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Sapphire
General
Category Mineral Variety
Chemical formula aluminium oxide, Al2O3
Identification
Color Every color except red (which is ruby) or pinkish-orange (padparadscha)
Crystal habit massive and granular
Crystal system Trigonal (Hexagonal Scalenohedral) Symbol (-3 2/m) Space Group: R-3c
Cleavage None
Fracture Conchoidal, splintery
Mohs scale hardness 9.0
Luster Vitreous
Streak White
Specific gravity 3.95–4.03
Optical properties Abbe number 72.2
Refractive index nω=1.768 - 1.772 nε=1.760 - 1.763, Birefringence 0.008
Pleochroism Strong
Melting point 2030–2050 °C
Fusibility infusible
Solubility Insoluble
Other characteristics CTE 5e−6 to 6.6e−6/K
.Sapphire (Greek: σάπφειρος; sappheiros) is a gemstone variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3), when it is a color other than red, in which case the gem would instead be a ruby.^ Ruby is a variety of corundum.

^ Men like al-Biruni and Tifaschi frequently credited their sources, among them Greeks and other Arabs.

^ The scope of this survey is limited to what the Arabs had to say about several of the more important gems: ruby, sapphire, emerald, red spinel, peridot, lapis lazuli and pearl.

.Trace amounts of other elements such as iron, titanium, or chromium can give corundum blue, yellow, pink, purple, orange, or greenish color.^ Rubies are and sapphires are either blue or another color such as orange, pink, yellow, purple, colorless or black.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Yellow quartz is sold today under the name of topaz and it is one of the most popular colors, although there are others which are greenish and of reddish tint..

^ It ranges in color from the rare black, to pink and reddish-orange, the classical "coral" of fashion.

.Pink-orange corundum are also sapphires, but are instead called padparadscha.^ Padparadscha Sapphire (a variety of corundum) .
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, the word padmaraga also confirms that the correct term for the orange-red or pink sapphire should be accepted as padmaraga and not padmarascha.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most valuable padparadschas display a delicate mixture of pink and orange, similar to the crystal shown above.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because it is a gemstone, sapphire is commonly worn as jewelry.^ Sndgems.com has all the gemstone rings including sapphire rings and other gemstone jewelry at prices up to 50 percent off retail prices.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Blue sapphires, sapphires, sapphires white, pearl silver, gemstone jewelry, spinel jewelry, star ruby, star sapphires, stone, gem stone, jewelry stones, stones emerald, vintage ruby ring, wholesale gems, wholesale gemstone, jewelry wholesale gemstones.

.Sapphire can be found naturally, or manufactured in large crystal boules.^ Large fine star sapphires are also found at Mogok, in addition to star rubies.
  • Burmese Sapphire Giants: Large Burma Corundums 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its crystal has 6 sides and rarely is it found in large pieces - but the largest quartz crystal ever found was in Brazil - it was over 5m long and weighed more than 48 tonnes!

^ There are star sapphires and star rubies found which contain fine fiber crystals giving star effect when cut in en cabochon.

Because of its remarkable hardness, sapphire is used in many applications, including infrared optical components, watch crystals, high-durability windows, and wafers for the deposition of semiconductors.

Contents

Natural sapphires

.Sapphire is one of the two gem varieties of corundum, the other being the red ruby.^ Ruby is a variety of corundum.

^ Padparadscha Sapphire (a variety of corundum) .
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scope of this survey is limited to what the Arabs had to say about several of the more important gems: ruby, sapphire, emerald, red spinel, peridot, lapis lazuli and pearl.

.Although blue is the most well known hue, sapphire is any color of corundum except red.^ Incandescent lights, whose output is tilted towards the red end of the spectrum, do not do most blue sapphires justice.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The finest sapphire color is rich, velvety cornflower blue.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Yellow quartz is sold today under the name of topaz and it is one of the most popular colors, although there are others which are greenish and of reddish tint..

.Sapphire may also be colorless, and it also occurs in shades of gray and black.^ Rubies are and sapphires are either blue or another color such as orange, pink, yellow, purple, colorless or black.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

.Pink-orange sapphire is known as padparadscha.^ Therefore, the word padmaraga also confirms that the correct term for the orange-red or pink sapphire should be accepted as padmaraga and not padmarascha.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most valuable padparadschas display a delicate mixture of pink and orange, similar to the crystal shown above.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tanzania’s Umba Valley also produces orange sapphires and some dealers argue that these qualify as padparadschas.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cost of natural sapphire varies depending on their color, clarity, size, cut, and overall quality as well as geographic origin.^ Deep blue sapphire cut and facetted colors available: white, pink, blue, pastel - mixed sizes: 2 mm up, calibrated.

^ Different pearl qualities depend upon colour and size and range from the tiniest "seed pearls" to the rare gems of considerable size Harvesting pearls from the wild is singularly unrewarding and cultured pearls have been able to meet the demand for these beautiful natural ornaments.

^ In the Jewel trade it is customary to attach the appellation 'Kashmir' to any fine Sapphire regardless of its geographical origin.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Significant sapphire deposits are found in Eastern Australia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, East Africa and in the United States at various locations (Gem Mountain) and in the Missouri River near Helena, Montana.^ SAPPHIRE - Pink Sapphires, Blue sapphires and Yellow Sapphires are found in Myanmar or Burma, Thailand and East Africa.

^ Based in Bangkok (Thailand), Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Sndgems  is a leading manufacturer of gem quality Burmese rubies, Ceylon sapphires both in heated and un-heated stones.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ This rutile tends to be much finer than that found in Burmese and Sri Lankan sapphires.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .Sapphire and rubies are often found together in the same area, but one gem is usually more abundant.^ Thai Rubies are often found with spinel and .

^ Although rubies are found with much greater frequency at Mogok (rubies form about 80-90% of the total output), sapphires may reach larger sizes.
  • Burmese Sapphire Giants: Large Burma Corundums 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scope of this survey is limited to what the Arabs had to say about several of the more important gems: ruby, sapphire, emerald, red spinel, peridot, lapis lazuli and pearl.

[2]

Blue sapphire

The 423 carats (85 g) blue Logan sapphire
Color in gemstones breaks down into three components: hue, saturation, and tone. Hue is most commonly understood as the "color" of the gemstone. Saturation refers to the vividness or brightness or "colorfulness" of the hue, and tone is the lightness to darkness of the hue.[3] .Blue sapphire exists in various mixtures of its primary (blue) and secondary hues, various tonal levels (shades) and at various levels of saturation (brightness).^ As a symbol of good luck, blue sapphires have been popular for centuries with kings and queens and their blue color symbolized heaven, royal blue color & hue in sapphire jewelry.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

.Blue sapphires are evaluated based upon the purity of their primary hue.^ As a symbol of good luck, blue sapphires have been popular for centuries with kings and queens and their blue color symbolized heaven, royal blue color & hue in sapphire jewelry.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

.Purple, violet and green are the normal secondary hues found in blue sapphires.^ SAPPHIRE - Pink Sapphires, Blue sapphires and Yellow Sapphires are found in Myanmar or Burma, Thailand and East Africa.

^ Found in Australia topaz is usually light yellow, green and blue also.

^ Kashmir sapphires range from near colorless through a deep blue, with the occasional pink to purple stone found.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] Violet and purple can contribute to the overall beauty of the color, while green is considered a distinct negative. .Blue sapphires with no more than 15% violet or purple are generally said to be of fine quality.^ Kashmir sapphires range from near colorless through a deep blue, with the occasional pink to purple stone found.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What this means is fine blue stones must be cut from the tips of the crystals, similar to the way in which Sri Lanka's ottu sapphires are cut.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Global Acceptance The Chase Sapphire credit card has unsurpassed acceptance in more than 170 countries, as well as online with Internet merchants.

.Blue sapphires with any amount of green as a secondary hue are not considered to be fine quality.^ As a symbol of good luck, blue sapphires have been popular for centuries with kings and queens and their blue color symbolized heaven, royal blue color & hue in sapphire jewelry.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ What this means is fine blue stones must be cut from the tips of the crystals, similar to the way in which Sri Lanka's ottu sapphires are cut.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gray is the normal saturation modifier or mask found in blue sapphires.^ SAPPHIRE - Pink Sapphires, Blue sapphires and Yellow Sapphires are found in Myanmar or Burma, Thailand and East Africa.

^ Four blue sapphires showing a variation in saturation and tone.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gray reduces the saturation or brightness of the hue and therefore has a distinctly negative effect.[4]
.The color of fine blue sapphires can be described as a vivid medium dark violet to purplish blue where the primary blue hue is at least 85% and the secondary hue no more than 15% without the least admixture of a green secondary hue or a gray mask.^ The finest sapphire color is rich, velvety cornflower blue.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ What this means is fine blue stones must be cut from the tips of the crystals, similar to the way in which Sri Lanka's ottu sapphires are cut.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mexican Opals fine transparent variety of opal - Black opals are extremely vivid flashes of color including red, with dark background and of highest value Milky opal or white opals are opaque with smaller and less spectacular softer markings and colors.

[3]
.The 423 carats (85 g) Logan sapphire in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C. is one of the largest faceted gem-quality blue sapphires in the world.^ Based in Bangkok (Thailand), Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Sndgems  is a leading manufacturer of gem quality Burmese rubies, Ceylon sapphires both in heated and un-heated stones.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Blue sapphires, sapphires, sapphires white, pearl silver, gemstone jewelry, spinel jewelry, star ruby, star sapphires, stone, gem stone, jewelry stones, stones emerald, vintage ruby ring, wholesale gems, wholesale gemstone, jewelry wholesale gemstones.

^ The 100% natural gemstone sapphires used in sapphire diamond rings are hand picked and will be rich blue color, very translucent, consistent in quality, vibrant, rare & with minimal flaws.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

Fancy color sapphire

Pink sapphire
.Yellow and green sapphires are also commonly found.^ Found in Australia topaz is usually light yellow, green and blue also.

^ SAPPHIRE - Pink Sapphires, Blue sapphires and Yellow Sapphires are found in Myanmar or Burma, Thailand and East Africa.

^ There is also the yellow sapphire of Shri Lanka, commonly called pushparaga in Singhalese.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pink sapphires deepen in color as the quantity of chromium increases.^ Padparadscha sapphire is a special variety of gem corundum, featuring a delicate color that is a mixture of pink and orange – a marriage between ruby and yellow sapphire.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deep blue sapphire cut and facetted colors available: white, pink, blue, pastel - mixed sizes: 2 mm up, calibrated.

.The deeper the pink color the higher their monetary value as long as the color is going towards the red of rubies.^ The deeper the color, the more valuable - due to presence of manganese oxide.

^ Like emeralds, the greener the color, the higher the value of a peridot stone.

^ Its value is higher if the texture and surface is clear and the color is deep green.

.Sapphires also occur in shades of orange and brown, and colorless sapphires are sometimes used as diamond substitutes in jewelry.^ Occurring with the sapphires are dark green and brown prisms of tourmaline.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For centuries the most stunning jewelry has been designed with sapphires and diamonds being alternated.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Rubies are and sapphires are either blue or another color such as orange, pink, yellow, purple, colorless or black.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

.Salmon-colored padparadscha (see below) sapphires often fetch higher prices than many of even the finest blue sapphires.^ The finest sapphire color is rich, velvety cornflower blue.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ As a symbol of good luck, blue sapphires have been popular for centuries with kings and queens and their blue color symbolized heaven, royal blue color & hue in sapphire jewelry.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Deep blue sapphire cut and facetted colors available: white, pink, blue, pastel - mixed sizes: 2 mm up, calibrated.

Recently, sapphires of this color have appeared on the market as a result of a new treatment method called "lattice diffusion".

Padparadscha

Cut stone Padparadscha
.Padparadscha is a pink-orange corundum, with a low to medium saturation and light tone, originally being mined in Sri Lanka, but also found in deposits in Vietnam and Africa; Padparadscha sapphires are very rare and highly valued.^ It ranges in color from the rare black, to pink and reddish-orange, the classical "coral" of fashion.

^ SAPPHIRE - Pink Sapphires, Blue sapphires and Yellow Sapphires are found in Myanmar or Burma, Thailand and East Africa.

^ Speaking of deposits in what is now Sri Lanka, our author observes: Yaqut is brought from a mine named Sahiran which is on an island about forty parasangs beyond Sarandib [Sri Lanka].

The name derives from the Sinhalese word for lotus blossom. .Along with rubies, they are the only type of corundum to be given their own name instead of being called a particular colored sapphire.^ The author distinguishes seven color-appearance types for ruby, singling out one in particular, which he calls alavjuani.

^ Beautiful sheens come as with other stones, with subjected light and its particular sheen is called "adularescence" and most prized when the sheen is bluish in color.

^ Rubies are and sapphires are either blue or another color such as orange, pink, yellow, purple, colorless or black.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

The rarest of all padparadschas is the totally natural variety, with no sign of treatment.

Star sapphire

The 182 carats (36 g) Star of Bombay star sapphire
.A star sapphire is a type of sapphire that exhibits a star-like phenomenon known as asterism.^ For a unique ring, consider a star ruby or star sapphire displaying asterism.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

.Star sapphires contain intersecting needle-like inclusions (often the mineral rutile, a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide[5]) that cause the appearance of a six-rayed 'star'-shaped pattern when viewed with a single overhead light source.^ When the corundum includes chromium, it becomes ruby , when it contains titanium and iron instead and therefore is blue - the sapphire.

^ Kashmir sapphires contain solid inclusions of a number of types, but these are generally small, requiring magnifications of up to 100x to resolve their morphology.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The negative crystals containing black crystals within represent the most distinctive inclusion feature of the Kashmir sapphires examined by the author.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Black Star of Queensland is believed to be the largest star sapphire, weighing in at 733 carats.^ Star Sapphire and Star Ruby The largest Sapphire in Australia was 886 carats from Queensland in 1934.

^ The largest sapphire known was 950 carats from Myanmar or Burma.

^ The largest known topaz was cut in 1977 and weighed 21,327 carats.

[6] .The Star of India (563.35 carats) is thought to be the second largest star sapphire and is currently on display at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.^ Star Sapphire and Star Ruby The largest Sapphire in Australia was 886 carats from Queensland in 1934.

^ The largest sapphire known was 950 carats from Myanmar or Burma.

^ For a unique ring, consider a star ruby or star sapphire displaying asterism.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

.The 182 carat Star of Bombay, housed in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., is an example of a blue star sapphire.^ Oval Star Blue Sapphire Three Stone Sapphire Engagement Ring with Oval Diamonds in 14k White Gold (7x5 mm) .
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Star Sapphire and Star Ruby The largest Sapphire in Australia was 886 carats from Queensland in 1934.

^ Blue sapphires, sapphires, sapphires white, pearl silver, gemstone jewelry, spinel jewelry, star ruby, star sapphires, stone, gem stone, jewelry stones, stones emerald, vintage ruby ring, wholesale gems, wholesale gemstone, jewelry wholesale gemstones.

.The value of a star sapphire, however, depends not only on the weight of the stone but also the body color, visibility and intensity of the asterism.^ Figure 3 This 3.03-ct Kashmir sapphire illustrates the color and velvety texture which has made stones from this locality so famous.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like emeralds, the greener the color, the higher the value of a peridot stone.

^ Corundum, sapphire-colored only in the middle, shading lighter until both base and apex are perfectly limpid.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

Color change sapphire

.A rare variety of sapphire, known as color change sapphire, exhibits different colors in different light.^ Peridot comes in a variety of colors , ranging from light yellowish green to deep olive color.

.Color change sapphires are blue in outdoor light and purple under incandescent indoor light; they may also be pink in daylight to greenish under fluorescent light.^ Near colorless to a deep blue (almost black), including a highly prized, rich "velvety" blue that is considered sapphire nirvana to connoisseurs • Rarely pink to purple • Six-rayed stars have been reported .
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The finest sapphire color is rich, velvety cornflower blue.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Yellow quartz is sold today under the name of topaz and it is one of the most popular colors, although there are others which are greenish and of reddish tint..

.Some stones shift color well and others only partially, in that some stones go from blue to bluish purple.^ Other than the blue tips and faces, the rest of the crystal is typically colorless (the New Mines also produce the occasional stone with blue tips and a pink core).
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kashmir sapphires range from near colorless through a deep blue, with the occasional pink to purple stone found.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But apparently the Old Mine produced some material which would allow both more even coloration and, thus, stones cut to normal proportions.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.While color change sapphires come from a variety of locations, the gem gravels of Tanzania is the main source.^ Peridot comes in a variety of colors , ranging from light yellowish green to deep olive color.

^ Early Sanskrit texts dealt with ratnapariksa ('investigation of gems,' or 'gemology'), and divided blue sapphire ( 'nilamani' ) into two varieties, indranila and mahanila .
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sapphire Guides Sapphire Color Sapphire Clarity Government Manufacturing Locations Tech.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

.Certain synthetic color-change sapphires are sold as “lab” or “synthetic” alexandrite, which is accurately called an alexandrite simulant (also called alexandrium) since the latter is actually a type of chrysoberyl—an entirely different substance whose pleochroism is different and much more pronounced than color-change corundum (sapphire).^ The author distinguishes seven color-appearance types for ruby, singling out one in particular, which he calls alavjuani.

^ Global Acceptance The Chase Sapphire credit card has unsurpassed acceptance in more than 170 countries, as well as online with Internet merchants.

^ To change your payment date, log in to your online account or call the Chase Sapphire Dedicated Service Line and we'll gladly assist you.

Source of color

Crystal structure of sapphire
.Red rubies are corundum which contain chromium impurities that absorb yellow-green light and result in deeper ruby red color with increasing content.^ When the corundum includes chromium, it becomes ruby , when it contains titanium and iron instead and therefore is blue - the sapphire.

^ Found in Australia topaz is usually light yellow, green and blue also.

^ Peridot comes in a variety of colors , ranging from light yellowish green to deep olive color.

[7] Purple sapphires contain trace amounts of vanadium and come in a variety of shades. .Corundum that contains ~0.01% of titanium is colorless.^ When the corundum includes chromium, it becomes ruby , when it contains titanium and iron instead and therefore is blue - the sapphire.

.If trace amounts of iron are present, a very pale yellow to green color may be seen.^ Aquamarine gemstone is a transparent, pale water blue beryl with iron giving it the green/blue tint, varying from pale green to deep .

^ India produces strongly colored stones as beige, pink, green, yellow, grey, white and brown.

^ The colors range from pale blue to deep green/blue.

.If both titanium and iron impurities are present together, however, the result is a magnificent deep-blue color.^ From light blue to the deep blue of the ocean, aquamarines have a great spectrum of blue colors.

^ Aquamarine gemstone is a transparent, pale water blue beryl with iron giving it the green/blue tint, varying from pale green to deep .

^ Deep blue sapphire cut and facetted colors available: white, pink, blue, pastel - mixed sizes: 2 mm up, calibrated.

.Unlike localized ("interatomic") absorption of light which causes color for chromium and vanadium impurities, blue color in sapphires comes from intervalence charge transfer, which is the transfer of an electron from one transition-metal ion to another via the conduction or valence band.^ Blue Sapphire and Diamond Eternity Wedding Ring Band in 14k White Gold (0.60 ct.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ When the corundum includes chromium, it becomes ruby , when it contains titanium and iron instead and therefore is blue - the sapphire.

^ Blue Sapphire and Diamond Eternity Anniversary Wedding Ring Band in 14k White Gold (0.60 ct.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

The iron can take the form Fe2+ or Fe3+, while titanium generally takes the form Ti4+. If Fe2+ and Ti4+ ions are substituted for Al3+, localized areas of charge imbalance are created. An electron transfer from Fe2+ and Ti4+ can cause a change in the valence state of both. Because of the valence change there is a specific change in energy for the electron, and electromagnetic energy is absorbed. The wavelength of the energy absorbed corresponds to yellow light. .When this light is subtracted from incident white light, the complementary color blue results.^ Beryl and Aquamarine differ only in color - Beryl is bright blue to white and Aquamarine is sea green to deep green.

^ From light blue to the deep blue of the ocean, aquamarines have a great spectrum of blue colors.

^ Deep blue sapphire cut and facetted colors available: white, pink, blue, pastel - mixed sizes: 2 mm up, calibrated.

.Sometimes when atomic spacing is different in different directions there is resulting blue-green dichroism.^ Beryl and Aquamarine differ only in color - Beryl is bright blue to white and Aquamarine is sea green to deep green.

.Intervalence charge transfer is a process that produces a strong colored appearance at a low percentage of impurity.^ A points transfer fee may be charged based on a percentage of the number of points transferred.

.While at least 1% chromium must be present in corundum before the deep red ruby color is seen, sapphire blue is apparent with the presence of only 0.01% of titanium and iron.^ When the corundum includes chromium, it becomes ruby , when it contains titanium and iron instead and therefore is blue - the sapphire.

^ The Maharajah has recently released from prison and largely rewarded two native hunters, who had been imprisoned for dealing in sapphire, on condition of their showing him two other deposits, one of blue and the other of red corundum.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Deep blue corundum of a beautiful water, very rough externally, no crystal more than 4 inches [10 cm] long; sp.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

Treatments

.Sapphires may be treated by several methods to enhance and improve their clarity and color.^ Sapphire Guides Sapphire Color Sapphire Clarity Government Manufacturing Locations Tech.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

[8] .It is common practice to heat natural sapphires to improve or enhance color.^ He notes that heating is used to improve the color of ruby.

.This is done by heating the sapphires in air to temperatures between 500 and 1800 °C for several hours, or by heating in a nitrogen-deficient atmosphere oven for seven days or more.^ They heat treat stones for at least one hour and, at most, twenty days and nights.

.Upon heating, the stone becomes a more blue in color but loses some of the silk.^ But apparently the Old Mine produced some material which would allow both more even coloration and, thus, stones cut to normal proportions.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While this produces a larger stone, it also produces an overly blackish color, as well as losing the velvety softness.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The former was described as rarer and more precious, displaying a rainbow blue, while the latter apparently included stones of a darker hue (Brown, 1956).
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.When high heat temperatures are used, the stone loses all of the silk and becomes clear under magnification.^ It is capable of high polish which was why it was considered as the best stone to use as a seal, according to Pliny.

^ High temperature should be avoided and acids can damage the stone..

.Evidence of sapphire and other gemstones being subjected to heating goes back to, at least, Roman times.^ Sndgems.com has all the gemstone rings including sapphire rings and other gemstone jewelry at prices up to 50 percent off retail prices.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ The news of this transaction got back to the maharaja of that time, who discovered that the sapphires had been picked up in his own Kashmir hills.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Various stories have been circulated of the discovery of sapphires in Kulu and other portions of the North-West Himalayas, but up to the present time none of these have been confirmed.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] Un-heated stones are quite rare and will often be sold accompanied by a certificate from an independent gemological laboratory attesting to "no evidence of heat treatment".
Diffusion treatments are somewhat more controversial as they are used to add elements to the sapphire for the purpose of improving colors. Typically beryllium is diffused into a sapphire with very high heat, just below the melting point of the sapphire. Initially (c. .2000) orange sapphires were created with this process, although now the process has been advanced and many colors of sapphire are often treated with beryllium.^ Many Kashmir sapphires display this color.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Choose sapphire rings in all the sapphire colors and wear rings to match many ocassions.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Note also the blackish color, which many Kashmir sapphires display.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is unethical to sell beryllium-treated sapphires without disclosure, and the price should be much lower than a natural gem or one that has been enhanced by heat alone.^ Based in Bangkok (Thailand), Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Sndgems  is a leading manufacturer of gem quality Burmese rubies, Ceylon sapphires both in heated and un-heated stones.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ This rutile tends to be much finer than that found in Burmese and Sri Lankan sapphires.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They heat treat stones for at least one hour and, at most, twenty days and nights.

.Treating stones with surface diffusion is generally frowned upon; as stones chip or are repolished/refaceted the 'padparadscha' colored layer can be removed.^ The color generally lies near the tips and exterior surfaces of crystals, similar to ottu sapphires from Sri Lanka.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stones from this area are of a reddish color with a slight darkish tint, but are generally heavily included.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.(There are some diffusion treated stones in which the color goes much deeper than the surface, however.^ He delineates its color varieties, discusses sources, and notes that "it is heavier than all other stones of the same size.'

^ He goes on to say that Badakhshan produces a curious stone that glows in the dark, perhaps alluding to the strong fluorescence of some rubies and red spinels.

^ I think that some of us are reaching a degree of saturation with minerals from those areas, because there has been so much available recently.

) The problem lies in the fact that treated padparadschas are at times very difficult to detect, and they are the reason that getting a certificate from a reputable gemological lab (e.g. Gubelin, SSEF, AGTA, etc.) is recommended before investing in a padparadscha.
.According to Federal Trade Commission guidelines, in the United States, disclosure is required of any mode of enhancement that has a significant effect on the gem's value.^ Gem formation , composition, properties, sources, occurrences, enhancement techniques, color grading and commercial values-all were topics of interest to the early Arabs.

[10]

Mining

Sapphire from Madagascar
.Sapphires are mined from alluvial deposits or from primary underground workings.^ In the 30–40 year period during which the mines were intensively worked, Kashmir sapphires achieved a reputation second to none.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The mining locations include Myanmar, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Australia, Thailand, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tanzania, Kenya and China.^ Based in Bangkok (Thailand), Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Sndgems  is a leading manufacturer of gem quality Burmese rubies, Ceylon sapphires both in heated and un-heated stones.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Sapphires from Sri Lanka, Thailand (especially Kanchanaburi) and Pailin may also exhibit a certain milkiness, making confusion a real possibility.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rubies are mined near Gharan in Afghanistan / Tajikistan, as well as near Aliabad in Pakistan.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Logan sapphire, the Star of India and the Star of Bombay originate from Sri Lankan mines.^ The author's own experience with New Mine material also agrees with Tank's, in that gems are often strongly zoned and cut with deep pavilions, similar to Sri Lankan ottu sapphires.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The famous sapphires of Kashmir are mined from a remote region high in the Great Himalayan mountains of northwestern India.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many faceted Kashmir sapphires bear a certain resemblance to Sri Lankan ottu stones.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Madagascar leads the world in sapphire production (as of 2007) specifically in and around the city of Ilakaka.^ This magnum opus alphabetically lists cities and towns in the then-known world, defining location, commercial products, resources, weather conditions and so forth.

.Prior to Ilakaka, Australia was the largest producer of sapphires (as of 1987).^ Australia is the largest producer of blue and golden sapphires .

^ Star Sapphire and Star Ruby The largest Sapphire in Australia was 886 carats from Queensland in 1934.

In 1991 a new sapphire occurrence was discovered in Andranondambo, southern Madagascar. That area was industrially exploited since 1993 and has been almost abandoned few years later because of difficulties of exploiting sapphires in their bedrock. In the United States sapphires have been produced from deposits near Helena, Montana. .Gem grade sapphires and rubies are also found in and around Franklin, North Carolina.^ Based in Bangkok (Thailand), Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Sndgems  is a leading manufacturer of gem quality Burmese rubies, Ceylon sapphires both in heated and un-heated stones.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Our fine jewelry collection sparkles and dazzles with the most precious gems like rubies, emeralds, and sapphires.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ Blue sapphires, sapphires, sapphires white, pearl silver, gemstone jewelry, spinel jewelry, star ruby, star sapphires, stone, gem stone, jewelry stones, stones emerald, vintage ruby ring, wholesale gems, wholesale gemstone, jewelry wholesale gemstones.

Synthetic sapphire

Synthetic star sapphire
Synthetic sapphire
In 1902, French chemist Auguste Verneuil developed a process for growing synthetic sapphire crystals.[11] In the Verneuil process, fine alumina powder is added to an oxyhydrogen flame which is directed downward against a mantle.[12] Alumina in the flame is slowly deposited, creating a teardrop shaped 'boule' of sapphire. .Chemical dopants can be added to create artificial versions of ruby and all the other sapphire gems, plus colors never seen in nature.^ Gem formation , composition, properties, sources, occurrences, enhancement techniques, color grading and commercial values-all were topics of interest to the early Arabs.

^ Ruby, associated with the Sun, was the Lord of Gems, for the Sun lorded over all the planets.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Choose sapphire rings in all the sapphire colors and wear rings to match many ocassions.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

.Artificial sapphire is identical to natural sapphire, except it can be made without the flaws found in natural stones.^ Kashmir sapphires range from near colorless through a deep blue, with the occasional pink to purple stone found.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Figure 3 This 3.03-ct Kashmir sapphire illustrates the color and velvety texture which has made stones from this locality so famous.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was called the "king" of green stones with extremely high value because of its rarity and the fact that seldom was there gemstone cut that was without flaw.

The disadvantage of Verneuil process is the grown crystals have high internal strains. .Many methods of manufacturing sapphire today are variations of the Czochralski process invented in 1916.[13] A tiny sapphire seed crystal is dipped into a crucible of molten alumina and slowly withdrawn upward at a rate of 1 to 100 mm per hour.^ Many appear as tiny dots in snowflake patterns, and magnification of 40x or more is often required to resolve individual crystals.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most distinctive of the Kashmir sapphire inclusions are the rounded zircon crystals with tiny accompanying black uraninite crystals.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, many of the Kashmir sapphires today sold at auction are cut as "sugarloaf" cabochons.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The alumina crystallizes on the end, creating long carrot shaped boules of large size, up to 400 mm in diameter and weighing almost 500 kg.^ The quarry is also producing some nice green to pink elbaite crystals up to 10 cm long.

^ Unidentified brown crystals of large size have been seen by the author in one specimen.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its crystal has 6 sides and rarely is it found in large pieces - but the largest quartz crystal ever found was in Brazil - it was over 5m long and weighed more than 48 tonnes!

[14]
In 2003, the world's production of synthetic sapphire was 250 tons (1.25 × 109carats).[14] The availability of cheap synthetic sapphire unlocked many industrial uses for this unique material:
The first laser was made with a rod of synthetic ruby. Titanium-sapphire lasers are popular due to the relatively rare ability to tune the laser wavelength in the red-to near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. They can also be easily mode-locked. .In these lasers, a synthetically produced sapphire crystal with chromium or titanium impurities is irradiated with intense light from a special lamp, or another laser, to create stimulated emission.^ When the corundum includes chromium, it becomes ruby , when it contains titanium and iron instead and therefore is blue - the sapphire.

One application of synthetic sapphire is sapphire glass. Here glass is a layman term which refers not to the amorphous state, but to the transparency. .Sapphire is not only highly transparent to wavelengths of light between 170 nm to 5.3 μm (the human eye can discern wavelengths from about 380 nm to 750 nm[15]), but it is also five times stronger than glass and ranks a 9 on the Mohs Scale, and much tougher than tempered glass although not as much as synthetic stabilized zirconium oxide (such as yttria-stabilized zirconia).^ JADE - This is the name given to both nephrite and jadeite which are tougher than steel although not particularly hard.

^ Note: The following is only one of forty-five studies of world sources found in Chapter 12 of Richard Hughes' book, Ruby & Sapphire.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This rutile tends to be much finer than that found in Burmese and Sri Lankan sapphires.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

Along with zirconia and aluminium oxynitride, synthetic sapphire is used for shatter resistant windows in armored vehicles and various military body armor suits, in association with composites. Sapphire "glass" (although being crystalline) is made from pure sapphire boules by slicing off and polishing thin wafers. .Sapphire glass windows are used in high pressure chambers for spectroscopy, crystals in high quality watches, and windows in grocery store barcode scanners since the material's exceptional hardness and toughness makes it very resistant to scratching.^ The 100% natural gemstone sapphires used in sapphire diamond rings are hand picked and will be rich blue color, very translucent, consistent in quality, vibrant, rare & with minimal flaws.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

[14]
Cermax xenon arc lamp with synthetic sapphire output window
.Synthetic sapphire is industrially produced from agglomerated aluminum oxide, sintered and fused in an inert atmosphere (hot isostatic pressing for example), yielding a transparent polycrystalline product, slightly porous, or with more traditional methods such as Verneuil, Czochralski, flux method etc, yielding a single crystal sapphire material which is non-porous and should be relieved of its internal stress.^ In just six years, this mine produced such a quantity of fine stones that they achieved a reputation second to none among sapphires.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Synthetic rock crystal is manufactured in Japan for industry and also jewelry.

.One type of xenon arc lamp, known as Cermax (original brand name — generically known as a ceramic body xenon lamp), uses sapphire output windows that allows for higher thermal loads and thus higher output power as compared to conventional Xe lamps with silica window.^ Originally a landslip exposed the sapphires at the surface, allowing discovery.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]
Wafers of single-crystal sapphire are also used in the semiconductor industry as a substrate for the growth of devices based on gallium nitride (GaN). .The use of sapphire significantly reduces the cost, because it is about seven times cheaper than the alternative germanium.^ Chase Sapphire with Ultimate Rewards Our premier rewards program lets you earn points every time you use your Chase Sapphire card.

Gallium nitride on sapphire is commonly used in blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs).[17]

Historical and cultural references

  • Sapphire and ruby in ancient times being mined exclusively in Pakistan, Laos, India, Sri-Lanka and Afghanistan essentially, and quasi absent from the Middle East, some etymologists propose an old Sanskrit origin to the Semitic word 'sappir' : a dark colored precious stone called 'Sanipriya' , from 'sani' meaning saturn and 'priya', precious, i.e. "precious to Saturn". [18]
  • According to Rebbenu Bachya, and many English Bible translations, the word Sapir in the verse Exodus 28:18 means sapphire and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Issachar. Although it has been stated that the English word sapphire derives from the Hebrew sapir (ספיר) (via Greek sapphiros; σάπφειρος), this is disputed. Sapphires were actually not known before the Roman Empire (and were initially considered to be forms of jacinth, rather than deserving of a word to themselves), and prior to that time sapphiros referred to blue gems in general.
  • Sapphire is one of the birthstones.
  • The 45th wedding anniversary is known as the sapphire anniversary.

See also

References

  1. ^ Wise, pp. 164–166
  2. ^ Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Bulakh, A. G. (2004). Minerals: their constitution and origin. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. pp. 539–541. ISBN 0-521-52958-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=0GAvKQJ2JuwC&pg=RA1-PA539.  
  3. ^ a b Wise, pp. 18–22
  4. ^ a b Wise, Chapter 22
  5. ^ Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 451 – 53. ISBN 0-19-850341-5.  
  6. ^ "For some, a sapphire has not been their best friend". http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-blacksapphire5-2010jan05,0,872801.story. Retrieved 5 jan 2010.  
  7. ^ "Ruby: causes of color". http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/6AA.html. Retrieved 15 may 2009.  
  8. ^ Wise, p. 169
  9. ^ Nassau, Kurt (1984). Gemstone Enhancement. Butterworths. pp. 95. ISBN 0408014474.  
  10. ^ Chapter I of Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 23, Guides for Jewelry and Precious Metals and Pewter Industries
  11. ^ M.A. Verneuil (September 1904) Memoire sur la reproduction artificielle du rubis per fusion, Annales de Chimie et de Physique
  12. ^ Heaton, Neal; The production and identification of artificial precious stones in Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 1911. USA: Government Printing Office. 1912. p. 217. http://books.google.com/books?id=hZIKAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA227.  
  13. ^ Ramdeva, Ardamun (2004). "Synthetic Sapphires". Gemstones. JewelInfo4You. http://www.jewelinfo4u.com/Synthetic_sapphires.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-04.  
  14. ^ a b c Scheel, Hans Jr̲g; Fukuda, Tsuguo (2003) (PDF). Crystal growth technology. Chichester, West Sussex: J. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-49059-8. http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/98/04714905/0471490598.pdf.  
  15. ^ Cecie Starr (2005). Biology: Concepts and Applications. Thomson Brooks/Cole. p. 94. ISBN 053446226X. http://books.google.com/books?id=RtSpGV_Pl_0C&pg=PA94.  
  16. ^ "Cermax lamp engineering guide". http://optoelectronics.perkinelmer.com/content/manuals/gde_cermax.pdf.  
  17. ^ "Gallium nitride collector grid solar cell" (2002) U.S. Patent 6,447,938
  18. ^ Etymonline.com
  • Wise, R. W. (2004). .Secrets Of The Gem Trade, The Connoisseur's Guide To Precious Gemstones.^ Ruby-Sapphire.com is dedicated to the free exchange of ideas on gems, gemology, the gem trade and other matters concerning the trade in precious stones and jewelry.
    • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

    Brunswick House Press. ISBN 097282238-0.
     

General Resources

  • Wojtilla, G. Indian precious stones in the ancient East and West, Acta Orientakia (Budapest) 27, 2, 211-224.
  • Sofianides, Anna S. and George E. Harlow, 1997, Gems & Crystals, Parkgate Books, pp. 44–55 ISBN 1-85585-391-4
  • Webmineral.com, Webmineral Corundum Page, Webmineral with extensive crystallographic and mineralogical information on Corundum
  • Farlang.com, Farlang Sapphire References, Historical resources on Sapphires, mining, notable gems etc.
  • Mindat.org, Mindat Sapphire page Mindat with extensive locality information
  • Gemstone.org, ICA's Sapphire page International Colored Stone Sapphire page
  • Sciencemag.org, Macroscopic 10-Terabit–per–Square-Inch Arrays from Block Copolymers with Lateral Order Science magazine article about perspective usage of sapphire in digital storage media technology
  • Gggems.com, Top Blue Sapphire Discovery

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Missing image
Sapphire-1.jpg
.SAPPHIRE, 1 a blue transparent variety of corundum, or native alumina, much valued as a gem-stone.^ Introduction The term sapphire alone describes the blue variety of gem corundum.

^ Transparent to translucent gemstone variety of corundum .
  • sapphire Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sapphire 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Padparadscha Sapphire (a variety of corundum) .
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is essentially the same mineral as ruby, from which it differs chiefly in colour.^ Sapphire belongs to the same " aluminium oxide " mineral family (corundum) as Ruby , but sapphire is more abundant than ruby due to the larger occurrence of its coloring agents.
  • Sapphire Gemstones & Jewelry 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.khulsey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Thais used the same logic for blue sapphire as we apply for ruby/pink sapphire, then blue sapphires from Ceylon would have a different name than those from Australia.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The colour of the normal sapphire varies from the palest blue to deep indigo, the most esteemed tint being that of the blue cornflower.^ It has various colours produced by impurities of iron and titanium, the most valuable being deep blue.
  • sapphire Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sapphire 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Blue is the main colour of the sapphire.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most desired color is a cornflower-blue.
  • Ceylon Blue Sapphire | Blue Sapphire | Sapphire Jewelry Jewelry 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.worldwidegems.net [Source type: General]

.Many of the crystals are parti-coloured, the blue being distributed in patches in a colourless or yellow stone; but by skilful cutting, the deep-coloured portion may be caused to impart colour to the entire gem.^ Meanwhile, experts in Tanzania have also found initial evidence of two large-scale gemstone deposits in the form of some good, if not very large sapphire crystals coloured blue, green, yellow and orange.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The presence of small amounts of other elements, especially iron and chrome, are responsible for the colouring, turning a crystal that was basically white into a blue, red, yellow, pink or greenish sapphire.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So Sapphires are really and truly heavenly stones, although they are being found in the hard soil of our so-called "blue planet.
  • Sapphire Jewelry 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.mysolitaire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the sapphire crystallizes in the hexagonal system it is dichroic, but in pale stones this character may not be well marked.^ Sapphire is categorized in the trigonal crystal system with a crystal habit of forming into a six-sided barrel-shape tapering into a pyramid (below).
  • Sapphire Gemstones & Jewelry 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.khulsey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The color zoning may appear as concentric hexagonal rings (below, left), parallel to the prismatic crystal faces.
  • Sapphire Gemstones & Jewelry 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.khulsey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What this means is fine blue stones must be cut from the tips of the crystals, similar to the way in which Sri Lanka's ottu sapphires are cut.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

In a deep-coloured stone the colour may be resolved, by the dichroscope, into an ultramarine 1 Indirectly from Gr. .o - &lrcecpos, but there seems no doubt that this term, like the Hebrew sapir of the Old Testament, was formerly applied to what is now called lapis lazuli; the modern sapphire was probably known as baKCveos (hyacinthus). blue and a bluish or yellowish green.^ It is likely that the word sapphire was first applied to laps lazuli from Afghanistan.

^ Green sapphires are known, but rare.
  • Burmese Sapphire Giants: Large Burma Corundums 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is there no respect, now, for Parrot?
  • Sapphire – Two New Re-Implementations of Ruby 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.rubyinside.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In blue tourmaline and in iolite - stones sometimes mistaken for sapphire - the dichroism is much more distinct.^ Synthetic star sapphire is made with luminous stars that are more regular and distinct than those in most natural stones; the asterism is obtained through controlled exsolution of impurities.
  • sapphire (gemstone) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Contrary to popular belief, light blue Sapphires are more desirable for daily wear because their light color reflects brilliantly in daylight and evening both!
  • Blue & Yellow Ceylon Sapphire Gemstone & Diamond Rings, Beautiful Ceylon Sapphire September Birthstone Jewelry � Rio Gems 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.riogems.com [Source type: General]

^ A rich blue sapphire and two accenting trilliant diamonds add color and sparkle to this beautiful three-stone platinum engagement ring.
  • Custom Sapphire Rings - Sapphire Ring Gallery 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.jewelryexpert.com [Source type: General]

.The blue colour in sapphire has been variously referred to the presence of oxides of chromium, iron or titanium, whilst an organic origin has also been suggested.^ The coloring agents in blue sapphire are iron and titanium.
  • Ceylon Blue Sapphire | Blue Sapphire | Sapphire Jewelry Jewelry 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.worldwidegems.net [Source type: General]

^ Blue is the main colour of the sapphire.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the trade, sapphires which are not blue are referred to as 'fancies'.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

.On exposure to a high temperature, the sapphire usually loses colour, but, unlike ruby, it does not regain it on cooling.^ Careful heating and cooling under various conditions can induce permanent colour changes in sapphire ( e.g., from yellow to colourless or greenish blue and from violet to pink).
  • sapphire (gemstone) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Sapphire lightguides - sapphire rods; used in high temperature thermometry beyond the range of quartz optics.

^ The high temperature performance of sapphire is combined with broad spectral range in this application.

.A. Verneuil succeeded in imparting a sapphire-blue colour to artificial alumina by addition of i 5% of magnetic oxide of iron and o.^ Blue is the main colour of the sapphire.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It has various colours produced by impurities of iron and titanium, the most valuable being deep blue.
  • sapphire Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sapphire 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ The presence of small amounts of other elements, especially iron and chrome, are responsible for the colouring, turning a crystal that was basically white into a blue, red, yellow, pink or greenish sapphire.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

5% of titanic acid (Comptes rendus, Jan. 17, 1910). .According to F. Bordas, the blue colour of sapphire exposed to the action of radium changes to green and then to yellow.^ Blue is the main colour of the sapphire.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, experts in Tanzania have also found initial evidence of two large-scale gemstone deposits in the form of some good, if not very large sapphire crystals coloured blue, green, yellow and orange.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The presence of small amounts of other elements, especially iron and chrome, are responsible for the colouring, turning a crystal that was basically white into a blue, red, yellow, pink or greenish sapphire.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under artificial illumination many sapphires appear dark and inky, whilst in some cases the blue changes to a violet, so that the sapphire seems to be transformed to an amethyst.^ Dark blue commercial sapphires.
  • Sapphire, Gemstones, Colored Gems, Semi Precious Gems, Gem Cutting, Faceting 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.buenavistagemworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some sapphires (color change sapphires) will change between blue and violet depending on the light.
  • Sapphire and Gemstones - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: General]

^ Alexandrite sapphire appears blue in daylight and reddish or violet in artificial illumination, somewhat like true alexandrite.
  • sapphire (gemstone) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

.According to lapidaries the hardness of sapphire slightly exceeds that of ruby, and it is also rather denser.^ Rather coincidentally, two different re-implementations of Ruby (a new interpreter and a new language, respectively) with the name of Sapphire have appeared on my radar recently.
  • Sapphire – Two New Re-Implementations of Ruby 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.rubyinside.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Notwithstanding its hardness it has been sometimes engraved as a gem.
Ceylon has for ages been famous for sapphires. .They occur, with many other gem-stones, as pebbles or rolled crystals in alluvial deposits of sand and gravel; the gem-gravel being known locally as illam. The principal localities are Ratnapura, Rakwana in the province of Sabara-Gamawa and Matara.^ Many of the stones found in this area were coated with a thin skin of almost opaque indigo colour which, on being ground off, revealed a centre sometimes of a fine gem quality, but in many cases of greenish shade.
  • Burmese Sapphire Giants: Large Burma Corundums 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The original locality for padparadscha is Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and many purists today believe the term should be restricted only to stones from Ceylon.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some other local mineral material was being handled by Lawrence D. Venezia (115 Coleridge St., E. Boston, MA 02128).

.Some of the slightlycloudy Ceylon sapphires, usually of greyish-blue colour, display when cut with a convex face a chatoyant luminosity, sometimes forming a luminous star of six rays, whence they are called "starsapphires" (see Asteria).^ Blue is the main colour of the sapphire.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The specialist recognises Ceylon sapphires by the luminosity of their light to mid-blue colours.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, experts in Tanzania have also found initial evidence of two large-scale gemstone deposits in the form of some good, if not very large sapphire crystals coloured blue, green, yellow and orange.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

The asterism seems due to the presence of microscopic tubular cavities, or to enclosure of crystalline minerals, arranged in a definite system. .In 1875 sapphires were discovered in deposits of clay and sand in Battambang (Siam), where they have been worked on a considerable scale.^ There are two versions of the discovery of the corundum deposits at Sungchang in Zanskar, one being that they were exposed by a hill-side slipping, the other that they were discovered by hunters.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ruby & Sapphire Deposits of Moung Klung, Siam – 1894 account of mining ruby and sapphire in Thailand.

They occur also with rubies in the provinces of Chantabun and Krat. .Many of the Siamese sapphires are of very dark colour, some being so deeply tinted as to appear almost black by reflected light.^ Meanwhile, experts in Tanzania have also found initial evidence of two large-scale gemstone deposits in the form of some good, if not very large sapphire crystals coloured blue, green, yellow and orange.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sapphires from other parts of the world generally absorb artificial light, making them appear black and lusterless.
  • Sapphire and Gemstones - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the stones found in this area were coated with a thin skin of almost opaque indigo colour which, on being ground off, revealed a centre sometimes of a fine gem quality, but in many cases of greenish shade.
  • Burmese Sapphire Giants: Large Burma Corundums 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Upper Burma sapphires occur in association with rubies, but are much less important (see Ruby).^ Although rubies are found with much greater frequency at Mogok (rubies form about 80-90% of the total output), sapphires may reach larger sizes.
  • Burmese Sapphire Giants: Large Burma Corundums 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stone Sizes Blue sapphires occur in far larger sizes than ruby, with Sri Lanka being the home of most of the faceted sapphires of quality in the 100-ct.

^ We can see that padma raga was originally applied to a lotus-colored ruby, but for some that might even include a ratu puspa raga (a reddish yellow sapphire).
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sapphires are also found in Kashmir, where they occur, associated with tourmaline, in the Zanskar range, especially near the village of Soomjam.^ Sapphires really are gems of the sky, although they are found in the hard ground of our 'blue planet'.
  • Sapphire - english 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemstone.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sapphires found at the New Mines differ in one important respect from those of the Old Mine, and this difference is important in understanding Kashmir material.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Occurring with the sapphires are dark green and brown prisms of tourmaline.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Madagascar yields sapphires generally of very deep colour, occurring as rolled crystals.^ The color generally lies near the tips and exterior surfaces of crystals, similar to ottu sapphires from Sri Lanka.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Deep blue corundum of a beautiful water, very rough externally, no crystal more than 4 inches [10 cm] long; sp.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In February of 1994, this mine yielded the 502-ct sapphire crystal in Figure 6.
  • Burmese Sapphire Giants: Large Burma Corundums 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sapphire is widely distributed through the gold-bearing drifts of Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland, but the blue colour of the Australian stones is usually dark, and it is notable that green tints are not infrequent.^ Carat Blue Green Australian Sapphire $146.00 .
  • Faceted Sapphires and Sapphire Cabochons @ Gem Soul 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemsoul.com [Source type: General]

^ Carat Dark Blue Sapphire from Queensland, Australia $88.00 .
  • Faceted Sapphires and Sapphire Cabochons @ Gem Soul 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gemsoul.com [Source type: General]

^ Dark Blue Australian Sapphire faceted by our Master Facetor.
  • Gemstone Photographs - Sapphire 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.atggems.com [Source type: General]

The Anakie sapphire-fields of Queensland are situated near Anakie station on the Central railway, to the west of Emerald and east of the Drummond Range. Sapphire occurs also in Tasmania. .Coarse sapphire is found in many parts of the United States, and the mineral occurs of gem quality in North Carolina and Montana.^ Good quality sapphire is found in Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and India.
  • Sapphire and Gemstones - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: General]

^ Based in Bangkok (Thailand), Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Sndgems  is a leading manufacturer of gem quality Burmese rubies, Ceylon sapphires both in heated and un-heated stones.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

^ These may be found growing right up against the sapphire and are occasionally included within the gem itself.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The great corundum deposits ofCorundumHill,Macon county,N.C.,have yielded good sapphires, and they are found also at Cowee Creek in the same county.^ Good quality sapphire is found in Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and India.
  • Sapphire and Gemstones - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: General]

^ We will continue to seek out good colored, faceted orange sapphires, but unless they are determined to be of natural color by a gemological lab, they are suspected to have been diffusion treated.
  • Gemstone Photographs - Sapphire 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.atggems.com [Source type: General]

^ We are calling it Star Corundum and the new owner can decide whether they want to call it Star Ruby or Star Sapphire.
  • Gemstone Photographs - Sapphire 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.atggems.com [Source type: General]

.In Montana, sapphires were discovered as far back as 1865, and have been worked on a large scale.^ Thus the discovery of sapphire in Kashmir is possibly more widespread than what has so far been discovered.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The news of this transaction got back to the maharaja of that time, who discovered that the sapphires had been picked up in his own Kashmir hills.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

They were originally found in washing for gold. .The rolled crystals of sapphire occur, with garnet and other minerals, in glacial deposits, and have probably been derived from dykes of igneous rocks, like andesite and lamprophyre.^ Other than blue, sapphires also occur in violet, purple, colorless and yellow colors at Mogok.
  • Burmese Sapphire Giants: Large Burma Corundums 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Technically, any crystal of the mineral corundum which is not red (and therefore is a ruby ) or a certain type of orange (and therefore is a padparadscha ) is a sapphire.

^ Within an actinolite-tremolite rock, small pegmatite lenses occur, and it is within these lenses that the sapphires are found.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.They display much variety of colour, and exhibit peculiar brilliancy when cut, but are often of pale tints.^ Due to the irregular distribution of color in Kashmir rough, cut stones will also often display strong color zoning, similar to Sri Lankan material.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a specimen is free from cavity or window and does not exhibit ambiguity of colour it can be cut into an excellent Gem.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cut as garnet brilliants, garnets are used as ring stones with large ones as pendants, often with cabochon cut and carved.

.The principal localities are at Missouri Bar, Ruby Bar and other places near Helena, where they were first worked, and also at Yogo Gulch, near Utica.^ Star Corundum, purchased as a Star Ruby and would be considered a Ruby in Europe as well as other places in the world.
  • Gemstone Photographs - Sapphire 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.atggems.com [Source type: General]

^ The reason some "lost" mines tend to get lost and forgotten in the first place, is because they were mined out!

^ One problem with names like padparadscha is that they are intrinsically associated with the localities where they were first found.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Helena crystals are of tabular habit, being composed of the basal pinacoid with a very short hexagonal prism, whilst at Yogo Gulch many of the crystals affect a rhombohedral habit.^ Spindle-shaped hexagonal bipyramids are most common, sometimes terminated by the basal pinacoid.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rutile in fine clouds of generally tiny crystals, parallel to the hexagonal prism (3 directions at 60/120°) in the basal plane.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

The Montana sapphires and the matrix have been described by Dr G. F. Kunz, Professor L. V. Pirsson and Dr J. H. Pratt (Amer. Jour. Sc., ser. 4, vol. iv., 1897). .The sapphire occurs also in Europe, being found in the Iserweise of Bohemia and in the basalt of the Rhine valley and of Le-Puy-en-Velay in France, but the European stones have no interest as gems.^ No trace of pegmatite veins is found near it and the mine has not yielded any stones for very many years since the late eighties".
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most gem dealers would classify stones 3 and 4 as rubies, while stone 1 would be a pink sapphire.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based in Bangkok (Thailand), Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Sndgems  is a leading manufacturer of gem quality Burmese rubies, Ceylon sapphires both in heated and un-heated stones.
  • Sapphire Rings: Sapphire Diamond Engagement Rings Ruby Sapphire Rings 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.sndgems.com [Source type: General]

.Although the term sapphire is primarily applied to blue corundum, it is often used in a general sense so as to include all corundum of gem quality, regardless of colour.^ The term sapphire alone describes the blue variety of gem corundum.
  • Sapphire Buying Guide 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: General]

^ Outside of Asia, such gems are generally termed pink sapphires.
  • Sapphire Buying Guide 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: General]

^ General Tags Forums Search tip: To search for an exact phrase or game name, use quotation marks around your terms.
  • sapphire - GameSpot 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.gamespot.com [Source type: General]

.Hence clear colourless corundum is known as white sapphire or "leucosapphire."^ Most commonly refers to a blue gem variety of Corundum, but other coloured varieties of Corundum are also described as Sapphire, except red Corundum, which is better known as Ruby.
  • Sapphire and Gemstones - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: General]

^ Round Natural Clear/White Sapphire; Rare in this size and cut!
  • Gemstone Photographs - Sapphire 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.atggems.com [Source type: General]

^ Opaque white corundum, sapphire tinge in places, small black crystals (probably tourmaline) imbedded.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such stones have been occasionally cut as lenses for microscopes, being recommended for such use by their high refractivity, weak dispersion and great hardness.^ Figure 8 Kashmir sapphires, such as the stone above, are often cut as sugarloaf cabochons.
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This cut is used for star stones, or those not clean enough to facet.

^ Emerald as a gem stone with a good cut and clearance is for sure a valuable investment into a great piece of jewelry.

.White topaz is sometimes called "water-sapphire," a name which should, however, be restricted to iolite (q.v.^ Travel Restrictions: Ticket(s) may be purchased in any name designated by you; however, tickets will be mailed or e-mailed, as applicable, to your address.

^ All gem quality corundum {name derived from the Sanskrit, kuruvinda ("Ruby")} that is not red is called sapphire such as blue, orange, yellow, violet, green, white and pink.
  • Sapphire and Gemstones - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: General]

^ "Lux sapphire", "Lynx sapphire" and "Water Sapphire" are really Iolite.
  • Sapphire and Gemstones - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: General]

). .Yellow corundum is not uncommon in Ceylon and is termed yellow sapphire or "oriental topaz," the prefix "oriental" being often applied to corundum.^ Introduction The term sapphire alone describes the blue variety of gem corundum.

^ If Thais used the same logic for blue sapphire as we apply for ruby/pink sapphire, then blue sapphires from Ceylon would have a different name than those from Australia.
  • Padparadscha and Pink Sapphire Defined 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We offer a wide range of colors from a traditional Ceylon blue , to rich lustrous royal blue, to many styles with pink , orange, and yellow sapphires.
  • Sapphire Rings. Over 100 Unique Sapphire Diamond Ring Styles. 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.myjewelrysource.com [Source type: General]

When of pale yellowish-green colour the sapphire is called "oriental chrysolite," when greenish-blue "oriental aquamarine," when of brilliant green colour "oriental emerald," and when violet "oriental amethyst." (For figure of crystal of sapphire see Corundum and for artificial sapphire see GEM, § Artificial.) The so-called "Hope sapphires" of trade have been shown to be artificial blue spinets, coloured by cobalt.
Sapphirine is a rare mineral, not related to sapphire except in colour. It is a silicate, containing aluminium, magnesium and iron' brought originally from Greenland, and since found in a rock from the Vizagapatam district in India. (F. W. R.*)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also sapphire

English

Proper noun

Singular
Sapphire
Plural
-
Sapphire
  1. A female given name from the precious stone.

Related terms

  • Sapphira

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.
Associated with diamonds (Ex 28:18) and emeralds (Ezek 28:13); one of the stones in the high priest's breastplate.
^ Pliny speaks of a colossal emerald statue of Serapis 13 1/2 feet high, in the ancient Egyptian labyrinth.

.It is a precious stone of a sky-blue colour, probably the lapis lazuli, brought from Babylon.^ The former was described as rarer and more precious, displaying a rainbow blue, while the latter apparently included stones of a darker hue (Brown, 1956).
  • Kashmir Sapphire: Ruby & Sapphire from India 9 January 2010 20:16 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ LAPIS LAZULI - This stone consists of blue silicate lazurite with variable amounts of calcite and the brassy gold flecks of pyrite which is more abundant in the poorer quality material.

The throne of God is described as of the colour of a sapphire (Ex 24:10; comp. Ezek 1:26).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
This article needs to be merged with SAPPHIRE (Jewish Encyclopedia).

Simple English

File:Logan Sapphire, National Museum of Natural History, Washington
The 422.99-carat Logan sapphire. It is one of the largest blue sapphires in the world.

Sapphire is a non-red type of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide (Al2O3).

Sapphires, in fact, are the similar to rubies, except that they are not red.

It can be found in the ground or it can be made in large crystal. Blue sapphires are the most famous kind, but they can be of many different colors, like amber and orange.

Sapphires have long history. Tradition says that the tablets of the Ten Commandments were made of sapphire, so strong a hammer could not break them, and would break instead if it hit them. The ancient Persians believed that the earth sat on a big sapphire and that the big sapphire made the sky blue.

A lot of ancient people thought rubies made people calm down, as well as cure their bruises.

Sapphires have been used by kings and queens for a long time as a symbol of luck, life lessons, being wise, and holiness.

Princess Diana and Princess Anne both received sapphire engagement rings and the British Crown Jewels are full of large blue sapphires, the symbol of kind and wise rulers.

Sapphires represent September. It symbolizes telling the truth and doing what you said you would.

bjn:Nilam



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sapphire, which are similar to those in the above article.








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