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Saranya (Saraṇyū) or Saraniya (also known as Saranya, Sanjna, or Sangya) is the wife of Surya, and a goddess of the dawn and the clouds in Hindu mythology, and is sometimes associated with Demeter. According to Max Müller and A. Kuhn, Demeter is the mythological equivalent of the Sanskrit Saranyu, who, having turned herself into a mare, is pursued by Vivasvat, and becomes the mother of Revanta and the twin Asvins, the Indian Dioscuri (the Indian and Greek myths being regarded as identical). She is also the mother of Manu, the twins Yama and Yami. According to Farnell, the meaning of the epithet is to be looked for in the original conception of Erinys, which was that of an earth-goddess akin to Ge, thus naturally associated with Demeter, rather than that of a wrathful avenging deity.

Saraṇyū is the female form of the adjective saraṇyú, meaning "quick, fleet, nimble", used for rivers and wind in the Rigveda (compare also Sarayu).

Etymologically, Saranyu may be related to Helen. In Rigveda 10.17, Saranyu is the daughter of Tvastar, and, like Helen, is abducted, and Vivasvat is given a replacement bride instead.

1ab tváṣṭā duhitré vahatúṃ kṛṇotîtīdáṃ víśvam bhúvanaṃ sám eti1
1cd yamásya mātâ paryuhyámānā mahó jāyâ vívasvato nanāśa
2ab ápāgūhann amŕtām mártyebhyaḥ kṛtvî sávarṇām adadur vívasvate
2cd utâśvínāv abharad yát tád âsīd ájahād u dvâ mithunâ saraṇyûḥ
Tvastar prepares the bridal of his Daughter: all the world hears the tidings and assembles.
But Yama's Mother, Spouse of great Vivasvat, vanished as she was carried to her dwelling.
From mortal men they hid the Immortal Lady, made one like her and gave her to Vivasvat.
Saranyu brought to him the Asvin brothers, and then deserted both twinned pairs of children.

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