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Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen -
Country Switzerland Coat of Arms of Schaffhausen
Canton Schaffhausen
District (None in canton of Schaffhausen)
47°42′N 8°38′E / 47.7°N 8.633°E / 47.7; 8.633Coordinates: 47°42′N 8°38′E / 47.7°N 8.633°E / 47.7; 8.633
Population 34,587 (December 2008)
  - Density 1,116 /km2 (2,890 /sq mi)
Area 31.00 km2 (11.97 sq mi)
Elevation 403 m (1,322 ft)
Postal code 8200
SFOS number 2939
Mayor (list) Marcel Wenger (as of 2008) FDP/PRD
Surrounded by
(view map)
Beringen, Büsingen am Hochrhein (DE-BW), Büttenhardt, Dörflingen, Feuerthalen (ZH), Flurlingen (ZH), Hemmental, Merishausen, Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Stetten, Thayngen
Twin towns Sindelfingen (Germany), Singen am Hohentwiel (Germany), Dobrich (Bulgaria)
Website www.stadt-schaffhausen.ch
Profile (German), SFSO statistics
Schaffhausen [zoom] is located in Switzerland
Schaffhausen [zoom]
Reichsstadt Schaffhausen
Imperial City of Schaffhausen
Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
Imperial Abbey of All Saints in Schaffhausen
1190 or 1218 – 1330
1415–1501
Canton of Schaffhausen
Capital Schaffhausen
Government Republic
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Gained Reichsfreiheit betw 1190 and 1218
 - Pledged to Habsburgs 1330
 - Bought independence 1415
 - Associate member of
    Swiss Confederacy
 
1454
 - Joined Switzerland 1501
 - Swiss independence
    recognised
 
1648
Reichskloster Allerheiligen, Schaffhausen
Imperial Abbey of All Saints in Schaffhausen
Imperial Abbey of the Holy Roman Empire
Landgraviate of Nellenburg
1080–1529 Canton of Schaffhausen
Capital Schaffhausen
Government Principality
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Consecrated (Leo IX) 22 November 1049
 - Papal grant of
    Nellenburg lands
 
1080
 - Gained Hiltensweiler
    lands
 
1122–1389
 - City became
    Swiss Associate
 
1454
 - City joined Switz. 1501
 - Converted to
    monastery and
    cathedral church
 
 
1524
 - Disestablished in
    Reformation
 
1529
Schaffhausen

Schaffhausen (German: About this sound Schaffhausen ) is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 34,587 as of December 2008.[1]

The old portion of the city has many fine Renaissance era buildings decorated with exterior frescos and sculpture, as well as the impressive old canton fortress, the Munot. A train runs out of town to the nearby Rhine Falls in Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Europe's largest waterfall, a tourist attraction.

Contents

Origin of the name

The town is first mentioned in 1045 as Villa Scafhusun. There are at least two theories on the origin of this name. One is related to a mention of a "ford" across the Rhine River that first occurs in 1050. This "ford" may actually refer to a scapha or skiff which was used to disembark goods coming from Constance to move them around the Rhine Falls. The name Scafhusun then arose from the scapha used at that point. Another theory is that Scafhusun comes from Schaf (a sheep), as a ram (now a sheep) formed the ancient arms of the town, derived from those of its founders, the counts of Nellenburg.[2]

Coat of arms

The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or on a Base Vert issuant from sinister a Semi Castle Argent with tower with entrance from which is issuing a Semi Ram Sable.[3] The canting coat of arms refers to the second interpretation of the name, sheep-house.

History

Views of old town, Schaffhausen

Schaffhausen was a city state in the Middle Ages, documented to have struck its own coins from 1045.[2] About 1050 the counts of Nellenburg founded the Benedictine monastery of All Saints, which became the center of the town. Perhaps as early as 1190, certainly in 1208, it was an imperial free city, while the first seal dates from 1253. The powers of the abbot were gradually limited and in 1277 the Emperor Rudolf I gave the town a charter of liberties. In 1330 the emperor Louis of Bavaria pledged it to the Habsburgs. In the early 15th century, Habsburg power over the city waned. By 1411 the guilds ruled the city. Then, in 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, and was banned by the Emperor Sigismund. As a result of the ban and Frederick's need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454 and allied with a further two (Uri and Unterwalden) in 1479. Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1501.

The Reformation was adopted, initially, in 1524 and completely in 1529. The town was heavily damaged during the Thirty Years' War from the passage of Swedish (Protestant) and Bavarian (Roman Catholic) troops and the very important bridge was burnt down. It was not till the early 19th century that the arrested industrial development of the town took a fresh start.[2] In 1857 the first railroad, the Rheinfall-Bahn running from Winterthur, reached Schaffhausen.[4]

Schaffhausen is located in a finger of Swiss territory surrounded on three sides by Germany. On April 1, 1944, Schaffhausen suffered a bombing raid by United States Army Air Forces aircraft which strayed from German airspace into neutral Switzerland. About a hundred civilians were killed[5]; the United States immediately offered a million dollars in reparations.

Geography

Schaffhausen has an area, as of 2006, of 31.1 square kilometers (12.0 sq mi). Of this area, 20.7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 47.2% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 30.2% is settled (buildings or roads) and the remainder (1.9%) is non-productive (rivers or lakes).[6]

Demographics

Schaffhausen has a population (as of 2008) of 34,587, of which 26.4% are foreign nationals. Of the foreign population, (as of 2008), 21% are from Germany, 13.3% are from Italy, 8.8% are from Croatia, 13.3% are from Serbia, 6% are from Macedonia, 9% are from Turkey, and 28.6% are from another country.[7] Over the last 10 years the population has remained stable. Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks German (84.3%), with Serbo-Croatian being second most common ( 3.4%) and Italian being third ( 3.2%).[6]

The age distribution of the population (as of 2008) is children and teenagers (0-19 years old) make up 19% of the population, while adults (20-64 years old) make up 61.6% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 19.4%.[7]

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SP which received 39.5% of the vote. The next two most popular parties were the SVP (33.1%), and the FDP (27.4%) .[6]

As of 2000, 27.4% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church and 43.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church.[7]

The historical population is given in the following table:[7]

year population
1990 34,446
2000 33,596

Education

The entire Swiss population is generally well educated. In Schaffhausen about 69.8% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either University or a Fachhochschule).[6] In Schaffhausen, as of 2007, 1.73% of the population attend kindergarten or another pre-school, 5.65% attend a Primary School, 2.98% attend a lower level Secondary School, and 2.49% attend a higher level Secondary School.[7]

Industry

Schaffhausen has an unemployment rate (as of 2007 of 2.67%. As of 2005, there were 196 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 33 businesses involved in this sector. 6,488 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 293 businesses in this sector. 14,019 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 1,486 businesses in this sector.[6]

As of 2008 the mid year average unemployment rate was 2.5%. There were 1,879 non-agrarian businesses in the municipality and 29.9% of the (non-agrarian) population was involved in the secondary sector of the economy while 70.1% were involved in the third. At the same time, 67.1% of the working population was employed full-time, and 32.9% was employed part-time. There were 21,841 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 46.6% of the workforce. As of 2000 there were 10,019 residents who worked in the municipality, while 5,724 residents worked outside Schaffhausen and 8,026 people communted into the municipality for work.[7]

Schaffhausen hosts some well-known industrial companies like Georg Fischer (piping systems, machine tools and automotives), an internationally-reputed manufacturer of watches (IWC), pharmaceutical industry (Cilag, founded by Bernhard Joos) and BB Biotech (biotechnologies).

As of 2008, there are 102 restaurants, and 11 hotels with 445 beds. The hospitality industry in Schaffhausen employs 924 people.[7]

Transportation

Schaffhausen is a stop of the Zürich S-Bahn on the line S16. Schaffhausen is also a stop on the S33 line that operates between Schaffhausen and Winterthur, and is also a regular stop for high-speed trains to Bern via Zürich, and Stuttgart from Zürich, operated by DB.

Schaffhausen also has a bus network of six lines, linking it with nearby places such as Herblingen and Neuhausen am Rheinfall.

Sport

The town has two football teams, SV Schaffhausen of the second tier, the Swiss 1. Liga, and FC Schaffhausen of the Swiss Challenge League.

Weather

Schaffhausen has an average of 124.9 days of rain or snow per year and on average receives 883 mm (34.8 in) of precipitation. The wettest month is August during which time Schaffhausen receives an average of 98 mm (3.9 in) of rain or snow. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 11.6 days. The month with the most days of precipitation is May, with an average of 12.4, but with only 77 mm (3 in) of rain or snow. The driest month of the year is March with an average of 59 mm (2.3 in) of precipitation over 11.6 days.[8]

Weather data for Schaffhausen
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.6
(35)
4.3
(40)
8.8
(48)
13.3
(56)
17.9
(64)
21.1
(70)
23.6
(74)
22.8
(73)
19.4
(67)
13.3
(56)
6.5
(44)
2.5
(37)
12.9
(55)
Daily mean °C (°F) -1
(30)
0.8
(33)
4.4
(40)
8.2
(47)
12.5
(55)
15.6
(60)
17.8
(64)
17
(63)
13.9
(57)
8.9
(48)
3.4
(38)
0.1
(32)
8.5
(47)
Average low °C (°F) -3.3
(26)
-2.3
(28)
0.6
(33)
3.9
(39)
7.9
(46)
10.9
(52)
12.5
(55)
12.1
(54)
9.5
(49)
5.7
(42)
1.1
(34)
-1.9
(29)
4.7
(40)
Precipitation mm (inches) 65
(2.56)
64
(2.52)
59
(2.32)
66
(2.6)
77
(3.03)
97
(3.82)
88
(3.46)
98
(3.86)
62
(2.44)
63
(2.48)
73
(2.87)
71
(2.8)
883
(34.76)
Avg. precipitation days 11.2 9.3 11.2 10.9 12.4 11.1 10.7 11.6 8.2 7.8 10.1 10.4 124.9
Source: MeteoSchweiz[8] May 8, 2009

Heritage sites of national significance

There 35 buildings or sites in Schaffhausen that are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance. This includes the entire old city of Schaffhausen, the city walls, the Giesserei +GF+ Werk I factory, the city and cantonal archives, the Schweizersbild Paleolithic cave and the Herblingen and Grüthalde Neolithic settlements. Additionally, there are four former guild houses and seven houses on the list. There are only two religious buildings on the list, the former Benedictine All Saints Abbey and the Church of St. John[9]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Bundesamt fur Statistik (Federal Department of Statistics) (2008). "Bilanz der ständigen Wohnbevölkerung (Total) nach Bezirken und Gemeinden". http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/01/02/blank/key/raeumliche_verteilung/kantone__gemeinden.html. Retrieved November 5, 2008.   (German)
  2. ^ a b c "Schaffhausen (city)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. 1911. pp. 312. http://books.google.com/books?id=ajsEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA312. Retrieved 18 April 2009.  
  3. ^ Flags of the World.com accessed 22-December-2009
  4. ^ Canton Schaffhausen website-Numbers and facts accessed 18 April 2009. (German)
  5. ^ Atkinson, Rick, The Day of the Battle
  6. ^ a b c d e Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 22-December-2009
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Statistical Office of the Canton of Schaffhausen (German) accessed 2 December 2009
  8. ^ a b "Temperature and Precipitation Average Values-Table, 1961-1990" (in German, French, Italian). Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology - MeteoSwiss. http://www.meteoswiss.admin.ch/web/de/klima/klima_schweiz/tabellen.html. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  , the weather station elevation is 438 meters above sea level.
  9. ^ Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance 21.11.2008 version, (German) accessed 22-Dec-2009

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Central Europe : Switzerland : Schaffhausen

Schaffhausen [1] is a city in north-eastern Switzerland on the river Rhine, next to the German border.

Rhine in Schaffhausen
Rhine in Schaffhausen

Understand

Schaffhausen is a city-canton which entered the the Swiss Confederation in 1501. It is Switzerland's northernmost canton and is mostly agricultural land.

In 1944 Schaffhausen was bombed by the United States Air Force, killing 40 people — it was later determined that the daylight raid was an accident, due to a navigational error.

The current population of Schaffhausen is 33'700.

Get in

By train

From Zurich within 50 minutes, once an hour.

By car

From Zurich: Take the A4/E41 direction north. It will lead you right into the city. Note that you need a vignette for all swiss highways.

Get around

Local buses [2], by foot in the old city. Busses to all directions every 20 minutes, in busy times every 10 minutes. For CHF 5.- you can get a "Tageskarte" which allows you to use all busses for a whole day.

  • Walk through the old city [3] and admire the renaissance buildings.
  • Visit the Munot [4] fortress and enjoy the view over the old city and the beautiful landscape.
  • Rhine Falls, the largest waterfalls in Europe. Walk or take the bus there. Visitors can see the waterfalls up close from several viewing platforms, and can also take a boat up to an outcropping in the middle of the falls.
  • Stadttheater Schaffhausen, Herrenacker 22, 8200 Schaffhausen, +41 52 625 05 55 (, fax: +41 52 632 54 32), [5]. Mo-Fr 4PM-6PM, Sa 9.30AM-11AM. Local playhouse with a beautiful interior decoration  edit
  • Museum zu Allerheiligen, Baumgartenstrasse 6, 8200 Schaffhausen, +41 52 633 07 77 (, fax: +41 52 633 07 88), [6]. Tu-Su: 11AM - 5PM. Museum telling much of the region's history. CHF 9.-/5.-.  edit
  • Hallen für neue Kunst, Baumgartenstrasse 23, 8200 Schaffhausen, +41 52 625 25 15 (, fax: +41 52 625 84 74), [7]. Sa: 3-5PM, Su: 11AM-5PM. Museum exhibiting modern art CHF 14.-/8.-.  edit

Buy

"Chatzezüngli", (en: kitten tounges) are a speciality of Schaffhausen. You can get a box of this chocolate in the confectionery at the Vordergasse.

Eat

Doner/Kebab stands are spread all over the city, restaurants are easy to find in the old city too.

  • Restaurant Mamma Rosa, Bachstrasse 19, 8200 Schaffhausen, +41 52 625 24 69. Excellent pizza in a familial environment for a good price.  edit
  • Restaurant Kronenhof, Kirchhofplatz 7, 8201 Schaffhausen, +41 52 635 75 75, [8].  edit
  • Restaurant Fischerzunft, Rheinquai 8, 8200 Schaffhausen, +41 52 632 05 05, [9]. Known all over the country for the delicious food. extremely expensive.  edit
  • Kammgarn Beiz, Baumgartenstrasse 19, 8200 Schaffhausen, +41 52 625 24 03, [10]. Tu-Sa 11.30AM-??, Th 11.30AM-0.30AM Fr-Sa 11.30AM - 1.30AM. Club/Bar where the local youth meets  edit
  • Haberhaus, Neustadt 51, 8200 Schaffhausen, +41 52 625 94 29, [11]. Bar featuring a calm atmosphere, modern architecture placed inside a medieval wall.  edit
  • Orient, Stadthausgasse 13, 8200 Schaffhausen, +41 52 633 02 02 (), [12]. entry 10PM. Club  edit
  • Youthhostel, Randenstrasse 65, +41 52 625 88 00 (, fax: +41 52 624 59 54), [13]. CLOSED 19.11.2006-31.12.2006, 01.01.2007-02.03.2007, 18.11.2007-31.12.2007 multiple beds room: CHF 27.50.  edit
  • Hotel Kronenhof, Kirchhofplatz 7, 8201 Schaffhausen, +41 52 635 75 75 (, fax: +41 52 635 75 65), [14]. 2-bed with shower: CHF 190.-.  edit
  • Hotel Bahnhof, Bahnhofstrasse 46, 8200 Schaffhausen, +41 52 630 35 35 (, fax: +41 52 630 35 36), [15]. 2-bed: CHF 240.-.  edit
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Schaffhausen discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

Schaffhausen

  1. A canton of Switzerland.
  2. A city in Switzerland, the capital of the canton of Schaffhausen.

Synonyms

  • (canton): the canton of Schaffhausen

Translations

See also


German

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Schaffhausen

  1. Schaffhausen (canton)
  2. Schaffhausen (city)

Italian

Proper noun

Schaffhausen

  1. Schaffhausen (canton)
  2. Schaffhausen (city)

Simple English

Schaffhausen is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name. It has a population of about 33,527 as of March 31, 2005.

The old portion of the city has many fine Renaissance era buildings decorated with exterior frescos and sculpture, as well as the impressive old canton fortress, the Munot. A train runs out of town to the nearby Rhine Falls in Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Europe's largest waterfall, a tourist attraction.

History

Schaffhausen was a city state in the Middle Ages, documented to have struck its own coins starting in 1045. For a time it was under Habsburg domination, but regained its independence in 1415. It allied itself with Zürich in 1457, and became a full member of the Swiss Confederation in 1501. The first railroad came to Schaffhausen in 1857.

Schaffhausen is located in a finger of Swiss territory surrounded on three sides by Germany. On April 1, 1944, Schaffhausen suffered a bombing raid by United States Army Air Forces aircraft which strayed from German airspace into neutral Switzerland. While the United States immediately offered a million dollars in reparations, the raid occurred only a month after the Swiss Air Force had shot down an American bomber.

Industry

Schaffhausen has some well-known industrial companies (Georg Fischer) in piping systems, machine tools and automotives, one internationally-reputed watches manufacturer (IWC), and drug industry (Cilag, founded by Bernhard Joos).

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