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Sanok
Town view

Flag

Coat of arms
Motto: Libera Regia Civitas
Free Royal City
Sanok is located in Poland
Sanok
Coordinates: 49°33′N 22°13′E / 49.55°N 22.217°E / 49.55; 22.217
Country  Poland
Voivodeship POL województwo podkarpackie flag.svg Subcarpathian
County Sanok County
Gmina Sanok (urban gmina)
Established before 12th century
Town rights 1339
Government
 - Mayor Wojciech Blecharczyk
Area
 - Total 38.15 km2 (14.7 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 - Total 39,481
 - Density 1,034.9/km2 (2,680.3/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 38-500
Area code(s) +48 13
Twin Cities
 - Cestas  France
 - Fürstenwalde  Germany
 - Reinheim  Germany
 - Gyöngyös  Hungary
 - Östersund  Sweden
 - Humenné  Slovakia
Car plates RSA
Website http://www.sanok.pl

Sanok [ˈsanɔk] (Latin: Sanocum, German: Saanig, Ukrainian: Сянiк, Syanik, Yiddish: Sonik, in full The Royal Free City of Sanok, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok), part of The Land of Sanok (Polish: Ziemia Sanocka, and Ruthenian Voivodeship), is a town in south-eastern Poland with 39,110 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009.[1]

Sanok is situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodship (since 1999); previously, it was in Krosno Voivodship (1975-1998) and in Ruthenian Voivodeship (1340 - 1772), which was part of the Little Poland Province.

This historic city is situated on the San River at the foot of Castle Hill in Little Poland (Małopolska) region. It lies in a wooded, hilly area near the national road number 28, which goes along southern Poland, from Ustrzyki Dolne to Wadowice (340 km. away). It is located in the heartland of the Pogórze Bukowskie part of Doły (Pits), and its average altitude is 300 metres above sea level, although there are some hills located within the confines of the city.

Map of Great Moravia at its possible greatest territorial extent during the reign of Svatopluk I (871-894), superimposed on the modern borders of European states. Note that some of the borders of Great Moravia are under debate.

Contents

Archaeology

Settled in prehistoric times, the south-eastern Poland region that is now Podkarpacie was overrun in pre-Roman times by various tribes, including the Celts (Anarti), Goths and Vandals (Przeworsk culture and Puchov culture). After the fall of the Roman Empire, of which most of south-eastern Poland was part (all parts below the San), the area was invaded by Hungarians and Slavs.

The region subsequently became part of the Great Moravian state. Upon the invasion of the Hungarian tribes into the heart of the Great Moravian Empire around 899, the Lendians of the area declared their allegiance to Hungarian Empire. The region then became a site of contention between Poland, Kievan Rus and Hungary starting in at least the 9th century.

The first traces of settlement in the area of modern Sanok date back to at least 9th century. The following century a Slavic fortified town was created there and initially served as a center of pagan worship. The etymology of the name is unclear, though most scholars derive it from the Celtic root - San [2],[3];[4]. Certain archaeological excavations performed on the castle hill and on Fajka hill near Sanok-Trepcza, not only confirm the written resources, but date the Sanok stronghold origin to as early as the 9th century. On Fajka hill, where probably the first settlement of Sanok was situated, some remains of an ancient sanctuary and a cemetery were found, as well as numerous decorations and encolpions in Kievan type. Also two stamps of the Great Kievan Prince Rurik Rostislavich from the second half of the 12th century were found.

History

In 981 the gord, then inhabited by the Slavic tribe of Lendzians, was made a part of Land of Czerwień. This area was mentioned for the first time in 981, when Volodymyr the Great of Kievan Rus took the area over on the way into Poland. In 1018 it returned to Poland, 1031 back to Rus, in 1340 Casimir III of Poland recovered it. The gord of Sanok in mentioned first time in Hypatian Codex in 1150. It was given the Magdeburg law by Boleslaus George II of Halych in 1339 [5] .

The Hungarian King Géza II of Hungary crossed the mountains and seized the stronghold of Sanok with its governor as well as many villages in Przemyśl area, in Hypatian Codex, 1150

It can be found in a Ruthenian chronicle Hypatian Codex, where at the date of 1150 one can read: The Hungarian King Géza II of Hungary crossed the mountains and seized the stronghold of Sanok with its governor as well as many villages in Przemyśl area. The same chronicle refers to Sanok two more times, informing, that in 1205 it was the meeting place of a Ruthenian princess Anna with a Hungarian king and that in 1231 a Ruthenian prince made an expedition to "Sanok - Hungarian Gate".

A view inside of The Orthodox Holy Trinity Cathedral

After 1339 Galicia-Volhynia was seized by King Casimir III of Poland, who reconfirmed the municipal privilege of Sanok on the 25 April 1366. At that time Sanok became the centre of a new administration district called Sanok Land which was a part of the Ruthenian Voivodeship. Several courts of justice operated in the town, including the municipal and rural courts of lower instance and also the higher instance court for the entire Sanok land, based on the German town law[6].

As early at the 17th century, an important trade route went across Sanok connecting the interior of Hungary with Poland through the Lupkov Pass.

18 February 1846 - beginning of the Galician peasant revolt. During World War I, the Russians came to the town in May 1915 and stayed there until July, leaving the town significantly damaged.

During the Second Polish Republic (1919-1939), Sanok was a known centre of Ukrainian nationalism in Galicia, but also of cultural heritage of the Lemkos and other Rusniaks. In 1943 the foundation of the Waffen-SS Division Galizien took place in heavily Ukrainian-populated Sanok, with many locals volunteering in the ethnic Ukrainian Waffen-SS. Because of fear of Ukrainian separatism by both Soviet and Polish authorities, the Ukrainian and Lemko population of Sanok and its region was mostly deported to by then Polish-regained former eastern territories of Germany in the Operation Wisła (1946-1947). Some the Lemkos expelled, remigrated to Sanok after 1989.

Sanok contains an open air museum in the Biała Góra district, where examples of architecture from all of the region's main ethnic groups have been moved and carefully reassembled in a skansen evoking everyday rural life in the 1800s. Nearby stands Holy Ghost Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (1786-1947) presently, the tserkva of the Orthodox cathedral of the Holy Trinity.

Economy

It is a strong industry base - home to Stomil Sanok [7] (established in 1932) and Pass Gummiwerke plants, producers of various rubber and metal-rubber seals, strings and laggings for automotive sector, construction industries and electrical household goods sector, PGNiG [8] and Sanok Bus Car Factory "Autosan" [9] (established in 1832), a producer of high capacity buses, cabins for the Polish Army and bodies for rail-vehicles . Stomil and Autosan is a 20 minute walk from the train station in Sanok, while the city centre is a 15 minute walk in the other direction.

Adam Mickiewicz Public Park, the most visited city park in Sanok.

Culture and education

The town has several schools and a branch of the Polish High School of Technology. The town also has a football club Stal Sanok and some other sport clubs (volleyball, swimming, handball, ice hockey). The Castle near the centre of the town houses a museum displaying over 300 fine icons.

Sport

A variety of choices of active pastime is offered in Sanok, both for the inhabitants and for visitors. Many facilities for different kinds of sports are provided. The greatest complex of those facilities is The Civic Sports and Recreation Centre, situated near the San River. The Centre includes: artificial speed skating ice-rink, a complex of indoor and outdoor swimming pools, a hotel, a tourist hostel, a camp-site, a sports stadium with technical facilities, etc. There is also another artificial ice-rink in the centre of the town, designed for hockey and managed by the hockey club HC Sanok. there are two more sports facilities at Stróżowska street: a stadium of sports club STAL, and a gymnasium of the Technical Schools Complex. In the summertime, one can enjoy sun- and waterbathing at the banks of the San river. In the wintertime, a ski-lift is operating in the nearby Karlików

  • KH Sanok hockeyclub [10]

Notable people

Demographics

In 1900 the town had 6123 inhabitants, 57% Polish, 30 % Jewish and others. The town had a high percentage of Jews before World War II.

Population

In 1589 - 1700, 1883 - 5.181, 1939 - 15.600, 2000 - 41 401 inhabitants.

Ethnic Groups

Further reading

References

  1. ^ "Population. Size and structure by territorial division". © 1995-2009 Central Statistical Office 00-925 Warsaw, Al. Niepodległości 208. 2009-06-02. http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/PUBL_P_population_size_structure_31_12_2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-22.  
  2. ^ "Puisqu'il est impossible de les enumerer tous citons moins: Brda, Brenna, Bzura, Drwęca, Mroga, Nida, Raba, San, etc. Bzura selon Jan Rozwadowski correspond avec Brigulos, Drwęca aves Druentia, Durance, Nida avec Nidder, Raba avec Raab, San avec Sadne et Sein." [in:] Ethnologia Polona. Instytut Historii Kultury Materialnej (Polska Akademia Nauk). 1981. p. 49.
  3. ^ "[...] San (lateinische Graphie wie bei Sandomierz, Santok usw. Vgl. altind. sindhu- "Fluß", den irischen GN Shannon und den Maizzufluß Sinn" [in:] Irena Kwilecka. Etnolingwistyczne i kulturowe związki Słowian z Germanami. Instytut Słowianoznawstwa PAN. 1987. ISBN 8304024721 S. 64.
  4. ^ "An adouci en san, eau, rivière; stach, sinueux, qui tourne. Allusion au cours sinueux de la Charente". op. cit. Antiq. de France. [in:] Revue des ëtudes historiques. Société des études historiques. 1835. p.242.; Senne, nom propre de rivière. - Scène, ». L liou on l'on joue. — Seine, sf, sorte de «lot. 17. Cen», sm, impôt. — San, np Sen», sm, jugement [...]". [in:] Dictionnaire de pédagogie et d'instruction primaire. Ferdinand Edouard Buisson. 1883. p. 980.
  5. ^ City privilege in latin in:] Digitalbibliothek of AGAD, Nr 7226.
  6. ^ "Thus the region adjoining the Carpathians and extending to a line Tarnów-Rzeszów-Jarosław, the hithero almost uninhabited regio pedemontana was settled by German-spealing Silesians and soon abounded in large Waldhufendorfer with Frankish hides and in towns whose German names were in many case indentical with place-names in Silesia (Landskron, Grunberg, [...] Göttinger Arbeitskreis. Eastern Germany. Holzner-Verlag, 1961. p. 79.
  7. ^ Rubber Factor Stomil Sanok
  8. ^ [1] PGNiG S.A. Branch in Sanok is a forerunner of underground gas storing in Poland and currently is operating four underground gas storages of total working capacity of 705 MM standard cu.m.
  9. ^ Sanok Bus Car Factory
  10. ^ KH Sanok (pl)

External links

Time zone :
UTC+1/SummerUTC+2

See also

Coordinates: 49°34′N 22°12′E / 49.567°N 22.2°E / 49.567; 22.2

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Market square in Sanok
Market square in Sanok
"Karczma"
"Karczma"
San river in Sanok
San river in Sanok

Sanok [1] is a city in the Polish region of Podkarpackie in Poland. It is situated in a picturesque location along the San River near foothills and parks, and offers many recreational opportunities.

Get in

Sanok is serviced by PKP intercity trains, as well as local and regional bus services. Sanok is linked by various highways to other towns and cities in southeastern Poland.

Get around

Sanok is compact and many points of interest are easily accessible by foot. Taxis congregate near shops in the centrum (downtown) area, and fares tend to be low.

See

Sanok has various sites of interest, including:

  • Skansen (Ethnocultural Museum)
  • Queen Bona Castle
  • Zdzislaw Beksinski Artwork
  • Traces of Jewish history, including former synagogues

In addition, Sanok is close to the Bieszczady Mountains and numerous parks.

Do

Sanok lends itself to casual exploration. Set out on foot from the Rynek (town square) and explore the sights of this quaint town.

  • Skansen, [2]. An ethnographic museum known throughout Poland.  edit
  • KH Sanok, [3]. Sanok's best known sports team is its ice hockey club, which plays in the Polish equivalent of the premiership. Matches take place in the new Sanok Arena.  edit

Buy

You can find most necessities (and more than a few luxuries) in the various shops situated in the centrum area. Outdoor markets are an excellent source of locally-grown foods.

  • Karczma Sanok, 38-500 Sanok ul. Rynek 12, (0-13) 464 67 00, [4]. This restaurant located at the centre of Sanok serves traditional and hearty regional cuisine.  edit

Sleep

Sanok provides a full range of accommodations, including new and modern full-service hotels, budget hotels, and hostels. As compared to major Polish cities such as Warsaw and Krakow, prices are modest.

  • Hotel Sanvit, ul. Łazienna 1, 013 46 55 088, [5]. This very modern hotel located at the centre of Sanok provides a restaurant, sauna and other amenities to visitors. 120-260 zl..  edit
  • Hotel Pod Trzema Różami, ul. Jagiellońska 13, (013) 4630922, [6]. This comfortable hotel located near the centre of Sanok provides travellers with basic amenities. 80-140 zl..  edit
  • PTTK Dom Turysty, Mickiewicza Street 29, 013 463 14 39, [7]. Budget hotel with a very basic range of services. 70-110 zl..  edit

Get out

Sanok is located close (approximately 40 km) to Bieszczady National Park, a largely pristine environment suitable for hiking and exploring.


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