, try not to park right at the bottom of the hill, otherwise it's a long way to the top!

By bus

Bus 72 runs from Rimini to San Marino daily at regular intervals. A return ticket costs around € 8. This bus can be found just outside the Rimini train station.
City Gate into Walled San Marino
City Gate into Walled San Marino

By other means

There is a 1.5 km cable railway connecting the city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore.

Get around

Once you're inside the walled city, it's small enough to simply walk around. There are only a few streets on which cars are able to drive (and only if they are small cars).

Talk

The people in San Marino are very friendly. They speak a very clear Italian.

See

You can see two of the three towers (as seen on the flag of San Marino) by purchasing the "Red Card" for €4.50. The "yellow card" (€3) only allows you to see one of the towers. You cannot enter the third tower (since there does not seem to be an entrance!)

On of the three towers in San Marino
On of the three towers in San Marino

Simply walk around the city. The narrow streets are full of surprises. The walkways wind up and down the hillside in an interesting way, inviting exploration.

Do

Get your passport stamped at the tourist information centre. This is an excellent souvenir as they stick a postage stamp and then an official ink stamp over the top, €5.

  • A lot of the souvenir shops sell weapons, from swords to B-B guns.
  • Like other states which have the Euro as their currency, San Marino has its own patterns on the back of the Euro coins. You can try to obtain these coins by simply going around buying things and collecting the coins that way, but a quicker solution is to buy the set in a souvenir shop. Unfortunately, these sets seem to lack the € 1 and € 2 coins.

Prices for items such as disposable cameras and batteries are cheaper in San Marino than they are in Italy. This is partly because in San Marino you don't have to pay the 20% IVA (sales tax) that you have to pay in Italy.

Eat

Obviously Italian dishes, like lasagne, spaghetti alla bolognese, gelato (italian ice-cream), and whatever you eat in Italy.

Supermarkets in San Marino are few and far-between, although the following can help in this area:

  • Conad. Azzurro Shopping Center, V M Moretti 23, Serravalle SM 03508
  • Sma Supermercati. Via del Passetto 113, Fiorentino SM
  • The local beer is very tasty.
  • Spirits are also very commonly found, especially Limoncello, a lemon liquor.
  • Try the locally produced wine.
  • The coffee, like in its Italian neighbour, is superb.

Sleep

Although San Marino has a few hotels, the seaside resort of Rimini has a lot more and is probably a cheaper option.

  • Grand Hotel San Marino, The Grand Hotel San Marino rises on the peak of Monte Titano, close to the Rocche and the Old Town Center. With a few minutes stroll you will find yourself immersed in the rich culture and history of this city.

Stay safe

San Marino is a safe country with no real threat from terrorists or war. Like in any other place that attracts many tourists, you should watch out for pickpockets.

Stay healthy

This is a very healthy place, you shouldn´t be afraid.

Respect

San Marino is a very proud country and it should be viewed in this respect. Be respectful when having photos taken with the guards, a smile will do, hand gestures/funny faces are not received well.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SAN' 'MARINO, a republic in northern Italy, 14 m. S.W. of Rimini by road. Pop. (1901) about 1600 (town); 9500 (whole territory). It is the smallest republic in the world (32 sq. m. in area). According to tradition, the republic was founded by St Marinus during the persecutions under Diocletian, while his companion, St Leo, founded the village of that name 7 m. to the S.W., with La Rocca its old castle, now a prison, in which the impostor Cagliostro died in 1795. The history of S. Marino begins with the 9th century, the monastery of S. Marino having existed demonstrably since 885. In the 10th century a communal constitution was established. The republic as a rule avoided the faction fights of the middle ages, but joined the Ghibellines and was interdicted by the pope in 1247-1249. After this it was protected by the Montefeltro family, later dukes of Urbino, and the papacy, and successfully resisted the attempts of Sigismondo Malatesta against its liberty. In 1503 it fell into the hands of Caesar Borgia, but soon regained its freedom. Other attacks failed, but civil discords in the meantime increased. Its independence was recognized in 1631 by the papacy. In 1 739 Cardinal Alberoni attempted to deprive it of its independence, but this was restored in 1740 and was respected by Napoleon. Garibaldi entered it in 1849, on his retreat from Rome, and there disbanded his army. The town stands on the north end of a precipitous rock (2437 ft.) which bears the name of Monte Titano; each of the three summits is crowned by fortifications - that on the north by a castle, the other two by towers. The arms of the republic are three peaks, each crowned with a tower. There are traces of three different enceintes, of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. The chief square, the Pianeilo, contains the new Palazzo del Governo in the Gothic style (1894) and a statue of Liberty (1876). The principal church (Pieve), in classical style, dates from 1826-1838, and contains the body of St Marinus. The old church, then demolished, is first mentioned in 1113, but was several times restored. S. Francesco has some paintings by Niccolo Alunno of Foligno and other later artists, and a pretty loggia. The museum contains a few pictures of various schools and some Umbrian antiquities. Bartolommeo Borghesi, the epigraphist and numismatist, resided here from 1821 until his death in 1860. The Borgo at the base of the rock is a chiefly commercial village.

The supreme power of the republic resides in the general assembly (Arringo) which meets twice a year. It is governed by two Capitani Reggenti, selected twice a year from the 60 life-members of the Great Council, which is composed of 20 representatives of the nobility,' 20 of the landowners and 20 of the citizens. They are assisted by a small committee of 12 of the 1 Not a few Italians possess titles of nobility of San Marino.

Great Council. The available armed forces of the republic form a total of about 1200 men, all citizens able to bear arms being technically obliged to do so from the age of 16 to 60 years. San Marino issues its own postage-stamps, and makes thereby a considerable income. It also issues its own copper coinage, which circulates in Italy also; but Italian money is current for the higher values. Most of the republic falls within the diocese of Montefeltro, a small portion within that of Rimini.

See C. Ricci, La Repubblica di San Marino (Bergamo, 1903).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also San Mariño

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
San Marino

Plural
-

San Marino

  1. A country in Europe, located within the borders of Italy. Official name: Republic of San Marino.
  2. The capital city of San Marino.

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Croatian

Proper noun

San Marino m.

  1. San marino

Czech

Proper noun

San Marino n.

  1. San Marino

Dutch

Proper noun

San Marino m.

  1. San Marino

Estonian

Proper noun

San Marino

  1. San Marino (country)
  2. San Marino (city)

Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
San Marino

Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

San Marino

  1. San Marino (country)
  2. San Marino (city)

Declension


German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
San Marino

Wikipedia de

Proper noun

San Marino n.

  1. San Marino

Derived terms

  • San-Marinese
  • San-Marinesin
  • san-marinesisch

Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
San Marino

Wikipedia it

Proper noun

San Marino m.

  1. San Marino

Derived terms


Norwegian

Proper noun

San Marino

  1. San Marino

Related terms


Polish

Pronunciation

Proper noun

San Marino n. (undeclinable)

  1. San Marino (country)
  2. San Marino (city)

Derived terms

  • (#1) Sanmaryńczyk m., Sanmarynka f.
  • (#2) sanmaryńczyk m., sanmarynka f.
  • adjective: sanmaryński

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|Where San Marino is in the world]]

File:San Marino-CIA WFB
A map of San Marino
File:Borgo
View of a place called Borgo Maggiore

San Marino is one of the smallest countries in the world. It is found in southern Europe, fully surrounded by Italy. Fewer than 30,000 people live there. Its total area is 61km2.

San Marino is the world's oldest republic that still exists. It was started in A.D. 301 by a skilled builder called as Saint Marinus. Its written constitution was adopted on October 8, 1600. The very small nation was recognized by Napoleon's France in 1797, and by the other European nations at the 1815 Congress of Vienna.

Even though it is an independent country, it depends very much Italy. Since the 19th century, when Italy was unified, San Marino has been fully surrounded by Italy.

The biggest industry in San Marino is tourism. Selling postage stamps is an important source of income, too. San Marino is not a member of the European Union, but the euro is used in San Marino.

People in San Marino speak the Italian language. Most people in San Marino believe in Roman Catholicism.

krc:Сан-Мариноkoi:Сан Марино








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