Saxe-Coburg and Gotha: Wikis

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Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

 

1826–1918
 

Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Heil unserem Herzog, heil
The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Capital Coburg and Gotha
Language(s) German
Government Monarchy
History
 - Established 1826
 - German Revolution 18 November 1918
Area
 - 1905 1,977 km2 (763 sq mi)
Population
 - 1905 est. 242,000 
     Density 122.4 /km2  (317 /sq mi)

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of two duchies, Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha, in Germany. They were located in what today are the states, Bavaria and Thuringia, respecively, and the two were in personal union between 1826 and 1918.

The name, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, also may refer to the family of the ruling House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. This family played many and varied roles in nineteenth-century European dynastic and political history.

Contents

History

The two duchies, Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha, were among the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty. The duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha originated as the personal union of these two dutchies in 1826 after the death of the last Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, who died without male heirs. His Wettin relations repartitioned his lands. The former husband of Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the only niece of the last duke, was Duke Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. He received Gotha and changed his title to Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha although, technically, the two duchies remained as separate duchies.

Ernst I died in 1844. His elder son and successor, Ernst II, ruled until his own death in 1893. As he died childless, the throne of the duchies would have passed to the male descendants of Ernst's late brother Albert the Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. However, the constitutions of two the duchies excluded the king and heir apparent of Great Britain from the ducal throne if other eligible male heirs existed,[1] although Albert Edward, Prince of Wales already had renounced his claim to the throne in favour of his next brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.

Alfred's only son, also named Alfred, committed suicide in 1899, so when Duke Alfred died in 1900, he was succeeded by his nephew the Duke of Albany, the sixteen-year-old son of Queen Victoria's youngest son, Leopold. Reigning as Duke Carl Eduard, under the regency of the Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg until he came of age in 1905, Carl Eduard also continued to use the British title Duke of Albany. As Carl Eduard fought for Germany in the First World War, he was stripped of his British titles in 1919.[2]

Carl Eduard reigned until November 18, 1918 during the German Revolution, when the Workers' and Soldiers' Council of Gotha deposed him. The two Duchies, bereft of a common ruler, became separate states until shortly thereafter, when they ceased to exist. Saxe-Coburg became a part of Bavaria and Saxe-Gotha merged with other small states in 1920 to form the new state of Thuringia in the Weimar Republic.

The capitals of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha were Coburg and Gotha. By 1914 the area and populations of the two duchies were:[3]

Duchy Area Population
km² sq mi
Saxe-Coburg 1,415 546 74,818
Saxe-Gotha 562 217 182,359
Total 1,977 763 257,177

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was the only European country to appoint a diplomatic consul to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. This consul, Ernst Raven, was assigned to a position in the state of Texas. Raven applied to the Confederate Government for a diplomatic exequatur on July 30, 1861 and was accepted.[1]

Ruler

The Children of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1917: Princess Sybille and Prince Hubertus

According to the House law of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha the full title of the Duke was:

Wir, Ernst, Herzog zu Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha, Jülich, Cleve und Berg, auch Engern und Westphalen, Landgraf in Thüringen, Markgraf zu Meißen, gefürsteter Graf zu Henneberg, Graf zu der Mark und Ravensberg, Herr zu Ravenstein und Tonna usw.

Translation: We, Ernst, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Jülich, Cleves and Berg, also Angria and Westphalia, Landgrave in Thuringia, Margrave of Meissen, Princely Count of Henneberg, Count of the Mark and Ravensberg, Lord of Ravenstein and Tonna, et cetera.

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Dukes, 1826–1918

Heads of the House since 1918

Title and Style of other members of the House

The tradition of the titular dignity of Prince or Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and the attribute of 'Highness' is owed to all male line descendants, without regard to how many generations. Use may, however, be restricted in case of marriage in opposition to House laws or a member renouncing for themselves and their descendants.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sandner, Harold. "II.1.4 Prinz Albert" (in German). Das Haus von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1826 bis 2001. Andreas, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (preface). 96450 Coburg: Neue Presse GmbH. pp. 86. ISBN 3000085254. "Der zukünftige König von England und der vorraussichtliche englische Thronfolger sind von der von Regierung im Herzogtum ausgeschlossen" 
  2. ^ London Gazette: no. 31255, p. 4000, 28 March 1919. Retrieved on 19 November 2007.
  3. ^ Sandner, Harold. "I.11 Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha" (in German). Das Haus von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1826 bis 2001. Andreas, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (preface). 96450 Coburg: Neue Presse GmbH. pp. 27. ISBN 3000085254. 

External links


Simple English

Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


1826 – 1918 File:Flag of Bavaria (striped).svg
File:Flag of Thuringia (state).svg
File:Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1911-1920).svg File:Wappen Sachsen Coburg
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Heil unserm Herzog, heil
The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Capital Coburg and Gotha
Language(s) German
Government Monarchy
History
 - Family lands reorganised 12 November 1826
 - German Revolution 18 November1918
Area
 - 1905 1,977 km2
763 sq mi
Population
 - 1905 est. 242,000 
     Density 122.4 /km² 
317 /sq mi
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The duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha was a dual monarchy in Germany. This means that one ruler ruled over two countries. In this case the duchies of Coburg and Gotha. "Saxe" means of Saxony, because there were a lot of different little countries but all were ruled by members of the royal house of Saxony. Usually the royal house of Saxony means the rulers of the Kingdom of Saxony. The house of Wettin is the rulers of the other states. Wettin is the family's surname.

The royal house of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was created in 1826. One dynasty of the House of Wettin (the Dukes of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg) became extinct because there were no more male children to inherit.

The remaining members of the family divided their various lands between them. The duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld gave up Saalfeld and instead got the duchy of Gotha. Saalfeld became part of Saxe-Meinigen, which also took Hildburghausen when the Dule of Saxe-Hildburghausen became Duke of Saxe-Altenburg

On 12 November 1826 Ernst III of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld became Ernst I Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Jülich (Juelich), Cleves and Berg, also Engern and Westphalia, Prince of Lichtenberg, Landgrave in Thuringia, Markgrave of Meißen (Meissen), Count of Hennerberg, Count of the Mark and Ravensburg, Lord of Ravenstein and Tonna.[1]

Ernst had two sons. His younger son, Albert, married his cousin Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the name of the royal house of the United Kingdom until 1917, when the name was changed the Windsor because of hatred of anything German in World War I.

The Duchy in Germany

Ernst I died in 1844 and his elder son and successor, Ernst II, ruled until he died in 1893. As he had no children childless, the throne of the Duchy passed to the male descendant's of Ernst's late brother Albert the Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria. But, the Duchies did not want to be joined to Great Britain, so their constitutions constitutions stopped the King and heir apparent of Great Britain from becoming Duke if other eligible male heirs exist.[2]. Therefore after Edward, Prince of Wales was his next brother, Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh. Alfred's only son, also named Alfred, committed suicide in 1899, so when Duke Alfred died in 1900, he was succeeded by his nephew, Charles Edward the Duke of Albany, the sixteen-year-old son of Queen Victoria's youngest son, Leopold. (Duke Arthur of Connaught and his son did not want to become Duke, so renounced (gave up) their right to succession). The new Duke started using the German version of his name, and ruled as Duke Carl Eduard. Until he came of age in 1905, the Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg acted as Regent, Carl Eduard kept using his British title Duke of Albany, but because he fought for Germany in the First World War, he was stripped of his British titles in 1919.[3]

Carl Eduard reigned until November 18, 1918 when the Workers' and Soldiers' Council of Gotha deposed him during the German Revolution. The two Duchies, became separate states, but soon joined bigger states. Saxe-Coburg became a part of Bavaria, and Saxe-Gotha merged with other small states to form the new state of Thuringia in 1920 in the Weimar Republic.

The capitals of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha were Coburg and Gotha. By 1914 the area and populations of the two duchies were:[4]

Duchy Area Population
Sachsen-Coburg 1,415 km2 (546.3 sq mi) 74818
Sachsen-Gotha 562 km2 (217.0 sq mi) 182359
Total 1,977 km2 (763.3 sq mi) 257177

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the only European country to appoint a diplomatic consul to the Confederate States of America. The consul was named Ernst Raven, consul in the State of Texas. When Raven asked the Confederate Government for a diplomatic exequatur (permission to be act as consul) on July 30, 1861 he was accepted.[5]

House

Other members of the family became kings of Belgium and Bulgaria, and married into nearly all of the other royal families of Europe. More then 50 years after Bulgaria became a republic, King Simeon returned to Bulgaria and was elected Prime Minister. After the First World War the Kings of Belgium stopped using the name Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, but never officially changed their name. Simeon of Bulgaria legal name is Simeon Borisov Sakskoburggotski

The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha stopped being independent in 1918, when Germany became a republic. Carl Eduard, the last reigning duke had his British titles taken away[3] for supporting Germany in World War I. He died in 1954.

Gotha became part of the new state of Thuringia, and Coburg joined Bavaria.

References

  1. Sandner, Harold (in German). Das Haus von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1826 bis 2001. Andreas, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (preface). 96450 Coburg: Neue Presse GmbH. ISBN 3000085254.  page 32
  2. Sandner, Harold. "II.1.4 Prinz Albert" (in German). Das Haus von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1826 bis 2001. Andreas, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (preface). 96450 Coburg: Neue Presse GmbH. pp. 86. ISBN 3000085254. "Der zukünftige König von England und der vorraussichtliche englische Thronfolger sind von der von Regierung im Herzogtum ausgeschlossen" 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Fitzroy, Almeric (28 March 1919). "The Titles Deprivation Act, 1917". The London Gazette (HMSO) (31255): 2. http://www.gazettes-online.co.uk/archiveViewFrameSetup.asp?webtype=0&IssueNumber=31255&pageNumber=2&SearchFor=almeric%20fitzroy&PageDuplicate=n&selMedalType=&selHonourType=. Retrieved 12 June 2007. 
  4. Sandner, Harold. "I.11 Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha" (in German). Das Haus von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1826 bis 2001. Andreas, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (preface). 96450 Coburg: Neue Presse GmbH. pp. 27. ISBN 3000085254. 
  5. [1] Raven's exequatur


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