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A primary school in Madhya Pradesh village.

The 'Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan' (Hindi: The 'Education for All' Movement, is a flagship programme of the Government of India pioneered by Atal Bihari Vajpayee for achievement of universalization of elementary education in a time bound manner, as mandated by the 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory education to children of ages 6-14 (estimated to be 205 million in number in 2001) a fundamental right. The programme aims to achieve the goal of universalization of elementary education of satisfactory quality by 2010. There are 8 main programs in SSA.It includes ICDS,AANGANWADI etc. It also Includes KGBVY. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidalaya Yojana was started in 2004 with a view to give primary education to all girls. later on it was merged with SSA.



  1. All in school by 2005.
  2. Complete 5 years of primary education by 2005 and 8 years of schooling by 2010.
  3. Satisfactory Quality with emphasis on education for life.
  4. Bridge all gender and social gaps at primary level by 2007 and elementary level by 2010.
  5. Universal retention by 2010.

The programme seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants. Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided with additional teachers, while the capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive training, grants for developing teaching-learning materials and strengthening of the academic support structure at a cluster, block and district level. SSA seeks to provide quality elementary education including life skills. SSA has a special focus on girl's education and children with special needs. SSA also seeks to provide computer education to bridge the digital divide. due to low attendance mid day meal was introduced

Recognizing good performance, outlay for SSA has been increased from Rs 7156 crore in 2005-06 to Rs 10004 crore in 2006-07. Target is to construct 500,000 additional class rooms and to appoint 1,50,000 more teachers. During 2006-07, it has been decided to transfer Rs 8746 crore to the Prarambhik Siksha Kosh from the revenues raised through the education cess.


Constitutional, legal and national statements for universalization of elementary education

  1. Constitutional mandate, 1950 - "The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education to all children until they complete the age of 14 years."
  2. National Policy of Education, 1986 - "It shall be ensured that free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality is provided to all children up to 14 years of age before we enter the twenty first century".
  3. Unnikrishnan Judgement, 1993 - "Every child/citizen of this country has a right to free education until he completes the age of fourteen years." due to low attendance mid day meal was introduced


  • All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre or Alternate School by 2003
  • All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007
  • All children complete eight years of schooling by 2010
  • Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life
  • Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010

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