Sargon may refer to:
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SARGON, more correctly SARRU-KINI ("the legitimate king," Sargon being a hybrid formation from the Semitic sar and the Sumerian gina, " established"), an Assyrian general who, on the death of Shalmaneser IV., during the siege of Samaria, seized the crown on the 12th of Tebet 722 B.C. He claimed to be the descendant of the early kings, and accordingly assumed the name of a famous king of Babylonia who had reigned about 3000 years before him. His first achievement was the capture of Samaria, 27,200 of its inhabitants being carried into captivity. Meanwhile Babylon had revolted under a Chaldaean prince, Merodach-baladan, who maintained his power there for twelve years. In 720 B.C. Yahu-bihdi of Hamath led Arpad, Damascus and Palestine into revolt: this was suppressed, and the Philistines and Egyptians were defeated at Raphia (mod. er-Rafa). In 719 B.C. Sargon defeated the Minni to the east of Armenia, and in 717 overthrew the combined forces of the Hittites and Moschi (Old Testament Meshech). The Hittite city of Carchemish was placed under an Assyrian governor, and its trade passed into Assyrian hands. The following year Sargon was attacked by a great confederacy of the northern nations - Ararat, the Moschi, Tibareni, &c. - and in the course of the campaign marched into the land of the Medes in the direction of the Caspian. In 715 B.C. the Minni were defeated, and one of their chiefs, Dayuku or Daiukku (Deioces), transported to Hamath. In 714 B.C. the army of Rusas of Ararat was annihilated, and a year later five Median chiefs, including Arbaku (Arbaces) became tributary. Cilicia and the Tibareni also submitted as well as the city of Malatia, eastern Cappadocia being annexed to the Assyrian Empire. A league was now formed between Merodach-baladan and the princes of the west, but before the confederates could move, an Assyrian army was sent against Ashdod, and Edom, Moab and Judah submitted to Sargon, who was thus free to turn his attention to Babylonia, and Merodach-baladan was accordingly driven from Babylon, where Sargon was crowned king. Shortly after this Sargon sent a statue of himself to Cyprus and annexed the kingdom of Commagene. He was murdered in 705 B.C., probably in the palace he had built at Dur-Sargina, now Khorsabad, which was excavated by P. E. Botta. (A. H. S.)
|Kings of Assyria|
(In the inscriptions, "Sarra-yukin" [the god] has appointed the king; also "Sarru-kinu," the legitimate king.)
On the death of Shalmaneser (B.C. 723), one of the Assyrian generals established himself on the vacant throne, taking the name of "Sargon," after that of the famous monarch, the Sargon of Accad, founder of the first Semitic empire, as well as of one of the most famous libraries of Chaldea. He forthwith began a conquering career, and became one of the most powerful of the Assyrian monarchs. He is mentioned by name in the Bible only in connection with the siege of Ashdod (Isa 20:1).
At the very beginning of his reign he besieged and took the city of Samaria (2Kg 17:6; 2Kg 18:9ff). On an inscription found in the palace he built at Khorsabad, near Nieveh, he says, "The city of Samaria I besieged, I took; 27,280 of its inhabitants I carried away; fifty chariots that were among them I collected," etc. The northern kingdom he changed into an Assyrian satrapy. He afterwards drove Merodach-baladan, who kept him at bay for twelve years, out of Babylon, which he entered in triumph.
By a succession of victories he gradually enlarged and consolidated the empire, which now extended from the frontiers of Egypt in the west to the mountains of Elam in the east, and thus carried almost to completion the ambitious designs of Tiglath-pileser. He was murdered by one of his own soldiers (B.C. 705) in his palace at Khorsabad, after a reign of sixteen years, and was succeeded by his son Sennacherib.
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Sargon may refer to different rulers. The name Sargon is what texts in the Bible use, the people were not known as Sargon in their native language: