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Satara pronunciation (help·info) (Marathi:सातारा) is a town located in the Satara District of Maharashtra state of India. The name is derived from the seven (sat) hills (tara) surrounding the town. The town is 2320 ft. above sea-level, near the confluence of the Krishna River (Marathi:क्रूष्णा) and its tributary the Venna(Marathi:वेण्णा), 67 mi (about 110 km)south of Pune.
Historical inscriptions as old as 200 BCE indicate the oldest known place in Satara district is Karad (mentioned as Karhakada). It is also believed that the Pandavas stayed in Wai, then known as 'Viratnagari', in the 13th year of exile.
The empire of Chandragupta II, known as Mahendraditya Kumargupta I, extended as far as Satara district in Deccan when he ruled between 451 AD to 455 AD. The Mauryan empire in the Deccan was followed by the rules of "Satvahans" for about two centuries between 550 A.D. to 750 AD.
The first Muslim invasion of the Deccan took place in 1296.In 1636 the Nizam Shahi dynasty came to an end. In 1663 Shivaji conquered Parali and Satara fort. After the death of Shivaji, Aurangjeb conquered Satara fort later won by Parshuram Pratinidhi in 1706. In 1708 Shahumaharaj was crowned on the Satara fort. The direct descendents of The Great Maratha King Chh. Shivaji continue to live in Satara. The current king of Satara, Chh. Udayanraje Bhonsale is the 13th descendent of Shivaji Maharaj.
After their victory in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, the British Empire annexed most of the Maratha territory to Bombay Presidency, but restored the titular Raja Pratap Singh, and assigned to him the principality of Satara, an area much larger than the present district. As a result of political intrigues, he was deposed in 1839, and his brother Shahji Raja was placed on the throne. This prince, dying without male heirs in 1848, Satara was annexed by the British government, and added to Bombay Presidency.
During the independence struggle Satara was known for Prati Sarkar (Parallel Government). During Quit India Movement this parallel government replaced British in rural areas for 4.5 years from August 1943 to May 1946. This type of parallel government was also seen in Midnapur, West Bengal and Balia in UP. Krantisinh Nana Patil was the leader to run this government.
Satara is located in the western part of Maharashtra.The whole of Satara district falls within the Deccan area. It is bounded by Pune district to the north, Solapur district to the east, Sangli district to the south and Ratnagiri district to the west. Raigad district lies to its north-west. Satara District has an area of 10,480 km², and a population of 2,796,906 (2001).
The Sahyadri range, separates the district from Ratnagiri on the western side The black rock Mahadeo range starts about 10 m north of Mahabaleshwar and stretches east and south-east across the whole of the district
The main rivers of Satara district are Koyna and Krishna. The Krishna is one of the three largest sacred rivers of southern India. Approximately 172 km of the river course falls inside the district. The Krishna river begins on the eastern brow of the Mahabaleshwar plateau and the source is about 4500 ft. above sea level. Kudali, Urmodi, Venna and Tarali are small feeder rivers (tributaries) of Krishna. Koyna is the largest tributary of the Krishna in the district. Neera and Manganga rivers are the two representative of the Bhima drainage in the north and north-eastern parts of the district respectively.
Satara City is divided into four parts, as like other cities: Urban (Shahar), Sub-Urban (Upanagar), MIDC (Audyogik Vasahat) & Rural (Grameen).
Areas in Satara Urban: Mangalwar peth, Rajwada, Kamani Haud, Pratapganj peth, Shivaji circle, Powai Naka, Devi Chawk, Moti Chawk, Khann Aali, Visawa Park, Vyankatpura Peth, Chimanpura Peth etc.
Areas in Satara Sub-Urban: Krishanagar, Visawa Kamp, Sangamnagar, Gendamaal, I.T.I. etc.
Areas in Satara MIDC: Old MIDC, New MIDC & Degaon MIDC
Areas in Satara Rural: Khindwadi, Limbkhind, Shahupuri, Godoli, Some part of Pirwadi, Khed & Kanher Villages.
As of 2001[update] India census, Satara had a population of 108,043. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Satara has an average literacy rate of 80%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 84%, and female literacy is 76%. In Satara, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.
The Shri Bhavani Museum and Library, Aundh, located on the Yamai Hill in Satara district. Aundh was a princely state in British India, as per the Deccan State Agency division of the Bombay Presidency. It was one of the Satara Jagirs, and was founded in the year 1699 by Trimbak Pant Pratinidhi who was a warrior during the period of Sambhaji Raje and Rajaram Maharaj. The Raja of Aundh, the late Bhawanrao Pantpratinidhi, in 1938, built a museum. The museum and library contain more than 5,000 items. It is located on the Yamai Hill near Aundh village of the Khatav tehsil of the Satara district. A building adjacent to the main building contains more than 25,000 fine arts reference books.
The region also contains The Yamai Devi temple. built in the Hemadpanthi pattern, it contains life-sized marble idols of avatars of Lord Vishnu, as well as an art gallery, and a 200 feet high deepmala which is believed to be the highest intact deepmala in the state.
Pachgani, is a small hill-station in the state of Maharashtra, India. It is located amidst five small hills, from which it derives its name (pach in marathi means five). All these 5 hills are topped by a volcanic plateau which is the second highest in Asia after the Tibetan plateau. These plateaus are known in the local term as "Table Land". These plateaus are part of the Deccan plateau and were raised by the pressure between the earth plates. Because of this it is also an area of high seismic activity with epicenter near Koynanagar which is famous of the Koynanagar dam and hydroelectric power plant. It is located about 265 km from Mumbai and has breathtaking valleys, winding rivers, scenic mountains and scattered hamlets. It attracts many tourists throughout the year, and many Mumbaites visit it as a weekend escape. Some go further, opening resorts which they themselves own, but rent out during certain seasons. There is a Ganesh Temple at Wai, which is located close by. The temperature in Pachgani is around 16 C during the winter and can soar up to 35 C during the summer. There are many elite boarding schools in Pachgani and it has been used as a location to film a number of Bollywood movies. The British set up numerous tuberculosis sanitoriums in Pachgani due to the presence of silver oak trees, which were considered therapeutic. The main attractions are: Table land, Parsi point, Sydney point. Pachgani now faces immense environmental pressures due to commercial activities, opening of illegal hotels, vehicles and temperature inversion (due to humidity) from various new dams built to store water in the vicinity. Freddie Mercury attended St Peter's school in Pachgani where he formed his first band, The Hectics (1958-1962.)
Mahabaleshwar (Marathi:महाबळेश्वर) Mahabaleshwar is a hill station located in the Satara District in the Western Ghats range of Maharashtra, India. Located about 120 km from Pune and 285 km from Mumbai, Mahabaleshwar is a vast plateau measuring 150 km², bound by valleys on all sides. Many tourists also visit nearby Panchgani. After the construction of a new highway, it is only a five hour drive from Mumbai. It reaches a height of 1438 m (4710 ft) at its highest peak above sea level, known as Wilson/Sunrise Point. Mahabaleshwar, "The Queen of Hill Stations", served as the summer capital of Bombay province during the British Raj, and today is a popular holiday resort and honeymoon spot. The area is also an important pilgrimage site for Hindus, and is the site of the Mahabaleshwar Temple. Mahabaleshwar comprises three villages, Malcolm Peth, Old "Kshetra" Mahabaleshwar and part of the Shindola village. The first historical mention of Mahabaleshwar dates back to year 1215 when the King Singhan of Deogiri visited Old Mahabaleshwar. Present Mahabaleshwar came into existence in the year 1829-30 and from old records is mentioned as Malcolm Peth, but in practise today it is known as Mahabaleshwar.
Other notable regions of the city include Pateshwar (Marathi:पाटेश्वर), Ajinkyatara (Marathi:अजिंक्यतारा),
Yawateshwar (Marathi:यवतेश्वर), Kaas Lake (Marathi:कास तलाव), Bamnoli (Marathi:बामणोळी),
Thoseghar Waterfall (Marathi:ठोसेघर धबधबा),
Bhairoba, Natraj Mandir etc.
Kalyangad or Nandgiri
(Koreganv T; 18° N, 74° E; RS, Satara Road, 2 m. w;) 3,537 feet above sea level, stands at the end of a spur of the Mahadev range running south-west from the villages of Vikhale and Bhadle, eight miles north of Koreganv and about fourteen miles north-east of Satara. It is separated from the rest of the spur by a small gorge or Khind and stands on a lower hill than the Candan Vandan range close to its north-west. It forms, therefore, a less conspicuous object from Satara than the Candan Vandan twins, though from the south it comes prominently in view as it forms the southern extremity of the spur dividing the Vangna and Vasna valleys. The temple of Maruti was renovated by Dahanebuva of Ninapadali. The tomb of Abdul Karim, a Musalman Saint, is located there. The fort was built by the Silahara king Bhoj II, of Panhala . In 1673 with other Satara forts it was surrendered to Shivaji . The Pratinidhi, administered it till his struggle with Bajirav, the second Peshva (1720-1740). In 1791 Major Price describes it as looking like the hull of a ship of war with opposite it another hill with on its summit some places of devotion [Memoirs of a Field Officer, 261.]. In the last Maratha war it fell to the army of General Pritzler in April, 1818. In 1862, it is described as a dismantled and uninhabited fort with a steep approach and a strong gateway but no water and no supplies [Government List of Civil Forts, 1862.].
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.