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The Saulteaux (also Salteaux and many other variants; pronounced /ˈsoʊtoʊ/) are a First Nation in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, Canada.


Ethnic classification

The Saulteaux are a branch of the Ojibwa nation. They are sometimes also called Anihšināpē (Anishinaabe). Saulteaux is a French language term meaning "people of the rapids," referring to their former location about Sault Ste. Marie. Because of their location, they farmed little and were mainly hunters and fishers.


The Saulteaux were originally settled around Lake Superior and Lake Winnipeg, principally in the Sault Ste. Marie and northern Michigan areas. White Canadians and Americans gradually pushed the tribe westwards to Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, with one community in British Columbia. Today most of them live in the Interlake, southern part of Manitoba, and in Saskatchewan; because they lived on land ill-suited for European crops, they were able to keep much of their land. Generally, the Saulteaux are divided into three major divisions.


Ontario Saulteaux

Eastern Saulteaux, bettern known as the Ontario Saulteaux, are located about Rainy Lake, and about Lake of the Woods in Northwestern Ontario and southeastern Manitoba. Many of the Ontario Saulteaux First Nations are signatories to Treaty 3. Their form of Anishinaabemowin (Anishinaabe language) is sometimes called Northwestern Ojibwa language (ISO 639-3: OJB) or simply as Ojibwemowin (Ojibwe language), though English is the first language of many members. The Ontario Saulteaux culture is that of the Eastern Woodlands culture.

Manitoba Saulteaux

Central Saulteaux, bettern known as Manitoba Saulteaux, are found primarily in eastern and southern Manitoba, extending west into southern Saskatchewan. During the late 18th century and early 19th centurty, as partners with the Cree in the fur trade, resulted in the Saulteaux extending themselves from southern Manitoba, northwest into the Swan River and Cumberland districts of west-central Manitoba, and into Saskatchewan along the Assiniboine River as far its confluence with the Souris River. Once established in the area, the Saulteaux adapted some of the cultural traits of their allies, the Plains Cree and Assiniboine. Consequently, together with the Western Saulteaux, the Manitoba Saulteaux are sometimes called Plains Ojibwe. Many of the Manitoba Saulteaux First Nations are signatories to Treaty 1 and Treaty 2. The Manitoba Saulteaux culture is a transitional one from Eastern Woodlands culture of their Ontario Saulteaux neighbours and Plains culture of the Western Saulteaux neighbours. Often, the term "Bungee" (from bangii meaning "a little bit") is used to describe either the Manitoba Saulteaux (who are a little bit like the Cree) or their Métis population (who are a little bit Anishinaabe), with the language used by their Métis population described as the Bungee language.

Western Saulteaux

Western Saulteaux are found primarily in central Saskatchewan, but extend east into southwestern Manitoba and west into central Alberta and eastern British Columbia. These Saulteaux call themselves Nakawē (ᓇᐦᑲᐌ)—a general term for the Saulteaux. To the neighbouring Plains Cree, they are known as the Nahkawiyiniw (ᓇᐦᑲᐏᔨᓂᐤ), a word of related etymology. Their form of Anishinaabemowin (Anishinaabe language), known as Nakawēmowin (ᓇᐦᑲᐌᒧᐎᓐ) or Western Ojibwa language (ISO 639-3: OJW), is an Algonquian language, although like most First Nations, English is the first language of most members. Many of the Western Saulteaux First Nations are signatories to Treaty 4 and Treaty 6 with Saulteau First Nations in North Eastern British Columbia being a signatory to Treaty 8. The Western Saulteaux culture is that of the Plains culture.


Population figures are as of September 2008, unless noted otherwise.

Notable Saulteaux

External links


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