Sanford Dole: Wikis

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Sanford Ballard Dole


In office
1894–1900
Preceded by Provisional Government of Hawaii
Succeeded by Territory of Hawaii
(Himself as Governor)

In office
June 14, 1900 – November 23, 1903
President William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt
Preceded by Was President of the Republic of Hawaii
Succeeded by George R. Carter

Born April 23, 1844 (1844-04-23)
Honolulu, Kingdom of Hawaii
Died June 9, 1926 (1926-06-10)
Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii
Political party Republican
Profession Lawyer
Signature

Sanford Ballard Dole (April 23, 1844 – June 9, 1926) was a politician and jurist of Hawaiʻi as a kingdom, protectorate, republic and territory.

Contents

Early years

Dole was born in Honolulu to a family of white Protestant Christian missionaries from Norridgewock, Maine in the United States. His cousin was the pineapple magnate James Dole who followed the elder Dole to Hawai'i in later years. Dole was part of a wealthy, elite immigrant community in the Hawaiian Islands that established a dominant presence in the local political climate. Serving as a successful attorney and friend of King David Kalākaua and Queen Liliʻuokalani, Dole pursued and advocated the westernization of Hawaiian society and culture.

Bayonet Constitution

Dole participated in a revolution in 1887 in which local businessmen, sugar planters and politicians backed by the Honolulu Rifles forced adoption of the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii written by Interior Minister Lorrin A. Thurston. It stripped voting rights from all Asians outright, and disenfranchised poor Native Hawaiians and other citizens by imposing income and wealth requirements for voting, thus effectively consolidating power with the elite Native Hawaiian, European and American subjects of the kingdom. In addition, it minimized the power of the monarch in favor of more influential governance by the Privy Council, the royal cabinet. Kalākaua later appointed Dole a justice of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi Supreme Court.

End of the monarchy

The monarchy ended in January 1893 after a coup d'état organized by many of the same actors involved in the 1887 revolt. The U.S. Minister to Hawaii John L. Stevens, returning on the U.S.S. Boston while these events were in progress, requested the landing of U.S. Marines and bluejackets in Honolulu the day before the Provisional Government was declared, "for the purpose of protecting our legation, consulate, and the lives and property of American citizens, and to assist in preserving public order." Historian Russ Kuykdendall states, "the troops did not cooperate with the committee, and the committee had no more knowledge than did the Queen's Government where the troops were going nor what they were going to do."[1] The Provisional Government that was formed after the coup was led by President Dole, and was recognized within 48 hours by all nations with diplomatic ties to the Kingdom of Hawaii as the legitimate government of the islands, with the exception of the United Kingdom. With Grover Cleveland's election as President of the United States, the Provisional Government's hopes of annexation were derailed for a time. Indeed, Cleveland tried to directly help reinstate the monarchy, after an investigation led by James Henderson Blount. The Blount Report of July 17, 1893, commissioned by President Cleveland, concluded that the Committee of Safety conspired with U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens to land the United States Marine Corps, to forcibly remove Queen Liliʻuokalani from power, and declare a Provisional Government of Hawaiʻi consisting of members from the Committee of Safety.

On November 16, 1893, Albert Willis presented the Queen with Cleveland's request that she grant amnesty to the Revolutionists in return for reinstatement. The Queen refused, and, according to Willis, demanded capital punishment for those involved. On December 23, unaware that Cleveland had referred the matter to Congress, Willis presented the Provisional Government with Cleveland's demand to restore the queen to the throne – the Provisional Government refused.

Queen Liliuokalani wrote in her book Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen, that she did not demand capital punishment.[2]

The Morgan Report of February 26, 1894, concluded that the overthrow was locally based, motivated by a history of corruption of the monarchy, and that American troops only served to protect American property and citizens and had no role in the end of the Hawaiian Monarchy.[3]

The Provisional Government held a constitutional convention and on July 4, 1894, established the Republic of Hawaiʻi.

After an unsuccessful attempt at armed rebellion on January 6, 1895, the Queen abdicated and swore allegiance to the Republic of Hawaii on January 24, 1895. While under arrest and a prisoner of her enemies, she wrote, "I hereby do fully and unequivocally admit and declare that the Government of the Republic of Hawaii is the only lawful Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that the late Hawaiian monarchy is finally and forever ended, and no longer of any legal or actual validity, force or effect whatsoever."[4]

Queen Liliuokalani provides a different and more detailed story of the events in the later chapters of her book.[2]

Sanford B. Dole, on the left, continued as Governor of the new Territory of Hawaiʻi until the Hawaiian Organic Act of 1900 established a permanent territorial government led by a governor.

President of a republic

Lorrin A. Thurston declined the presidency of the republic and Dole was chosen to lead the government instead; Dole would serve as the first and only president from 1894 to 1900. Dole in turn appointed Thurston to lead a lobbying effort in Washington, DC and secure Hawaiʻi's annexation.

Dole's government weathered several attempts to restore the monarchy, including an attempted armed rebellion in which Robert William Wilcox participated; Wilcox and the other conspirators had their sentences reduced or commuted by Dole after being sentenced to death. Dole was successful as a diplomat – every nation that recognized the Kingdom of Hawaii also recognized the Republic of Hawaii.

Governor and judge

President William McKinley appointed Dole to become the first territorial governor after U.S. annexation of Hawaiʻi had been procured. Dole assumed the office in 1900 but resigned in 1903 to accept an appointment as U.S. District Court judge. He served in the latter post until 1915 and died after a series of strokes in 1926. His ashes are interred in the cemetery of Kawaiahaʻo Church. Dole Middle School. located in Kalihi Valley on the island of Oʻahu, was named after him in 1956.

Relationship to Dole Pineapple Company

Sanford Dole was the cousin of James Dole, the founder of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company on Oahu in 1851, which later became the Dole Food Company.

References

  1. ^ Kuykendall, Ralph (1967). The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 3. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 594. ISBN 0870224336. 
  2. ^ a b Liliʻuokalani (Queen of Hawaii) (1898). Hawaii's story by Hawaii's queen, Liliuokalani. Lee and Shepard, reprinted by Kessinger Publishing, LLC (July 25, 2007). ISBN 978-0548222652. http://books.google.com/books?id=QrTCvcy0sE4C. 
  3. ^ Andrade Jr., Ernest (1996). Unconquerable Rebel: Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian Politics, 1880-1903. University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0870814176. 
  4. ^ Russ, William Adam (1992). The Hawaiian Republic (1894-98) And Its Struggle to Win Annexation. Associated University Presses. pp. 71–72. ISBN 0945636520. 

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Liliuokalani
as Queen of Hawaii
Leader of Hawaiʻi
1894 – 1903
Succeeded by
George R. Carter
as Territorial Governor of Hawaii
First
Republic of Hawaii established
President of Hawaiʻi
1894 – 1900
Republic of Hawaii annexed by United States
First
Territorial Governor of Hawaiʻi
1900 – 1903
Succeeded by
George R. Carter
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Redirecting to Sanford B. Dole


Simple English

Sanford Dole (April 23, 1844June 9, 1926) was an American politician. Dole was a part of a group of businessmen who first forced a new Hawaiian national constitution on the country during King David Kalakaua's reign and then after his death removed Queen Liliuokalani from the throne and took control of the country in 1893. They removed the queen by threatening to use the warships of the U.S. Navy had in Honolulu harbor.

Queen Liliuokalani did not want her people to be harmed so she agreed to do what the revolutionists wanted. The Queen went to Washington and talked to the American President, Grover Cleveland. Cleveland decided that this had been an act of war against the Hawaiian Kingdom. Cleveland ordered Sanford Dole, the President of the newly formed republic, to make Liliuokalani the queen again.

Dole refused to do this. He said that President Cleveland was interfering. Dole remained the president of Hawaii from 1894 until 1900 after Cleveland was elected out of office. The newly elected American president William McKinley signed the Newsland Resolution. The Newsland Resolution made Hawaii a territory of the United States. This ended any legal or military chance of restoring the Queen and the Hawaiian Kingdom.

Dole served as governor of Hawaii from 1900 until 1903 when he accepted a position as United States District Court judge. He remained a judge until 1915.


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