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Scandinavia series
Geography
Viking Age
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.Scandinavia[1] is a region in northern Europe that includes at a minimum Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.^ Some place the kingdom in southern Norway, while others in what is now Jylland district at the northern tip of the Jutland penninsula of Denmark.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His identification as king of Oppland in Norway may be erroneous as there is a correspondingly-named region in Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sámi are a group of people in Northern Europe living in large areas of Scandinavia, Northern Finland and Northwestern Russia, from the Kola Peninsula in the northeast to Dalarna and Femund in the south.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finland is often considered a Scandinavian country in common English usage, and Iceland and the Faroe Islands are sometimes also included.^ The Icelandic Nordic FM Project “Promote a common understanding of FM including the need for definitions and measuring tools for services” will have its kick-off in Leeds, UK, 25.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iceland: "Promote a common Nordic understanding of FM, including the need for definitions and measuring tools" .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Icelandic Nordic FM project, "Promote a common understanding of FM in the Nordic countries..."
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.The term relates to the Scandinavian Peninsula which is a geographic region consisting of Norway, Sweden and part of northern Finland.^ The Sámi parliaments have jointly established a separate Sámi Parliamentary Council that is a cooperative body between the Sámi parliaments in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Did it have something to do with the battle situation, with the suggestion to dam up the alta-Kautokeino watercourse in Norway and with the resistance to all watercourse development in North Sweden and Finland in the decades after?
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There have also been worked out separate Sámi flag days in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scandinavia extends to the north of the Arctic Circle, but has relatively mild weather for its latitude due to the Gulf Stream.^ The relatively warm waters of the Gulf Stream flow past this sheltered port.
  • Itineraries - Yachts of Seabourn - Northern Europe Cruises 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.seabourn.com [Source type: General]

Much of the Scandinavian mountains have an alpine tundra climate. .There are many lakes and moraines, legacies of an ice age about 10,000 years ago.^ It's a woman; a black woman from many years ago."
  • Magic to Miracles by Alan Shoemaker 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC csp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There can't be all that many years more.
  • Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) 11 September 2009 19:22 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1960, there were about 150,000 interracial marriages compared with 1.5 million in 1990.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The northern regions of Scandinavia are home to the indigenous Sami people.^ The term was used for various peoples in the region south of China, including the regions of northern Vietnam.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sámi are a group of people in Northern Europe living in large areas of Scandinavia, Northern Finland and Northwestern Russia, from the Kola Peninsula in the northeast to Dalarna and Femund in the south.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Indigenous populations" include persons having origins in any of the original peoples of North America, the Hawaiian Islands; American Samoa; Guam; and the Northern Marianas Islands.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scandinavia has, despite many wars over the years since the formation of modern nation-states in the 10th century, been politically and culturally close.^ Free State Minister for Home Affairs Kevin O’Higgins called the Civil War ‘worse indignities than the British had practised on us since Cromwell’.

^ In Washington, DC, This service has been held in the National Cathedral for many years.
  • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This program examines the political, religious, and class conflicts that led to the Thirty Years War.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The constellations and alliances, however, have shifted over the centuries. .For all of the 15th century, Scandinavia was united in the Kalmar Union.^ By the middle of this century, the Dál Riata had control of all Pictland , uniting Scotland under Kenneth mac Alpine .

^ Norway was united with Denmark in personal union from the 14th century; in 1814 it was detached from Denmark, and amalgamated with Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It participated for a time in the Union of Kalmar which brought together all of Scandinavia for a time, but the Swedes misliked the arrangemnent, and over a tumultuous 75 year period (1448-1523) extracted themselves from Denmark-Norway, to pursue an entirely separate identity.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 19th century a new political union was proposed, but it did not take place when Denmark was denied key military support in a conflict with Prussia.^ Meetings with legal counsel have been limited to one hour and take place within the sight and hearing of military personnel.

^ First, he tacitly places an “equals” sign between Hasan and the Turkish government and makes Hasan a representative of 94 years of denial politics.
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who understand the historic, political and economic situation of the two peoples [the Kurds and Turks], know well that separation could not take place.

.Today, the nations cooperate mainly in the European Union or the Nordic Council.^ Nordic FM cooperation with national publications and EuroFM .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an interview with RFE/RL last week, former United Nations and European Union special envoy for Afghanistan, Francesc Vendrell, suggested a similar solution.
  • Why the US is losing in Afghanistan - updates on the Pashtun insurgency 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: News]

.The Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish languages are linguistically classified as North Germanic languages, while the Finnish and Sami languages are classified as members of the Finno-Lappic group of the Uralic language family.^ As Icelandic work group members are appointed: Benchmarking: Snvar Gudmundsson (snaevar@fastrik.is/www.fastrik.is).
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sámi language belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic languages.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we see the grants from the Finnish Sameting are significantly less than Norwegian and Swedish support for Sámi cultural objectives.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Terminology and usage

     The three monarchies that compose Scandinavia according to the strictest definition      The possible extended usage      The maximal extended usage that takes Scandinavia as synonymous to the Nordic countries
.In English, casual and unofficial usage is to include the countries of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and often Finland and Iceland in the term "Scandinavia",[3][4][5] but the term is usually used to only mean Denmark, Norway, and Sweden , sometimes also excluding Denmark, [6] within those countries creating some ambiguity in even English reference sources.^ Of course, I don't mean to imply that my friends really believe in the existence of the mermaid, only to use the occasion to highlight some possible mythological factors deeply ingrained in the modern Greek subconscious.
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Your impulsive behavior might create problems for yourself and might even offend some of your friends along the way.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

^ The Sámi parliaments have jointly established a separate Sámi Parliamentary Council that is a cooperative body between the Sámi parliaments in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][8][9]
.The larger region that some English-speaking nations refer to as "Scandinavia" is known by the countries concerned as Norden, or the Nordic countries,[10] a political entity as well as cultural region where the ties between the countries are not merely historical and cultural, but based on official membership in the Nordic Council.^ In para 2 the Rules state that: Nordic FM is an organized cooperation between networks and associations in the field of Facilities Management in the 5 Nordic countries.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this week in the country's best-known Irish-speaking village, the landmark plan has been met with a mixture of disbelief, derision and disgust.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, it was known as the Loch of Monteith always until some Victorian cartographer, presumably of English extraction, seems to have changed loch to lake and Mon to Men.
  • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some American-English dictionaries, such as Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, do not include the names "Nordic countries" or "Nordic Council". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary instead defines Nordic as an adjective dated to 1898 with the meaning "of or relating to the Germanic peoples of northern Europe and especially of Scandinavia."[11]
.The use of the name Scandinavia as a convenient general term for the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden is also fairly recent; according to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the 18th century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism.^ Table of Contents On Ancient Integrity and Modern "Filotimo" Regarding the emphasis of the ancient Greeks on "integrity," I think over the centuries their idea of integrity crystallized into the modern "filotimo".
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Introduction to Literary Study : 18th Century British Literature 1700-1830 .
  • UCSB Department of English 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC english.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The reason is that according to St. Augustin, Plato's philosophy is similar to some of the basic tenets in Christianity, and to that extent Plato may be seen as an "early" Christian.
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[12] .Before this time, the term Scandinavia was familiar mainly to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings, and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula.^ The objectives are from 1 to 5 the same which have been communicated on this website before, and where the members should be able to achieve useful results within short time frames: a.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No need for those grandiose and vague terms so-called “turks” will do every effort to use against our demands.
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some information about the phrase and about its use by a 1940's cricketer ) Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once.
  • English proverbs - Wikiquote 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

[12]
.As a political term, "Scandinavia" was first used by students agitating for Pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s.^ A good practical example of such a theater was that of Piscator who used the terms 'epic' and 'political' as virtual synonyms.
  • Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) 11 September 2009 19:22 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of his anti-Hitler political activities, Brecht fled from Germany in 1933 ; he lived first in Scandinavia and finally settled in California in 1941 .
  • Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) 11 September 2009 19:22 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .The popular usage of the term in Sweden, Denmark and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the 19th century through poems such Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism and in a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, and with this feeling I wrote the poem immediately after my return: 'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".[13] The historic popular usage is also reflected in the name chosen for the shared, multi-national airline, Scandinavian Airlines System, a carrier originally owned jointly by the governments of the three countries, along with private investors.^ One of his poems, “I love my country,” describes his deep feelings for his homeland: .

^ I don’t research all of the people called Han Chinese or of Han Chinese ethnicity.

^ She was the wife of Hephaistos and the mother of some Graces, but the reason I don't think she should get her own entry is because she WAS one of the three Graces (Charites).
  • Greek Goddesses 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.paleothea.com [Source type: Original source]

Finland

.The clearest example of the use of the term "Scandinavia" as a political and cultural construct is the unique position of Finland, based largely on it having been part of Sweden, thus to much of the world properly associating Finland with all of Scandinavia.^ For example, Han Chinese behaviors show them lacking of enough wisdom, or lacking of enough moral values, but “relativity” can only be used to explain part of Han Chinese traits and it is not the cause, which makes Han Chinese.

^ Varied and possibly inconsistent definitional criteria, such as geographic origin, cultural origin, cultural identification and affiliation, community recognition, and race itself, are used to describe the terms.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the most part, the public comment used the term, "multiracial" to refer to persons of two or more races.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish[14] and the Russian,[15][16] as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History;[17]
The construction of a specific Finnish polity is the result of successful decolonization. The politico-cultural location of Finland is a moving one. It has shifted from being a province in the Swedish Empire to an autonomous unit in 'Eastern' Europe, then to an independent state in 'Northern' Europe or 'Scandinavia'. After joining the European Union, Finland has recently been included in 'Western Europe'.[15]
.The term is, therefore, often defined according to the conventions of the cultures that lay claim to the term in their own usage.^ The idea behind the establishment of Samisk kulturfond (Sámi Cultural Fund) was to protect and strengthen the possibilities for development in Sámi art and culture on their own terms.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, some Hispanics regard the "Hispanic" designation as a "racial" category, defining "race" in terms of national origin and cultural characteristics.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]

Cultural and tourism promotional organizations

.Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States (such as The American-Scandinavian Foundation, established in 1910 by the Danish-American industrialist Niels Poulsen) serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region.^ A century after that, France is the most universally reviled Western country in the United States.
  • The French Scapegoat || kuro5hin.org 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: General]

^ In para 2 the Rules state that: Nordic FM is an organized cooperation between networks and associations in the field of Facilities Management in the 5 Nordic countries.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through his former work in the (old) Nordic FM, he has also established close relations to the Danish environment.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, the five Nordic Heads of State act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization, its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in New York City and the United States."^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 1 or 2 from Finland, 2 from Sweden and 1 from Norway (+ Icelandic participants) have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.^ In such circumstances, one might be tempted to water down their faith, or put their light under a basket (cf.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

[20] .The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate international promotions of the two countries.^ The new Board Members have been appointed by the national member associations in the five Nordic countries .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The population is historically and culturally Swedish; their fate has been a source of some contention between the two countries.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.Norway entered one year later.^ After an engagement the bride comes to live with her husband's family; the wedding, however, may be held one or two years later.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All five Nordic countries participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America.^ A century after that, France is the most universally reviled Western country in the United States.
  • The French Scapegoat || kuro5hin.org 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: General]

^ In para 2 the Rules state that: Nordic FM is an organized cooperation between networks and associations in the field of Facilities Management in the 5 Nordic countries.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is expected that Work Groups have had their kick-off in all Nordic countries before Christmas and are in good speed by New Year 2007.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]

Use of Nordic countries vs. Scandinavia

.While the term Scandinavia is commonly used for Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the term the Nordic countries is used unambiguously for Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland, including their associated territories (Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Åland Islands).^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 1 or 2 from Finland, 2 from Sweden and 1 from Norway (+ Icelandic participants) have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What we in Denmark and the Nordic countries can learn from that.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries.
In addition to the mainland countries of
the Nordic countries consist of
and
.Estonia has applied for membership in the Nordic Council, referring to its cultural heritage and close linguistic links to Finland, although normally Estonia is regarded as one of the Baltic countries.^ These two countries, Greece and the Philippines, may be geographically a "world apart," but culturally and linguistically they have a world to share.
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The question would correspond to self-perceived membership in population groups defined by cultural heritage, language, physical appearance, or other characteristics.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are banned in most of the under-mentioned countries and one even could face life-imprisonment or execution for just referring to them.

.All Baltic states have shared historical events with the Nordic countries, including Scandinavia, during the centuries.^ In para 2 the Rules state that: Nordic FM is an organized cooperation between networks and associations in the field of Facilities Management in the 5 Nordic countries.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is expected that Work Groups have had their kick-off in all Nordic countries before Christmas and are in good speed by New Year 2007.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book is a result of a research project at DTU and describes 36 cases from all five Nordic countries.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Etymology

Satellite photo of the Scandinavian Peninsula, February 2003
Late Baltic Ice Lake around 10,300 years BP, with a channel near Mount Billingen through what is now central Sweden. (Political boundaries added).
Scandinavia and Scania (Skåne) are considered to have the same etymology. .Both terms are thought to be derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjō, which appears later in Old English as Scedenig and in Old Norse as Skáney.^ Force was used against both the Old English and Gaelic Irish.

^ (In proto-Norse sources Heruwarduz; in Old Norse Hjorvard) Hereoweard appears in Beowulf and Hrolf Kraki's saga, where he is the son of Heorogar, a brother of the Danish king Hrothgar.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been thought that the Era was established by the Kushan monarch Kanishka I, and may even have dated his reign, but he now appears to have ruled somewhat later.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] The earliest identified source for the name Scandinavia is Pliny the Elder's Natural History, dated to the 1st century AD.
Various references to the region can also be found in Pytheas, Pomponius Mela, Tacitus, Ptolemy, Procopius and Jordanes. .It is believed that the name used by Pliny may be of West Germanic origin, originally denoting Scania.^ The origin of the name may be that "Spring and Autumn" was used to simply mean "year," and so by extension an annal or chronicle.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May be used to denote one who is over-eager to explore the possibilities of indiscriminate precocious sexual experimentation.
  • Scottish Vernacular Dictionary 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.firstfoot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there are some threads to follow for an explanation of why someone may believe to know the origins.
  • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning "danger" or "damage" (English scathing, German Schaden).[24] .The second segment of the name has been reconstructed as *awjo, meaning "land on the water" or "island". The name Scandinavia would then mean "dangerous island", which is considered to be a reference to the treacherous sandbanks surrounding Scania.^ But a new government policy means that the settlement, which boasts spectacular views of Galway Bay and the Aran Islands in the distance, will be known only by its Gaelic name, An Spideal.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The name Theia means Divine , and she was also referred to as "the cow-eyed Euryphaessa".
  • Greek Goddesses 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.paleothea.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Considering the subordinate look of the three front masts on the baochuan , however, a different system of naming would probably be more appropriate.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem (skan) combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks".
.In the reconstructed Germanic root *Skaðin-awjō (the edh represented in Latin by t or d), the first segment is sometimes considered more uncertain than the second segment.^ In this segment historians and theologians discuss the roots of the First Crusade as a political exercise, initiated by Pope Urban II to solidify his political power in the East.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This segment considers the events leading up to the construction of the Berlin Wall on August 13, 1961 -- the final division between the two German states.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Successful FM Conference in Akureyri Iceland More than 60 participants - All Nordic countries represented .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The American Heritage Dictionary[25] derives the second segment from Proto-Indo-European *akwa-, "water", in the sense of "watery land". Gothic saiws, "lake" is one of the Germanic groups which include English sea and German See.^ Zionism means one group is entitled to another's land.
  • Michael J. Totten: The Taliban and Pashtun Nationalism 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Zionism means one group is entitled to another's land."
  • Michael J. Totten: The Taliban and Pashtun Nationalism 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you know of any Dictionary series like English – German, with a 2000 word limit?

[26] .However, according to the Indo-European Dictionary (IEED), a research project of the Department of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University, the second segment may not have an Indo-European etymology.^ You may find definitions on our sister project, Wiktionary , the free multilingual dictionary.
  • English proverbs - Wikiquote 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.The IEED states that Uralic evidence has long been recognized for this segment, namely the Finnic saivo ("'transparent place in the sea'") and the Norwegian-Lappish saivvƒ ("'(holy) lake, idol'").^ We now expect the Turkish state to urgently put in place long-called for political and legal reforms in order to ensure the full implementation of the findings in this judgment".

[26] .Some scholars have found a parallel between the Uralic evidence and the area's old mythology and belief systems, where the soul of mankind is believed to dwell in water until birth and return there after death.^ I decline their offer, but there will be ppl on youtube that will accept their offer even their belief system is completely diff.
  • Beijing University Student Embarrasses Japanese Reporter | chinaSMACK 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After splashing some water on her face she began her return to the tambo, but he was standing in the middle of the trail, blocking her way.
  • Magic to Miracles by Alan Shoemaker 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC csp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They believe that people have souls which, after death, become the soul of the house, watching over every activity of the living.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .IEED lists a Germanic reconstruction that indicates a similar connection to metaphysics, namely *saiwa-lō ("soul"), appearing as saiwala in Gothic and sēle in Old Frisian.^ To indicate this connection, it is always tempting to list them together.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Pliny the Elder's descriptions

.Pliny's descriptions of Scatinavia and surrounding areas are not always easy to decipher, even though his writing of geography was what he considered a "clarior fama" ("a clearer story").^ There is always some hope in their eyes, even though it isn't much.

.Writing in the capacity of a Roman admiral, he introduces the northern region by declaring to his Roman readers that there are 23 islands "Romanis armis cognitae" ("known to Roman arms") in this area.^ It is held in a dangerous area known for bandidos , and where armed guards ride the Pepsi trucks.
  • George O. Jackson, Jr., Essence of Mexico Collection, 1990-2002 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Several political and military factions exist in the Kurdish region, which spans areas in southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq and northwestern Iran.

According to Pliny, the "clarissima" ("most famous") of the region's islands is Scatinavia, of unknown size. There live the Hilleviones. .The belief that Scandinavia was an island became widespread among classical authors during the first century and dominated descriptions of Scandinavia in classical texts during the centuries that followed.^ Shu documents are first cited in Warring States texts in the middle 04th century; they were apparently constructed in order to be cited in the early theory debates.
  • Chronology | An Overview of Classical Chinese Texts 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the third and second centuries B.C., skepticism became the dominant position at the Academy.
  • PSYCHOLOGY IN GREEK PHILOSOPHY 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During the early 10th century, chieftains called goðar (an identical title to that of the chieftain-priests who dominated the early Icelandic Commonwealth) ruled the northern part of the island, while the south was divided into ten coastal districts each controlled by a chieftain.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

Pliny begins his description of the route to Scatinavia by referring to the mountain of Saevo (mons Saevo ibi), the Codanus Bay (Codanus sinus) and the Cimbrian promontory.[27] .The geographical features have been identified in various ways; by some scholars "Saevo" is thought to be the mountainous Norwegian coast at the entrance to Skagerrak and the Cimbrian peninsula is thought to be Skagen, the north tip of Jutland, Denmark.^ VENDSYSSEL (Nørrejyske) The northernmost island of Denmark, just north of the Jutland peninsula - the sharp-pointed landmass opposite Gothenborg, Sweden, across the lower Kattegat.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some place the kingdom in southern Norway, while others in what is now Jylland district at the northern tip of the Jutland penninsula of Denmark.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ JUTLAND Mainland Denmark; the peninsula on the western side of the Kingdom.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

As described, Saevo and Scatinavia can also be the same place.
.Pliny mentions Scandinavia one more time: in Book VIII he says that the animal called achlis (given in the accusative, achlin, which is not Latin), was born on the island of Scandinavia.^ I will mention the more important ones.
  • Greek Goddesses 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.paleothea.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ramon called each of the invites to present their self, one at a time, in front of him for a blessing after returning from purging outside.
  • Magic to Miracles by Alan Shoemaker 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC csp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here's that workspace file one more time: right-click this file , choose Save Target As, and save it to My Documents\Libronix DLS\Workspaces .
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

[28] The animal grazes, has a big upper lip and some mythical attributes.
.The name "Scandia", later used as a synonym for Scandinavia, also appears in Pliny's Naturalis Historia, but is used for a group of Northern European islands which he locates north of Britannia.^ The name disappeared altogether for a while between Maharashtra to the north and the later state of Mysore to the south.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later, either one of these characters could be used individually to mean "emperor," as the latter became a suffix for the names of many Han Emperors.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prince Philip of Spain, after whom the islands were named, got his name, in turn, as a result of a common custom among European royalty to borrow names from admired leaders of Greek and Roman antiquity.
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

."Scandia" thus does not appear to be denoting the island Scadinavia in Pliny's text.^ While it is possible to get "ten thousands of Kadesh" from the Hebrew consonants of the traditional Masoretic text, the very common Hebrew word for angels ( mal'akim ) does not appear in the traditional Masoretic text.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

.The idea that "Scadinavia" may have been one of the "Scandiae" islands was instead introduced by Ptolemy (c.90 – c.168 AD), a mathematician, geographer and astrologer of Roman Egypt.^ Posted by: Ron Snyder at May 7, 2009 5:00 AM Molly, The one-state solution is an idea that's been much discussed.
  • Michael J. Totten: The Taliban and Pashtun Nationalism 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I bet no one here has the faintest idea that 90% of Armenias wealth and choice lands are in the hands of 500 or so government officials and mafiosi oligarchs.
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It isn't a great idea to mention their names in conversation, so instead you should call them the Eumenides, or the Kindly Ones .
  • Greek Goddesses 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.paleothea.com [Source type: Original source]

.He used the name "Skandia" for the biggest, most easterly of the three "Scandiai" islands, which according to him were all located east of Jutland.^ Her name meant, Unbending Though the smallest of the three, she is the most terrible.
  • Greek Goddesses 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.paleothea.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Extras located in Third Query: Jn 17.15; Ro 15.30-32; 2Jn 5 Instances missed by all three queries: Ac 8.34; 1Pe 5.1.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ Later, the term "Philippines" was used as a blanket term to cover all of the Philippine islands (Agoncillo, History of the Filipino People , 8th ed., p.
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.Neither Pliny's nor Ptolemy's lists of Scandinavian tribes include the Suiones mentioned by Tacitus.^ REUDIGNI (Rondings) The Reudigni were one of the Nerthus-worshipping Germanic tribes mentioned by Tacitus in his "Germania."
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CE The Aviones or Auiones (probably a Latinized form of the Proto-Norse "Awioniz" or "Island-folk") were a tribe mentioned in Tacitus' Germania .
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some early Swedish scholars of the Swedish Hyperborean school[29] and of the 19th-century romantic nationalism period proceeded to synthesize the different versions by inserting references to the Suiones, arguing that they must have been referred to in the original texts and obscured over time by spelling mistakes or various alterations.^ Everybody knows that 19th and 20th centuries were a “f***ed-up” period in human history.
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cognitive research indicated that some people use race and ethnic origin interchangeably; they see little difference between the two concepts.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early Zionists wanted to establish Jewish state anywhere, but they quickly realized that it was only possible to establish Jewish state in it original place.
  • Michael J. Totten: The Taliban and Pashtun Nationalism 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

[30][31]

Germanic reconstruction

The Latin names in Pliny's text gave rise to different forms in medieval Germanic texts. .In Jordanes' history of the Goths (AD 551) the form Scandza is used for their original home, separated by sea from the land of Europe (chapter 1, 4).^ Since 1957, the National Calendar of India uses the Saka Era (78 AD = year 0), but the origin of this benchmark is itself uncertain (cf.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of two queries, the form could be located with a single query that uses OR to join the two separate queries.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

[32] .Where Jordanes meant to locate this quasi-legendary island is still a hotly debated issue, both in scholarly discussions and in the nationalistic discourse of various European countries.^ Discusses the appeal of Islamic fundamentalism and terrorist activities among Muslim youth who feel marginalized in European society and examines how European governments are working on identifying and locating potential terrorists in their own countries.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discusses immigration policy in European Union countries and other countries hoping to join the Union.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ YTL ranges over various issues of theory and policy; at bottom, and openly discussed, is the question of whether literati are of any use to government.
  • Chronology | An Overview of Classical Chinese Texts 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33][34] .The form Scadinavia as the original home of the Langobards appears in Paulus Diaconus' Historia Langobardorum[35]; in other versions of Historia Langobardorum appear the forms Scadan, Scandanan, Scadanan and Scatenauge.^ Reprint of article that originally appeared in the JNCBRAS 35 (1903-1904): 21-25.
  • Early Imperial China:  Qin/Western Han/Wang Mang 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC e-asia.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

[36] Frankish sources used Sconaowe and Aethelweard, an Anglo-Saxon historian, used Scani.[37][38] .In Beowulf, the forms Scedenige and Scedeland are used, while the Alfredian translation of Orosius and Wulfstan's travel accounts used the Old English Sconeg.^ I don’t want to rub it in, but you force me to…using online translator to translate English to Japanese or reading Kanji doesnt mean you are fluent in japanese.
  • Beijing University Student Embarrasses Japanese Reporter | chinaSMACK 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Force was used against both the Old English and Gaelic Irish.

[38]
.The first segment in "Scandinavia" is also sometimes attributed to Norse mythology, namely the Scandinavian giantess Skaði (Skade).^ Settlement by Scandinavian Freeholders.........874-930 Ingólfur Arnarson ( first Norse settler ).........874-c.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

Sami etymology

Hunting ski goddess, or Sami woman hunting on ski, from Olaus Magnus, 1555
The earliest Sami yoik texts written down refer to the world as Skadesi-suolo (north-Sami) and Skađsuâl (east-Sami), meaning "Skaði's island" (Svennung 1963). .Svennung considers the Sami name to have been introduced as a loan word from the North Germanic languages;[39] "Skaði" is the giant stepmother of Freyr and Freyja in Norse mythology.^ It has been the home of the Jutes for ages, these being a Teutonic folk closely related to both Germans in the south and Norse to the east and north.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

It has been suggested that Skaði to some extent is modeled on a Sami woman. .The name for Skade's father Thjazi is known in Sami as Čáhci, "the waterman", and her son with Odin, Saeming, can be interpreted as a descendent of Saam the Sami population (Mundel 2000),[40] (Steinsland 1991).^ The children take the family name of the father and only sons have the right of inheritance.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The children take the family name of the father and only sons have the right to inherit the family estate.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] Older joik texts give evidence of the old Sami belief about living on an island and state that the wolf is known as suolu gievra, meaning "the strong one on the island". The Sami place name Sulliidčielbma means "the island's threshold" and Suoločielgi means "the island's back".
.In recent substrate studies, Sami linguists have examined the initial cluster sk- in words used in Sami and concluded that sk- is a phonotactic structure of non-native origin.^ Doing a Bible Word Study on parthenos (παρθένος) is also a useful exercise.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course the pseudepigrapha are not useful for establishment of doctrine; but they are helpful for comparative word studies, studies of grammatical phenomena, and for understanding more about the religious culture of the day.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ When studying Greek words, it is sometimes fun and beneficial to see how the words are used outside of the New Testament.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

[42]

Other etymologies

Scadin- can be segmented various ways to obtain various Indo-European meanings: scand- or scad-in-, scan- or sca-din, scandin or scadin-. These segmentations have resulted in a number of possible etymologies, such as "climbing island" (*scand-), "island of the Scythian people", "island of the woodland of *sca-".[citation needed]
.Another possibility is that all or part of the segments of the name came from the indigenous Mesolithic people inhabiting the region.^ Anytime a person of another race tans or gets collagen people start crying “look they all wanna be us”.
  • WTF???: Model Does Black Face for French Vogue | Bossip.com 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC bossip.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How can a central government obscure or deny the right of elected representatives of an autonomous region to represent their people in any and all negotiations that involve the welfare and future of Kurdish people?

^ Name of ethnic group : Hoa (Han) Population : 862,371 people (Year 1999) Locality : The Hoa live in all parts of Vietnam from north to south, in both urban centres and rural regions.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .Today Scandinavia is a peninsula, but between approximately 10,300 BP and 9,500 BP, the southern part of Scandinavia was an island separated from the northern peninsula, with water exiting the Baltic Sea through the area where Stockholm is now located.^ Several groups straddle today's international boundaries, spreading across the Indochinese peninsula and up into Southern China.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GOTLAND A large island within the Baltic Sea, near the southeastern coast of Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The upcoming course in the San Francisco/Oakland area runs from October 8–10, and is now open for pre-registration.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

[44]
.Some Basque scholars have presented the idea that the segment sk that appears in *Ska∂inaujàin is connected to the name for the Euzko peoples, akin to Basques, that populated Paleolithic Europe.^ I think that you have some kind of a connection with people inside Armenian Weekly.
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Name of ethnic group : Ma (Chau Ma, Ma Xop, Ma To, Ma Krung, and Ma Ngan) Population : 33,338 people (Year 1999) Locality : Lam Dong Province.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I really don’t want to get tried by some people in the name of the Gods.

.According to some of these intellectuals, the Scandinavians share some genetic markers with the Basque people.^ I am quoting these because, some people might falsely interpret that I have adopted these views due to the harsh conditions of my solitary confinement.

^ It never interested me that Akcam or any other Turkish intellectual for that matter personally recognized the Armenian Genocide, and I never understood the bizarre fascination that some Armenians foster for such people.
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am looking for one as I am a weaver and some people are asking me to weave these for them.
  • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]
The name of the Scandinavian mountain range, Skanderna in Swedish, was artificially derived from Skandinavien in the 19th century, in analogy with Alperna for the Alps. The commonly used names are bergen or fjällen; both names meaning "the mountains".

Geography

Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula.
The geography of Scandinavia is extremely varied. .Notable are the Norwegian fjords, the Scandinavian Mountains, the flat, low areas in Denmark, and the archipelagos of Sweden and Norway.^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 1 or 2 from Finland, 2 from Sweden and 1 from Norway (+ Icelandic participants) have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June in Stockholm, with representatives from Denmark, Norway and Sweden .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sweden, and to an even greater extent Finland, has many lakes and moraines, legacies of the ice age.
.The climate varies from north to south and from west to east; a marine west coast climate (Cfb) typical of western Europe dominates in Denmark, southernmost part of Sweden and along the west coast of Norway reaching north to 65°N, with orographic lift giving more ;mm/year precipitation (<5000 mm) in some areas in western Norway.^ Coast view west of Sweden.
  • Scandinavia Webcams By Webcamplaza.net 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC www.webcamplaza.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typical coast town in north Norway .
  • Scandinavia Webcams By Webcamplaza.net 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC www.webcamplaza.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fjord most south-west of Norway .
  • Scandinavia Webcams By Webcamplaza.net 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC www.webcamplaza.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The central part - from Oslo to Stockholm - has a humid continental climate (Dfb), which gradually gives way to subarctic climate (Dfc) further north and cool marine west coast climate (Cfc) along the northwestern coast.^ Thus, on old maps of India, the name "Carnatic" can sometimes be found adjacent to the west coast, and on others along the south-eastern coast.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The special North West Frontier Province and the imposition of direct British rule along the southern border of Afghanistan both bespeak increasing British concern about the advance of the Russians in Central Asia.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally built in 1947 for the Royal Navy as a supply vessel, the TSMY Weller transported passengers and goods between lighthouses along the North Sea coast.
  • Itineraries - Yachts of Seabourn - Northern Europe Cruises 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.seabourn.com [Source type: General]

.A small area along the northern coast east of the North Cape has tundra climate (Et) due to lack of summer warmth.^ In 1415, Cape Bojador along the northwest coast of Africa marked the point at which the known world ended and superstition began.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The semi-nomadic Tundra Nenets undertake distant seasonal migrations of large-scale reindeer herds from the Northern forest areas (winter) to the calving sites half-way in the tundra (May) to the coastal areas (summer).
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reindeer breeding is presently the basic occupation of Evenks in the taiga and tundra areas of northern and central Siberia, and far south towards the Baykal and Amur districts.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Scandinavian Mountains block the mild and moist air coming from the southwest, thus northern Sweden and Finnmarksvidda plateau in Norway receive little precipitation and have cold winters. .Large areas in the Scandinavian mountains have alpine tundra climate.^ Climatically, the residence areas of the Teleuts belong to the forest-steppe, mountain and taiga-steppe zones.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The warmest temperature ever recorded in Scandinavia is 38.0 °C in Målilla (Sweden) [45]. The coldest temperature ever recorded is −52.6 °C in Vuoggatjålme (Sweden) [46]. .The warmest month on record was July 1901 in Oslo, with a mean (24hr) of 22.7 °C, and the coldest month was February 1985 in Vittangi (Sweden) with a mean of -27.2 °C.[46].^ Chan, Alan K.L. “The Essential Meaning of the Way and Virtue: Yan Zun and ‘Laozi Learning’ in Early Han China.” MS 46 (1998): 105-27.
  • Early Imperial China:  Qin/Western Han/Wang Mang 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC e-asia.uoregon.edu [Source type: Academic]

Southwesterly winds further warmed by foehn wind can give warm temperatures in narrow Norwegian fjords in winter; Tafjord has recorded 17.9 °C in January and Sunndal 18.9 °C in February.

Languages in Scandinavia

.There are two language groups that have coexisted on the Scandinavian peninsula since prehistory—the North Germanic languages (Scandinavian languages) and the Sami languages.^ Are there two groups of three things?
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ The working language in the group will predominantly be Scandinavian.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite their different origins, languages, dialects and hugely varied traditional dress, there are a number of similarities among the highland groups that distinguish them from Viet people.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .The majority languages on the peninsula, Swedish and Norwegian, are today, along with Danish, classified as Continental Scandinavian.^ Figures for the Development component are accessible in the Norwegian and Finnish cost figures but absent in the Danish and Swedish figures.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.The North Germanic languages of Scandinavia are traditionally divided into an East Scandinavian branch (Danish and Swedish) and a West Scandinavian branch (Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese),[49][50] but because of changes appearing in the languages since 1600, the East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian branches are now usually reconfigured into Insular Scandinavian (ö-nordisk/øy-nordisk) featuring (Icelandic and Faroese)[51] and Continental Scandinavian (Skandinavisk), comprising Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish.^ Such stories always featured a District Magistrate as the protagonist; and since the Magistrate was also the Police Chief, Prosecutor, and Judge in his District, this allowed for dimensions of crime fiction that now in Western fiction would usually belong to separate genres.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The West claims it was built to keep unhappy East Germans from escaping.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ West Germany has been admitted to NATO. Within East Germany, Berlin is divided between East and West by an open border.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .The modern division is based on the degree of mutual comprehensibility between the languages in the two branches.^ This segment considers the events leading up to the construction of the Berlin Wall on August 13, 1961 -- the final division between the two German states.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This also provides a future benefit: You will be able to translate between the two languages faster and more accurately.

^ And the language difference really reflects the difference between the two groups of people.

[52] .Note that skandinavisk(a) may also refer to a way of speaking one Scandinavian language in a way intended to be more easily understood by speakers of the other Scandinavian languages.^ That's not to say continued support is that way to advance the language, the future of the language lies with the people who will speak it, but some *focussed* support will always be necessary IMO. .
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I guess you’re American as Brits have somewhat more class, yet remember we are posting in an environment where many are not native English speakers, and many even are speaking more languages than just one like you.
  • Beijing University Student Embarrasses Japanese Reporter | chinaSMACK 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the Mongols, all the groups appear to be speakers of Altaic languages, except the Hsi-Hsia, who, as noted above, were Tanguts, closely akin to the Tibetans.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Apart from Sami and the languages of minority groups speaking a variant of the majority language of a neighboring state, the following minority languages in Scandinavia are protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Yiddish, Romani Chib, Romanes and Romani.^ If the minority gradually changes to speak the language of the majority I have no problem with that because I have no overly sentimental attachment to language - it's primary purpose is as a form of communication and in Northern Ireland (and largely in the Republic I'd guess) this is more efficiently done in English.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally, the letter was in Pashto - the language the majority of the Taliban speak - but its English version is available on the Taliban's website.
  • Why the US is losing in Afghanistan - updates on the Pashtun insurgency 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ Despite their different origins, languages, dialects and hugely varied traditional dress, there are a number of similarities among the highland groups that distinguish them from Viet people.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Continental Scandinavian languages

Distribution of the North Germanic languages:
     Continental Scandinavian languages      Insular Scandinavian languages
.The dialects of Denmark, Norway and Sweden form a dialect continuum and are mutually intelligible.^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 1 or 2 from Finland, 2 from Sweden and 1 from Norway (+ Icelandic participants) have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June in Stockholm, with representatives from Denmark, Norway and Sweden .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The populations of the Scandinavian countries, with a Scandinavian mother tongue, can—at least with some training—understand each other's standard languages as they appear in print and are heard on radio and television.^ Others, more powerful and perhaps more advanced, speak whatever language you need to hear that you may understand their message.
  • Magic to Miracles by Alan Shoemaker 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC csp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As they are new to Canada it seems we need to focus on ensuring they get the most bang for their buck as fast as possible to a least get some semblance of comprehension.

^ They share a common message board where they can exchange ideas on technique, training, and just talk to each other.
  • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reason why Danish, Swedish and the two official written versions of Norwegian (Nynorsk and Bokmål) are traditionally viewed as different languages, rather than dialects of one common language, is that they each are well established standard languages in their respective countries.^ The written language is based on the northern dialect.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the reason why they are Han Chinese.

^ They are the reasons why we have been in a painful society.

.They are related to, but not mutually intelligible with, the other North Germanic languages, Icelandic and Faroese, which are descended from Old West Norse.^ Thus, on old maps of India, the name "Carnatic" can sometimes be found adjacent to the west coast, and on others along the south-eastern coast.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been the home of the Jutes for ages, these being a Teutonic folk closely related to both Germans in the south and Norse to the east and north.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other groups were all speaking Altaic languages, closely related to Turkish, Mongolian, and Manchu.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Danish, Swedish and Norwegian have, since medieval times, been influenced to varying degrees by Middle Low German and standard German.^ Homer's extensive influence on ancient Greece is why historians since ancient times refer to him as the "Educator of Greece."
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Medieval Greece spans the same historical time as the European Middle Ages, from approximately the 4th century AD to 1453 AD, and includes the Byzantine Empire.
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

A substantial amount of that influence was a by-product of the economic activity generated by the Hanseatic League.
.Norwegians are accustomed to variation, and may perceive Danish and Swedish only as slightly more distant dialects.^ Only Swedish and Danish participants at this meeting .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only Danish and Swedish registered WG members were present at the meeting in Copenhagen.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figures for the Development component are accessible in the Norwegian and Finnish cost figures but absent in the Danish and Swedish figures.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is because they have two official written standards, in addition to the habit of strongly holding on to local dialects.^ The Mongols and Manchus did not use Chinese family names -- and with both of them we get two "Founders" because Chinese historians officially began the dynasties only when they considered them the legitimate rulers of China.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However the runoff elections turn out, assuming they take place at all, Hamid Karzai will win because he handpicked the election officials.
  • Why the US is losing in Afghanistan - updates on the Pashtun insurgency 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ Vietnam's minorities have substantial autonomy and, though the official national language is Vietnamese, all minority children still learn their local dialect.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The people of Stockholm, Sweden and Copenhagen, Denmark, have the greatest difficulty in understanding other Scandinavian languages.^ June in Stockholm, with representatives from Denmark, Norway and Sweden .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is important that the Prime Minister and his government learn how to benefit from other people’s knowledge and views because that knowledge will help them understand how to approach the Kurdish problem.

^ Efficiency doesn't need to be the key aspect of 'casual' communication, many people enjoy talking in other languages, or listening to other languages or reading in other languages.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

[53] In the Faroe Islands, learning Danish is mandatory. .This causes Faroese people to become bilingual in two very distinct North Germanic languages, making it relatively easy for them to understand the other two Mainland Scandinavian languages.^ What makes people can’t understand the values others hold?

^ "Multilingualism is part of multiculturalism," he says, buzzwords ringing, "Knowing many languages makes people more sociable, more democratic, more empathic, and more humanistic ."

^ And the only way to stop others making them unhappy is to let others know they are not that easy to be offended, or they can’t be treated as the lower.

[54]
.The Scandinavian languages are (as a language family) entirely unrelated to Finnish, Estonian, and Sami languages, which as Finno-Ugric languages are distantly related to Hungarian.^ Chinese may have picked up tones as part of a Southeast Asian Sprachbund , where, as in the Balkans , unrelated or distantly related languages borrow features from each other.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are no tones in related languages, like Tibetan, but there are tones in unrelated regional languages, like Vietnamese.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Affiliation of national language: Uralic-Yukagiran family, Finno-Ugric group, Finnic subgroup Status of national language (1989): Mother tongue: 37.5% (Karelia); 69.9% (Leningradskaya Obl.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to the close proximity, there is still a great deal of borrowing from the Swedish and Norwegian languages in the Finnish, Estonian, and Sami languages.^ The places where Swedish is strongest are the "Gaeltachta", communtities where Swedish can be used as a community language where the influence of Finnish is minimised.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There will be many great opportunities to secure large deals and make lots of money.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

^ The Finnish Education project and the Norwegian Benchmarking project is still in full activity.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55] .The long history of linguistic influence of Swedish on Finnish is also due to the fact that Finnish, the language of the majority in Finland, was treated as a minority language while Finland was part of Sweden.^ Obviously I'm speaking (even there) as part of the majority - in this day and age people are coming to realise that the majority shouldn't simply dictate to the minority; I wonder when people will realise the minority shouldn't dictate to the majority either.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, the term "hubristic" even today means insulting, and betrays through its incorporation in the English language the extent of its ancient influence.
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A language that had been the minority language for many hundreds of years, and had never been the majority language of any of the cities and almost none of the town of Ireland.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

Finnish-speakers had to learn Swedish in order to advance to higher positions.[56] .Although Iceland was under the political control of Denmark until a much later date (1918), very little influence and borrowing from Danish has occurred in the Icelandic language.^ There was temporary elation when they believed the Germans had landed, and there were rumours of a general uprising, although very little happened outside Dublin.

^ Maharaja , "Great King," is very familiar from later India but at this early date betrays its Middle Eastern inspiration, since it was originally used by the Persian Kings.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is therefore important that the final dates are not very much later than suggested, and the conference dates are also planned adjacent to a following week-end.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .Icelandic remained the preferred language among the ruling classes in Iceland; Danish was not used for official communications, most of the royal officials were of Icelandic descent and the language of the church and law courts remained Icelandic.^ Most important key to learning a language that overrides all of the tapes, books, classes, etc…….You have to be willing to TRY. Just speak.

^ How does one determine a list of the most commonly used word, spoken and written, in a language.

^ Most would remain so until the end of British rule, a reluctance for further annexations having overcome the British after the Mutiny.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

[58]

Sami languages

Historically verified distribution of the Sami languages — (legend)
The Sami languages are indigenous minority languages in Scandinavia.[59] .They belong to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family and are unrelated to the North Germanic languages other than by limited grammatical (particularly lexical) characteristics resulting from prolonged contact.^ This has forced a wide range of influences upon the Shaozhou Chinese, resulting in their language being distinct from other Han groups.
  • Joshua Project - Han Chinese, Shaozhou of China Ethnic People Profile 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For me it is a source of shame that I now speak other languages much better than Irish.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cari Smith January 20th, 2009 7:34 pm Where can we find information about the 100 most common written and spoken words in languages other than English, say Spanish or German?

[55] .Sami is divided into several languages or dialects[60] Consonant gradation is a feature in both Finnish and northern Sami dialects, but it is not present in south Sami, which is considered to have a different language history.^ Despite their different origins, languages, dialects and hugely varied traditional dress, there are a number of similarities among the highland groups that distinguish them from Viet people.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advocates of the Scots-Irish dialect in Ulster coined the phrase in 1993 as part of the process of trying to make the Scots-Irish dialect into a recognised language ...
  • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A great deal of confusion, and wasted time and effort, has resulted from trying to divide things into this or that when in fact they are both --or all-- at once.
  • PSYCHOLOGY IN GREEK PHILOSOPHY 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Original source]

.According to the Sami Information Centre of the Sami Parliament in Sweden, southern Sami originated in an earlier migration from the south into the Scandinavian peninsula.^ Several groups straddle today's international boundaries, spreading across the Indochinese peninsula and up into Southern China.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this period China again breaks into Southern and Northern halves, but there are significant differances in comparison to the earlier period of the Northern and Southern Empires .
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SCANIA The far southern end of Sweden, and thereby of considerable strategic importance in it's being more-or-less adjacent to all three of the major Scandinavian powers.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

[55]

Finland and Scandinavia

Finland is officially bilingual, with Finnish and Swedish having mostly the same status at national level. Native Swedish speakers constitute a small, but rather influential, minority. .Children are taught the other official language at school; for Swedish-speakers, this is Finnish (usually from the 3rd grade), and for Finnish-speakers, Swedish (usually from the 7th grade).^ On the other hand, he sees positive signs such as a recent trend of parents outside the Gaeltacht sending their children to all-Irish-speaking schools.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Minority languages are now officially recognized and can be taught in schools; scholarships enable minority people to attend institutes of higher education.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ School Irish was a synthetic language created by linguists and bureaucrats from the two main dialects with lots of other bits and pieces thrown in.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finnish speakers constitute a language minority in Sweden, Norway and Russian Federation.^ Both in Alaska and in the Russian Federation, only a quarter of the Aleuts have maintained their national language.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a German native speaker and foreign language addicted (Spanish, English, Russian) I experienced the following: .

.There are also Finnic languages different from standard Finnish, known as Meänkieli in Sweden and Kven in Norway.^ Despite their different origins, languages, dialects and hugely varied traditional dress, there are a number of similarities among the highland groups that distinguish them from Viet people.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two standard textual critical tools included in the Original Languages Library and Scholar’s Library: Gold .
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ His identification as king of Oppland in Norway may be erroneous as there is a correspondingly-named region in Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

History

The traditional lands of Sweden (Finland was a part of Sweden, called Österland, until 1809)
During a period of Christianization and state formation in the 10th-13th centuries, three consolidated kingdoms emerged in Scandinavia:
.
  • Denmark, forged from the Lands of Denmark (including Jutland, Zealand and Scania (Skåneland) on the Scandinavian Peninsula.^ VENDSYSSEL (Nørrejyske) The northernmost island of Denmark, just north of the Jutland peninsula - the sharp-pointed landmass opposite Gothenborg, Sweden, across the lower Kattegat.
    • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ JUTLAND Mainland Denmark; the peninsula on the western side of the Kingdom.
    • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The territory at the base of the Jutland peninsula, with close ties to both Denmark and Germany.
    • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

    [61] .The island Gotland in modern-day Sweden was initially also part of the Danish realm.^ GOTLAND A large island within the Baltic Sea, near the southeastern coast of Sweden.
    • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now I include lists for Kashmir and for the Gurjara-Pratîhâras, whose realm centered on Ujjain in the western part of the modern Madhya Pradesh.
    • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To Sweden.....................................1280-1361 In 1288 war broke out between the Scandanavian Gotlanders and the German-dominated town of Visby, located on the island.
    • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

    )
  • .
  • Sweden, forged from the Lands of Sweden on the Scandinavian Peninsula (excluding the provinces Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland and Idre & Särna, Halland, Blekinge and Scania of modern-day Sweden)
  • Norway (including Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland and Idre & Särna on the Scandinavian Peninsula, and its island colonies Iceland, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Shetland, the Orkneys, Isle of Man and the Hebrides.^ VENDSYSSEL (Nørrejyske) The northernmost island of Denmark, just north of the Jutland peninsula - the sharp-pointed landmass opposite Gothenborg, Sweden, across the lower Kattegat.
    • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden.
    • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ LAND (Ahvenanmaa) A group of islands in the Baltic about halfway between Finland and Sweden.
    • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

    )
.In the 1645 Treaty of Brömsebro, Denmark–Norway ceded the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen and Idre & Särna, as well as the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel (in Estonia) to Sweden.^ GOTLAND A large island within the Baltic Sea, near the southeastern coast of Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ June in Stockholm, with representatives from Denmark, Norway and Sweden .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Membership Fees for 2007 will be NOK 20 000,- for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Treaty of Roskilde, signed in 1658, forced Denmark–Norway to cede the Danish provinces Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Båhuslen and Trøndelag to Sweden.^ June in Stockholm, with representatives from Denmark, Norway and Sweden .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1915 China was bullied into ceding these to Japan (confirmed in the Treaty of Versailles, which China refused to sign), but in the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 they were returned to China.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Membership Fees for 2007 will be NOK 20 000,- for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 1660 Treaty of Copenhagen forced Sweden to return Bornholm and Trøndelag to Denmark–Norway, and to give up its recent claims to the island Funen.^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 1 or 2 from Finland, 2 from Sweden and 1 from Norway (+ Icelandic participants) have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June in Stockholm, with representatives from Denmark, Norway and Sweden .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62]

Scandinavian unions

Denmark–Norway until 1814.
.The three Scandinavian kingdoms were united in 1397 in the Kalmar Union by Queen Margaret I of Denmark.^ Christian, scion of the noble north German family of Oldenburg, became King of the Kalmar Union (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) in 1448.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Norway was united with Denmark in personal union from the 14th century; in 1814 it was detached from Denmark, and amalgamated with Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sweden left the union in 1523 under King Gustav Vasa.^ Christian, scion of the noble north German family of Oldenburg, became King of the Kalmar Union (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) in 1448.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The program for Facilitiesdagen is in the links column to the left on this page, under "NordicFM lenker", klick on "Files - Sweden", at the bottom of the column.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within Sweden.................................1436-1519 Miner's revolt................................1519-1523 This uprising was also an anti-Kalmar movement, and quickly was caught up in the sweep of forces under Gustavus Vasa which established Sweden once and for all as fully independent.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the aftermath of Sweden's secession from the Kalmar Union, civil war broke out in Denmark and Norway.^ He was reviving the IRB. This group took the decision after war broke out to take violent advantage of Britain’s difficulties.

^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southern Ireland seemed more loyal to the Crown than ever before, because Home Rule had passed into law just before the war broke out.

The Protestant Reformation followed. .When things had settled down, the Norwegian Privy Council was abolished—it assembled for the last time in 1537. A personal union, entered into by the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway in 1536, lasted until 1814. Three sovereign successor states have subsequently emerged from this unequal union: Denmark, Norway and Iceland.^ It is the region out of which Norway emerged as a state.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some place the kingdom in southern Norway, while others in what is now Jylland district at the northern tip of the Jutland penninsula of Denmark.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christian, scion of the noble north German family of Oldenburg, became King of the Kalmar Union (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) in 1448.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.Denmark–Norway is the historiographical name for the former political union consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands.^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 1 or 2 from Finland, 2 from Sweden and 1 from Norway (+ Icelandic participants) have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some place the kingdom in southern Norway, while others in what is now Jylland district at the northern tip of the Jutland penninsula of Denmark.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

The corresponding adjective and demonym is Dano-Norwegian. .During Danish rule, Norway kept its separate laws, coinage and army, as well as some institutions such as a royal chancellor.^ Hiei was the center of secular as well as spiritual power, when the monks formed monastic armies -- strange and oxymoronic as such things would seem to be.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some suggest a separate category for "other indigenous tribes" to include tribes such as Mapuchi and Mayan.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But note; in some sources the name of Svithjod is used to refer to the predecessor-states of Sweden, as well as the legendary pan-Scandinavian kingdoms ruled by such kings as Ivar Vidfame.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV,[63] but Norway's remaining a hereditary kingdom was an important factor to the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark–Norway in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark.^ Some place the kingdom in southern Norway, while others in what is now Jylland district at the northern tip of the Jutland penninsula of Denmark.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HÅLOGALAND An old province in central Norway, once a local Kingdom before the unification of the nation.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christian, scion of the noble north German family of Oldenburg, became King of the Kalmar Union (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) in 1448.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

The Dano-Norwegian union was formally dissolved at the 1814 Treaty of Kiel. .The territory of Norway proper was ceded to the King of Sweden, but Norway's overseas possessions were kept by Denmark.^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 1 or 2 from Finland, 2 from Sweden and 1 from Norway (+ Icelandic participants) have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June in Stockholm, with representatives from Denmark, Norway and Sweden .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, widespread Norwegian resistance to the prospect of a union with Sweden induced the governor of Norway, crown prince Christian Frederick (later Christian VIII of Denmark), to call a constituent assembly at Eidsvoll in April 1814. The assembly drew up a liberal constitution and elected him to the throne of Norway.^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June in Stockholm, with representatives from Denmark, Norway and Sweden .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Membership Fees for 2007 will be NOK 20 000,- for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following a Swedish invasion during the summer, the peace conditions specified that king Christian Frederik had to resign, but Norway was to keep its independence and its constitution within a personal union with Sweden.^ He converted to Christianity following a hunting trip during which he saw a glowing cross between the antlers of a stag, after which he received a prophecy that he would suffer for Christ.
  • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the discussion, the President of the Swedish Writers’ Union provided to Lindh a translation of the indictment against Baksi prepared by the Istanbul State Security Court.

^ We can learn a lesson from this failure of the ancient Greeks to keep their rivalries within bounds, or to compete merely within the peaceful arena provided by their contests of skill.
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Christian Frederik formally abdicated on August 10 1814 and returned to Denmark. The parliament Storting elected king Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway on November 4.
.The union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved in 1905, after which Prince Charles of Denmark was elected king of Norway under the name of Haakon VII.^ He reigned as Charles I as Emperor of Austria and Charles IV as King of Hungary from 1916 until 1918, when under pressure he "renounced participation" in state affairs, but did not abdicate.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The feud between Thrond and Sigmund had great significance; Sigmund was a Christian and a vassal of Jarl Haakon, and later Olaf Tryggvasson of Norway, while Thrond was a pagan and stubborn nationalist.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His identification as king of Oppland in Norway may be erroneous as there is a correspondingly-named region in Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

Political Scandinavism

Scandinavia as a 19th century political vision (Scandinavism)
.The modern usage of the term Scandinavia has been influenced by Scandinavism (the Scandinavist political movement), which was active in the middle of the 19th century, mainly between the First war of Schleswig (1848–1850), in which Sweden and Norway contributed with considerable military force, and the Second war of Schleswig (1864).^ First Sikh War, 1845-1846; Second Sikh War, 1848-1849; annexed by British, 1849 .
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DVD 6114 Paris: The Crazy Years In the period between the first and second world wars, prostitution was legal in Paris and brothels flourished.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These segments examine the 19th century relations between Brazil and Portugal, the 1846-1847 civil war, and the role of Marshal Luis Paulino and Ze do Telhado.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1864, the Swedish parliament denounced the promises of military support made to Denmark by Charles XV of Sweden.^ Our entire military chain of command supports this approach, as do our NATO allies, which they made clear at their recent defense ministerial meeting in Bratislava.
  • Why the US is losing in Afghanistan - updates on the Pashtun insurgency 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: News]

.The members of the Swedish parliament were wary of joining an alliance against the rising German power.^ Germans, Poles and Hungarians attempt to rise against Soviet rule.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Councilors and courtiers run the kings government and work with a parliament of members of the rising gentry class.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hitler's rise to power meant immediate exile (followed by withdrawal of German citizenship in 1935 and povery through loss of royalties.
  • Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) 11 September 2009 19:22 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Swedish king also proposed a unification of Denmark, Norway and Sweden into a single united kingdom.^ The country was being integrated into a single coherent unit with interrelated local economies and a common law.

^ Some place the kingdom in southern Norway, while others in what is now Jylland district at the northern tip of the Jutland penninsula of Denmark.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HÅLOGALAND An old province in central Norway, once a local Kingdom before the unification of the nation.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.The background for the proposal was the tumultuous events during the Napoleonic wars in the beginning of the century.^ "Founder" is used at the beginning of the Dynasty, or after an event like a re founding during it.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.This war resulted in Finland (formerly the eastern third of Sweden) becoming the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 and Norway (de jure in union with Denmark since 1387, although de facto treated as a province) becoming independent in 1814, but thereafter swiftly forced to accept a personal union with Sweden.^ Norway was united with Denmark in personal union from the 14th century; in 1814 it was detached from Denmark, and amalgamated with Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the purchase of grey whales from Russian whaling boats has become too expensive in the last years, the local population has started to re-adopt traditional whaling methods.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dependent territories Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland, historically part of Norway, remained with Denmark in accordance with the Treaty of Kiel.^ NW part of Norway, from the island of Lofoton .
  • Scandinavia Webcams By Webcamplaza.net 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC www.webcamplaza.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HRAFNISTA (Ramsta) A territory on the island of Nærøy in Nord-Trøndelag, northern Norway.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sweden and Norway were thus united under the Swedish monarch, but Finland's inclusion in the Russian Empire excluded any possibility for a political union between Finland and any of the other Nordic countries.^ In para 2 the Rules state that: Nordic FM is an organized cooperation between networks and associations in the field of Facilities Management in the 5 Nordic countries.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since that time, the Teleut clans of Ashkyshtym, Togul, Tagap, and Keret at first, and then others joined the Russian Empire.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know other countries are a little behind the times in terms of racial political correctness, but come on.
  • WTF???: Model Does Black Face for French Vogue | Bossip.com 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC bossip.com [Source type: Original source]

.The end of the Scandinavian political movement came when Denmark was denied the military support promised from Sweden and Norway to annex the (Danish) Duchy of Schleswig, which together with the (German) Duchy of Holstein had been in personal union with Denmark.^ Christian, scion of the noble north German family of Oldenburg, became King of the Kalmar Union (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) in 1448.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British army's military operation officially came to an end at midnight, passing responsibility for security onto the police force.

^ Norway was united with Denmark in personal union from the 14th century; in 1814 it was detached from Denmark, and amalgamated with Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Second war of Schleswig followed in 1864, a brief but disastrous war between Denmark and Prussia (supported by Austria).^ DVD 6114 Paris: The Crazy Years In the period between the first and second world wars, prostitution was legal in Paris and brothels flourished.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ANGELN A district in the frontier region between Germany and Denmark; a portion of modern Schleswig-Holstein.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Skálholt was reformed in 1549, leading to a brief but bloody civil war, followed by vicious reprisals on both sides.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.Schleswig-Holstein was conquered by Prussia, and after Prussia's success in the Franco-Prussian War a Prussian-led German Empire was created, and a new power-balance of the Baltic sea countries was established.^ For further succession in Schleswig-Holstein, see Schleswig-Holstein in the Germany files.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henceforth, the shell of Moghul authority would stand just until a new conquering power would appear.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Video/C 8098 The Germans: Portrait of a New Nation Five years after unification, Germany is emerging as Europe's most powerful country.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even if a Scandinavian political union never came about at this point, there was a Scandinavian Monetary Union established in 1873, lasting until World War I.^ This began a war that lasted until 1945.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But then again you can never make a generalization about a country, or even a group of people.

^ A convoy system, which the Allies had to use against German submarines in World War I and World War II in the Atlantic, was never used by Japan, even when American submarines were decimating and even annihilating ships carrying desperately needed strategic supplies.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Historical political structure

Century Scandinavia and the Nordic Countries
21st Denmark (EU) Faroes Iceland Norway Sweden (EU) Åland (EU) Finland (EU)
20th Denmark Sweden Åland Finland
19th Denmark Sweden/Norway (Union) Grand Duchy of Finland (Russia)
18th Denmark/Norway (Union) Sweden
17th
16th Denmark/Norway (Union) Sweden
15th Denmark/Sweden/Norway (Union)
14th Denmark Norway Sweden
13th
12th Faroes Icelandic CW Norway Jämtland
Peoples Danes Faroese¹ Icelanders¹ Norwegians Jamts² Swedes Finns
Minorities Germans Celts/Picts Sami Sami Finns/Sami Finns Swedes/Sami
  • 2: The settlers of Jämtland are of Norwegian—more specifically Trøndish—origin and their ancestors founded their own state similar to the Icelandic one governed by the Jamtamót assembly of free men.

See also

References

  1. ^ Danish and Swedish: Skandinavien, Norwegian, Faroese and Finnish: Skandinavia, Icelandic: Skandinavía, Sami: Skadesi-suolu / Skađsuâl.
  2. ^ "Scandinavia". Encyclopædia Britannica. britannica.com. 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/526461/Scandinavia. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  3. ^ Lonely Planet Scandinavian Europe. 2009. 
  4. ^ The Rough Guide to Scandinavia. 2008. 
  5. ^ "Official Site of Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America". 2009. http://www.goscandinavia.com/. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 
  6. ^ "Skandinavien" (in Swedish). Nationalencyklopedin, online edition. http://www.ne.se/lang/skandinavien. Retrieved 2010-03-12. ""Skandinavien, dels samlingsnamn på länderna Sverige, Norge och Danmark, ibland också Finland, dels benämning på Skandinaviska halvön. " English: "Scandinavia, alternatively a collective term for the nations Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, sometimes also Finland, or a name for the Scandinavian peninsula."". 
  7. ^ "Scandinavia". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. 1997–2007. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761572025/Scandinavia.html. Retrieved 2007-01-30. "Scandinavia (ancient Scandia), name applied collectively to three countries of northern Europe—Norway and Sweden (which together form the Scandinavian Peninsula), and Denmark.". 
  8. ^ "Scandinavia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9066021. Retrieved 2007-01-31. "Scandinavia, historically Scandia, part of northern Europe, generally held to consist of the two countries of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Norway and Sweden, with the addition of Denmark. Some authorities argue for the inclusion of Finland ... and of Iceland and the Faroe Islands ....". 
  9. ^ "Scandinavia". The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2008. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/scandinavia. Retrieved 2008-01-09. "Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway, Sweden—sometimes also considered to include Iceland, the Faeroe Islands, & Finland.". 
  10. ^ a b Saetre, Elvind (2007-10-01). "About Nordic co-operation". Nordic Council of Ministers & Nordic Council. http://www.norden.org/en/about-nordic-co-operation. Retrieved 2008-01-09. "The Nordic countries consist of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Finland, Åland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden." 
  11. ^ "Nordic". In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
  12. ^ a b c Østergård, Uffe (1997). "The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity – From Composite States to Nation States". The Cultural Construction of Norden. Øystein Sørensen and Bo Stråth (eds.), Oslo: Scandinavian University Press 1997, 25-71. Also published online at Danish Institute for International Studies. For the history of cultural Scandinavism, see Oresundstid's articles The Literary Scandinavism and The Roots of Scandinavism. Retrieved 19 January 2007.
  13. ^ Hans Christian Andersen and Music - I am a Scandinavian. The Royal Library of Denmark, the National Library and Copenhagen University Library. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  14. ^ "Finland and the Swedish Empire". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
  15. ^ a b "Introduction: Reflections on Political Thought in Finland." Editorial. Redescriptions, Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History, 1997, Volume 1, University of Jyväskylä, p. 6-7: "[T]he populist opposition both to Sweden as a former imperial country and especially to Swedish as the language of the narrow Finnish establishment has also been strong, especially in the inter-war years. [...] Finland as a unitary and homogeneous nation-state was constructed [...] in opposition to the imperial models of Sweden and Russia."
  16. ^ "The Rise of Finnish Nationalism". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 November 2006: "The eighteenth century had witnessed the appearance of [...] a sense of national identity for the Finnish people, [...] an expression of the Finns' growing doubts about Swedish rule [...] The ethnic self-consciousness of Finnish speakers was given a considerable boost by the Russian conquest of Finland in 1809, because ending the connection with Sweden forced Finns to define themselves with respect to the Russians."
  17. ^ Editors and Board, Redescriptions, Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History
  18. ^ Olwig, Kenneth R. "Introduction: The Nature of Cultural Heritage, and the Culture of Natural Heritage—Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony". International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 3–7.
  19. ^ About The American-Scandinavian Foundation. Official site. Retrieved 2 February 2007.
  20. ^ Scandinavian Tourist Board. Official site.
  21. ^ The Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. Official Website. Retrieved 2 February 2007.
  22. ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund in (1999). Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. PhD dissertation, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English), University of Cambridge, 1999.
  23. ^ Haugen, Einar (1976). The Scandinavian Languages: An Introduction to Their History. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1976.
  24. ^ a b c Helle, Knut (2003). "Introduction". The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Ed. E. I. Kouri et al. Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-47299-7.
  25. ^ "Island". Bartleby, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000.
  26. ^ a b c Old Frisian "se". "Comments on Indo-European reconstruction". The Indo-European Dictionary (IEED). Retrieved 2 October 2007.
  27. ^ Pliny the Elder. Naturalis Historia. Book IV, chapter XXXIX. Ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff. Online version at Persus. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
  28. ^ Pliny the Elder. Naturalis Historia. Book VIII, chapter XVII. Ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff. Online version at Persus. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
  29. ^ Lundgreen-Nielsen, Flemming (2002). "Nordic language history and the history of ideas I: Humanism". In The Nordic Languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. Eds. Oskar Bandle et al., Vol I. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 2002. ISBN 3110148765, p. 358: "The term 'hyperborean' has been taken from odes by Pindar and Horace, literally meaning 'people living north of the north wind (Boreas). [Olaus Verelius, the founder] perpetuated Johannes Magnus' viewpoint that human culture began in Sweden with the Goths; [...] The height of the nationalistic theory of Gothic origins can be found in the work of Olof Rudbeck".
  30. ^ Malone,Kemp (1924). "Ptolemy's Skandia". The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 45, No. 4. (1924), pp. 362–370.
  31. ^ Stadius, Peter (2001). "Southern Perspectives on the North: Legends, Stereotypes, Images and Models". BaltSeaNet Working Paper 3, The Baltic Sea Area Studies, Gdansk/Berlin, 2001. Online version retrieved 2 October 2007.
  32. ^ Jordanes (translated by Charles C. Mierow), The Origins and Deeds of the Goths, April 22, 1997
  33. ^ Hoppenbrouwers, Peter (2005). Medieval Peoples Imagined. Working Paper #3, Department of European Studies, University of Amsterdam, ISSN 1871-1693, p. 8: "A second core area was the quasi-legendary 'isle of Scanza', the vague indication of Scandinavia in classical ethnography, and a veritable 'hive of races and a womb of peoples' according to Jordanes' Gothic History. Not only the Goths were considered to have originated there, but also the Dacians/Danes, the Lombards, and the Burgundians—claims that are still subject to debate."
  34. ^ Goffart, Walter (2005), "Jordanes’s Getica and the disputed authenticity of Gothic origins from Scandinavia". Speculum. A Journal of Medieval Studies 80, 379-98
  35. ^ Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum, BIBLIOTHECA AUGUSTANA
  36. ^ History of the Langobards, Northvegr Foundation
  37. ^ Björkman,Erik (1973). Studien über die Eigennamen im Beowulf. M. Sändig, ISBN 3500284701, p. 99.
  38. ^ a b North, Richard (1997). Heathen Gods in Old English Literature. Cambridge University Press: 1997, ISBN 0521551838, p.192.
  39. ^ Svennung, J. (1963). Scandinavia und Scandia. Lateinisch-nordische Namenstudien. Almqvist & Wiksell/Harrassowitz, 1963, pp. 54–56.
  40. ^ Mundel, E. (2000). "Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths" Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths University of Bergen, 11th Saga Conference Sydney 2000
  41. ^ Steinsland, Gro (1991). Det hellige bryllup og norrøn kongeideologi. En analyse av hierogami-myten i Skírnismál, Ynglingatal, Háleygjatal og Hyndluljóð. Oslo: Solum, 1991. (In Norwegian).
  42. ^ Aikio, A. (2004). "An essay on substrate studies and the origin of Saami". In Etymologie, Entlehnungen und Entwicklungen: Festschrift für Jorma Koivulehto zum 70. Geburtstag. Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 63, Eds. Irma Hyvärinen / Petri Kallio / Jarmo Korhonen, Helsinki, pp. 5–34 (p. 14: "On the basis of Scandinavian loanwords it can be inferred that both sk- and -ʃ- were adopted in the west during the early separate development of the Saami languages, but never spread to Kola Saami. These areal features thus emerged in a phase when Proto-Saami began to diverge into dialects anticipating the modern Saami languages.")
  43. ^ a b J. F. del Giorgio (2006). The Oldest Europeans: Who Are We? Where Do We Come From? What Made European Women Different?. A. J. Place, 2006. ISBN 980-6898-00-1.
  44. ^ Uścinowicz, Szymon (2003). "How the Baltic Sea was changing". Marine Geology Branch, Polish Geological Institute, 9 June 2003. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  45. ^ Högsta uppmätta temperatur i Sverige
  46. ^ a b Lägsta uppmätta temperatur i Sverige
  47. ^ Sammallahti, Pekka, 1990. "The Sámi Language: Past and Present". In Arctic Languages: An Awakening. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Paris. ISBN 92-3-102661-5, p. 440: "we do not know of any linguistic groups in the area other than the Uralic and Indo-Europeans (represented by the present Scandinavian languages)."
  48. ^ a b Heine, Bernd and Tania Kuteva (2006). The Changing Languages of Europe. Oxford University Press, 2006, ISBN 0199297347.
  49. ^ Henriksen, Petter (ed.); Aschehoug og Gyldendals Store norske leksikon, 11 Nar-Pd; Kunnskapsforlaget; Oslo; 1998; ISBN 82-573-0703-3
  50. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International
  51. ^ Jónsson, Jóhannes Gísli and Thórhallur Eythórsson (2004). "Variation in subject case marking in Insular Scandinavian". Nordic Journal of Linguistics (2005), 28: 223-245 Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
  52. ^ Torp, Arne (2004). Nordiske sprog i fortid og nutid. Sproglighed og sprogforskelle, sprogfamilier og sprogslægtskab (kap. 2). Moderne nordiske sprog. In Nordens sprog - med rødder og fødder. Nord 2004:010, ISBN 9289310413, Nordic Council of Ministers' Secretariat, Copenhagen 2004. (In Danish).
  53. ^ "Urban misunderstandings", Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.
  54. ^ Faroese and Norwegians best at understanding Nordic neighbours, Nordisk Sprogråd, Nordic Council, 13 January 2005.
  55. ^ a b c Inez Svonni Fjällström (2006). "A language with deep roots".Sápmi: Language history, 14 November 2006. Samiskt Informationscentrum Sametinget: "The Scandinavian languages are Northern Germanic languages. [...] Sami belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family. Finnish, Estonian, Livonian and Hungarian belong to the same language family and are consequently related to each other."
  56. ^ Romaine, Suzanne (1995). Bilingualism. Blackwell Publishing, 1995. ISBN 0631195394, p. 323: "As long as Finland was part of Sweden, Finnish was a minority language both demographically and functionally. Within Greater Sweden, the Finns were a minority and any Finn who wanted to get ahead had to learn Swedish."
  57. ^ Holmarsdottir, Halla B. (2001). Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community. International Review of Education, 47:3-4, July, 2001. DOI 10.1023/A:1017918213388.
  58. ^ Hálfdanarson, Guðmundur. Icelandic Nationalism: A Non-Violent Paradigm? In Nations and Nationalities in Historical Perspective. Pisa: Edizioni Plus, 2001, p. 3.
  59. ^ Magga, Ole Henrik (2005). "Linguistic Minorities in Scandinavia I: Indigenous Minorities". In The Nordic Languages: An international Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages, Volume 2. Eds. Oskar Bandle and Kurt Braunmuller. Walter de Gruyter, 2005, ISBN 311017149X, p. 2115: "The Sami languages are the true indigenous minority languages in Scandinavia in the sense that the speakers of these languages lived there long before the states were established."
  60. ^ [1] Sapmi: The Sami dialects
  61. ^ Olrik Fredriksen, Britta (2002). "The History of Old Nordic Manuscripts IV: Old Danish". Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Ed. Oskar Brandle et al. Walter De Gruyter Inc: Berlin, 2002. ISBN 3-11-014876-5
  62. ^ "Treaty of Copenhagen" (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 9, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  63. ^ The Monarchy: Historical Background. The Royal House of Norway. Official site, retrieved 9 November 2006.

External links

  • "Scandinavia: Official Website of the Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America". Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America, Globescope Internet Services, Inc.. 2005. .http://www.goscandinavia.com.^ A Google http://www.google.com/ search yielded numerous "hits" of people wanting to buy and sell kilts.
    • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ring of Scottish Clans Ring of Scottish Clans - and type in "scottish clans" to get a list of links Clans and Tartans at http://www.scotclans.com Is there a clan Barrie ?
    • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You might want to do a search on Google http://www.google.com or other search engines on the terms [name of any city in the U.S.] and Scottish.
    • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2008-09-05
    .
     
  • Nordic Council - Official site for co-operation in the Nordic region
  • Nordregio - Site established by the Nordic Council of Ministers
  • Scandinavia House - The Nordic Center in New York, run by the American-Scandinavian Foundation
  • Scandinavia News - Scandinavia news and analysis of current events
  • Historical atlas of Scandinavia - Personal web site of Örjan Martinsson
  • ReRailEurope - A Railway map of Scandinavia (flash file)
  • vifanord – a digital library that provides scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as the Baltic region as a whole

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Scandinavia
The Nordic countries
The Nordic countries
.Scandinavia [1] or, more broadly, Nordic Europe is a European region north of the Baltic Sea.^ Europeans, accustomed to the serfdom that thrived from Naples to the Baltic Sea, were puzzled and alarmed by the democratic spirit and respect for human rights in many Indian societies, especially those in North America.
  • 1491 - The Atlantic(March 2002) 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region in Northern Europe consisting of the Scandinavian and Jutland peninsulas and the islands inbetween.
  • Tickets to Scandinavia, Cheap Sweden Travel, Flights to Norway, Airline Tickets 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC www.airgorilla.com [Source type: News]

^ This policy has contributed to continuous internal instability in Iraqi Kurdistan, in the region, and it has caused more refugees knocking on Europe’s door–influx of Kurdish refuges.

.At almost 1.2 million square kilometres (463,000 square miles) it is the largest region in Europe, but home to only around 24 million people, accounting for a mere 4% of the population.^ Paris contains a standing population of about 10,000 English-speaking people.
  • The Church of England in Northern and Central Europe, by J. H. Titcomb (1885) 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC anglicanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In neighboring Afghanistan, Baluchs account for two percent of the population, or about 0.7 million people 5 and live mainly in the southwest of the country, along its borders with Iran and Pakistan.
  • Pakistan and Afghanistan | Institute for the Study of War 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.understandingwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The group constitutes 3.6 percent of the Pakistani population or roughly 6.2 million people.
  • Pakistan and Afghanistan | Institute for the Study of War 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.understandingwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Map of Scandinavia
Map of Scandinavia
.Denmark
The smallest, flattest and most continental of the Scandinavian countries.^ Eloping in the Scandinavian country Denmark?
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Denmark Royal Gardens - Royal Gardens in Denmark Denmark's royal gardens are a beautiful destination for all travelers visiting the Scandinavian country of Denmark.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Find out what kind of information and documentation Denmark requires from foreign couples wanting to get married in the Scandinavian country of Denmark during their visit.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

Norway
Famous for deep fjords, trolls and wooden churches.
Sweden
Scandinavias largest country.
.Finland
Hundreds of thousands of islands and lakes to explore in this bridge to the east.^ It said that the island, having a span of over thousand li distance south-north and several hundred li east-west, could be reached by boat after three months, that it had lots of deers, and that it was a vassal of Paekche.

^ Some believe that until a thousand years ago, Finland was occupied only by Saami and that Finns migrated from the east and settled there.
  • Finns and Related People 22 September 2009 16:39 UTC uralica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These include trips through the Canadian Maritimes, the St. Lawrence Seaway and Thousand Islands, a circumnavigation of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Great Lakes.
  • Northern Europe « thecruisepeople.ca 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC thecruisepeople.ca [Source type: General]

.
.Iceland
Spectacular scenery of volcanoes, glaciers, geysers, and waterfalls on this North Atlantic island.^ The Faroe Islands are also known as the Faroes and consist of eighteen islands in Scandinavia between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Portugal also includes the Azores (Açores) and the Madeira Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean and Macao, a tiny territory on the southern coast of China.
  • Portuguese Americans - Early history, The eighteenth century, The nineteenth century, The twentieth century 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grímsey - Grimsey in Iceland Grimsey, the island north of Iceland, is filled with arctic wildlife.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

  • Faroe Islands — administered by Denmark
  • Svalbard — administered by Norway
  • Åland — administered by Finland
  • Greenland is sometimes associated with Nordic Europe, because of its relationship to Denmark and its membership in the Nordic Council.^ The Sámi parliaments have jointly established a separate Sámi Parliamentary Council that is a cooperative body between the Sámi parliaments in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
    • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Margaret was ruling Denmark and only acted as regent when she was in Norway, but the Council delegated to her complete control over foreign policy.
    • Scandinavia 1250-1453 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The colors of Scandinavian fall foliage are amazing and can be found in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland.
    • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

    .Technically and culturally it is part of (native) North America.
Urban Scandinavia includes many historic cities by the Baltic sea.</span><span class=^ The instruments and the procedures reflect approaches that are part of the native culture(s), for example, story telling, life histories, respect for nature, spirituality, and a sense of community and humanity.
  • Occasional Paper No. 46 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC www.jsri.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Our students come from academic and professional backgrounds in many parts of the world, including especially Africa, Europe and North America.
  • JUA: Penn African Studies Bulletin, (04/14/08) 10 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.africa.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Native Hawaiians are of Polynesian/Pacific Islander descent and are not descendants of the original peoples of North America.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pictured: the Nyhavn canal of Copenhagen, Denmark" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/1/5/4/28565961938287680.jpg" width="250" height="167" border="0" class="thumbimage" />
.
Urban Scandinavia includes many historic cities by the Baltic sea.
^ Includes many historical maps .
  • African Maps | Map Africa 10 September 2009 17:20 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ City Guide Pulka - A Look at the Scandinavian Sport A type of popular Scandinavian Sport popular in the winter in many different countries, especially Scandinavia, is Pulka.
  • Scandinavia - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 10:11 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Historically, Palestine was a country east of the Mediterranean Sea that includes Israel and parts of Jordan.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

Pictured: the Nyhavn canal of Copenhagen, Denmark
.There is a constant and long going rivalry between Copenhagen and Stockholm over which city can claim the title as Scandinavias unofficial capital.^ The central part of Scandinavia with its many cities offers travelers a quick way to visit each city and here you can find out how far travelers drive between Scandinavian cities or find the distance to between vacation destinations like Stockholm, Copenhagen, or Oslo.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

^ PRIVATE COPENHAGEN TOUR WONDERFUL COPENHAGEN Denmark's cosmopolitan capital city offers an appealing array of modern and historical culture.
  • Itineraries - Yachts of Seabourn - Northern Europe Cruises 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.seabourn.com [Source type: General]

^ There had long been tension between the English of Ireland and of England.

.Depending on how you count, both cities are the largest, most visited, and the target of most investment.^ Find out all you need to know about the Gullfoss Waterfall in Iceland, and when and how you can visit the falls.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

^ The Greek community of Melbourne is one of the largest in the entire Greek diaspora; it is also one of the most visible and active ethnic communities in a city renowned for its cultural diversity and cosmopolitanism.
  • How can a woman give birth to one Greek and one Macedonian 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ How do you think, what language is the most prosective, I mean the number of native speakers and its usage around the world?

.However, after the completion of the Øresund bridge, and subsequent integration of Copenhagen and Malmö - Swedens third largest city, this region is fast emerging as the main urban centre in Scandinavia, while Stockholm arguably grabs the title as the most beautiful.^ The Tribune is a privately-owned fortnightly newspaper published in Blantyre, Malawi's biggest city and the main industrial and commercial centre.
  • allAfrica.com: Other Sources 10 September 2009 17:20 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

^ The Greek community of Melbourne is one of the largest in the entire Greek diaspora; it is also one of the most visible and active ethnic communities in a city renowned for its cultural diversity and cosmopolitanism.
  • How can a woman give birth to one Greek and one Macedonian 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most complete treatment of the Western Liao, however, appears to be at the Chinaknowledge website of Ulrich Theobald.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis), found north of the Arctic circle
Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis), found north of the Arctic circle
.The name Scandinavia comes from the Skandage body of water that lies sandwiched between Norway, Sweden, and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark.^ We continued our northward journey straight up the Jutland Peninsula of Denmark.
  • Northern Europe 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC web.newsguy.com [Source type: General]

^ The Sámi parliaments have jointly established a separate Sámi Parliamentary Council that is a cooperative body between the Sámi parliaments in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feudalism was much weaker in Norway than in Denmark and Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 1250-1453 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Strictly speaking, the term covers only those three countries, but here we use it in its broader sense to cover all of Nordic Europe (Norden).^ What about those "odd" countries that are actually part of Europe but that few people bother to research?
  • Scandinavia - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 10:11 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ It is expected that Work Groups have had their kick-off in all Nordic countries before Christmas and are in good speed by New Year 2007.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm gonna use the bases of this article to precise that actualy, France is the only one country in Europe, and maybe in the industrial "world" which has a positive GDP (+0,3 / 0,4%).
  • French: The Most Productive People In The World 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC www.businessinsider.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Scandinavian nations share many cultural traits including similar flags and many related languages.^ They identify themselves in terms of biological heritage, birth in Japan, a shared culture, and a common language (Japanese).
  • Joshua Project - Japanese of Japan Ethnic People Profile 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To develop a distinctive national life in accordance with the diverse traditions and ideals of the Irish people as part of a broader European culture, and to restore and promote the Irish language as a living language of the people."
  • The Dalta� Boards: How many people in Ireland can speak Irish? 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.daltai.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Question: The other thing is that unfortunately many people we talked to including some officials don't share your enthusiasm about General Ralston's performance.
  • U.S.-Turkish Relations, Matthew Bryza, Deputy Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs, Roundtable With Turkish Journalists, Washington, DC (February 1, 2007) - U.S. Embassy Ankara, Turkey 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC turkey.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The region is known for its natural beauty and more recently its liberalism.^ The cultural impact of colonization has been known for a long time, but only more recently have its genetic aspects have been investigated.
  • Genetics and Molecular Biology - Genetic signatures of parental contribution in black and white populations in Brazil 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC www.scielo.br [Source type: Academic]

.Denmark, Finland and Sweden are EU members.^ Group members from Denmark and Sweden participated.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The colors of Scandinavian fall foliage are amazing and can be found in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

^ The Membership Fees for 2007 will be NOK 20 000,- for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oil and gas rich Norway, and, the only island nation to west, Iceland, are not.^ In 1302 Norway’s Council at Bergen decreed that only Norwegians could trade with Iceland.
  • Scandinavia 1250-1453 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Faroe Islands' flag is very similar to those of Norway and Iceland.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

^ When a new law code came from Norway, the Althing decided to appoint only Icelanders to higher offices.
  • Scandinavia 1250-1453 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Nordic countries all enjoy a relatively strong economy.^ The Mexican economy is really top tier, the country has been systematically pillaged and plundered for 70+ years and counting, and still provides for us all!
  • Mexico - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 21 January 2010 11:011 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is expected that Work Groups have had their kick-off in all Nordic countries before Christmas and are in good speed by New Year 2007.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book is a result of a research project at DTU and describes 36 cases from all five Nordic countries.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Norway and Iceland has in particular profited from an abundance of natural resources. .Sweden and Finland also have their share of natural resources but are in the international marketplace mostly famous for strong brands like Volvo, Saab, Ericsson (Sony Ericsson) and Nokia.^ The relationships between populations could also be measured by the number of shared monomorphic markers in Finland, Sweden and Germany ( Fig.
  • PLoS ONE: Genome-Wide Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Uncovers Population Structure in Northern Europe 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Yes, it is conceivable that there is some property dispute over limited natural resources like land, but are the Jews really threatening to take all of the Earth’s land?
  • Vanguard News Network » Blog Archive » The “mestizo” Ain’t Nothin’ But a “Niggerized-Injun” 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC www.vanguardnewsnetwork.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is true that the Afghan government is not as strong or credible as we would like, but that should not deter us from committing more civilian and military resources now.
  • Why the US is losing in Afghanistan - updates on the Pashtun insurgency 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: News]

.Alhough Denmark has developed sophisticated business in a number of industries, it is above all the leading agricultural country in Scandinavia.^ Such units cannot function effectively, and a high number of municipalities inevitably lead to a bloated apparatus if the staff of all units is combined.
  • decani : Message: ICG Macedonia's Ethnic Albanians - Bridging the Gulf 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Americans lead developed countries used to spend lots of on the international issues, like peace and security.

^ Even with all that, France is still one of the most attractive countries for industries, enterprises from all over the world.
  • French: The Most Productive People In The World 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC www.businessinsider.com [Source type: Original source]

.Strong economies and relatively small social differences translates into high prices for visitors.^ Because of the great difference between the Western languages and Japanese, translation from English into Japanese is still not easy.
  • JAH Roundtable 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lycian tombs carved into the sheer mountainside looked down on the town where a small dockside plaza acted as the focus for commercial and social activities.
  • From Istanbul to Van: A Turkish Traverse 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC stuff.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They captured Baghdad in 1055 and a relatively small contingent of warriors (around 5000 by some estimates) moved into eastern Anatolia.
  • Turkish people - Information Overload Unit MARK 3 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC overload.ath.cx [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elaborate welfare states are a common characteristic of the Nordic countries.^ In para 2 the Rules state that: Nordic FM is an organized cooperation between networks and associations in the field of Facilities Management in the 5 Nordic countries.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, their roles are affected by their country of origin, whether they are from urban or rural areas, religion, degree of assimilation and, of course, their own individual characteristics.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Promote a common understanding of FM in the Nordic countries” This project will be headed by resources from DFM, Denmark.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most things are generally highly organized and tourists should expect everything to proceed according to plans, rules and timetables.^ Investigated, prosecuted and the rule of law should proceed.
  • U.S.-Turkish Relations, Matthew Bryza, Deputy Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs, Roundtable With Turkish Journalists, Washington, DC (February 1, 2007) - U.S. Embassy Ankara, Turkey 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC turkey.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ (According to the Han Chinese way of thinking, ancestors are superior to descendants, and ancestors are in higher rank, and the lower ranked descendants who scattered in the world should be ruled by the descendants who live in the area where their ancestors lived.

^ According to party program, YP has been built upon the idea that 'the most important thing is the happiness of individuals and society'.
  • History of Turkish Political Life 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.aina.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to Transparency International, the Nordic countries are the least corrupt in the world (matched only by a handful of countries including Canada, New Zealand and Singapore).^ According to this ideology, if the citizens are not well-educated, are not aware of the realities of the country and the world, these people could not choose the correct party to govern themselves.
  • History of Turkish Political Life 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.aina.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is expected that Work Groups have had their kick-off in all Nordic countries before Christmas and are in good speed by New Year 2007.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new Board Members have been appointed by the national member associations in the five Nordic countries .
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geography

.Denmark borders on Germany, while Finland and Norway border on Russia, but otherwise the Nordic countries are separated from their neighbors by the Baltic, the North Sea or the Atlantic itself.^ Files for neighboring regions: the Baltic , the British Isles , Germany , North America , Russia .
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What we in Denmark and the Nordic countries can learn from that.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lithuania 15 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An abundance of land, water and wilderness is a common characteristic of the Nordic countries (except Denmark where most of the country is farmland or settlements).^ What we in Denmark and the Nordic countries can learn from that.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, it is their common position that some form of negotiated settlement process is needed to deal with the larger land rights issues throughout Guyana.
  • Forest Peoples Programme: Workshop on Indigenous Peoples, Forests and the World Bank: Guyana case study - May 2000 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC www.forestpeoples.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all three Nordic countries rather large resources are used today on various initiatives to promote Sámi language within most social activities.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, Sweden is one of the largest countries in Europe in area but only has some 9 million inhabitants.^ Then only one can have some results.
  • Michael J. Totten: The Taliban and Pashtun Nationalism 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A credible result would do much to undermine its claim to be the only valid form of government for the nation of some 30 million.
  • Why the US is losing in Afghanistan - updates on the Pashtun insurgency 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ Past research results/literature review: Some object to the term "White" (for example, in cognitive research one said, "white is the color of paint" and in a letter another said, "I am not the color of this paper").
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The landscapes and nature does however vary across the Nordic countries. .Denmark is a flat lowland like the Netherlands and Northern Germany.^ Also, the salesman jotted down the names of the towns that I would pass through as I cycled through Northern Germany toward Denmark.
  • Northern Europe 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC web.newsguy.com [Source type: General]

Iceland is both vulcanic and arctic. .Norway and Sweden share the Scandinavian peninsula which is highest on the Atlantic coast and gradually becomes lower until Sweden meets the Baltic sea.^ Baltic Sea 0 m highest point: Juozapines Kalnas 294 m .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lithuania 15 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GOTLAND A large island within the Baltic Sea, near the southeastern coast of Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ VENDSYSSEL (Nørrejyske) The northernmost island of Denmark, just north of the Jutland peninsula - the sharp-pointed landmass opposite Gothenborg, Sweden, across the lower Kattegat.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Scandinavian mountains running from Southern Norway and passed Tromsø in Northern Norway are steep and rugged on the Atlantic side, gentle on the Eastern side.^ Some place the kingdom in southern Norway, while others in what is now Jylland district at the northern tip of the Jutland penninsula of Denmark.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ FINNMARK The far northern end of Norway; that region at about 70° North latitude, beyond Tromsø and north of Finland proper, with a short frontier with Russia at the eastern end.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethnographers distinguish between a Northern (forest-steppe) group, the Abins, and a Southern (mountain-taiga) group, the Shors.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Finland is relatively flat, somewhat colder, and characterized by lakes scattered over the entire country. .Large parts of Sweden and Finland (as well as parts of Norway) are covered by deep pine tree forests that are essentially the western branch of great Russian taiga.^ The Sámi parliaments have jointly established a separate Sámi Parliamentary Council that is a cooperative body between the Sámi parliaments in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Did it have something to do with the battle situation, with the suggestion to dam up the alta-Kautokeino watercourse in Norway and with the resistance to all watercourse development in North Sweden and Finland in the decades after?
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their residence area is mainly situated in the taiga of the Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug (53%), and the south-western part (taiga and forest tundra) of the Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug (32%).
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Galdhøpiggen in Norways Jotunheimen national park, is with its 2.469 meters the tallest mountain north of the Alps, while Kebnekaise, 2104 meters tall, is the highest mountain in Sweden.^ Fall in Rondane National Park, Norway - Rondane National Park Norway in Fall Fall in Rondane National Park, Norway.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

Climate

.Due to the high latitude, summer nights are very short and in the northern most part there is even midnight sun in the summer.^ Although they might not backstab you, there will be a high possibility of betrayals and disappointing you when you need them the most.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

^ That strategy, unique in history, has been very successful to date even if most Europeans have no knowledge of its beginnings.
  • Why the US is losing in Afghanistan - updates on the Pashtun insurgency 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ There is not another resource like the Lexham High Definition New Testament , where a collection of the most useful discourse devices are pulled together and practically applied.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

.While central parts of Scandinavia (the Oslo-Stockholm-Copenhagen triangle) are more densely populated, vast areas in the north or in the mountains are hardly populated at all.^ Rugged mountain chains containing several active volcanoes account for more than 71% of Japan's total land area.
  • Joshua Project - Japanese of Japan Ethnic People Profile 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central part of Scandinavia with its many cities offers travelers a quick way to visit each city and here you can find out how far travelers drive between Scandinavian cities or find the distance to between vacation destinations like Stockholm, Copenhagen, or Oslo.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

^ "As more and more excavation is done, one would expect to see more evidence for dense populations than has thus far emerged."
  • 1491 - The Atlantic(March 2002) 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sweden is in fact one of Europes largest countries in terms of area, and Norway is the size of Germany, despite its modest population of some 4.5 million.^ The population was between half and one million.

^ Cardiff is the capital of Wales, found on the south coast of the country, and is the largest and most important city in the country, with a population of roughly 320,000.
  • Turkish courses in Cardiff and intensive Turkish courses in Cardiff. 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.listenandlearn.org [Source type: General]

^ Rankings : 40 french companies in the Fortune 500 (for a population of 60 millions) compared to 140 US companies (for a population of 300 millions) - Germany : 39 - UK : 226.
  • French: The Most Productive People In The World 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC www.businessinsider.com [Source type: Original source]

Because of this, space, light and nature are key characteristics of the four northern countries, with the exception of Denmark.
.Despite the high latitude central parts, the Nordic countries have a mild climate, at least much warmer than would be expected at this latitude.^ Nevertheless, government statistics indicate GDP growth has been strong in recent years, reaching more than 9% in 2008, despite the roadblocks of a tough, centrally directed economy with a high rate of inflation.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Belarus 15 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just as Central Park East shares a large building with other schools, monolithic high schools across the country may be replaced with smaller schools within a shared structure.
  • HER Summer 1997 Issue Contents 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They would make "Arab" a separate category rather than part of the "White" category; they would leave North Africans, who are not Arabs, as part of the "White" category.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Northern parts have subarctic climate, while southern parts and coastal areas enjoy a temperate climate.^ Today, the Udege are scattered over an extensive area in the southernmost Khabarovskiy Kray and in the Ussuri taiga, in the northern part of the Primorskiy Kray.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The remaining Evenks live in various districts of southern Siberia and, across the border, in northern China, and a small area (Lake Buir-Nur) in Mongolia.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only the southern half of the Taymyr area is extensively populated; the Arctic desert in the northern half is only seasonally used by hunters.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Denmark and coastal areas of Southern Norway, Iceland and Western Sweden experience only occasional frost and snow during winter.^ And only the southern Taz, following the example of the Chinese, tilled their fields in the coastal river basins.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feudalism was much weaker in Norway than in Denmark and Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 1250-1453 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They traveled from this area in southern China to Taiwan in large numbers during the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

.Summers in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland are pleasantly warm with day temperatures 15 to 30 degrees C. In the mountains and along western coasts, the weather is generally more unstable.^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inland Norway and Sweden have very similar climates; however the factor that prevents them from being exactly the same is the presence of the K jolen mountain range along the border with Norway ..The mountains have the affect of sheltering Sweden from the milder and wetter Atlantic winds that Norway is subject to.
  • Holiday Weather - Search for weather locations in Northern Europe, Europe 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.holiday-weather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geographically consisting of Denmark , Norway , Sweden and Finland , the region has vastly different weather conditions across the landmass- dependant on proximity to the ocean or sea, the Arctic Circle or mountain ranges.
  • Holiday Weather - Search for weather locations in Northern Europe, Europe 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.holiday-weather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Finland has the most stable sunny weather in summer. .In general, the further inland, the bigger the difference between summer and winter.^ Generally mild winters and warm summers.
  • Greek Travel Pages - Travelling to Greece information 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gtp.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is because of Han Chinese ranking difference between different generations and because the rights/obligations are different between different ranks.

^ Their modes of construction differed greatly - bark dwellings sufficed for the summer while sod huts cased inside with timber were built for the winter.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Baltic side is generally colder in winter than the North Sea side.^ The winters here are much short than in the north, and rainfall is predominately in the summer months as in the winter months precipitation falls in the form of snow.
  • Holiday Weather - Search for weather locations in Northern Europe, Europe 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.holiday-weather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ S candinavia The northern quarter of Europe, comprising the eastern verge of the North Sea and the western coast of the Baltic.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The west coast of Sweden , bordering the Baltic Sea is much milder than the east coast.
  • Holiday Weather - Search for weather locations in Northern Europe, Europe 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.holiday-weather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Western Norway and the Atlantic Islands have the smallest difference between summer and winter.^ Because of the great difference between the Western languages and Japanese, translation from English into Japanese is still not easy.
  • JAH Roundtable 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Faroe Islands are also known as the Faroes and consist of eighteen islands in Scandinavia between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Their modes of construction differed greatly - bark dwellings sufficed for the summer while sod huts cased inside with timber were built for the winter.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Talk

.Communicating in Scandinavia is easy, as virtually everybody under 50 speaks at least basic English, and younger people tend to be near fluent.^ Paris contains a standing population of about 10,000 English-speaking people.
  • The Church of England in Northern and Central Europe, by J. H. Titcomb (1885) 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC anglicanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Do your children, or young people in general speak the same English that you used to?
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French called them Montagnards (meaning 'highlanders' or 'mountain people') and still use this term when speaking in French or English.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.German might also be understood, and to a lesser degree, spoken in Denmark, less so in Norway and Sweden, and rarely in Iceland and Finland.^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 1 or 2 from Finland, 2 from Sweden and 1 from Norway (+ Icelandic participants) have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Danish, Norwegian and Swedish are closely related and mutually intelligible to varying degrees.^ Order your sill or any other dish on the smrgasbord in Swedish, enjoy Danish hygge and chat with a couple of Norwegians while checking out their favourite fjord.

^ Danish nobles resented the King’s close relations with German princes and knights, and revolts joined by peasants had to be suppressed in Zealand and North Jutland.
  • Scandinavia 1250-1453 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Through his former work in the (old) Nordic FM, he has also established close relations to the Danish environment.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Icelandic and Faroese, while also related, have been kept in a linguistic freezer since the 13th century, and are largely unintelligible to other Germanic speakers.^ A short Icelandic saga from the 13th century is Hrafnkel the Priest of Frey .
  • Scandinavia 1250-1453 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You might also incur large expenses on your elders at home through medical fees and other related expenses.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

^ These settlers went to Brazil from the early 20th century, and have largely retained their linguistic and cultural identity.
  • Japanese - Language Information & Resources 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.alsintl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The outlier is Finnish, which belongs to the Finno-Ugric family and is entirely unrelated to the other Nordic languages.^ Turkish belongs to the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family.The earliest Turkic inscriptions date from the 7th century C.E. and Islamic texts written in Turkic appear in the 11th century.
  • Common Turkish Phrases - Turkish Phrases 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC marmaris.org [Source type: General]

^ Chinese may have picked up tones as part of a Southeast Asian Sprachbund , where, as in the Balkans , unrelated or distantly related languages borrow features from each other.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Affiliation of national language: Uralic-Yukagiran family, Finno-Ugric group, Finnic subgroup Status of national language (1989): Mother tongue: 37.5% (Karelia); 69.9% (Leningradskaya Obl.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finland, however, maintains a roughly 5% Swedish-speaking minority, and all Finns learn Swedish in school.^ My childhood was a Brooklyn childhood, and I grew up in one of those neighborhoods where all the adults spoke with some kind of accent, except for the ones that we went to learn from in school.
  • Ethnicity and Education Forum 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, given your logic skills, I would not be at all surprised to learn that you have been rejected by every single company to which you HAVE applied.
  • Greek Police Arrest Programmer Because People He Met Got Spammed? | Techdirt 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he sees positive signs such as a recent trend of parents outside the Gaeltacht sending their children to all-Irish-speaking schools.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Saami language also belongs to the Finno-Ugric family and is an official language in some municipalities of Lapland.^ Sámi language belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic languages.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sign language is seen becoming established in some households, harems and working places of successive sultans, viziers and minor court officials.
  • DEAF PEOPLE, SIGN LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION, IN OTTOMAN & MODERN TURKEY: Observations and Excerpts from 1300 to 2009. From sources in English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Latin and Turkish, with introduction and some annotation | Independent Living Institute 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.independentliving.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the language law Sámi is recognized as an official language in Norway, but for that matter it is valid primarily for six municipalities in Finnmark and Nord-Troms.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Swedens Skärgård runs along much the Bothnia coast and across the bay to Åland and Finland, it consists of thousands of rocky inlets, like this one seen from the Stockholm - Tallinn ferry
Swedens Skärgård runs along much the Bothnia coast and across the bay to Åland and Finland, it consists of thousands of rocky inlets, like this one seen from the Stockholm - Tallinn ferry
Norway is rightly famous for spectacular fjords like Geirangerfjord
Norway is rightly famous for spectacular fjords like Geirangerfjord

By plane

.Due to the large distances and the water surrounding most of the Nordic area, airplane is often the most effective way of getting to the Nordic countries.^ He picked out the most active, viewed the country round about, and observed, in the way by which the enemy was expected, a valley encompassed with hills.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Bede: Ecclesiastical History of England I 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It's one of the most cost-effective ways to get people to lay down their arms, either to negotiate a peace or coerce them."
  • Why the US is losing in Afghanistan - updates on the Pashtun insurgency 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ Large reservoirs raise the water table in the surrounding area, a problem worsened by extensive irrigation.
  • Nick Cullather | Damming Afghanistan: Modernization in a Buffer State | The Journal of American History, 89.2 | The History Cooperative 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All the main cities have international airports, and even smaller cities like Haugesund and Ålesund serve some international flights.^ Go to Riga or even more so to some of the smaller towns and youll hear it spoken every day as a means of communication.
  • Slugger O'Toole: Irish language is aging in the Gaeltachtai 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.sluggerotoole.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Further, if the “all” is reduced to “some” or “most,” even this rarefied hypothetical of linkage between the group and individual plaintiff most likely fails.
  • RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUP DEFAMATION: A SPEECH-FRIENDLY PROPOSAL 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.bc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Your use of the Site is subject to all applicable local, state, national laws and regulations and, in some cases, international treaties.
  • Block People! - Japanese Arcade Trailer | SPIKE 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Almost all European airlines service Scandinavian airports.^ All things being equal, Scandinavians have greater overlap of genetic interests with other Scandinavians than other Europeans, and Europeans have a greater genetic interest in other Europeans than in Africans (see Figures 1 & 2).
  • An Integrative Evolutionary Perspective on Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.csulb.edu [Source type: Academic]

  • SAS Scandinavian Airlines [2] (Denmark, Norway Sweden) - Scandinavias largest carrier and the flag carrier of all 3 countries, main hubs is Copenhagen and Stockholm Airports.
Chicago, Washington, D.C, New York, Dubai, Delhi, Bangkok, Beijing and Tokyo
  • Finnair [3] (Finland) - Finlands flag carrier, flying out from its main base in Helsinki, with a strong presence on Asian routes.
New York, Mumbai, Delhi, Bangkok, Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Seoul, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka
  • Icelandair [4] (Iceland) - Leverages on its strategic location midway between Europe and North America to maintain a strong presence on North American routes.
Seattle, Minneapolis-St Paul, Orlando, Boston, New York, Toronto, Halifax
  • Atlantic Airways [5] (Faroe Islands) - Flies to many destinations in the North Atlantic, including Britain, Greenland and Iceland.
.Besides the regional airlines, there are also serveral major international airlines which offers direct routes to Scandinavia.^ Driving to the North Cape Driving to the North Cape Driving to the North Cape Driving to the North Cape EUrail Scandinavia Pass - The EUrail Scandinavia Train Pass The EUrail Scandinavia Pass offers a flexible and reasonably priced transportation option for travelers exploring regional Scandinavia by train.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

^ There are frequent direct flights to and from every major European City, to and from the USA , CANADA , Australia , Cyprus , Sofia , Istanbul and various Asian cities.
  • Greek Travel Pages - Travelling to Greece information 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gtp.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the major international airline companies operate flights to Greece.
  • Greek Travel Pages - Travelling to Greece information 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gtp.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Singapore Airlines and China Eastern fly to Copenhagen, Air China and Qatar Airways to Stockholm, while US Airways, PIA (Pakistan), Thai, Delta, and Continental Airlines all service several intercontinental routes to Scandinavia.^ Scandinavia travelers can learn about the different airlines flying to Scandinavia.
  • Scandinavia Travel Sitemap - Page 3 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC spiderbites.about.com [Source type: General]

.Alternative low cost airlines in the region include Blue1 [6] in Finland, Norwegian [7] in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, Cimber Sterling [8] in Denmark and Iceland Express [9] on Iceland.^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 1 or 2 from Finland, 2 from Sweden and 1 from Norway (+ Icelandic participants) have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All of these airlines has routes to one of the London airports, and hence London is a good entry point, if you can find a cheaper flight there, which is often the case.^ Where have you been all these years, karekin?
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She was one of the Horae , so you will have to check there to find out more.
  • Greek Goddesses 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.paleothea.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The couple asked for a dispensation based on angustia loci, saying that all in the area are related, and that there are no parajes nearby where one could find a person to marry without an impediment.

.Many of the low cost airlines mainly service routes between the cold Scandinavia and the sunny Mediterranean, hence you can also often find bargain flights from Spain, Italy, etc.^ I am sorry to read of the problems some of you encounter and find some of the reading quite mind-boggling as we have only encountered courteous people, both in the 'service' business and in offices.
  • Expat Focus - Forums - Europe - Portugal - Are the Portuguese lazy? 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC www.expatfocus.com [Source type: General]

^ We are often mixed anyhow, so it is no surprize if you find Israeli-Czech border in your own body (between liver/stomach?
  • Michael J. Totten: The Taliban and Pashtun Nationalism 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You'll find that sincronizadas are often called guesadillas in many restaurants - just to make life even more confusing.

By train

Denmark is well-connected to the German rail network. .The direct connection to Copenhagen is, however, by the Puttgarden-Rødby ferry.^ There are direct ferry connections between Greece and the following countries: Italy (from and to Patra , Kerkyra (Corfu)and Igoumenitsa ) and Turkey.
  • Greek Travel Pages - Travelling to Greece information 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gtp.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sweden is connected to Danish railways via the Øresund bridge between Copenhagen and Malmö or to the German capital by a bi-daily night train during the summer, bypassing Denmark via the Trelleborg - Rostock ferry.^ PRIVATE COPENHAGEN TOUR WONDERFUL COPENHAGEN Denmark's cosmopolitan capital city offers an appealing array of modern and historical culture.
  • Itineraries - Yachts of Seabourn - Northern Europe Cruises 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.seabourn.com [Source type: General]

^ Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2007) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lithuania 15 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are direct railway connections between Greece and the following countries: Romania, Bulgaria, Slovenia, FYROM, Czechia and Turkey.
  • Greek Travel Pages - Travelling to Greece information 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gtp.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to the barrier provided by the Baltic sea, the only other connection to the European mainland, is via Moscow or St Petersburg in Russia.^ September 2008 St Petersburg, Russia.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Petersburg & the Baltic Sea 2010 (Northbound) .
  • Scandinavia Tours, Scandinavian Tours, Scandinavia Travel, Scandinavian Travel, Scandinavia Trips 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: General]

^ Petersburg & the Baltic Sea 2010 (Southbound) .
  • Scandinavia Tours, Scandinavian Tours, Scandinavia Travel, Scandinavian Travel, Scandinavia Trips 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: General]

.For interrail pass holders most of the ferries crossing the Baltic and North seas offers discounts (25-50%), but only the Scandlines ferries are completely included in the pass (see By ferry section).^ All inquiries should include a complete description of items offered, including all makers and identifying marks, condition, and desired price.
  • La Joyeria Vintage Taxco Mexican Sterling Silver Jewelry 21 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.glitterbox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most particularly, he passes over the tianming notion completely, even though it is at the very core of the Book of History .
  • Japanese Confucian Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are routes from Piraeus to most of the Aegean Sea islands (Cyclades, Dodekanissos, North Aegean, Argosaronicos Gulf, Crete, East Aegean) and to some Peloponnissos ports.
  • Greek Travel Pages - Travelling to Greece information 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gtp.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Copenhagen, (Denmark)
Copenhagen, (Denmark)
Copenhagen, (Denmark)
Copenhagen, (Denmark))
Malmö, (Sweden
Århus, (Denmark)
Helsinki, (Finland)
Helsinki, (Finland)
DB City Night Line [10], 16 hours (night)
DB City Night Line [11], 15 hours (night)
DB City Night Line [12], 15 hours (night)
DB Deutsche Bahn [13], 5 hours (day)
SJ Berlin Night Express [14], 8½ hours (night)
DB Deutsche Bahn [15], 8½ hours (day)
VR Finnish Railways [16], 14½ hours (night)
VR Finnish Railways [17], 7 hours (day)

By ferry

.Norway is served by ferries from Denmark and Germany.^ Byzantine Empire Scandlines Ferry - Serving Denmark, Sweden, and Germany While in Scandinavia, be sure to find an excuse to ride one of the huge Scandline Ferries.
  • Scandinavia - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 10:11 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.To Sweden, there are ferries from Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland.^ Cruises will also port in Berlin, Germany sail into the Baltic Sea, into the Gulf of Finland, porting in Tallinn, Estonia, St. Petersburg, Russia, Helsinki Finland and Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Northern Europe Cruises | Cheap Europe Cruises | Red Tag Cruises 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.redtag.ca [Source type: General]

^ Lithuania, Latvia, & Estonia.

^ There have also been worked out separate Sámi flag days in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Iceland is connected to Denmark and the Faroe Islands by ferry. To Finland there are ferries from Estonia and Germany.
Oslo (Norway)
Gothenburg (Sweden)
Malmö (Sweden)
Helsinki (Finland)
Gedser (Denmark)
Helsinki (Finland)
Helsinki (Finland)
Stockholm (Sweden)
Stockholm (Sweden)
Stockholm¹ (Sweden)
Stockholm¹ (Sweden)
Karlskrona (Sweden)
Karlshamn (Sweden)
Ystad (Sweden)
Copenhagen (Denmark)
Esbjerg (Denmark)
Color Line[18], 19½ hours
Stena Line[19], 14 hours
TT Line [20], 7½ hours
Finnlines [21], 27 hours
Scandlines [22], 1¾ hours
Tallink Silja line [23], 26 hours
Many operators, 2-4 hours
Tallink Silja line [24], 17 hours
Tallink Silja line [25], 17 hours
Scandlines [26], 10 hours
Polferries [27], 18 hours
Stena Line [28], 11 hours
DFDS Lisco [29], 15 hours
Polferries [30], 6½ hours
Polferries [31], 9 hours
DFDS Seaways [32], 18 hours
¹ Arrives in Nynæshamn, about 1 hour south of Stockholm by suburban train

By car

.Denmark is directly connected to the continental road network.^ Nordic FM should be connected to the international FM environment, either directly by representation or through member networks/associations which are already members of e.g.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From Denmark it is possible to cross to Sweden over the Öresund bridge. .There are also many ferry connections from Denmark, most of them takes cars.^ The most pressing issue is that there are far too many municipalities in the country.
  • decani : Message: ICG Macedonia's Ethnic Albanians - Bridging the Gulf 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, the bear was considered to be a holy animal by the Sámi, and there were many rituals connected to bear hunting.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many factors that influence the process of identity formation as it takes place among immigrants from Florina to Australia.
  • How can a woman give birth to one Greek and one Macedonian 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

.The only overland alternative to the Öresund bridge is to enter via Russia to Finland or Norway.^ Samerådet is an umbrella organization for Sámi organizations in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sámi language area stretches over the northern portions of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FINNMARK The far northern end of Norway; that region at about 70° North latitude, beyond Tromsø and north of Finland proper, with a short frontier with Russia at the eastern end.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.Save a few short stretches of regular road, you can drive all the way to Stockholm or Oslo on highway from the German ones, but keep in mind that the tolls on the two Danish highway bridges you need to pass to get to Sweden are heavy, and you could easily be saving money taking a more direct route with a ferry.^ Another direction you might take is a systematic or theological one.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ Here’s one way you access it: .
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ Do you drive on the right side of the road?"

.Virtually all Scandinavian roads are toll free, but some larger cities (most notably Stockholm) have introduced congestion charges when driving in the centre, and some of longer bridges and tunnels levy tolls to pay for their construction.^ Most are U.S. citizens, but the file includes all those killed in the United States some of whom may be foreign visitors, permanent visitors and illegal aliens.
  • ETHNICITY AND ALCOHOL-RELATED FATALITIES 1990 TO 1994 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tajiks live all over the country: in larger cities they form majorities or important minorities.
  • Outline: 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most trafficking originated in impoverished Amerindian communities, although some victims came from the larger coastal cities.
  • Guyana 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Speed limits are uniform, 50kph in cities and 80kph on rural roads unless otherwise indicated.^ Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Bede: Ecclesiastical History of England I 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Motorways range from 100 in Norway, 110 in Sweden, 120 in Finland to 130 in Denmark, again unless other speed limits are signposted.^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sámi parliaments have jointly established a separate Sámi Parliamentary Council that is a cooperative body between the Sámi parliaments in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feudalism was much weaker in Norway than in Denmark and Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 1250-1453 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Keep in mind that while Scandinavians routinely disregard speed limits, fines are heavy and if you don't benefit from the high Scandinavian wages, they will feel even more steep, so you will in essence probably be gambling with your holiday budget.^ They also paid high fines for entry.

^ You are probably even lower than your supporters- .
  • WTF???: Model Does Black Face for French Vogue | Bossip.com 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC bossip.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But do you even know the concept of "limits"?
  • Roman Empire vs Han Dynasty: Two Ancient SuperPowers Collide! - Page 14 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: Original source]

.Speeding in city zones are considered a severe offence, and there are many unmarked automatic speed traps installed in such zones.^ Furthermore, the bear was considered to be a holy animal by the Sámi, and there were many rituals connected to bear hunting.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In passages (such as James 4.5-6) where there are ambiguities, many times comparing English translations can help in understanding the best way to deal with the ambiguity.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ Lisbon is one of Europe's smallest capital cities but considered by many visitors to be one of the most likeable.
  • Itineraries - Yachts of Seabourn - Northern Europe Cruises 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.seabourn.com [Source type: General]

Winter driving skills are essential through much of the year, when roads are treacherously slippery, winter tyres are mandatory and speed limits are reduced.
Silja Serenade, a typical Helsinki-Stockholm ferry
Silja Serenade, a typical Helsinki-Stockholm ferry
.Major coastal cities of the Baltic Sea are often connected with ferry lines, e.g.^ Foxes had consumed major portions of the sea mammal harvest in the coastal villages, which was inappropriate in the present situation where supply of other foodstuff for the population is lacking.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Turku-Stockholm and Helsinki-Tallinn, and ferries are a natural part of many journeys for Scandinavians.^ Naturally history is a part of every mans personality and "Kalanaur" "Kanar" and "Jamalpur" are more familiar names for many tankmen even today!
  • Ethnicity, Religion, Military Performance and Political Reliability 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.defencejournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.The larger long-distance ferries are in effect cruise ships, with behemoths like the Silja Europa featuring 13 decks stacked full of shops, restaurants, spas, saunas etc.^ People in the service industry I have no problems with, restaurants, shops etc it's just those behind a desk.
  • Expat Focus - Forums - Europe - Portugal - Are the Portuguese lazy? 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC www.expatfocus.com [Source type: General]

^ I asked my students about the book and almost all of them said it was interesting, easy to read and understand and full of features they liked and used.” .
  • Pearson - Racial and Ethnic Groups, 11/E - Richard T. Schaefer 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.pearsonhighered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Longer routes are nearly always scheduled to sail during the night, so you arrive fresh to continue the often long journeys required in Scandinavia.^ Do you mind though giving us a bit more detail on your learning schedule during these 3 months?

^ During the long journeys reindeer were ridden during hunting fur animals and on summer trips to the rivers for fishing.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you travel by ferry to Norway or pass through Åland, there are Tax Free sales on board, since Norway is not part of the EU and Åland is subject to special regulations.^ Thus, at the harvest, the tax collectors showed up to seize, since there was no money, the State's share of the harvest.
  • Greek Philosophy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Make a short bike ride to the ferry terminal where you board for a 5-minute ferry ride across the water to what is known as the Waterland area.
  • Itineraries - Yachts of Seabourn - Northern Europe Cruises 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.seabourn.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the greatest part of what we say and do is unnecessary, if you take this away you will have more leisure and less uneasiness.
  • PSYCHOLOGY IN GREEK PHILOSOPHY 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For the same reason some of these lines, especially Stockholm-Helsinki ferry, is known as party boats, since alcohol escapes the normal heavy taxation.^ This official Party line, moreover, obnoxiously disregards reason and history.
  • Beijing University Student Embarrasses Japanese Reporter | chinaSMACK 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These pronouncements are typically uttered with the same self-serving smugness with which some pontificate about, say, Merlot.
  • CALIFORNIA TURKISH TIMES 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.aldrichpr.com [Source type: General]

^ Table of Contents Contents of Presentation In my presentation, I review some of the worldwide influences of ancient Greek culture; mention some well known theories regarding the reasons behind Greek achievements; and conclude with a synthesis of all these theories.
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to major lines listed below, the Hurtigruten ferries, running all along Norways amazing jagged coast line, and through spectacular fjords, from Bergen in the south to Kirkenes in the Arctic north, docking in many small hamlets and villages on the way - offers a unique and very Scandinavian experience.^ The North is run by communists, the South by anti-communists.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leading members of all political parties in Ireland, North and South, marked the 90th anniversary of the Battle of the Somme.

^ Did it have something to do with the battle situation, with the suggestion to dam up the alta-Kautokeino watercourse in Norway and with the resistance to all watercourse development in North Sweden and Finland in the decades after?
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From To Operator
Copenhagen, (Denmark) Oslo (Norway) DFDS Seaways [33], 16½ hours
Grenå, (Denmark) Varberg, (Sweden) Stena Line [34] 4½ hours
Frederikshavn, (Denmark) Göteborg, (Sweden) Stena Line [35] 2-4 hours
Hirtshals, (Denmark) Larvik, (Norway) Colorline [36], 4 hours
Hirtshals, (Denmark) Kristiansand, (Norway) Colorline [37], 4 hours
Hirtshals, (Denmark) Bergen, (Norway) Fjordline [38], 19½ hours (via Stavanger - 11½ hours)
Hanstholm, (Denmark) Seyðisfjörður, (Iceland) Smyril line [39], 69 hours (via the Faroe Islands - 44 hours summer)
Esbjerg, (Denmark) Tórshavn, (Faroe Islands) Smyril line [40], 44 hours (winter)
Strömstad, (Sweden) Sandefjord, (Norway) Colorline [41], 2½ hours
Stockholm, (Sweden) Helsinki, (Finland) Tallink Silja line & Viking line, 16½ hours (via Åland islands - 11 hours)
Umeå, (Sweden) Vaasa, (Finland) RG Line [42], 3½ hours
S220 Pendolino, Finland
S220 Pendolino, Finland
See also: Rail travel in Europe
Trains are an adequate way of traveling around Scandinavia. .International connections between Denmark, southern Sweden and southern Norway are good, but up north services are sparse and there is a short gap in the network between northern Sweden and Finland, although most railpasses allow free use of the connecting bus service.^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several groups straddle today's international boundaries, spreading across the Indochinese peninsula and up into Southern China.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although they might not backstab you, there will be a high possibility of betrayals and disappointing you when you need them the most.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

Iceland has no trains at all.
.The previous night train connection between Copenhagen and Oslo has been retired, and this route now requires a change in Gothenburg, on the other hand day time connections has become much more frequent after the opening of the Øresund bridge (8½ hours).^ If that after I become the Chinese whose human-right is the most heavily encroached on can observe further more people's human-rights being encroached on, I and other people's sufferings of human-rights being encroached on are not deserved.

^ On the other hand, we have no shows promoting inventors or educators, who might have become equally "famous" had we demanded it; or if the producers took a "risk for excellence!"
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a great difference between now and 1996 when I first read Survival of a Nation by Christopher J. Walker and had trouble going to sleep at night.
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

.Between Copenhagen and Stockholm up to 7 X2000 express trains runs directly every day (5½ hours), and the daily night train only requires an easy change in Malmö (7½ hours).^ "Every night she goes out and returns the next day.
  • Magic to Miracles by Alan Shoemaker 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC csp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reply +1 GuoBao says: Friday, December 4, 2009 at 8:22 pm You go for a high-rise so that you don’t have to listen to the honking, the yelling, the spitting (and the run up to the spitting) and the fighting 24 hours a day.
  • Beijing University Student Embarrasses Japanese Reporter | chinaSMACK 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For this reason the days are of a great length in summer, as, on the contrary, the nights are in winter, for the sun then withdraws into the southern parts, so that the nights are eighteen hours long.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Bede: Ecclesiastical History of England I 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Further north there is two daily connections between Oslo and Bodø (17 hours, via Trondheim) - the northernmost stop on the Norwegian railway network, and two daily night trains (regular & express) between Stockholm and Umeå/Luleå (16-20 hours) in the northernmost part of Sweden.^ There were kinship and economic connections between the nomadic and sedentary groups.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Logos, we are aware of the research which suggests less than 20% of pastors who have had biblical language training actually use that training on a regular basis.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ VENDSYSSEL (Nørrejyske) The northernmost island of Denmark, just north of the Jutland peninsula - the sharp-pointed landmass opposite Gothenborg, Sweden, across the lower Kattegat.
  • Scandinavia 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the summer Lapplandståget [43]- Scandinavias longest railway journey, will take you directly all the way from Malmö (& Copenhagen) in south to Narvik in the north via Sweden.^ Leading members of all political parties in Ireland, North and South, marked the 90th anniversary of the Battle of the Somme.

^ North Carolina Folklore Journal 49 (Spring/Summer): 43-44.
  • WVU Libraries: Appalachian Bibliography: Ethnicity and Race, African Americans, Immigrants, Native Americans 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.libraries.wvu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This means that you are solely and entirely responsible for the consequences of all Postings that you upload, post, email, transmit or otherwise make available via the Site.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.The ScanRail pass was retired in 2007, but visitors not resident in Europe can opt for the very similar Eurail Scandinavia Pass [44], which offers 4 to 10 days of travel in a 2-month period for €232-361. For residents of Europe, the all-Europe or single-country Interrail passes are also an option.^ Chep, 10/23/2005 03:44:19 PM EST ( none / 1 ) All other considerations aside...
  • The French Scapegoat || kuro5hin.org 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: General]

^ The treaty had to be approved by all 15 EU member-states before the EU could expand to include a dozen applicant countries from eastern Europe.

^ He also offered these caveats which I will pass along to you: Beware that most (all?
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

.Major railway companies in Scandinavian include DSB[45] & Arriva[46] in Denmark, NSB[47] in Norway, SJ[48] and Veolia[49] in Sweden and VR[50] in Finland.^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sámi parliaments have jointly established a separate Sámi Parliamentary Council that is a cooperative body between the Sámi parliaments in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feudalism was much weaker in Norway than in Denmark and Sweden.
  • Scandinavia 1250-1453 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

By bus

.If you are not using a rail pass, long distance buses will often be a cheaper alternative, especially for longer journeys.^ Also in my book Weapon DK Using a replica of a long bow from the Mary Rose, a modern archer shot an arrow a distance of 328 meters So what is this then?
  • Roman Empire vs Han Dynasty: Two Ancient SuperPowers Collide! - Page 14 - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, we encourage you to check this Privacy Policy and Terms of Use Agreement often for updates.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Alternatively, suggest you find someone with a printer you can rely on or use a commercial service.
  • Scottish Heritage - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC thecapitalscot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But since highways are almost exclusively centred around the southern half of Scandinavia, journey times become increasingly uncompetitive the further north you get, on the other hand, rail services also get increasingly sparse in northern Scandinavia.^ Obviously, the further north you head toward the Arctic Circle, the colder conditions will get- winters become blistering, snow and frost becomes frequent and the scenery is predominately icy.
  • Holiday Weather - Search for weather locations in Northern Europe, Europe 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.holiday-weather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since you claim to understand Japanese, look at all their other videos and comments.
  • Beijing University Student Embarrasses Japanese Reporter | chinaSMACK 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkey has almost become the new Ottoman state in providing the West with all the economic and political concessions that they enjoyed during the Ottoman times.
  • Access : Turkish scientists claim Darwin censorship : Nature News 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is no dominant company like Grayhound is in North America, but a host of local, regional and national bus companies, some of the major companies include; GoByBus [51] and Eurolines [52] and Swebus [53] which all service routes in the Scandinavian triangle between Copenhagen, Oslo and Stockholm.^ There's no time like the present.
  • English proverbs - Wikiquote 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is pain, like no other pain.

^ If they had any significant science education, they wouldn't buy into arguments like there are no half-noses.
  • Access : Turkish scientists claim Darwin censorship : Nature News 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition the major national intercity bus companies are Abildskou [54] in Denmark, Nor-Way [55] and Nettbuss [56] in Norway and Matkahuolto [57] in Finland.^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At times a few Sámi groups were actually taxed by three different countries, Denmark-Norway, Sweden-Finland and Russia.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Membership Fees for 2007 will be NOK 20 000,- for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By car

Think twice before driving a car in Scandinavia. Rentals are expensive, gasoline is very expensive and distances are long. .In Norway, in particular, distances that seem short on a map can be very long and tiring if you need to drive along twisty fjord roads.^ Do you drive on the right side of the road?"

^ A scenic 45-minute drive along the winding road and through lovely countryside brings you to the little port of Dinan, located at the head of the Rance estuary.
  • Itineraries - Yachts of Seabourn - Northern Europe Cruises 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.seabourn.com [Source type: General]

^ Should you be in business, it will seem that you might be doing well as you will have many clients and you will be very busy.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

Collisions with wildlife, particularly deer and reindeer, are common and dangerous.
.If planning on driving in Scandinavia outside the summer season, you will need to be familiar with winter driving conditions and equip your car accordingly.^ Without the apparatuses, you still need to reference your print volumes to check for variant readings.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ Although your feelings might be intense, you will need to consider whether this relationship will be able to handle the challenges you will face in life and whether this will be a healthy relationship before committing yourself to it.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

^ Apart from being careful of your own health, you will need to pay special attention to your elders' health and safety.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

Lapland straddles the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, fantastic nature, caribou and the Sami indigenous people make it worth the effort to go there. Pictured: Stora Sjöfallet, Sweden
.
Lapland straddles the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, fantastic nature, caribou and the Sami indigenous people make it worth the effort to go there.
^ "Multilingualism is part of multiculturalism," he says, buzzwords ringing, "Knowing many languages makes people more sociable, more democratic, more empathic, and more humanistic ."

^ The Sámi parliaments have jointly established a separate Sámi Parliamentary Council that is a cooperative body between the Sámi parliaments in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Samerådet is an umbrella organization for Sámi organizations in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pictured: Stora Sjöfallet, Sweden
  • See the Northern Lights (Latin: Aurora Borealis; Scandinavian: Nordlys/-ljus (Swedish: Norrsken))
  • Visit the unusual free city of Christiania in Copenhagen
  • Visit a Viking Ship Museum in Oslo or Roskilde,
  • Visit the famous Tivoli Gardens theme park in Copenhagen
  • See the amazing Vasa Museum in Stockholm, displaying an entire flagship that sunk in the harbor nearly 400 years ago
  • Relax in a hot spring in Iceland
  • Cruise a Norwegian Fjord, Geirangerfjord is a world-famous beauty while Sognefjord is the greatest
  • Enjoy the endless summer days under the midnight sun in the north.
  • Experience the Arctic and the ice bears in the worlds northernmost settlement, Svalbard
  • Go cross country skiing or hiking in the endless forests and national parks.
  • Go skinny dipping from a sauna in the Land of a Thousand Lakes (Finland)
  • Downhill skiing or snowboarding in some of Europes most civilized and family friendly ski resorts.
  • Relive your childhood in Legoland, Denmark.
  • Cruise around the thousands of scenic islands in the Swedish and Finish skärgård.

Festivals

.Scandinavia, and in particular Denmark, is known for its many music festivals during the summer months.^ Bodø , a town in the very north of Norway , is referred to as the L and of the Midnight Sun , this is the sun does not fully set for one month during the midst of summer.
  • Holiday Weather - Search for weather locations in Northern Europe, Europe 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.holiday-weather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This particular ceremony is held during the New Year in the first half of the first lunar month, and continues to the fifth day of the fifth lunar month.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the summer months, the Briksdal Glacier is one of the most visited in Norway.
  • Itineraries - Yachts of Seabourn - Northern Europe Cruises 9 February 2010 15:38 UTC www.seabourn.com [Source type: General]

The largest in each country are:
  • Roskilde Festival [58] (Denmark, July) - One of the worlds most famous rock festivals, with 70,000 tickets for sale and 30,000 volunteers.
  • Ruisrock [59] (Finland, July) - Finlands largest music festival, held on an island near Turku, with around 70,000 spectators.
  • Hultsfred [60] (Sweden, July) - Swedens main rock festival, takes place in southern Sweden and has an attendance of ~30,000.
  • Quart [61] (Norway, June/July) - Norways main rock festival, and in Kristiansand in southern Norway.
  • G Festival [62] (Faroe Islands, July) - The Faroes' main event, with around 10,000 participants and 6,000 tickets sold every year.
  • Iceland Airwaves [63] (Iceland, October) - A progressive music festival that attracts around 2000 visitors.
Smørrebrød, the famous Danish open-faced sandwich
Smørrebrød, the famous Danish open-faced sandwich
.The cuisines of all Scandinavian countries are quite similar, although each country does have its signature dishes.^ As till now the cost component 5 have only been reported in the Norwegian key figures although all the countries recognize the existence of this cost component as described in the LCC Proposal.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The selective forces for intelligence were present on all continents, although quite possibly differing in strength.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo - Miller: The Evolution of Australian and Amerindian Intelligence 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

.Seafood features prominently on restaurant menus, although beef, pork and chicken are more common in many everyday dishes.^ This sort of mysticism, more characteristic of Daoism than classical Confucianism, was one of the more distinctive features of many expressions of Neo-Confucianism.
  • Japanese Confucian Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You can get many side dishes in a restaurant for free!!

.Potatoes are the main staple, most often simply boiled, but also made into mashed potatoes, potato salad and more.^ Most often the curing would be based around a sickness that would come into a person through the actions of a brujo.
  • Magic to Miracles by Alan Shoemaker 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC csp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In his inclinations and habits he was more stoic than "Epicurean," and the philosophers whose views were most like those often attributed to him were the Cyrenaics Aristippus and Arete.
  • PSYCHOLOGY IN GREEK PHILOSOPHY 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Flattish scones, made with flour and mashed potatoes, and without which no Scottish fried breakfast wid be complete!
  • Scottish Vernacular Dictionary 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.firstfoot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Spices are used sparingly, but fresh herbs are used to accentuate the ingredients.^ The Portuguese, like the Spanish, use olive oil and garlic generously in their cuisine, but they use herbs and spices more widely, especially cumin coriander, and paprika.
  • Portuguese Americans - Early history, The eighteenth century, The nineteenth century, The twentieth century 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Famous pan-Scandinavian dishes include:
  • Herring, especially pickled
  • Meatballs, served with potatoes, berries and creamy sauce
  • Salmon, especially smoked or salt-cured (gravlax)
  • Smörgåsbord, a popular lunch option with bread, herring, smoked fish, cold cuts and more
.Bread comes in dozens of varieties, with dark, heavy rye bread a specialty, and Scandinavian pastries are so well known that the word "danish" has even been imported into English.^ The more sexual energy you possess the more likely the spirits will come nearer to and even into you.
  • Magic to Miracles by Alan Shoemaker 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC csp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Logos has invested the time and money into creating reverse interlinears , where the original language words are aligned to the corresponding words of the English translations.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ Mixed marriages with Africans produced mulatos (from mulo , "mule"), a word simply borrowed into English with the same sense ("mulattoes").
  • Spanish and Portuguese Colonial Possessions 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Chilling out at the Arctic Icebar, Helsinki
Chilling out at the Arctic Icebar, Helsinki
.Vikings were famously heavy drinkers, and despite continuing government efforts to stamp out the demon drink through heavy taxation, todays Scandinavians continue the tradition.^ In recent years, the production of traditional arts and crafts is being readopted, stimulated through newly established contacts with Scandinavian Saami.
  • Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC npolar.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It might be an exciting project to try to find out how one offered criticism in the traditional society, so as to evaluate it against today’s aesthetic goals.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only were the foreigners not expelled, but, instead, the new government set out to completely overturn the traditional society and create a modern state.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bring in your full tax-free allowance if you plan to indulge, since in Norway you can expect to pay up to 60 kr (€7) for a pint of beer in a pub, and Sweden and Finland are not far behind.^ The Sámi parliaments have jointly established a separate Sámi Parliamentary Council that is a cooperative body between the Sámi parliaments in Norway, Sweden and Finland.
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, your inattentiveness might lead you to end up being short-changed by others.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

^ This might ruin you or cause setbacks to your plans.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

.To reduce the pain, it is common to start drinking at home before heading out to party.^ He had headed the party's administration office at Stormont before being arrested in October 2002 over an alleged spy ring .

^ Southern Ireland seemed more loyal to the Crown than ever before, because Home Rule had passed into law just before the war broke out.

^ The police started smashing furniture to make a barricade and, after shots from the mob, fired out of the house killing two people before more police arrived.

.The drinking age is 18 in all Nordic countries, but many bars and clubs have their own age limits.^ The book is a result of a research project at DTU and describes 36 cases from all five Nordic countries.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Lung Tung" (Going to the Fields) Ceremony is very well known and attracts many people of all ages.
  • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This in spite of a relatively sharp debate in all three Nordic countries about the rights to land and water and local resources?
  • Sámi Culture in the Nordic Countries 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main tipples are beer and vodka-like distilled spirits called brännvin, including herb-flavored akvavit.^ Capitan Calabaza called "Las Felipinas" (=Spanish for "The Philippines") a group of eastern Philippine islands, including most likely Leyte and Mindanao.
  • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Spirits are typically drunk as snaps (pron. "shnapps"), or ice-cold from shot glasses.

Sleep

.Throughout Scandinavia, with exception of densely populated Denmark, Allemansrätten, or Every Mans Right in English, is an important underpinning of society, and guarantees everyone the right to stay or camp on any uncultivated land for one or two nights, as long as you respect certain norms, stay out of sight of any residents, and leave no traces of your visit when you leave.^ And you want your ancestral lands?
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You have no right to demand them to see the symbols your way.
  • WTF???: Model Does Black Face for French Vogue | Bossip.com 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC bossip.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And as long as you are alive, you do not give up your demands to what’s right.
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

.If you enjoy the great outdoors, this can help make the otherwise expensive Scandinavian countries, become quite affordable.^ Did you know that Logos makes available 24 different vocabulary lists taken from the most popular grammars to help you?
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ This means that you are solely and entirely responsible for the consequences of all Postings that you upload, post, email, transmit or otherwise make available via the Site.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ January 16, 2010, 7:42PM The Americans lead developed countries troops have helped make Afghanistan safe for Chinese investment.

.With so much incredible nature outside the doorstep, it should be no surprise that the Scandinavian countries have a well developed Hostel network, named Vandrerhjem/Vandrarhem in the Scandinavian languages - literally translating into wanderers home.^ Since 2001, Afghanistan's narco-economy has grown into a monstrous tumor that feeds the insurgency as well as an international network of criminals.
  • Why the US is losing in Afghanistan - updates on the Pashtun insurgency 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ Logos has invested the time and money into creating reverse interlinears , where the original language words are aligned to the corresponding words of the English translations.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ Take Tim’s top 100 lists and copy and paste them into google’s translator, ( http://translate.google.com/translate_t# ) to quickly get the foreign language word equivalents.

.While the rules are often quite strict, it is cheap, and with almost 800 hostels available, you can find one almost anywhere.^ She was one of the Horae , so you will have to check there to find out more.
  • Greek Goddesses 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.paleothea.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And even if you don’t know Greek, you can use the tools available in Logos to find these backgrounded actions.
  • Logos Bible Software Blog: Greek Archives 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC blog.logos.com [Source type: General]

^ For those in a relationship, you might find that the time that you spend with your other half will be limited and you might get into conflicts more often this year.
  • Chinese Horoscope 2009 Jan 26 - 2010 Feb 13 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.jmine.com [Source type: General]

.The respective national organisations are called Danhostel [64] in Denmark, STF [65] or SVIF [66] in Sweden, Norske Vandrerhjem [67] in Norway, SRM [68] in Finland and finally Farfuglar [69] in Iceland.^ April Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden represented ...
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 2 from Sweden, 1 or 2 from Finland and 1 from Norway + Icelandic participants have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far 2 from Denmark, 1 or 2 from Finland, 2 from Sweden and 1 from Norway (+ Icelandic participants) have registered for the meeting.
  • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Red: The three monarchies that compose Scandinavia according to the strictest definition

Orange: The possible extended usage

Yellow: The maximal extended usage that takes Scandinavia as synonymous to the Nordic countries
Scandinavia
.
  1. Denmark, Norway and Sweden.^ Feudalism was much weaker in Norway than in Denmark and Sweden.
    • Scandinavia 1250-1453 by Sanderson Beck 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (By Scandinavia, I mean Sweden, Norway and Denmark and by Nordic countries I mean these as well as Finland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands).
    • Mystery Readers Journal: Scandinavian Mysteries 14 January 2010 2:34 UTC www.mysteryreaders.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
    • NfN - Nordic FM 24 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.nfn-fm.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (See map to the right for alternative usage).
  2. The Scandinavian peninsula (Norway and Sweden).
  3. The Nordic countries as a group: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, and their associated territories which include the Faroes, Greenland and Åland.

Synonyms

group of countries

Translations

.The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers.^ Both Lycurgus and Solon appreciated the need for incorporating checks and balances into government, a need that the American Founders understood just as acutely.

^ Not surprisingly, both ri and ki were appropriated in any number of neologisms of the Meiji period to refer to terms from western philosophy and the sciences as they were translated into Japanese.
  • Japanese Confucian Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Derived terms


Simple English

File:Scandinavia M2002074
Satellite photo of Scandinavia, February 2003

Scandinavia is a region in northern Europe, that includes Norway, Sweden and Denmark. "Scandinavia" is more useful as a linguistic term, rather than geographic, however, because it also refers to the area where Scandinavian languages (North Germanic languages) are spoken. The Scandinavian languages (Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Danish and Faroese) are closely related, and many Scandinavians are able to understand some of the other languages, though with difficulty.

Geography

The Scandinavian Peninsula is a large peninsula reaching west from northern Europe over the north side of the Baltic Sea. Norway, Sweden and Finland are on the peninsula, also known as Fennoscandia. Denmark, not Finland, however, is regarded as part of Scandinavia. This is because Danish is a Scandinavian language but Finnish is not. Iceland and the Faroe Islands are sometimes included in "Scandinavia" for the same reason.

The term Nordic countries is sometimes used as a more precise geographical term, but the Nordic countries include Norway, Sweden, Denmark (including the Faroe Islands), Finland and Iceland. These five countries coordinate political and cultural activities through the Nordic Council. Denmark, Sweden and Finland are also members of the European Union, but only Finland uses the Euro, while the other Nordic countries still use their own currency, each called krone or krona ("crowns"). Norway and Iceland, which are not members of the EU, are members of NATO. Only Denmark is a member of both the EU and NATO.

The Scandinavian Peninsula is sparsely populated and covered with large forests of pine, birch, and spruce. The western and northern parts are mountainous; the Scandinavian mountains are some of the oldest in the world. The tallest mountain is Galdhøpiggen in Norway. Denmark (43,098 km2) is the smallest of the Scandinavian countries. It is more densely populated, and most of the land is farmland. Sweden (449,964 km2) is the largest of the Scandinavian countries. It has the most lakes, and the landscape ranges from plains in the south to mountains in the west (along the border with Norway) to tundra in the north. The far north of Scandinavia and Finland is called Lapland, where the Sami people live. Some of them still herd reindeer as they have for centuries, but the Sami mostly live in a modernised society equal to that of other Scandinavians.

People

The best-known stereotypes of Scandinavian people relate to the Vikings of the Middle Ages. The Vikings from Sweden are best known as traders, traveling as far as modern Ukraine and establishing trade routes to bring goods from the Middle East to Scandinavia. The Vikings from Norway are best known as explorers, crossing the North Atlantic in their longships and settling Iceland and Greenland. The Norwegian explorers even reached the east coast of modern Canada where they set up a colony, but it only lasted a few years. The Vikings from Denmark, however, left the biggest mark on the English. The Danish raiders attacked England repeatedly and brutally, demanding ransom that came to be called "Danegeld", and prompting the clergy of churches along the east coast of England to offer the desperate and often repeated prayer, "deliver us, O Lord, from the wrath of the Norsemen!" But the modern stereotypes of the Vikings actually were invented much later, in the 19th century, when Richard Wagner and others of the Romantic period romanticised ancient Germanic culture in the opera and the other arts, often showing Vikings wearing furs and winged or horned helmets and drinking from large horns.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Scandinavia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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