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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Saskatchewan
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Latin: Multis e Gentibus Vires
("Strength from Many Peoples")
Capital Regina
Largest city Saskatoon
Largest metro Saskatoon
Official languages English (de facto)
Demonym Saskatchewanian, Saskatchewaner[1]
Government
Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart
Premier Brad Wall (Saskatchewan Party)
Federal representation in Canadian Parliament
House seats 14
Senate seats 6
Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (8th (province))
Area  Ranked 7th
Total 651,900 km2 (251,700 sq mi)
Land 591,670 km2 (228,450 sq mi)
Water (%) 59,366 km2 (22,921 sq mi) (9.1%)
Population  Ranked 6th
Total (2009) 1,034,974[2]
Density 1.67 /km2 (4.3 /sq mi)
GDP  Ranked 6th
Total (2006) C$45.051 billion[3]
Per capita C$45,718 (5th)
Abbreviations
Postal SK
ISO 3166-2 CA-SK
Time zone UTC−6 (no daylight saving time) Lloydminster and vicinity: UTC−7 and does observe DST
Postal code prefix S
Flower Western Red Lily
Tree Paper Birch
Bird Sharp-tailed Grouse
Website www.gov.sk.ca
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Saskatchewan  Listeni /səˈskæɪwɑːn/ is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588,276.09 square kilometres (227,100 sq mi) and a population of 1,034,974 (according to 2009 estimates), mostly living in the southern half of the province. Of these, 233,923 live in the province's largest city, Saskatoon, while 194,971 live in the provincial capital, Regina. Other major cities, in order of size, are Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift Current and North Battleford. The province's name comes from the Saskatchewan River, whose name comes from its Cree designation: kisiskāciwani-sīpiy, meaning "swift flowing river".[4]

Contents

Geography

From a great scale, Saskatchewan appears to be somewhat a quadrilateral. However, because of its size, the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is partially crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program (1880–1928). Saskatchewan is bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the American states of Montana and North Dakota. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features (i.e. they are parallels and meridians). Saskatchewan is also one of only two provinces that are land-locked, the other being Alberta.

The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel.

Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Canadian Shield in the north and the Interior Plains in the south. Northern Saskatchewan is mostly covered by boreal forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, and adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca. Southern Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres (120 sq mi). The Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands (Grasslands National Park), are areas of the province that remained unglaciated during the last glaciation period. The province's highest point, at 1,468 metres (4,816 ft), is located in the Cypress Hills and is the highest geographical point above sea-level between the Rocky Mountains and Québec. The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 metres (699 ft). The province has fourteen major drainage basins[5] made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.

Climate

Saskatchewan lies far from any significant body of water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm summer version of humid continental climate (Köppen type Dfb) in the central and most of the eastern part, drying off to a semi-arid steppe climate (Köppen type BSk) in the southern and southwestern part of the province. The northern parts of Saskatchewan — from about La Ronge northward — have a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc). Summers can be very hot, with temperatures sometimes above 32 °C (90 °F) during the day, and humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the United States during much of July and August, while winters can be bitterly cold,[6] with high temperatures not breaking −17 °C (1.4 °F) for weeks at a time, warm chinook winds often blow from the west, bringing periods of mild weather. Annual precipitation averages 30 to 45 centimetres (12 to 18 inches) across the province, with the bulk of rain falling in June, July, and August.[7]

The hottest temperature ever recorded in Canada happened in Saskatchewan. The temperature rose to an incredible 45 degrees Celsius in Midale and Yellow Grass. The coldest ever recorded was -56.7 degrees Celsius in Prince Albert, which is north of Saskatoon.

Average temperatures in cities

City[8] July(°C)[8] July(°F)[8] January(°C)[8] January(°F)[8]
Estevan 27/13 81/55 -9/-20 16/-4
Weyburn 26/12 79/54 -10/-21 14/-6
Moose Jaw 26/12 79/54 -8/-19 18/-2
Regina 26/11 79/52 -10/-22 14/-8
Saskatoon 25/11 77/52 -12/-22 10/-8
Melville 25/11 77/52 -12/-23 10/-9
Swift Current 25/11 77/52 -7/-17 19/1
Humboldt 24/11 75/52 -12/-23 10/-9
Melfort 24/11 75/52 -14/-23 7/-9
North Battleford 24/11 75/52 -12/-22 10/-8
Yorkton 24/11 75/52 -13/-23 9/-9
Lloydminster 23/11 73/52 -10/-19 14/-2

History

Prior to European settlement, Saskatchewan was populated by various indigenous peoples of North America, including members of the Athabaskan, Algonquian, Atsina, Cree, Saulteaux and Sioux tribes. The first European to enter Saskatchewan was Henry Kelsey in 1690, who travelled up the Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with the province's indigenous peoples. The first permanent European settlement was a Hudson's Bay Company post at Cumberland House, founded in 1774 by Samuel Hearne.[9]

Henry Kelsey sees the buffalo on the western plains.

In 1803 the Louisiana Purchase transferred from France to the United States part of what is now Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1818 it was ceded to the United Kingdom. Most of what is now Saskatchewan, though, was part of Rupert's Land and controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company, which claimed rights to all watersheds flowing into Hudson Bay, including the Saskatchewan, Churchill, Assiniboine, Souris, and Qu'Appelle River systems.

Part of Alberta and Saskatchewan was bought by the United States, while part of North Dakota and Minnesota belonged to Rupert's Land.

In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John Palliser and Henry Youle Hind explored the prairie region of the province.

In 1870, Canada acquired the Hudson's Bay Company's territories and formed the North-West Territories to administer the vast territory between British Columbia and Manitoba. The Crown also entered into a series of numbered treaties with the indigenous peoples of the area, which serve as the basis of the relationship between First Nations, as they are called today, and the Crown.

In 1885, post-Confederation Canada's first "naval battle" was fought in Saskatchewan, when a steamship engaged the Métis at Batoche in the North-West Rebellion.[10]

A seminal event in the history of what was to become Western Canada was the 1874 "March West" of the federal government's new North-West Mounted Police. Despite poor equipment and lack of provisions, the men on the march persevered and established a federal presence in the new territory. Historians have argued that had this expedition been unsuccessful, the expansionist United States would have been sorely tempted to expand into the political vacuum.[citation needed] And even had it not, then the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway would have been delayed or taken a different, more northerly route, stunting the early growth of towns like Brandon, Regina, Medicine Hat and Calgary — had these existed at all. Failure to construct the railway could also have forced British Columbia to join the United States.

Settlement of the province started to take off as the Canadian Pacific Railway was built in the early 1880s, and the Canadian government divided up the land by the Dominion Land Survey and gave free land to any willing settlers.

The North-West Mounted Police set up several posts and forts across Saskatchewan including Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills, and Wood Mountain Post in south-central Saskatchewan near the United States border.

In 1876, following the Battle of Little Bighorn Lakota, Chief Sitting Bull led several thousand of his people to Wood Mountain. Wood Mountain Reserve was founded in 1914.

Many Métis people, who had not been signatories to a treaty, had moved to the Southbranch Settlement and Prince Albert district north of present-day Saskatoon following the Red River Resistance in Manitoba in 1870. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. Finally, in 1885, the Métis, led by Louis Riel, staged the North-West Rebellion and declared a provisional government. They were defeated by a Canadian militia brought to the Canadian prairies by the new Canadian Pacific Railway. Riel – who surrendered and was convicted of treason in a packed Regina courtroom – was hanged on November 16, 1885.

As more settlers came to the prairies on the railway, the population grew, and Saskatchewan became a province on September 1, 1905; inauguration day was held September 4.

The Homestead Act permitted settlers to acquire one quarter of a square mile of land to homestead and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead. Immigration peaked in 1910, and in spite of the initial difficulties of frontier life, distance from towns, sod homes, and backbreaking labour, a prosperous agrarian society was established.

Bennett Buggies, automobiles pulled by horses, were used during the Great Depression by farmers too impoverished to purchase gasoline.

In 1913, the Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association was established as Saskatchewan's first ranchers' organization. Three objectives were laid out at the founding convention in 1913 have served as a guide: to watch over legislation; to forward the interests of the Stock Growers in every honourable and legitimate way; and to suggest to parliament legislation to meet changing conditions and requirements. Its farming equivalent, the Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association, was the dominant political force in the province until the 1920s and had close ties with the governing Liberal party.

In the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan imported from the United States and Ontario and gained brief popularity in WASP nativist circles in Saskatchewan and Alberta. The Klan, briefly allied with the provincial Conservative party because of their mutual dislike for Premier James G. "Jimmy" Gardiner and his Liberals (who ferociously fought the Klan), enjoyed about two years of prominence, then disappeared, victims of widespread political and media opposition plus scandals involving their own funds.

In 1970, the first annual Canadian Western Agribition was held in Regina. This farm-industry trade show, with its heavy emphasis on livestock, is rated as one of the five top livestock shows in North America, along with those in Houston, Denver, Louisville and Toronto.

Demographics

According to the 2006 Canadian census,[11] the largest ethnic group in Saskatchewan is German (30.0%), followed by English (26.5%), Scottish (19.2%), Irish (15.3%), Ukrainian (13.6%), French (12.4%), First Nations (12.1%), Norwegian (7.2%), Polish (6.0%), Métis (4.4%), Dutch (3.7%), Russian (3.7%) and Swedish (3.5%) - although 18.1% of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian".

Saskatchewan's population since 1901
Year Population Five-year
% change
Ten-year
% change
Rank among
provinces
1901 91,279 n/a n/a 8
1911 492,432 n/a 439.5 3
1921 757,510 n/a 53.8 3
1931 921,785 n/a 21.7 3
1941 895,992 n/a -2.8 3
1951 831,728 n/a -7.2 5
1956 880,665 5.9 n/a 5
1961 925,181 5.1 11.2 5
1966 955,344 3.3 8.5 6
1971 926,242 -3.0 0.1 6
1976 921,325 -0.5 3.6 6
1981 968,313 5.1 4.5 6
1986 1,009,613 4.3 9.6 6
1991 988,928 -2.0 2.1 6
1996 976,615 -1.2 -3.3 6
2001 978,933 0.2 -1.0 6
2006 985,386 0.7 0.9 6

[12][13]

Religion

The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church with 286,815 (30%); the United Church of Canada with 187,450 (20%); and the Lutherans with 78,520 (8%). 148,535 (15.4%) responded "no religion".[14]

Economy

Saskatchewan's economy is associated with agriculture; however, increasing diversification has meant that now agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting together make up only 6.8% of the province's GDP. Saskatchewan grows 45% of Canada's grain.[citation needed] Wheat is the most familiar crop and the one most often associated with the province (there are sheafs of wheat depicted on the coat of arms of Saskatchewan), but other grains like canola, flax, rye, oats, peas, lentils, canary seed, and barley are also produced. Beef cattle production in the province is only exceeded by Alberta. Mining is also a major industry in the province, with Saskatchewan being the world's largest exporter of potash and uranium.[15] In the northern part of the province, forestry is also a significant industry.

Oil and natural gas production is also a very important part of Saskatchewan's economy, although the oil industry is larger. Only Alberta exceeds the province in overall oil production.[16] Heavy crude is extracted in the Lloydminster-Kerrobert-Kindersley areas. Light crude is found in the Kindersley-Swift Current areas as well as the Weyburn-Estevan fields. Natural gas is found almost entirely in the western part of Saskatchewan, from the Primrose Lake area through Lloydminster, Unity, Kindersley, Leader, and around Maple Creek areas.[17]

Saskatchewan's GDP in 2006 was approximately C$45.922 billion,[18] with economic sectors breaking down in the following way:

 % Sector
17.1 finance, insurance, real estate, leasing
13.0 mining, petroleum
11.9 education, health, social services
11.7 wholesale and retail trade
9.1 transportation, communications, utilities
7.7 manufacturing
6.8 agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting
6.5 business services
5.8 government services
5.1 construction
5.3 other

A list of the top 100 companies includes The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan, Federated Cooperatives Ltd. and IPSCO.

Major Saskatchewan-based Crown corporations are Saskatchewan Government Insurance (SGI), SaskTel, SaskEnergy (the province's main supplier of natural gas), and SaskPower. Bombardier runs the NATO Flying Training Centre at 15 Wing, near Moose Jaw. Bombardier was awarded a long-term contract in the late 1990s for $2.8 billion from the federal government for the purchase of military aircraft and the running of the training facility. SaskPower since 1929 has been the principal supplier of electricity in Saskatchewan, serving more than 451,000 customers and managing $4.5 billion in assets. SaskPower is a major employer in the province with almost 2,500 permanent full-time staff located in 71 communities.

Provincial finances

Fiscal Year Population2 Public Debt3 Budget Surplus GFSF Balance Pers. Inc. Tax Revenue Corp. Inc. Tax Sales tax Revenue Resource Revenue Health Expense
20101 - - - - - - - - -
2009 1,027,092 4,145,286 2,388,863 1,215,000 1,844,226 591,930 1,108,628 4,154,109 3,976,241
2008 1,012,044 6,824,323 1,282,869 1,528,934 1,938,258 673,641 673,641 2,325,116 3,504,333
2007 992,238 7,244,938 397,394 887,500 1,668,538 554,001 1,079,794 1,694,252 3,202,965
2006 985,386 7,197,223 539,466 887,500 1,447,905 393,629 1,112,350 1,721,100 2,990,625
2005 991,884 7,545,574 765,117 748,500 1,329,081 257,679 985,079 1,474,191 2,773,961
2004 N/A 8,031,637 -210,017 366,000 1,245,763 310,573 854,480 1,140,962 2,515,823
2003 N/A 7,821,426 82,860 577,000 1,429,757 178,267 813,932 1,243,649 2,342,835
2002 N/A 7,561,899 -278,902 495,000 1,196,410 145,338 770,984 903,044 2,199,723

The Tabulated Data covers the previous fiscal year (e.g. 2008 covers April 1, 2007 - March 31, 2008). All data is in $1,000s.

1 These values reflect estimates made after the mid-year fiscal update (April 1 - September 30).

2 These values reflect the estimated population at the end of the previous fiscal year.

3 These values reflect the debt of the General Revenue Fund alone. It does not reflect the debt of Government Service Organizations (Health Authorities, Crop Insurance Corporation, etc.) or Government Service Enterprises (Crown Corporations).

Source: Government of Saskatchewan.[19]

Government and politics

Saskatchewan has the same form of government[20] as the other Canadian provinces with a lieutenant-governor (who is the representative of the Crown in Right of Saskatchewan), premier, and a unicameral legislature.

For many years, Saskatchewan has been one of Canada's more progressive provinces, reflecting many of its citizens' feelings of alienation from the interests of large capital. In 1944 Tommy Douglas became premier of the first avowedly socialist regional government in North America. Most of his Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) represented rural and small-town ridings. Under his Cooperative Commonwealth Federation government, Saskatchewan became the first province to have Medicare. In 1961, Douglas left provincial politics to become the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party.

Provincial politics in Saskatchewan is dominated by the New Democrats and the Saskatchewan Party. Numerous smaller political parties also run candidates in provincial elections, including the Green Party, Liberal Party, and the Progressive Conservative Party, but none is currently represented in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. After 16 years of New Democratic governments under premiers Roy Romanow and Lorne Calvert, the recent 2007 provincial election was won by the Saskatchewan Party under Brad Wall.

Recent federal elections have been dominated by the Conservative Party since the party currently represents 13 of 14 federal ridings in Saskatchewan, while the Liberal Party of Canada represents one federal riding.

While both Saskatoon and Regina (Saskatchewan's largest cities) are roughly twice the population of an urban riding in Canada, both are split into multiple ridings that blend them with rural communities.

Municipalities

Ten largest municipalities by population

Municipality 1996 2001 2006
Saskatoon 193,653 196,861 202,340
Regina 180,404 178,225 179,246
Prince Albert 34,777 34,291 34,138
Moose Jaw 32,973 32,131 32,132
Yorkton 15,154 15,107 15,038
Swift Current 14,890 14,821 14,946
North Battleford 14,051 13,692 13,190
Estevan 10,752 10,242 10,084
Weyburn 9,723 9,534 9,433
Corman Park 7,142 8,043 8,349

This list does not include Lloydminster, which has a total population of 24,028 but straddles the Alberta-Saskatchewan border. As of 2006, only 8,118 people lived on the Saskatchewan side, which would make it Saskatchewan's 11th largest municipality. All of the listed communities are considered cities by the province, with the exception of Corman Park, which is a rural municipality. Municipalities in the province with a population of 5,000 or more can receive official city status.

Education

The first education on the prairies was learned within the family group of the first nation or early fur trading family settlers. There were only a few missionary or trading post schools established in Rupert's Land – later known as the North West Territories.

The first 76 Northwest Territories school districts and the first Board of Education meeting formed in 1886. The pioneering boom formed ethnic bloc settlements. Communities were seeking education for their children similar to the schools of their home land. Log cabins, and dwellings were constructed for the assembly of the community, school, church, dances and meetings.

The roaring twenties and established farmers who had successfully proved up on their homesteads helped provide funding to standardize education.[citation needed] Text books, normal schools for formally educated teachers, school curricula, state of the art school house architectural plans, provided continuity throughout the province. English as the school language helped to provide economic stability because one community could communicate with another and goods could be traded and sold in a common language. The number of one-room school house districts across Saskatchewan totalled approximately 5,000 at the height of the one-room school house educational system in the late 1940s.[citation needed]

Following World War II, the transition from many one room school houses to fewer and larger consolidated modern technological town and city schools occurred as a means of ensuring technical education. School buses, highways, and family vehicles create ease and accessibility of a population shift to larger towns and cities. Combines and tractors mean that the farmer could successfully manage more than a quarter section of land, so there was a shift from family farms and subsistence crops to cash crops grown on many sections of land.

School vouchers have been newly proposed as a means of allowing competition between rural schools and making the operation of co-operative schools practicable in rural areas.

Provincial symbols

Flag

The flag of Saskatchewan was officially adopted on 22 September 1969. The flag features the provincial shield in the upper quarter nearest the staff, with the floral emblem, the Prairie Lily, in the fly. The upper green (in forest green) half of the flag represents the northern Saskatchewan forest lands, while the golden lower half of the flag symbolizes the southern wheat fields and prairies. A province-wide competition was held to design the flag, and drew over 4,000 entries. The winning design was by Anthony Drake, then living in Hodgeville.[21]

Fish

In 2005, Saskatchewan Environment held a province-wide vote to recognize Saskatchewan's centennial year, receiving more than 10,000 on-line and mail-in votes from the public.

The walleye was the overwhelming favourite of the six native fish species nominated for the designation, receiving more than half the votes cast.[22] Other species in the running were the lake sturgeon, lake trout, lake whitefish, northern pike and yellow perch.

Tartan

Saskatchewan's official tartan was registered with the Court of Lord Lyon King of Arms in Scotland in 1961. It has seven colours: gold, brown, green, red, yellow, white and black.

Licence plates

The provincial licence plates display the slogan "Land of Living Skies".

Centennial celebrations

The Saskatchewan Centennial Coin.

In 2005, Saskatchewan celebrated its centennial. To honour it, the Royal Canadian Mint issued a commemorative five-dollar coin depicting Canada's wheat fields as well as a circulation 25-cent coin of a similar design. Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh visited Regina, Saskatoon and Lumsden, and the Saskatchewan-reared Joni Mitchell issued an album in Saskatchewan's honour.

Provincial flower

The provincial flower of Saskatchewan is the Western Red Lily.

Healthcare

Saskatchewan's medical health system is widely and inaccurately characterised as "socialized medicine": medical practitioners in Saskatchewan, as in other Canadian provinces, are not civil servants but remit their accounts to the publicly funded Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Plan rather than to patients.[23] Unlike in Medicare in Australia and private medicine in the UK, Saskatchewan sets a statutory tariff for medical services which may not be exceeded.

Popular culture

Canadian television sitcoms Corner Gas and Little Mosque on the Prairie are both set in small Saskatchewan towns. The novels of W. O. Mitchell, Sinclair Ross, Frederick Philip Grove, Guy Vanderhaeghe, Michael Helm and Gail Bowen are also frequently set in Saskatchewan, as are children's novels of Farley Mowatt. The English naturalist "Grey Owl" spent much of his life living and studying in what is now Prince Albert National Park.

The Arrogant Worms' song "The Last Saskatchewan Pirate" about a disgruntled farmer who takes up piracy on the namesake river mentions various parts of the province such as Saskatoon, Regina and Moose Jaw. Popular Québécois band Les Trois Accords recorded a song in French called "Saskatchewan" on its first album, Gros Mammouth Album. It was the third single of that album and met moderate success in French Canada.

The Saskatchewan Roughriders are the province's only major professional sports franchise, and are extremely popular across Saskatchewan. The team's fans are also found to congregate on game days throughout Canada, and collectively they are known as "Rider Nation".

In 2006, the founder of One Red Paperclip, Kyle MacDonald, ended his trading-game after swapping a movie role in the film Donna on Demand for a two-story farmhouse in Kipling, Saskatchewan.

Arts and culture

Museums and galleries
Artist-run centres
  • AKA Gallery
  • PAVED Arts
  • Neutral Ground Artist-Run Centre and Soil Digital Media Suite, Regina
  • The Gallery on Sherbrooke, Wolseley
Artists
  • Dr William Hobbs, prairie and railways painter.
  • Joe Fafard, sculptor
  • Rod and Denyse Simair, crystalline porceline artists, winners of multiple worldwide awards
  • Rob Bos, paintings of multi-coloured trees.
  • Wilf Perreault paintings of back alleys.
  • Robin Poitras, dancer, organizer.
  • William Argan, cartoon artist.

Law and order

Police agencies
Correctional facilities
Saskmap2.png
  • Pine Grove Correctional Centre
  • Prince Albert Correctional Centre
  • Regina Correctional Centre
  • Regina Paul Dojack Youth Centre
  • Saskatchewan Penitentiary
  • Saskatoon correctional centre
  • Saskatoon Kilburn Hall

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Saskatchewanian is the prevalent demonym, and is used by the Government of Saskatchewan. According to the Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage (ISBN 0-19-541619-8; p. 335), Saskatchewaner is also in use.
  2. ^ Government of Saskatchewan. "Saskatchewan's population hits an all-time high". http://www.gov.sk.ca/news?newsId=1da8575c-14bd-4246-9c8f-fe7ebb1670cf. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  3. ^ Statistics Canada Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory
  4. ^ Name Source from the Government of Canada
  5. ^ Hydrology from The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
  6. ^ Bray, Tim (2008-12-23). "2008/12/23, Four PM". http://www.tbray.org/ongoing/When/200x/2009/02/06/2008-12-23. Retrieved 2008-02-28. "English just doesn’t have words to describe cold of that intensity. I was appropriately dressed but am still a mild-climate West Coast Wimp, and the cold hurt me wherever it touched me; and it tried really hard to find chinks in my clothing's armor to penetrate and hurt." 
  7. ^ Average Weather for Saskatoon, SK - Temperature and Precipitation
  8. ^ a b c d e "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada. http://www.climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/Welcome_e.html. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  9. ^ The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders' words. The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases.
  10. ^ Batoche by Dave Yanko
  11. ^ Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data
  12. ^ The history of Saskatchewan's population from Statistics Canada
  13. ^ Canada's population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  14. ^ Religions in Canada
  15. ^ Fact Sheet from the Saskatchewan Mining Association
  16. ^ Government of Saskatchewan. Oil and Gas Industry. Retrieved on: April 26, 2008.
  17. ^ Government of Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan Oil and Gas InfoMap. Retrieved April 26, 2008.
  18. ^ Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory from Statistics Canada
  19. ^ Public Accounts of Saskatchewan. Government of Saskatchewan. Retrieved June 27, 2008.
  20. ^ Government of Saskatchewan. "official page". http://www.gov.sk.ca. Retrieved 2007-02-15. 
  21. ^ "Saskatchewan, flag of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1355491/Saskatchewan-flag-of. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  22. ^ Walleye Wins Vote For Saskatchewan's Fish Emblem
  23. ^ How Saskatchewan Health Pays Your Bill - Health - Government of Saskatchewan

References

  • Archer, John H. Saskatchewan: A History. Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1980. 422 pp.
  • Bennett, John W. and Kohl, Seena B. Settling the Canadian-American West, 1890-1915: Pioneer Adaptation and Community Building. An Anthropological History. U. of Nebraska Pr., 1995. 311 pp.
  • Bill Waiser. Saskatchewan: A New History (2006)
  • Bocking, D. H., ed. Pages from the Past: Essays on Saskatchewan History. Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1979. 299 pp.
  • LaPointe, Richard and Tessier, Lucille. The Francophones of Saskatchewan: A History. Regina: University of Regina, Campion Coll., 1988. 329 pp.
  • Lipset, Seymour M. Agrarian Socialism: The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan: A Study in Political Sociology, University of California Press, 1950.
  • Martin, Robin Shades of Right: Nativist and Fascist Politics in Canada, 1920-1940, University of Toronto Press, 1992.
  • Smith, David E., ed. Building a Province: A History of Saskatchewan in Documents. Saskatoon: Fifth House, 1993. 443 pp.
  • Smith, Dennis. Rogue Tory: The Life and Legend of John G. Diefenbaker. Toronto: Macfarlane Walter & Ross, 1995. 702 pp.

External links

Coordinates: 54°30′00″N 105°40′53″W / 54.5°N 105.68139°W / 54.5; -105.68139 (Saskatchewan)


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

This article is for quotes about the province of Saskatchewan, Canada.

Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588,276.09 square kilometres (227,134.67 sq mi) and a population of 1,003,299 (according to 2007 estimates), mostly living in the southern half of the province. Of these, 202,340 live in the province's largest city, Saskatoon, while 179,246 live in the provincial capital, Regina. Other major cities, in order of size, are Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift Current, and North Battleford. The province's name comes from the Saskatchewan River, whose name comes from its Cree designation: kisiskāciwani-sīpiy, meaning "swift flowing river."

Contents

By Canadians

City and Colour

I've been through the Rockies, I've seen Saskatoon
Source- City and Colour's song "Comin' Home"

Corner Gas

Brent: Want me to fill it up?
Man: Sure. You know I've never driven across Saskatchewan before.
Brent: Well, you still haven't really. About halfway to go yet.
Man: Sure is flat.
Brent: How do you mean?
Man: You know, flat. Nothing to see.
Brent: What do you mean, like topographically? Hey Hank, this guy says Saskatchewan is flat.
Hank: How do you mean?
Brent: Topographically, I guess. He says there's nothin' to see.
Hank: There's lots to see. There's nothin' to block your view.
Brent: There's lots to see. Nothin' to block your view. Like the mountains back there. They're uh... Well, what the hell? I could've sworn there was a big mountain range back there. Juttin' up into the sky all purple and majestic. I must be thinkin' of a postcard I saw or somethin'. Hey, it is kinda flat, thanks for pointin' that out.
Man: You guys always this sarcastic?
Brent: Nothin' else to do.
Source- Corner Gas
Source- Season 1 "Ruby Reborn" Corner Gas

Les Trois Accords

Saskatchewan,
Tu m'a pris ma femme
À ma crisser là
Pour un gars d'Regina[1]
Source-Les Trois Accords' song "Saskatchewan"

Pierre Burton

Toronto does the least with the most, but Regina does the most with the least.
Source- Pierre Burton

The Arrogant Worms

And it's a heave (ho!) hi (ho!), coming down the plains
Stealing wheat and barley and all the other grains
And it's a ho (hey!) hi (hey!), farmers bar yer doors
When you see the Jolly Roger on Regina's mighty shores[2]
Source- Arrogant Worms' song "The Last Saskatchewan Pirate"

The Guess Who

Moose Jaw saw a few, Moosomin too
Runnin' back to Saskatoon
Red Deer, Terrace and a Medicine Hat
Sing another prairie tune[3]
Source- The Guess Who's song "Running Back to Saskatoon"
Notes- Moosomin, Moose Jaw and Medicine Hat are placenames of Saskatchewan.

The Tragically Hip

Sundown in the Paris of the Prairies
Source- the Tragically Hip's song "Wheat Kings"
Notes- Saskatoon is referred to here as the Paris of the Prairies.

By non-Canadians

Adlai Stevenson

Saskatchewan is much like Texas — except it's more friendly to the United States
Source- Attributed to Adlai Stevenson

Badlands (film)

We took off at sunset, on a line toward the mountains of Saskatchewan, for Kit a magical land beyond the reach of the law.
Source- Holly Sargis Badlands

Charlotte Gainsbourg

My heart is breaking somewhere over Saskatchewan.[4]
Source- Charlotte Gainsbourg's song "AF607105"

Cole Porter

If a lass in Michigan can, If an ass in Astrakhan can, If a bass in the Saskatchewan can, Baby, you can can-can too.[5]
Source- Cole Porter's song "Can Can"

David Letterman

All flights are either coming from or going to Saskatoon, Canada
Source- David Letterman's David Letterman's Book of Top Ten Lists and Zesty Lo-Cal Chicken Recipes
Notes- From the list "Top Ten signs you are at a bad airport"

Edward VIII of the United Kingdom

Qu'Appelle Valley, Saskatchewan, Canadian Indians: "I've told you what a foul decadent lazy crowd they are & what I think of them !! But this camp is pitched right inside an Indian reserve . . . & we have hundreds of the mouldy local tribe camped around us" (6 October 1919)
Source- Edward VIII of Great Britain from Godfrey, Letters (6 October 1919)

Jackson C. Frank

I rolled over the Northlands 'til I came to Saskatchewan.
Source-Jackson C. Frank's song "Tumble in the Wind"

Johnny Cash

Johnny Cash sang "The Girl from Saskatoon."
I left a little town
A little south of Hudson Bay
I couldn't find a thing, to make a rounder want to stay
I fought the wind across the baren waste in the crystal doom
Going for to marry the girl in Saskatoon[6]
Source-Johnny Cash's song "The Girl From Saskatoon"

Ministry

The Land of Rape and Honey[7]
Source-Ministry.
Notes- "The Land Of Rape And Honey" lyrics in the The Land Of Rape And Honey album are both named after Tisdale, Saskatchewan's slogan, "The Land of Rape and Honey."

The Muppets

Movin' right along, hey, L.A., where've you gone?
Send someone to fetch us, we're in Saskatchewan.[8]
Source- "Movin' Right Along" in The Muppet Movie
Notes- In this song, Kermit and Fozzie are driving across the USA to Hollywood, but go off course and pass through Saskatchewan.

Mystery Science Theater 3000

[Rowsdower and Troy have lost the pursuing cultists.]
Zap Rowsdower: Do you have any idea of what kind of people you're dealing with?
Crow [as Rowsdower]: They're from Saskatchewan!
Troy: No.
Zap Rowsdower: It's a cult.
Servo [as Rowsdower]: They worship blue oysters.
Zap Rowsdower: They want to rule the world.
Troy: How do you know?
Zap Rowsdower: I've been around, kid.
Crow [as Rowsdower]: I've been a square kid.
Source- "The Final Sacrifice" Mystery Science Theater 3000

Sammy Kershaw

Well I hear it's cold up in Saskatoon but it couldn't be colder than our bedroom.
Source- Sammy Kershaw's song "Anywhere But Here"

Sonny James

In the winter time when we can't farm
Me and Junny-Mae sit arm in arm
By a big ole fire and honeymoon
A little bit south of Saskatoon
Source- Sonny James' song "A Little Bit South of Saskatoon."
Notes- This song was also sung in the movie Slap Shot.

Soul Coughing

Saskatoon is in the room
Source- Soul Coughing's song "Is Chicago, Is Not Chicago"

Stephen Leacock

The Lord said "Let there be wheat" and Saskatchewan was born.
Source- Stephen Leacokck's My Discovery of America, 1937

The Proclaimers

I can tell the difference between margarine and butter, I can say Saskatchewan without starting to stutter.
Source- The Proclaimers' song "Cap in Hand"

Warren Zevon

He was born in Big Beaver by the borderline.
Source- Warren Zevon
Notes- Big Beaver, Saskatchewan is a small town in southern Saskatchewan, near the border with Montana.

"Weird Al" Yankovic

They dream of driving a Zamboni all over Saskatchewan.
Source- "Weird Al" Yankovic's song "Canadian Idiot"

Whose Line Is It Anyway?

Ryan: Have you ever heard of a place called Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan?
Colin: Isn't that right beside Left... Noob?
Source- Questions Only Whose Line Is It Anyway?

See also

References

  1. Saskatchewan - Les Trois Accords song lyrics (in english). Gros Mammouth Album. LyricsKeeper.com (2004). Retrieved on 2008-03-01.
  2. Last Saskatchewan Pirate - Arrogant Worms (Lyrics and Chords) (in english). Gunther Anderson's Home Page (2004). Retrieved on 2008-03-01.
  3. RUNNIN' BACK TO SASKATOON (in english). International Lyrics Playground (2004). Retrieved on 2008-03-01.
  4. Charlotte Gainsbourg – AF607105 – Music at Last.fm (in english) (2004). Retrieved on 2008-03-01.
  5. Barber, David (July 9, 2006). 'Cole Porter: Selected Lyrics' - The New York Times Book Review ... (in english). Retrieved on 2008-03-01.
  6. Cash, Johnny. Johnny Cash - Girl In Saskatoon LYRICS (in english). Retrieved on 2008-03-01.
  7. Wolanski, Coreen. Exclaim! Canada's Music Authority (in english). Ministry Nothing Exceeds Like Excess. Exclaim! TV • Home & Latest Issue. Retrieved on 2008-03-01.
  8. Movin Right Along Music and Lyrics (in english). Retrieved on 2008-03-07.
Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

North America : Canada : Prairies : Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan is one of Canada's 10 provinces, located in the Prairies. Its southern third is predominantly prairie (with a reputation for being very flat), while its northern two-thirds is covered in the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield. The prairie is known for its seemingly endless fields of wheat, while the north contains the majority of Saskatchewan's 100,000 lakes.

  • Northern Saskatchewan
  • Southwest
  • Eastern

Understand

Despite Saskatchewan's reputation for its prairie geography, there is a surprising variety of landscapes, including the hills and lakes in the north, a lake with water that is denser than the Dead Sea, and the North and South Saskatchewan rivers.

Saskatchewan also features historical sites related to the North-West Rebellion. In 1885, Louis Riel, leader of the Metis (persons of mixed French Canadian, other European and Aboriginal descent), led an uprising against the Canadian government that culminated in the Battle of Batoche. The interpretive centre at Batoche remains a popular tourist destination. While the battles were not particularly large by world standards, the Rebellion was politically significant for the Canadian west, and offers a glimpse into what life was like on the Canadian frontier.

The fresh air and open sky are other distinctive features of the prairie. There is little light pollution, and therefore stargazing is wonderful.

Saskatchewan's population used to be primarily rural, but is becoming more urban. The population has been declining for many years, although this seems to be changing in recent years, as oilsands, potash and uranium development are driving an economic boom that is mirroring Alberta's boom. Farming remains the largest sector of the economy (actually is no longer the largest sector as the oil,gas and mining sectors expand), though it is becoming economically unviable. There are some attempts to grow other sectors of the economy, such as scientific research and technology. For example, a synchrotron is being built(has been built)at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon.

Saskatchewan, unlike the rest of Canada, does not participate in Daylight Savings Time. This means that in the winter, it is in the same time zone as Manitoba, and in the summer it is in the same time zone as Alberta.

  • Oilfield industry is very extensive in the south eastern section of the province. Saskatchewan produces the second largest supply of oil in Canada.
  • Mining: Potash (Kindersley). Lignite coal (Estevan). Uranium deposits in extreme north.

Get in

Most visitors to Saskatchewan arrive either by automobile or via one of its two major airports, the John G. Diefenbaker International Airport in Saskatoon and the Regina International Airport.

The Trans-Canada Highway (Highway #1) runs across the southern portion of the province (including Regina and Moose Jaw), connecting Saskatchewan to Alberta and Manitoba. Similarly, the Yellowhead Highway (Highway #16) bisects the central part of the province, running through Saskatoon and North Battleford. There are a number of US-Canada border crossings in the south, on the highways running between the two countries.

Get around

A common form of transportation, both within the major cities and among various communities is the bus system (provincial bus network stcbus.com). There is a comprehensive online guide[1] for access to many major shopping and tourism centres in Saskatoon.

See

The Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park is in the extreme southwest corner of the province, sharing a border with Alberta's half of the park. Historical Fort Walsh as well as the highest point in the province can be found in the Cypress Hills.

Hockey is taken very seriously in Saskatchewan, and matches can be extremely intense, as well as entertaining. Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Saskatoon, Swift Current and Regina all host teams in the Western Hockey League, the top level of the NHL's developmental system.

Be sure to check out historical sites relating to the settlement of the west and the North West Rebellion of 1885. Fort Carlton, Batoche, and Duck Lake ae within distance of Saskatoon for a day trip.

A very passionate pastime for Saskatchewan residents is to cheer on their Canadian Football League team: The Saskatchewan Roughriders. Saskatchewanians are known for their loyalty and "Rider Pride". A Rider game is always party and spectacle as many of the fans show up to the game wearing watermelons on their heads!

A Wolf Adventure is a Provincially licensed, Canadian based wolf outreach /eco lodge that fosters and promotes a healthy respect of wildlife and surrounding habitat. A Wolf Adventure is home to some Gray wolves of various subspecies including the elusive and rare Arctic wolf. A Wolf Adventure strives to foster an appreciation, not just of a highly misunderstood rarely seen wild animal, but most importantly the natural wild lands.[2]

Saskatchewan is also the home of the RCMP Academy, Depot Division (commonly known as "Depot"; pronounced /ˈdɛpoʊ/, not /ˈdiːpoʊ/) that has been providing police training to Royal Canadian Mounted Police "cadets" since its establishment in 1885. The facility is in the west part of Regina, Saskatchewan, near the airport, and consists of several buildings. The RCMP Heritage Centre is located right next to the RCMP Training Academy at 5907 Dewdney Avenue. Through the use of permanent and temporary exhibits, multimedia technologies, and extensive programming, the Heritage Centre tells the RCMP story and educates Canadians and the world about the past, present and future of the RCMP within Canada and abroad.* [3]

In stark contrast to the prairies of southern Saskatchewan is its northern half. The area north of Prince Albert is sparsely populated and dotted with freshwater lakes. It is best accessed by rental car however travellers should be aware that communities are separated by great distances in the provinces north and services are limited. Scheduled flights are also available to LaRonge from Saskatoon through smaller airline. The trek to northern Saskatchewan had only one purpose, to experience untouched wilderness, canoeists and fisherman will be well rewarded by its waterways.

  • Hunting & Fishing (stub)

Eat

A peculiarity among most small towns in Saskatchewan is that they have a small Chinese Restaurant.

Drink

Drinking age in Saskatchewan is 19. Great Western Brewing operates the old Molson brewhouse in Saskatoon. They produce beers ranging from extra-gravity malt liquor to mid grade amber and pale ales. There is a provincial law basically giving anyone that operates a "brewpub" automatic off sales privileges. Because of this, many bars have started extract-based "brewpubs" in order to acquire their off-sales license. These beers are very poor quality compared to beers made from true ingredients. In small towns, locals prefer cheap beer and rye whiskey. One local favourite is Old Style Pilsner, a no-frills brew with a most unique label. Water quality in Saskatchewan ranges but is generally above average.

Stay safe

Saskatchewan is generally a safe place to visit and most people are generally friendly. Some parts of the larger cities, such as Saskatoon, Regina, and Prince Albert, have seedier areas that should be avoided at night. Most tourists have no need to be in those parts of town anyways.

Winters can be extremely cold, and when combined with heavy snowfall and wind, blizzards can make driving dangerous. Many of Saskatchewan's highways have been poorly maintained, and when combined with icy pavement or heavy traffic, they can be dangerous for inexperienced or inattentive drivers. Many rural roads are unpaved, so drivers unfamiliar with gravel roads should take their time.

Get out

The stunningly beautiful province of Alberta and its Rocky Mountains are to the west, Manitoba, with very large, forested lakes, and it's variety of different landscapes are to the east.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Saskatchewan discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Contents

English

Etymology

From Cree kisiskāciwani-sīpiy (swift-flowing river).

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Saskatchewan

Plural
-

Saskatchewan

  1. A river in Canada.
  2. Prairie province in western Canada (named after the river, which flows through it) which has Regina as its capital city.

Related terms

Abbreviations

Translations


French

Etymology

From Cree kisiskāciwani-sīpiy (swift-flowing river).

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /sas.kat.ʃe.wan/, X-SAMPA: /sas.kat.Se.wan/
  • Rhymes: -an

Proper noun

Saskatchewan f.

  1. Saskatchewan







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