The Full Wiki

More info on Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Schizophrenia

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Schizophrenia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F20.
ICD-9 295
OMIM 181500
DiseasesDB 11890
MedlinePlus 000928
eMedicine med/2072 emerg/520
MeSH F03.700.750
.Schizophrenia (pronounced /ˌskɪtsɵˈfrɛniə/ or /ˌskɪtsɵˈfriːniə/) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormalities in the perception or expression of reality.^ Any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact (syn: schizophrenic disorder, schizophrenic psychosis, dementia praecox).
  • Archaic Medical Terms English List S 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.antiquusmorbus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This disorder is typically characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, abnormal thinking, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and disrupted work and social functioning.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lilliputian hallucinations are characterized by abnormal perception of objects as being shrunken in size but normal in detail.

.It most commonly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking with significant social or occupational dysfunction.^ Examples include delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech and cognitive dysfunction.

^ Absence of prominent delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized .
  • Schizophrenia 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Social Dysfunction - lack of interest in social groups, friendships Sexual Dysfunction - lack of interest in sexual relationships Emotional Dysfunction - lack of expression, monotone voice Hallucination - most commonly auditory, ie hearing voices (very rarely visual) Inappropriate Responses - laughing at bad news, or crying at a joke Delusions - of grandeur, or more commonly of persecution.
  • Journal of a Schizophrenic || kuro5hin.org 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: General]

.Onset of symptoms typically occurs in young adulthood,[1] with around 0.4–0.6%[2][3] of the population affected.^ Bipolar disorder, which was once termed manic-depressive disorder, is a mood disorder that affects around one percent of the population.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diagnosis is based on the patient's self-reported experiences and observed behavior.^ Clinical and neurocognitive variables were assessed by raters blind to medication status, and severity of side effects was determined from patients' self-reports.
  • Treatment of Schizo affective Disorder 19 September 2009 3:33 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The process of estimating psychological and behavioral function by observing the patient, eliciting his description of self and formally questioning him.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This field is composed of all the experiences (conscious and subconscious) the individual has undergone and is what we base our “self” picture on, or more simply put, who we are.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

No laboratory test for schizophrenia currently exists.[4]
.Studies suggest that genetics, early environment, neurobiology, psychological and social processes are important contributory factors; some recreational and prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms.^ Though physical symptoms can cause sexual impotency, a lot of problems are psychological.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process of integrating children with disabilities into regular educational or social programs, implementing the least restrictive environment concept.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pramipexole and Ropinirole, two dopamine agonists, were initially believed to be the cause; but now all dopamine drugs are possible factors.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Current psychiatric research is focused on the role of neurobiology, but no single organic cause has been found.^ While this research has provided significant insight into these X-linked syndromes, the causes of the majority of MR remain idiopathic at the current time.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.As a result of the many possible combinations of symptoms, there is debate about whether the diagnosis represents a single disorder or a number of discrete syndromes.^ So many stumbles and failure have resulted from this perusal of yesterday that there has never been time to consider tomorrow.
  • Writing.Com: SCHIZOPHRENIC RESCUE (Book) 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While there is much disagreement about whether schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorders should have two different sets of criteria, the different methods of treatment support the idea that these disorders are separate occurrences.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is ongoing controversy over whether these stereotypic movements constitute the addition of an extra diagnosis (1999).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite the etymology of the term from the Greek roots skhizein (σχίζειν, "to split") and phrēn, phren- (φρήν, φρεν-; "mind"), schizophrenia does not imply a "split mind" and it is not the same as dissociative identity disorder (previously known as multiple personality disorder or split personality), a condition with which it is often confused in public perception.^ The person is often confused and disoriented after awakening.

^ Multiple personality, sometimes confused with schizophrenia, is a dissociative personality disorder, not a psychotic illness.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is: multiple personality disorder (or dissociative identity disorder) and various types of schizophrenia are distinct processes.
  • Journal of a Schizophrenic || kuro5hin.org 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: General]

[5]
.Increased dopamine activity in the mesolimbic pathway of the brain is consistently found in schizophrenic individuals.^ Increases in dopamine concentrations found in the CNS .
  • Schizophrenia 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies in schizophrenic or schizoaffective individuals are consistent with the disclosed association between polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 and hypothyroidism.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Catecholamines, a subcategory of monoamines, increase or decrease the activities of certain brain functions.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication; this type of drug primarily works by suppressing dopamine activity.^ Neuroleptics Medications with an antipsychotic effect that are used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses.

^ BACKGROUND: Many people with schizophrenia do not achieve a satisfactory treatment response with ordinary antipsychotic drug treatment and various additional medications are used to promote additional response.
  • Treatment of Schizo affective Disorder 19 September 2009 3:33 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ List the cardiac effects of the antipsychotic agents and recommend a drug for treatment of a patient with cardiac disease as well as treatment for any cardiac effects that may be observed.
  • Schizophrenia 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Dosages of antipsychotics are generally lower than in the early decades of their use.^ A. The absence of anticholinergic effects B. A lower incidence of extrapyramidal effects C. Photosensitivity and sedation D. No incidence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome Rationale: Risperdal has a lower incidence of extrapyramidal effects than the typical antipsychotics.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typical Antipsychotics Older, first-generation medications used to treat serious mental illness.

^ The use of a combination of an antipsychotic and a thymoleptic medication was more common than monotherapy, and physicians tended to continue antidepressants if patients had a history of depression.
  • Treatment of Schizo affective Disorder 19 September 2009 3:33 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

Psychotherapy, and vocational and social rehabilitation are also important. .In more serious cases—where there is risk to self and others—involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are less frequent and for shorter periods than they were in previous times.^ But they can apply in other hospitals," he said.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The nursing leaders calling for a retake of the exams are offering a sacrifice that has not been made a condition by the NCLEX. More serious steps of cleansing the profession’s ranks may be more convincing," they added.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for the suffering of the Iraqi people, they need to be seen as more than just "stepping stones" to profit.
  • After Reporting in Iraq, America Feels Like a Bizarre Disneyland | World | AlterNet 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[6]
.The disorder is thought to mainly affect cognition, but it also usually contributes to chronic problems with behavior and emotion.^ Cognitive therapy emphasizes changing thought patterns that underlie emotional or behavioral problems.

^ Reactive attachment disorder, as stated in the DSM-IV, is composed of emotional withdrawal, emotional promiscuity, and/or indiscriminate behavior and could be labeled as a “non-attachment disorder”.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term emotional or behavioral disorder means a disability characterized by ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

.People with schizophrenia are likely to have additional (comorbid) conditions, including major depression and anxiety disorders;[7] the lifetime occurrence of substance abuse is around 40%.^ The simultaneous appearance of two or more illnesses, such as the co-occurrence of schizophrenia and substance abuse or of alcohol dependence and depression.

^ Despite evidence that a significant number of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are both hypercortisolemic and depressed, the antidepressant effects of antiglucocorticoids have never been assessed in these populations.
  • Treatment of Schizo affective Disorder 19 September 2009 3:33 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a very common symptom in schizophrenia and prevents people with this condition from taking part in many social activities.

.Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty and homelessness, are common.^ A term applied to children who display behaviors, over long periods of time, that deviate significantly from socially acceptable norms for their age and situation.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Homelessness, poverty, and social isolation all too often accompany schizophrenia.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem is that Guller ascribes the term "label" to Buddhism whilst not acknowledging that this word would no long maintain the same meaning as it has in Psychiatry.

.Furthermore, the average life expectancy of people with the disorder is 10 to 12 years less than those without, due to increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate ( about 5% ).^ Less than 10% 46.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The explanation why there is decreasing prevalence rates in the older age has been attributed to a higher than average mortality among the severely mentally retarded and possibly due to errors in the method used in gathering the data.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition, anti-thyroid antibodies have been reported in 33% of patients with mixed episodes, a rate much higher than that seen in other psychiatric disorders or in nonpsychiatric control subjects (Haggerty et al., Psychoneuroendocrinology 12(4): 359 (1990)).
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[8][9]
The term Schizophrenia was coined by Eugen Bleuler

Contents

Signs and symptoms

.Depending on the individual, a person diagnosed with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (especially hearing voices), delusions (especially ones that seem "bizarre"), and disorganized thinking and speech.^ The textbook description of schizophrenia is a listing of symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior.
  • What Its Really Like To Be Schizophrenic - One Man's Blog 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC onemansblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The person may also exhibit hallucinations or delusions.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When severe, speech may be disorganized and incoherent.

.The latter may range from loss of train of thought, to sentences only loosely connected in meaning, to incoherence known as word salad in severe cases.^ Word salad is when a group of words are put together in a random fashion without logical connection.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neologisms are bizarre words that have meaning only to the client.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the losses may be progressive, which in combination with the other sensory loss, may lead to severe dual sensory impairments.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is often an observable pattern of emotional difficulty, for example lack of responsiveness or motivation.^ Additionally there are what are termed the negative symptoms, among these being the presence of apathy/lack of motivation.
  • Works and Days » Thoughts on a Schizophrenic Society 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A lack of will or motivation which is often expressed as inability to make decisions or set goals.

^ Impulsivity may be characterized by, for example, impatience, difficulty in delaying response, frequent interruption of others, etc.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Impairment in social cognition is associated with schizophrenia, as are symptoms of paranoia, and social isolation commonly occurs.^ This is a very common symptom in schizophrenia and prevents people with this condition from taking part in many social activities.

^ Homelessness, poverty, and social isolation all too often accompany schizophrenia.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Elevated homocysteine is associated with coronary artery disease, heart attack, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia,cognitive impairment, and cervical cancer.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In one uncommon subtype, the person may be largely mute, remain motionless in bizarre postures, or exhibit purposeless agitation; these are signs of catatonia.^ The person may also exhibit hallucinations or delusions.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One person with auditory hallucinations may recognize that he or she is having a false sensory experience, whereas another may be convinced that the source of the sensory experience has an independent physical reality.

^ In moving from one sentence or clause to another, the person shifts the topic idiosyncratically from one frame of reference to another and things may be said in juxtaposition that lack a meaningful relationship.

.Late adolescence and early adulthood are peak years for the onset of schizophrenia.^ The age of onset, in early adulthood, is comparable in both disorders (2003).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adolescent family experiences and educational attainment during early adulthood.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A 26-year-old client is admitted to the psychiatric unit with acute onset of schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 40% of men and 23% of women diagnosed with schizophrenia, the condition arose before the age of 19.[10] These are critical periods in a young adult's social and vocational development.^ The physician diagnoses schizophrenia after ruling out several other conditions.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Differential effects of age on prospective and retrospective memory tasks in young, young-old, and old-old adults.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Pertaining to or occurring in the period of time shortly before and after the birth of an infant (28 weeks gestation to 1-4 months of age).
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To minimize the developmental disruption associated with schizophrenia, much work has recently been done to identify and treat the prodromal (pre-onset) phase of the illness, which has been detected up to 30 months before the onset of symptoms, but may be present longer.^ F. Relationship to a Pervasive Developmental Disorder: If there is a history of Autistic Disorder or another Pervasive Developmental Disorder, the additional diagnosis of Schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present for at least a month (or less if successfully treated).
  • Schizophrenia 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with schizophreniform disorder can have the same symptoms as those with schizophrenia, but the symptoms must only last between one to six months.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two or more of the following symptoms, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period(or less if successfully treated) .
  • Schizophrenia 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

[11] .Those who go on to develop schizophrenia may experience the non-specific symptoms of social withdrawal, irritability and dysphoria in the prodromal period,[12] and transient or self-limiting psychotic symptoms in the prodromal phase before psychosis becomes apparent.^ Any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact (syn: schizophrenic disorder, schizophrenic psychosis, dementia praecox).
  • Archaic Medical Terms English List S 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.antiquusmorbus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Residual Schizophrenia Blunted or inappropriate affect, social withdrawal, eccentric behavior, loose associations without prominent psychotic symptoms.

^ This is a very common symptom in schizophrenia and prevents people with this condition from taking part in many social activities.

[13]

Schneiderian classification

.The psychiatrist Kurt Schneider (1887–1967) listed the forms of psychotic symptoms that he thought distinguished schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders.^ Option A lists the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact (syn: schizophrenic disorder, schizophrenic psychosis, dementia praecox).
  • Archaic Medical Terms English List S 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.antiquusmorbus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Option A is incorrect because personality disorders and psychotic illness aren't listed together on the same axis.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are called first-rank symptoms or Schneider's first-rank symptoms, and they include delusions of being controlled by an external force; the belief that thoughts are being inserted into or withdrawn from one's conscious mind; the belief that one's thoughts are being broadcast to other people; and hearing hallucinatory voices that comment on one's thoughts or actions or that have a conversation with other hallucinated voices.^ The world THEY bring into being through their convictions and their actions.
  • Subtle Psychopathy and Schizophrenic Supermen 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.newciv.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A delusion of persecution is a false belief that one is being persecuted.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This usually includes delusions and / or hallucinations .

[14] .Although they have significantly contributed to the current diagnostic criteria, the specificity of first-rank symptoms has been questioned.^ First rank symptoms Schneider classified the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia as first-rank features of schizophrenia.

^ The first step I use in writing a paper (or posting) is to relate the discussion question to current knowledge I have.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schneider's First-Rank Symptoms of Schizophrenia .
  • Schizophrenia 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A review of the diagnostic studies conducted between 1970 and 2005 found that these studies allow neither a reconfirmation nor a rejection of Schneider's claims, and suggested that first-rank symptoms be de-emphasized in future revisions of diagnostic systems.^ Chief among these suggested burdens is what is claimed to be the “indeterminate sentence” mandated by Part XX.1.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Such studies suggest that hypothyroid hormone deficiency in early development might cause central nervous system damage such that autistic symptoms are likely to ensue.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Even though most studies have found that activation of the mesolimbic system for the purpose of releasing dopamine is essential in the drug reinforcement process, studies conducted on opiate use indicate that the release of dopamine is not necessary to reinforce behaviors in this drugs of this type (Carlson, 2004).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]

Positive and negative symptoms

.Schizophrenia is often described in terms of positive and negative (or deficit) symptoms.^ Effective for both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia .
  • Schizophrenia 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Option A lists the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Positive symptoms of schizophrenia include which of the following?
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .The term positive symptoms refers to symptoms that most individuals do not normally experience but are present in schizophrenia.^ Option A lists the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Positive symptoms of schizophrenia include which of the following?
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In paranoid schizophrenia (the most common type), outlandish delusions of grandeur and persecution are coupled with psychotic symptoms and personality breakdown.

.They include delusions, auditory hallucinations, and thought disorder, and are typically regarded as manifestations of psychosis.^ This usually includes delusions and / or hallucinations .

^ Schizophrenic thought disorders include.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This disorder is typically characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, abnormal thinking, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and disrupted work and social functioning.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Negative symptoms are things that are not present in schizophrenic persons but are normally found in healthy persons, that is, symptoms that reflect the loss or absence of normal traits or abilities.^ Negative symptoms list the diminution or loss of normal function 81.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is continuing evidence of the disturbance, as indicated by the presence of negative symptoms or two or more symptoms listed in Criterion A for Schizophrenia, present in an attenuated form(eg.
  • Schizophrenia 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Negative symptoms are present both in the acute and residual stage of the illness and are generally not drug responsive thus are trait dependent.
  • Schizophrenia 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Common negative symptoms include flat or blunted affect and emotion, poverty of speech (alogia), inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia), lack of desire to form relationships (asociality), and lack of motivation (avolition).^ A flat affect, alogia, apathy, avolition, and anhedonia refer to the negative symptoms.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. Hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking B. Somatic delusions, echolalia, and a flat affect C. Waxy flexibility, alogia, and apathy D. Flat affect, avolition, and anhedonia Rationale: The positive symptoms of schizophrenia are distortions of normal functioning.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most commonly refers to a group of symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia that include loss of fluency and spontaneity of verbal expression, impaired ability to focus or sustain attention on a particular task, difficulty in initiating or following through on tasks, impaired ability to experience pleasure to form emotional attachment to others, and blunted affect.

.Research suggests that negative symptoms contribute more to poor quality of life, functional disability, and the burden on others than do positive symptoms.^ C. multiple personalities, one of which is more destructive than the others.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contributing causations may be symptom misinterpretation, lack of research, and bias, to name a few.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, if the patient is older, has a sudden onset, a positive social history, affective symptoms, or positive symptoms then I would say the prognosis is going to be brighter.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.A third symptom grouping, the disorganization syndrome, is sometimes described, and includes chaotic speech, thought, and behavior.^ This disorder is typically characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, abnormal thinking, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and disrupted work and social functioning.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Functions thought to be regulated by nerve cells that utilize serotonin include mood and behavior, physical coordination, appetite, body temperature, and sleep.

^ Paranoid Type Schizophrenia Presence of prominent delusions and auditory hallucinations in an individual, where disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, or flat/inappropriate affect may not be prominent.

.There is evidence for a number of other symptom classifications.^ Danja – I certainly can’t speak for people with this problem either but I’m guessing that, like any other disease, there is probably a wide range of symptoms.
  • What Its Really Like To Be Schizophrenic - One Man's Blog 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC onemansblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no evidence of other toxic degradation products especially perfluoroisobutylene.
  • 2007 Fluoride Abstracts. Part 1. Compiled by Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While some symptoms of anxiety or restlessness may accompany the withdrawal of heavy marijuana use, there is no specific criterion or extreme withdrawal symptoms as seen with other substances.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]

Diagnosis

Schizophrenia is diagnosed on the basis of symptom profiles. Neural correlates do not provide sufficiently useful criteria.[19] .Diagnosis is based on the self-reported experiences of the person, and abnormalities in behavior reported by family members, friends or co-workers, followed by a clinical assessment by a psychiatrist, social worker, clinical psychologist or other mental health professional.^ Suicide can often be prevented by the efforts of family, friends, and mental health professionals.

^ Clinical Social Worker: A mental health professional trained to provide services to individuals, families and groups.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ External resources are the formal (professionals and agencies), informal (ministers, support groups, volunteers), and natural (friends, relatives) network of the child and family.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Psychiatric assessment includes a psychiatric history and some form of mental status examination.^ The mental status examination is part of the general examination of all patients, although it may be greatly abbreviated in the absence of psychopathology.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In DSM-IV the psychotic disorders include pervasive developmental disorders, schizophrenic and paranoid disorders, psychotic disorders not elsewhere classified, some organic mental disorders, and some affective disorders.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Residual functional capacity assessment form mental.
  • Nice to see you guys are still around! 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC ogar.zirox.waw.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Standardized criteria

.The most widely used standardized criteria for diagnosing schizophrenia come from the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version DSM-IV-TR, and the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, the ICD-10. The latter criteria are typically used in European countries, while the DSM criteria are used in the United States and the rest of the world, as well as prevailing in research studies.^ The problem is not based on any coexisting mental disorder.

^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV): A classification system for mental illnesses developed by the American Psychiatric Association.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And it is possible to have psychiatric diagnoses removed, especially if DSM-IV criteria aren’t met.

.The ICD-10 criteria put more emphasis on Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, although, in practice, agreement between the two systems is high.^ Scientists know that there is certainly a relationship between the two, but still have much more research to do on the matter.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The symptoms appeared in a dose response-like manner although the ORs between high and low exposed were significant for only chest tightening and wheezing, 2.62 (1.30-5.26) and stuffy nose 2.1 (1.22-3.66).
  • 2007 Fluoride Abstracts. Part 1. Compiled by Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A higher dopamine increase occurred for two-hours after drug injection opposed to normal readings, and a noteworthy increase occurred between the first and tenth injection.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
According to the revised fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, three diagnostic criteria must be met:[4]
.
  1. Characteristic symptoms: Two or more of the following, each present for much of the time during a one-month period (or less, if symptoms remitted with treatment).^ No periods for an extended period of time (4 or more months) + 1 .
    • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There was one time where she didnt eat anything for close to two months.
    • What Its Really Like To Be Schizophrenic - One Man's Blog 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC onemansblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Individuals with schizophreniform disorder can have the same symptoms as those with schizophrenia, but the symptoms must only last between one to six months.
    • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Delusions
    • Hallucinations
    • Disorganized speech, which is a manifestation of formal thought disorder
    • Grossly disorganized behavior (e.g.^ A psychotic disorder can be characterized by delusions, prominent hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, etc.
      • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ The textbook description of schizophrenia is a listing of symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior.
      • What Its Really Like To Be Schizophrenic - One Man's Blog 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC onemansblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ This disorder is typically characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, abnormal thinking, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and disrupted work and social functioning.
      • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

      dressing inappropriately, crying frequently) or catatonic behavior
    • Negative symptoms: Blunted affect (lack or decline in emotional response), alogia (lack or decline in speech), or avolition (lack or decline in motivation)
    If the delusions are judged to be bizarre, or hallucinations consist of hearing one voice participating in a running commentary of the patient's actions or of hearing two or more voices conversing with each other, only that symptom is required above. The speech disorganization criterion is only met if it is severe enough to substantially impair communication.
    .
  2. Social/occupational dysfunction: For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance, one or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relations, or self-care, are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset.
  3. Duration: Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least six months.^ Awareness of one's self in relation to time, place, and person.

    ^ The term “mental retardation” when used herein is broadly defined as a significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning that is accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning in at least two of the following skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health, and safety.
    • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A characteristic of substance dependence that may be shown by the need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or the desired effect, by markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance, or by adequate functioning despite doses or blood levels of the substance that would be expected to produce significant impairment in a casual user.

    This six-month period must include at least one month of symptoms (or less, if symptoms remitted with treatment).
.If signs of disturbance are present for more than a month but less than six months, the diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder is applied.^ Otherwise, the diagnosis would be schizophreniform disorder.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals with schizophreniform disorder can have the same symptoms as those with schizophrenia, but the symptoms must only last between one to six months.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep more than young adults but less than people over 50.

[4] .Psychotic symptoms lasting less than a month may be diagnosed as brief psychotic disorder, and various conditions may be classed as psychotic disorder not otherwise specified.^ Because they are medical doctors, psychiatrists can prescribe medications to alleviate the symptoms of various mental disorders.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A major mood disorder accompanied by psychotic symptoms is called an affective psychosis.

^ Individuals with schizophreniform disorder can have the same symptoms as those with schizophrenia, but the symptoms must only last between one to six months.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Schizophrenia cannot be diagnosed if symptoms of mood disorder are substantially present (although schizoaffective disorder could be diagnosed), or if symptoms of pervasive developmental disorder are present unless prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present, or if the symptoms are the direct physiological result of a general medical condition or a substance, such as abuse of a drug or medication.^ PDD : See "pervasive developmental disorder".
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The schizoaffective disorder involves mood disordered and schizophrenic symptoms.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizoaffective Disorder A condition that includes symptoms of both schizophrenia and affective (mood) disorder.

Confusion with other conditions

.There is a spectrum of disorders that share similarities with schizophrenia but which are diagnosed as separate conditions, including schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder (related to the concept of schizotypy).^ Personality disorders: schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dysfunctions seen in Schizophrenia or related disorders: ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophreniform vs. Schizoaffective Disorder .
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Paranoid personality disorder is also generally considered to be related.^ Personality disorders: schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A mental disorder in which the predominant disturbance is a distressing symptom or group of symptoms that one considers unacceptable and alien to one's personality.

^ The nurse formulates a nursing diagnosis of Impaired social interaction related to disorganized thinking for a client with schizotypal personality disorder.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.Psychotic symptoms may be present in several other mental disorders, including bipolar disorder,[22] borderline personality disorder,[23], drug intoxication and drug-induced psychosis.^ Schizophrenia is not a split personality or bipolar disorder.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ D. borderline personality disorder.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schizophrenic, paranoid, or other psychotic disorder.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

.Delusions ("non-bizarre") are also present in delusional disorder, and social withdrawal in social anxiety disorder or avoidant personality disorder.^ Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by anxiety, fear, and social isolation.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. avoidant personality disorder.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A general term used to describe any of several mental disorders characterized by social withdrawal, distortions of reality, delusions, hallucinations, illusions, loss of contact with environment, disintegration of the personality, and unclear thinking to the degree that any one of these interferes with the capacity to cope with the demands of everyday life.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Schizophrenia is complicated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) considerably more often than could be explained by pure chance, although it can be difficult to distinguish compulsions that represent OCD from the delusions of schizophrenia.^ Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder .

^ Psychological disorders, more often than not, have an effect on sexual enjoyment.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. Antipsychotic-induced akathisia and anxiety B. The manic phase of bipolar illness as a mood stabilizer C. Delusions for clients suffering from schizophrenia D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to reduce ritualistic behavior Rationale: Propranolol is a potent beta-adrenergic blocker and produces a sedating effect; therefore, it's used to treat antipsychotic induced akathisia and anxiety.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.A more general medical and neurological examination may be needed to rule out medical illnesses which may rarely produce psychotic schizophrenia-like symptoms,[4] such as metabolic disturbance, systemic infection, syphilis, HIV infection, epilepsy, and brain lesions.^ In paranoid schizophrenia (the most common type), outlandish delusions of grandeur and persecution are coupled with psychotic symptoms and personality breakdown.

^ In expressed sequences, various codon substitutions may be introduced, e.g., by silent changes (thereby producing various restriction sites) or to optimize expression for a particular system.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Refers to articulation problems that are not due to structural defects or neurological problems, but are more likely the result of environmental or psychological influences.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may be necessary to rule out a delirium, which can be distinguished by visual hallucinations, acute onset and fluctuating level of consciousness, and indicates an underlying medical illness.^ Delirium An acute organic brain syndrome secondary to physical causes in which consciousness is affected and disorientation results often associated with illusions, visual hallucinations and persecutory ideation.

^ A somatic hallucination is to be distinguished from physical sensations arising from an as-yet undiagnosed general medical condition, from hypochondriacal preoccupation with normal physical sensations, and from a tactile hallucination.

^ Visual hallucinations should be distinguished from illusions, which are misperceptions of real external stimuli.

.Investigations are not generally repeated for relapse unless there is a specific medical indication or possible adverse effects from antipsychotic medication.^ Neuroleptics Medications with an antipsychotic effect that are used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses.

^ Dantrolene, a hydantoin drug that reduces the catabolic processes, is administered to alleviate the symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a potentially fatal adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most antipsychotic medications exert which of following effects on the central nervous system (CNS)?
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Schizophrenia" does not mean dissociative identity disorder—formerly and still widely-known as "multiple personalities"—despite the etymology of the word (Greek σχίζω = "I split").^ Distinguish between dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That is: multiple personality disorder (or dissociative identity disorder) and various types of schizophrenia are distinct processes.
  • Journal of a Schizophrenic || kuro5hin.org 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: General]

^ Also called multiple- personality disorder.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

Subtypes

The DSM-IV-TR contains five sub-classifications of schizophrenia (the DSM-5 developers are planning to drop them[25]):
.
  • Paranoid type: Where delusions and hallucinations are present but thought disorder, disorganized behavior, and affective flattening are absent.^ Paranoid Type Schizophrenia Presence of prominent delusions and auditory hallucinations in an individual, where disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, or flat/inappropriate affect may not be prominent.

    ^ In paranoid schizophrenia (the most common type), outlandish delusions of grandeur and persecution are coupled with psychotic symptoms and personality breakdown.

    ^ This disorder is typically characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, abnormal thinking, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and disrupted work and social functioning.
    • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

    .(DSM code 295.3/ICD code F20.0)
  • Disorganized type: Named hebephrenic schizophrenia in the ICD. Where thought disorder and flat affect are present together.^ An affect type that represents an unusual affective expression that does not match with the content of what is being said or thought.

    ^ Schizophrenia is thought to be brought about by too much dopamine, and dopamine agonists can cause an onset of this disorder in some individuals (519).
    • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Undifferentiated schizophrenia- exhibit disordered thinking but no symptoms of one of the other types of schizophrenia .

    .(DSM code 295.1/ICD code F20.1)
  • Catatonic type: The subject may be almost immobile or exhibit agitated, purposeless movement.^ A type of seizure in which the child displays inappropriate, purposeless behavior (such as lip smacking, chewing, or other automatic reactions) for the setting and automatic or involuntary movements and actions.
    • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Coding and Payment Guide for Behavioral Health Services ( cached ) http://www.shopingenix.com/upload/pdf/5447/SYCH3954.pdf 295.20–295.24 Schizophrenic disorders; catatonic type ...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ICD-9 Diagnosis Codes ( cached ) http://www.karenzupko.com/ICD9%20Oct%2004.pdf Schizophrenic disorders, residual type, unspecified.
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Symptoms can include catatonic stupor and waxy flexibility.^ Waxy flexibility, a condition in which the client's limbs remain fixed in uncomfortable positions for long periods, characterizes catatonic schizophrenia.
    • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rationale: Waxy flexibility, the ability to assume and maintain awkward or uncomfortable positions for long periods, is characteristic of catatonic schizophrenia.
    • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The "waxy flexibility" often present in catatonic schizophrenia in which the patient's arm or leg remains in the position in which it is placed.

    .(DSM code 295.2/ICD code F20.2)
  • Undifferentiated type: Psychotic symptoms are present but the criteria for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic types have not been met.^ In paranoid schizophrenia (the most common type), outlandish delusions of grandeur and persecution are coupled with psychotic symptoms and personality breakdown.

    ^ Undifferentiated schizophrenia- exhibit disordered thinking but no symptoms of one of the other types of schizophrenia .

    ^ The psychotic (or schizophrenic like symptoms) must be present without any ...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    .(DSM code 295.9/ICD code F20.3)
  • Residual type: Where positive symptoms are present at a low intensity only.^ Bipolar disorder may be subdivided into manic, depressed or mixed types on the basis of currently presenting symptoms.
    • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Patients with more gradual drops in hormone levels still present with anxiety symptoms, but normally have a type of “chronic anxiety”.
    • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ICD-9 CM GROUPS GROUP NAME ICD-9 CHAPTERS ICD-9 CODE RANGE MEN001 - MEN019 Mental Disorders (Chapter 1) 001 - 139 ( cached ) http://www.ohiobwc.com/downloads/blankpdf/ICD9.pdf SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS, VARIOUS TYPES AND LEVELS OF INTENSITY. 295.01.
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    (DSM code 295.6/ICD code F20.5)
The ICD-10 defines two additional subtypes.
.
  • Post-schizophrenic depression: A depressive episode arising in the aftermath of a schizophrenic illness where some low-level schizophrenic symptoms may still be present.^ Some patients show schizophrenic symptoms, ...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Introductory Psychology Lecture Presentation Series ( cached ) http://nwc.hccs.edu/psyc/pdf/Disorders.pdf schizophrenic symptoms.
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A person diagnosed as being schizophrenic may have symptoms appear gradually, ...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    .(ICD code F20.4)
  • Simple schizophrenia: Insidious and progressive development of prominent negative symptoms with no history of psychotic episodes.^ I’ve gone through psychotic episodes and have been diagnosed with both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
    • What Its Really Like To Be Schizophrenic - One Man's Blog 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC onemansblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unlike their predecessors, this newer class of medications treats both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses with fewer side-effects.

    ^ A condition manifested by persons with signs of schizophrenia who, following a psychotic schizophrenic episode, are no longer psychotic.
    • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (ICD code F20.6)

Controversies and research directions

.The scientific validity of schizophrenia, and its defining symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, have been criticised.^ In paranoid schizophrenia (the most common type), outlandish delusions of grandeur and persecution are coupled with psychotic symptoms and personality breakdown.

^ Symptoms may resemble those of an anxiety disorder, but also include paranoid delusions and hallucinations (2003).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The textbook description of schizophrenia is a listing of symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior.
  • What Its Really Like To Be Schizophrenic - One Man's Blog 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC onemansblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26][27] .In 2006, a group of consumers and mental health professionals from the UK, under the banner of Campaign for Abolition of the Schizophrenia Label, argued for a rejection of the diagnosis of schizophrenia based on its heterogeneity and associated stigma, and called for the adoption of a biopsychosocial model.^ Schizophrenia ( cached ) http://www.athealth.com/nih_schizophrenia.html Schizophrenia diagnosis and treatment information for mental health professionals, patients, families, and friends.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The group called on the Philippine Nurses Association (PNA) under the new leadership of Marilyn Yap to be with them in this fight.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A process conducted by mental health professionals that results in an opinion about a child's mental or emotional capacity, and may include recommendations about treatment or placement.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other UK psychiatrists opposed the move arguing that the term schizophrenia is a useful, even if provisional concept.^ Undifferentiated schizophrenia is the term used to indicate a lack of clear-cut patterns of disturbance.

^ This term is used in an educational context to describe a student with a severe visual impairment in which they learn via Braille or other non-visual media.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neuroleptics Medications with an antipsychotic effect that are used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses.

[28][29]
.Similarly, there is an argument that the underlying issues would be better addressed as a spectrum of conditions[30] or as individual dimensions along which everyone varies rather than by a diagnostic category based on an arbitrary cut-off between normal and ill.^ Reserve judgment, for you are far better off if you have no opinion rather than a wrong opinion.
  • Writing.Com: SCHIZOPHRENIC RESCUE (Book) 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know I do, and I know that if everyone were as self-interested as I am, and wanted the same kind of power as I do, the world would be one hell of a better place.
  • Subtle Psychopathy and Schizophrenic Supermen 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.newciv.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have always wondered, instead of keeping silent about these pacing phenomena: is it not better we voice it out, rather than living in pretence ?
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[31] .This approach appears consistent with research on schizotypy, and with a relatively high prevalence of psychotic experiences, mostly non-distressing delusional beliefs, among the general public.^ Even so, animal activists and the much of the general public would happily comment on the disadvantages of this type of research.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32][33][34] .In concordance with this observation, psychologist Edgar Jones, and psychiatrists Tony David and Nassir Ghaemi, surveying the existing literature on delusions, pointed out that the consistency and completeness of the definition of delusion have been found wanting by many; delusions are neither necessarily fixed, nor false, nor involve the presence of incontrovertible evidence.^ Bunye, who is also the Presidential Spokesman pointed out: "This is an isolated case and the culprits will be charged and tried, and those found guilty punished to the full extent of the law".
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So…I found out from that wonderful call that a- it is not cancerous, b-the cells have inflammation, and c-my doctor wants me to do another catscan in 6 months (I guess)….
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a false belief involves a value judgment, it is regarded as a delusion only when the judgment is so extreme as to defy credibility.

[35][36][37]
.Nancy Andreasen, a leading figure in schizophrenia research, has criticized the current DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for sacrificing diagnostic validity for the sake of artificially improving reliability.^ Research on the Drug Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Critical Appraisal and Implications for Social Work Education ( cached ) http://www.namiscc.org/Research/2002/SocialWork.htm ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fortunately, there are plenty of other criticisms that are more valid that you can rely upon to skewer the DSM-IV. :) .

^ Second, your criticism of the use of DSM-IV for legal purposes is valid.

.She argues that overemphasis on psychosis in the diagnostic criteria, while improving diagnostic reliability, ignores more fundamental cognitive impairments that are harder to assess due to large variations in presentation.^ But it also recognizes that there can be atypical presentations, which is why there is leeway in the diagnostic criteria.

^ A disturbance in affective and cognitive function that can be present in an assortment of diagnostic entities.

^ Symptoms vary so much in different situations, which can make this diagnostic process even harder, especially when the primary symptom in inattentiveness.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38][39] This view is supported by other psychiatrists.[40] .In the same vein, Ming Tsuang and colleagues argue that psychotic symptoms may be a common end-state in a variety of disorders, including schizophrenia, rather than a reflection of the specific etiology of schizophrenia, and warn that there is little basis for regarding DSM’s operational definition as the "true" construct of schizophrenia.^ Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that is accompanied by impairments in ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are actually several varieties of this disorder, each with its.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A. phenelzine (Nardil) B. chlordiazepoxide (Librium) C. lithium carbonate (Lithane) D. imipramine (Tofranil) Rationale: Lithium carbonate, an antimania drug, is used to treat clients with cyclical schizoaffective disorder, a psychotic disorder once classified under schizophrenia that causes affective symptoms, including maniclike activity.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Neuropsychologist Michael Foster Green went further in suggesting the presence of specific neurocognitive deficits may be used to construct phenotypes that are alternatives to those that are purely symptom-based.^ Also if you have suggestions for things that I need to add to the review or specific questions you may have just e-mail me.

^ Symptoms may resemble those of an anxiety disorder, but also include paranoid delusions and hallucinations (2003).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I cannot embrace those things as solutions, however difficult it may be to find alternatives.
  • Subtle Psychopathy and Schizophrenic Supermen 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.newciv.org [Source type: Original source]

.These deficits take the form of a reduction or impairment in basic psychological functions such as memory, attention, executive function and problem solving.^ These were thrown up to take advantage of their location, and it was not until long after their establishment that any thought was given to their functional design.
  • Writing.Com: SCHIZOPHRENIC RESCUE (Book) 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To keep from having stomach problems, she advised me to take these at night with a couple of crackers.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patient’s verbal memory was destroyed, but he has no problem with other cognitive functions.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41][42]
The exclusion of affective components from the criteria for schizophrenia, despite their ubiquity in clinical settings, has also caused contention. .This exclusion in the DSM has resulted in a "rather convoluted" separate disorder—schizoaffective disorder.^ These results show an increased prevalence for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in individuals having a variation in the HOPA gene.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A. Personality disorder B. Mood disorder C. Thought disorder D. Amnestic disorder Rationale: According to the DSM-IV, schizoaffective disorder refers to clients suffering from schizophrenia with elements of a mood disorder, either mania or depression.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Citing poor interrater reliability, some psychiatrists have totally contested the concept of schizoaffective disorder as a separate entity.^ Last spring I wrote in Living with Schizoaffective Disorder that I've been doing well for some time, that all I need is a med check once a month.
  • Journal of a Schizophrenic || kuro5hin.org 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: General]

^ In particular, some individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder also have hypothyroidism or have a mother with hypothyroidism (see Example 6).
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[43][44] .The categorical distinction between mood disorders and schizophrenia, known as the Kraepelinian dichotomy, has also been challenged by data from genetic epidemiology.^ Individuals with schizophreniform disorder can have the same symptoms as those with schizophrenia, but the symptoms must only last between one to six months.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 18 million adult Americans develop a mood disorder each year, whereas only two million, or a mere one percent of the U.S. population, develops schizophrenia (Kimmon, 2005).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a discovery of the present invention that there is a genetic linkage between various neuropsychiatric disorders and hypothyroidism and polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[45]
.An approach broadly known as the anti-psychiatry movement, most active in the 1960s, opposes the orthodox medical view of schizophrenia as an illness.^ Schizophrenia is one of the most common mental illnesses.

[46] .Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz argues that psychiatric patients are individuals with unconventional thoughts and behavior that society diagnoses as a method of social control, and therefore the diagnosis of "schizophrenia" is merely a form of social construction.^ You argued -- then and now -- that it is an essential core of psychiatric labelling that the diagnosis is fundamentally a vehicle for controlling the patient, whereas in Buddhism, there is no such control as each individual is free to accept or reject the label of their difficulties.

^ The scientific study of the ways in which the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of one individual are influenced by the real, imagined, or inferred behavior or characteristics of other people.

^ Believe it or not, even bladder control is related to the OFC. Patients with bladder control problems show little activity in this area when their bladders are full, compared to individuals with normal activity (Swyers, 2006).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .The Hearing Voices Movement argues that many people diagnosed as psychotic need their experiences to be accepted and valued rather than medicalized.^ Obese people typically have unhealthy eating habits rather than the food obsessions of the other two disorders.

^ As for the suffering of the Iraqi people, they need to be seen as more than just "stepping stones" to profit.
  • After Reporting in Iraq, America Feels Like a Bizarre Disneyland | World | AlterNet 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ I have always wondered, instead of keeping silent about these pacing phenomena: is it not better we voice it out, rather than living in pretence ?
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Causes

Data from a PET study[48] suggests that the less the frontal lobes are activated (red) during a working memory task, the greater the increase in abnormal dopamine activity in the striatum (green), thought to be related to the neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
.While the reliability of the diagnosis introduces difficulties in measuring the relative effect of genes and environment (for example, symptoms overlap to some extent with severe bipolar disorder or major depression), evidence suggests that genetic and environmental factors can act in combination to result in schizophrenia.^ Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder character ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ D. a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bipolar disorders combine mania and depression.

[49] .Evidence suggests that the diagnosis of schizophrenia has a significant heritable component but that onset is significantly influenced by environmental factors or stressors.^ A type of schizophrenia attributed primarily to strong predisposing and/or precipitating environmental factors; usually of rapid onset and brief duration, with the affected individual appearing well both before and after the schizophrenic episode.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors are thought to cause schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People diagnosed with schizophrenia retain the diagnosis long term -- Kessing 8 (3): 68 -- Evidence-Based Mental ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[50] .The idea of an inherent vulnerability (or diathesis) in some people, which can be unmasked by biological, psychological or environmental stressors, is known as the stress-diathesis model.^ D. a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors are thought to cause schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diathesis-Stress Model.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[51] .The idea that biological, psychological and social factors are all important is known as the "biopsychosocial" model.^ D. a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors are thought to cause schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A persistent aversion toward some or all of those physical characteristics or social roles that connote one's own biological sex.

Genetic

.Twin studies and adoption studies have suggested a high level of heritability (the proportion of variation between individuals in a population that is influenced by genetic factors).^ The scientific study of the ways in which the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of one individual are influenced by the real, imagined, or inferred behavior or characteristics of other people.

^ Studies in schizophrenic or schizoaffective individuals are consistent with the disclosed association between polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 and hypothyroidism.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They concluded that high homocysteine levels are a risk factor for recurrent early pregnancy loss.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .It has been suggested that schizophrenia is a condition of complex inheritance, with many different potential genes each of small effect, with different pathways for different individuals.^ Robert Swift, on the the author makes the following comment: "The inheritance of alcoholism is complex," said Swift, "and there are certainly more genes, still undiscovered, that are involved in alcoholism.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, pathological conditions that are X-linked are likely to exhibit different characteristics depending upon the gender of the individual.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Schizophrenia - Questions And Answers ( cached ) http://www.hoptechno.com/book39.htm Schizophrenia may be one disorder, or it may be many disorders, with different causes.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some have suggested that several genetic and other risk factors need to be present before a person becomes affected but this is still uncertain.^ We do not need to be greater than any other person is, for science can prove, each and every person is unique in his or her being.
  • Writing.Com: SCHIZOPHRENIC RESCUE (Book) 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I live with this mess and I do need some rest time as you advise before getting back to work again.
  • After Reporting in Iraq, America Feels Like a Bizarre Disneyland | World | AlterNet 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Some favorable suggestions would be to join a support group, utilize a health club, or become a member of a sports team.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .Candidate genes linked to an increased risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as found in recent genome wide association studies appear to be partly separate and partly overlapping between the two disorders[54] Metaanalyses of genetic linkage studies have produced evidence of chromosomal regions increasing susceptibility,[55] which interacts directly with the Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene protein[56] more recently the zinc finger protein 804A.^ I hinted at the link between bipolar disorder and art and the link between some ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia is not a split personality or bipolar disorder.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia – The incidence of schizophrenic disorders has been found to be ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[57] has been implicated as well as the chromosome 6 HLA region.[58] .However, a large and comprehensive genetic study found no evidence of any significant association with any of 14 previously identified candidate genes.^ By use of a battery of such allele-specific probes, PCR amplification products can be screened to identify the presence of a previously identified polymorphism in the gene.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Though this study was small, it included a significant representation of the entire population and used evidence to support the hypothesis that genetics play a role in mental disorders, especially bipolar I disorder.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Previous studies have shown evidence of large brain volume (primarily white matter) in children with autism.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] .Schizophrenia, in a small minority of cases, has been associated with rare deletions or duplications of tiny DNA sequences (known as copy number variants) disproportionately occurring within genes involved in neuronal signaling and brain development/human cognitive, behavioral, and psychological variation.^ A number methods can be used to directly detect DNA sequence variation.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Illusions are rarely associated with schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, one well known case involves a man that has had amnesia since 1960 due to a brain injury.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60][61][62]
.Assuming a hereditary genetic basis, one question for evolutionary psychology is why genes that increase the likelihood of the condition evolved, assuming the condition would have been maladaptive from an evolutionary/reproductive point of view.^ Contingency model- Rescorla – rests of cognitive view of classical conditioning, If A is contingent on B and vice versa then one predicts the other, learning more powerful.

^ You raise fair points in criticism of psychiatric diagnoses, but I would have to disagree with you that all psychiatric diagnoses “falsely denote conditions that don't exist”.

^ When the condition is severe, replies may be monosyllabic (one syllable) and some questions may be unanswered.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One theory implicates genes involved in the evolution of language and human nature, but so far all theories have been disproved or remain unsubstantiated.^ I hope beyond all hope that one of the traits of our common humanity is that potential that I am certain I have within myself.
  • Subtle Psychopathy and Schizophrenic Supermen 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.newciv.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darwin’s theory of natural selection caused many psychologists to try and explain all human behaviors through instincts, most agree that our behavior is motivated by other biological and psychological factors.

^ Here is a foundation road sign, one of the most important truths of humanity and this information needs to be ingrained in all people.
  • Writing.Com: SCHIZOPHRENIC RESCUE (Book) 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

[63][64]

Prenatal

.Causal factors are thought to initially come together in early neurodevelopment to increase the risk of later developing schizophrenia.^ They concluded that high homocysteine levels are a risk factor for recurrent early pregnancy loss.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Environmental factors that increase the risk of schizophrenia include viral infection or malnutrition during the mother’s pregnancy, birth complications, early psychological trauma and a disturbed family environment.

^ Therefore, a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors are thought to cause schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One curious finding is that people diagnosed with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born in winter or spring, (at least in the northern hemisphere).^ We need more stories like this one.
  • After Reporting in Iraq, America Feels Like a Bizarre Disneyland | World | AlterNet 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ A large degree of similarity on many dimensions is characteristic of mate selection Self-disclosure occurs more when two people like one another.

^ Judging that a young person is more likely to be the instigator of an argument than an older person, because you believe younger people are more likely to start fights.

[65] .There is now evidence that prenatal exposure to infections increases the risk for developing schizophrenia later in life, providing additional evidence for a link between in utero developmental pathology and risk of developing the condition.^ Environmental factors that increase the risk of schizophrenia include viral infection or malnutrition during the mother’s pregnancy, birth complications, early psychological trauma and a disturbed family environment.

^ There must be evidence of a significant risk to the public before the court or Review Board can restrict the NCR accused’s liberty.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Lamb adds that father love provides an important template for meaningful relationships later in a child’s life.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]

Social

.Living in an urban environment has been consistently found to be a risk factor for schizophrenia.^ Environmental factors that increase the risk of schizophrenia include viral infection or malnutrition during the mother’s pregnancy, birth complications, early psychological trauma and a disturbed family environment.

^ In addition, Hetherington has found that consistency in school settings helps predict positive adjustment in children, especially when their home lives are chaotic.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67][68] .Social disadvantage has been found to be a risk factor, including poverty[69] and migration related to social adversity, racial discrimination, family dysfunction, unemployment or poor housing conditions.^ Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms on the ground that it discriminates against people with a mental disorder, including people with a mental disability, who have been found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder?
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A system involving the application of the principles and procedures of operant conditioning to the management of a social setting such as a ward, classroom, or halfway house.

^ Refers to conditions that increases vulnerability of individual or group to illness or accident A. Predisposing factor B. Etiology C. Risk factor D. Modifiable Risks 10.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] .Childhood experiences of abuse or trauma have also been implicated as risk factors for a diagnosis of schizophrenia later in life.^ Environmental factors that increase the risk of schizophrenia include viral infection or malnutrition during the mother’s pregnancy, birth complications, early psychological trauma and a disturbed family environment.

^ Environmental risk factors, including problems during pregnancy and delivery and childhood infections, were also ascertained from birth clinics, maternity clinics, and child welfare clinics.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diagnosis of SMR does not usually occur in the first few years of life, rather it is usually identified later, typically at the school age years.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[71][72] .Parenting is not held responsible for schizophrenia but unsupportive dysfunctional relationships may contribute to an increased risk.^ Rationale: This response may diffuse the client's anger by helping to maintain a therapeutic relationship and addressing the client's feelings.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A person appointed by a court who has the same legal responsibilities and prerogatives as a parent, but who may not be expected to have the person he is responsible for live in his home.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. guanethidine (Ismelin) B. droperidol (Inapsine) C. lithium carbonate (Lithonate) D. alcohol Rationale: When administered with any phenothiazine, droperidol may increase the risk of extrapyramidal effects.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73][74]

Recreational drug use

.Although about half of all patients with schizophrenia use drugs or alcohol, a clear causal connection between drug use and schizophrenia has been difficult to prove.^ Undifferentiated schizophrenia is the term used to indicate a lack of clear-cut patterns of disturbance.

^ Medical News about alcohol use disorders; schizophrenia ( cached ) http://www.mdlinx.com/psychlinx/news-article.cfm/1853173 Typologies of alcohol use disorders among men with schizophrenic disorders ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The nature of dual disorders becomes even more complex when alcohol and drug use ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

.The two most often used explanations for this are "substance use causes schizophrenia" and "substance use is a consequence of schizophrenia", and they both may be correct.^ What may be more surprising is the finding that children of same-sex couples seem to be thriving, though they live in a world that is often unaccepting of their parents.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They do not correct the underlying problem that causes the irregularity but they will regulate the pattern very precisely to the same day of the week each cycle.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, L-DOPA, another agonist that is used to compensate for dopamine loss, often causes involuntary movements and a worsening of symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (265).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75] .A 2007 meta-analysis estimated that cannabis use is statistically associated with a dose-dependent increase in risk of development of psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia.^ Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that is accompanied by impairments in ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They are proposing that “post traumatic embitterment disorder” be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, psychiatry’s official catalogue of mental dysfunction.

^ Over 18 million adult Americans develop a mood disorder each year, whereas only two million, or a mere one percent of the U.S. population, develops schizophrenia (Kimmon, 2005).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .There is little evidence to suggest that other drugs including alcohol cause schizophrenia, or that psychotic individuals choose specific drugs to self-medicate; there is some support for the hypothesis that they use drugs to cope with unpleasant states such as depression, anxiety, boredom and loneliness.^ He supports the use of psychotherapy (but not exclusively, because there are some situations in which medications are necessary).

^ A. Risk for violence toward self or others B. Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements C. Ineffective family coping D. Impaired verbal communication Rationale: Because of such factors as suspiciousness, anxiety, and hallucinations, the client with paranoid schizophrenia is at risk for violence toward himself or others.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a serving police officer, they had expected Ribadu to use his position in ensuring that Balogun was treated with some measure of dignity during the trial.
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[77] .However, regarding psychosis itself, it is well understood that methamphetamine and cocaine use can result in methamphetamine- or cocaine-induced psychoses that present very similar symptomatology and may persist even when users remain abstinent.^ Alternatively, polynucleotides encoding these or similar polypeptides may be synthesized or selected by use of the redundancy in the genetic code.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Because of this, users can not get “high” by using other narcotics, even though drugs such as marijuana will produce behavioral results.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the extreme happiness may develop into extreme rage very quickly.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78]

Mechanisms

Psychological

A number of psychological mechanisms have been implicated in the development and maintenance of schizophrenia. .Cognitive biases that have been identified in those with a diagnosis or those at risk, especially when under stress or in confusing situations, include excessive attention to potential threats, jumping to conclusions, making external attributions, impaired reasoning about social situations and mental states, difficulty distinguishing inner speech from speech from an external source, and difficulties with early visual processing and maintaining concentration.^ Patients should be recommended those medical treatments that are voluntary, reasonably affordable, safe, appropriate, effective, and socially accepted that help.

^ The problem may reflect poor neurological motor skills, a learning error, or difficulty in identifying certain speech sounds.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nurse formulates a nursing diagnosis of Impaired social interaction related to disorganized thinking for a client with schizotypal personality disorder.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79][80][81][82] .Some cognitive features may reflect global neurocognitive deficits in memory, attention, problem-solving, executive function or social cognition, while others may be related to particular issues and experiences.^ The patient’s verbal memory was destroyed, but he has no problem with other cognitive functions.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It follows that different legal treatment reflecting the particular needs and circumstances of an individual or group may not only be justified, but may be required in order to fulfill s.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem may reflect poor neurological motor skills, a learning error, or difficulty in identifying certain speech sounds.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73][83]
.Despite a common appearance of "blunted affect", recent findings indicate that many individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia are emotionally responsive, particularly to stressful or negative stimuli, and that such sensitivity may cause vulnerability to symptoms or to the disorder.^ Also, the appearance of the illnesses may be unrelated to any common etiology or vulnerability.

^ Individuals with this disorder are not able to control their emotional disturbances.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Naming the cause of a disorder by looking at its symptoms.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84][85][86][84] .Some evidence suggests that the content of delusional beliefs and psychotic experiences can reflect emotional causes of the disorder, and that how a person interprets such experiences can influence symptomatology.^ The majority of individuals experience some motion sickness in their lifetime, while a small number of persons have either none at all or are highly susceptible (Lacker, 2004.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process of influencing a patient to accept an idea, belief, or attitude suggested by the therapist.

^ Even premature ejaculation could be called an “emotional disorder,” because it can be treated by helping a man to learn how to control his feelings and response time.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87][88][89][90] .The use of "safety behaviors" to avoid imagined threats may contribute to the chronicity of delusions.^ It is only if the court or the Review Board is unable to form the opinion that the NCR accused is not a significant threat to the safety of the public that it may deny the granting of an absolute discharge.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The court or Review Board may have recourse to a broad range of evidence as it seeks to determine whether the NCR accused poses a significant threat to the safety of the public.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Paranoid Type Schizophrenia Presence of prominent delusions and auditory hallucinations in an individual, where disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, or flat/inappropriate affect may not be prominent.

[91] .Further evidence for the role of psychological mechanisms comes from the effects of psychotherapies on symptoms of schizophrenia.^ Unlike their predecessors, this newer class of medications treats both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses with fewer side-effects.

^ SANS Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms - an assessment tool for the evaluation of drug treatment effects on schizophrenia symptoms .

^ BPRS Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale - an assessment tool for the evaluation of drug treatment effects on schizophrenia symptoms.

[92]

Neural

.Studies using neuropsychological tests and brain imaging technologies such as fMRI and PET to examine functional differences in brain activity have shown that differences seem to most commonly occur in the frontal lobes, hippocampus and temporal lobes.^ Catecholamines, a subcategory of monoamines, increase or decrease the activities of certain brain functions.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asymmetry analyses included examination of total brain volume, segmented divisions, lobes of the cerebral cortex, and individual PUs of the cerebral cortex.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the cells that control these axons are in the primary motor cortex, but axons are also sent through the corticospinal pathway by neurons in the parietal and temporal lobes.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93] .These differences have been linked to the neurocognitive deficits often associated with schizophrenia.^ Philippine Nurses Association (PNA) president George Cordero because we often have differences of opinion on the kind of quality of nursing education in the country.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clients with schizophrenia may exhibit looseness of association, a pattern of thinking and communicating in which ideas aren't clearly linked to one another.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The news section on this website has well over two hundred different article categories about recent studies, and the majority of these categories have multiple links within them.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94]
Functional magnetic resonance imaging and other brain imaging technologies allow for the study of differences in brain activity among people diagnosed with schizophrenia
Particular focus has been placed upon the function of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway of the brain. .This focus largely resulted from the accidental finding that a drug group which blocks dopamine function, known as the phenothiazines, could reduce psychotic symptoms.^ Drugs can function as antagonists, whose function is to block synaptic transmissions; or as agonists, which promote synaptic transmissions.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dantrolene, a hydantoin drug that reduces the catabolic processes, is administered to alleviate the symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a potentially fatal adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schizophrenia - Search Results - MSN Encarta ( cached ) http://encarta.msn.com/Schizophrenia.html Antipsychotic drugs decrease the symptoms of schizophrenia, allowing many schizophrenic...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is also supported by the fact that amphetamines, which triggers the release of dopamine may exacerbate the psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia.^ Schizophrenia in Psychotic Disorders at ALLPSYCH Online ( cached ) http://allpsych.com/disorders/psychotic/schizophrenia.html Schizophrenia, Psychotic disorders, symptoms and treatment ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Loosening of associations may be seen in schizophrenia, manic episodes, and other psychotic disorders.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The schizophrenic may suffer from these psychotic symptoms: ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[95] .An influential theory, known as the Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, proposed that excess activation of D2 receptors was the cause of (the positive symptoms of) schizophrenia.^ Option A lists the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Positive symptoms of schizophrenia include which of the following?
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Causes- most popular ideas is biological, dopamine hypothesis, people with schizophrenia have high dopamine levels.

.Although postulated for about 20 years based on the D2 blockade effect common to all antipsychotics, it was not until the mid-1990s that PET and SPET imaging studies provided supporting evidence.^ A. Several minutes B. Several hours C. Several days D. Several weeks Rationale: Although most phenothiazines produce some effects within minutes to hours, their antipsychotic effects may take several weeks to appear.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study described in this discussion contributes to our text by adding supporting evidence of the effects lateralization can have on language disorders.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The TRO will be in effect for 60 days, or until October this year.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This explanation is now thought to be overly simplistic, partly because newer antipsychotic medication (called atypical antipsychotic medication) can be equally effective as older medication (called typical antipsychotic medication), but also affects serotonin function and may have slightly less of a dopamine blocking effect.^ Because these medications have no anticholinergic or neurotransmitter effects, they don't alleviate extrapyramidal reactions.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which of the following is one of the advantages of the newer antipsychotic medication risperidone (Risperdal)?
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most antipsychotic medications exert which of following effects on the central nervous system (CNS)?
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96]
Interest has also focused on the neurotransmitter glutamate and the reduced function of the NMDA glutamate receptor in schizophrenia. .This has largely been suggested by abnormally low levels of glutamate receptors found in postmortem brains of people previously diagnosed with schizophrenia[97] and the discovery that the glutamate blocking drugs such as phencyclidine and ketamine can mimic the symptoms and cognitive problems associated with the condition.^ A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which of the following symptoms are found in people with a schizophrenic disorder?
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I think that most people would agree that such people should be assessed for an underlying physical illness or substance-induced problem, and if that comes up negative, then a trial of medications that have been shown helpful to reduce manic symptoms.

[98] .The fact that reduced glutamate function is linked to poor performance on tests requiring frontal lobe and hippocampal function and that glutamate can affect dopamine function, all of which have been implicated in schizophrenia, have suggested an important mediating (and possibly causal) role of glutamate pathways in schizophrenia.^ Frontal lobes -– contains the motor strip and frontal association area Frontal association area – plays an important part in integrating personality and in forming complex thoughts Motor strip - band running down the side of the frontal lobe that controls all bodily movements .

^ Extremely poor handwriting or the inability to perform the motor movements required for handwriting.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women?
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

[99] Positive symptoms fail however to respond to glutamatergic medication.[100]
.There have also been findings of differences in the size and structure of certain brain areas in schizophrenia.^ Negative and affirmative sentences increase activation in different areas in the brain.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia Research - Elsevier ( cached ) http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506091/description Other journals in same subject area.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, if you take a look at what is happening inside the brain, you will find quite a different situation - the brain is very active.

.A 2006 metaanlaysis of MRI studies found that whole brain and hippocampal volume are reduced and that ventricular volume is increased in patients with a first psychotic episode relative to healthy controls.^ In contrast to the frequencies found for control populations, the 12 base pair containing allele appears to be relatively common in the MR population.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It should be noted that this is the first comprehensive whole-brain survey of volume lateralization in DLD and high-functioning autism (Herbert, Ziegler, Deutsch, O'Brien, Kennedy, Filipek, et al., 2005).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Previous studies have shown evidence of large brain volume (primarily white matter) in children with autism.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The average volumetric changes in these studies are however close to the limit of detection by MRI methods, so it remains to be determined whether schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative process that begins at about the time of symptom onset, or whether it is better characterised as a neurodevelopmental process that produces abnormal brain volumes at an early age.^ Q: One of the things that I find so intriguing and useful about that way of looking at it is that it allows for individual differences and their power relationships to be understood as things change over time.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We did begin to have a discussion about these issues at that time, and after a couple of comments, you unilaterally withdrew from the conversation.

^ With all these anti-change symptoms living closely with us, we shall continue to walk about with our heads tuck in between our chests.
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[101] .In first episode psychosis typical antipsychotics like haloperidol were associated with significant reductions in gray matter volume, whereas atypical antipsychotics like olanzapine were not.^ Rationale: By treating psychosis, haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, decreases agitation.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[102] .Studies in non-human primates found gray and white matter reductions for both typical and atypical antipsychotics.^ Previous studies have shown evidence of large brain volume (primarily white matter) in children with autism.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They then divide and propel terminal buttons into both sides of the gray matter.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103]
.A 2009 meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies identified two consistent locations of reduced fractional anisotropy (roughly the level of organization of neural connections) in schizophrenia.^ Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Subsequent polymorphism analysis has identified two additional polymorphisms consisting of a pentanucleotide repeat approximately 7 kb upstream and a dinucleotide repeat approximately 4.5 kb downstream of the 12 base pair polymorphism (see FIGS. 7 and 8 ).
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Further analysis using PCGENE identified two putative transmembrane domains located from amino acid (AA) 204 to 224 and from AA 1061 to 1081.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The authors suggest that two networks of white matter tracts may be affected in schizophrenia, with the potential for "disconnection" of the gray matter regions which they link.^ Clients with schizophrenia may exhibit looseness of association, a pattern of thinking and communicating in which ideas aren't clearly linked to one another.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We can choose to die for freedom, but we CANNOT make that choice for anyone else, no matter how much we think they may want it or how justified we think we are.
  • Subtle Psychopathy and Schizophrenic Supermen 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.newciv.org [Source type: Original source]

[104] .During fMRI studies, greater connectivity in the brain's default network and task-positive network has been observed in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and may reflect excessive attentional orientation toward introspection and toward extrospection, respectively.^ An fMRI study of level of proficiency as a predictor of neurocognitive convergence for L1/L2 during a lexicosemantic task in a paediatric population.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia doesn't cause a disturbance in sensorium, although the client may exhibit confusion, disorientation, and memory impairment during the acute phase.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Combined functional and causal connectivity analyses of language networks in children: A feasibility study.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

The greater anti-correlation between the two networks suggests excessive rivalry between the networks.[105]

Screening and prevention

.There are no reliable markers for the later development of schizophrenia although research is being conducted into how well a combination of genetic risk plus non-disabling psychosis-like experience predicts later diagnosis.^ Rationale: A reliable genetic marker hasn't been determined for schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family members of individuals with bipolar disorder often experience mental disorders, even when there is no genetic link.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because obviously there are cases, no matter how uncommon, when it is fully acceptable.

[106] .People who fulfill the 'ultra high-risk mental state' criteria, that include a family history of schizophrenia plus the presence of transient or self-limiting psychotic experiences, have a 20–40% chance of being diagnosed with the condition after one year.^ Family history of mental illness.

^ That doesn't include, however, the large number of people that are voluntary on paper but are encouraged not to try to leave or those who buy their "voluntary" status with compliance.

^ The physician diagnoses schizophrenia after ruling out several other conditions.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107] .The use of psychological treatments and medication has been found effective in reducing the chances of people who fulfill the 'high-risk' criteria from developing full-blown schizophrenia.^ Reducing or eliminating delusional thinking using talking therapy and antipsychotic medications would be a desirable outcome.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients should be recommended those medical treatments that are voluntary, reasonably affordable, safe, appropriate, effective, and socially accepted that help.

^ Therefore, feel free to criticize psychiatry for using illusory labels and diagnoses, and forcing people to receive harmful treatment based upon them.

[108] .However, the treatment of people who may never develop schizophrenia is controversial,[109] in light of the side-effects of antipsychotic medication; particularly with respect to the potentially disfiguring tardive dyskinesia and the rare but potentially lethal neuroleptic malignant syndrome.^ C. neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the unwanted side effects of antipsychotic medications is ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A client with schizophrenia is receiving antipsychotic medication.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[110] .The most widely used form of preventative health care for schizophrenia takes the form of public education campaigns that provide information on risk factors and early symptoms, with the aim to improve detection and provide treatment earlier for those experiencing delays.^ Shiatsu was originally an oriental treatment used as a preventive health care method by the Chinese.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What forms does schizophrenia take?

^ Schizophrenia ( cached ) http://www.emedicinehealth.com/schizophrenia/article_em.htm Consumer health resource center providing an overview of schizophrenia and its causes, symptoms, and treatment.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[111] .The new clinical approach early intervention in psychosis is a secondary prevention strategy to prevent further episodes and prevent the long term disability associated with schizophrenia.^ The term “schizophrenia” when used herein is broadly defined as a mental disorder that is associated with psychosis and a decline in general functioning.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Assessing the long-term effects of an experimental bilingual–multicultural programme: implications for drop-out prevention, multicultural development and immigration policy.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ IEP goals and objectives: The long and short-term behaviors that are the targets of special education or therapeutic intervention.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Management

Molecule of chlorpromazine, which revolutionized treatment of schizophrenia in the 1950s
.The concept of a cure as such remains controversial, as there is no consensus on the definition, although some criteria for the remission of symptoms have recently been suggested.^ There is no such thing as cold.
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such studies suggest that hypothyroid hormone deficiency in early development might cause central nervous system damage such that autistic symptoms are likely to ensue.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Moreover, there is no proof that under honest circumstances, they would fail the remaining 20%.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[112] .The effectiveness of schizophrenia treatment is often assessed using standardized methods, one of the most common being the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).^ Schizophrenia is one of the most common mental illnesses.

^ In paranoid schizophrenia (the most common type), outlandish delusions of grandeur and persecution are coupled with psychotic symptoms and personality breakdown.

^ Shiatsu was originally an oriental treatment used as a preventive health care method by the Chinese.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[113] .Management of symptoms and improving function is thought to be more achievable than a cure.^ Nigeria has more traditional educational institutions even more than Britain that thought her, Uni.
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is destructive to the entire body of humanity, more so than almost any other tragedy we have managed to create for ourselves.
  • Subtle Psychopathy and Schizophrenic Supermen 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.newciv.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You are also correct that psychosocial context is of paramount importance and that some symptoms are more likely to occur in some scenarios than others, and that must be an important component of any management plan.

Treatment was revolutionized in the mid-1950s with the development and introduction of chlorpromazine.[114] .A recovery model is increasingly adopted, emphasizing hope, empowerment and social inclusion.^ Social learning theory - view of learning that emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or receiving instructions, without firsthand experience by the learner .

[115]
.Hospitalization may occur with severe episodes of schizophrenia.^ Loosening of associations may be seen in schizophrenia, manic episodes, and other psychotic disorders.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panic attacks are characteristic of panic disorder, but may also occur in somatization disorder, major depression and schizophrenia.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Akathisia may occur several weeks after starting antipsychotic therapy and consists of restlessness, difficulty sitting still, and fidgeting.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This can be voluntary or (if mental health legislation allows it) involuntary (called civil or involuntary commitment).^ The objective of the legislation is to protec t society and the accused until the mental health of the latter has been restored.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Long-term inpatient stays are now less common due to deinstitutionalization, although can still occur.^ Although in some uses of the term it is limited to subjective complaints, in common use "symptom" includes objective signs of pathological conditions as well.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medial temporal and midline diencephalic processing, composed of the thalamus and hypothalamus, control the consolidation of memories; which, as a result, enables long-term memory processes to occur (Long, n.d.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medial temporal and midline diencephalic processing, composed of the thalamus and hypothalamus, control the consolidation of memories; which, as a result, enables long-term memory processes to occur (neuro).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Following (or in lieu of) a hospital admission, support services available can include drop-in centers, visits from members of a community mental health team or Assertive Community Treatment team, supported employment[116] and patient-led support groups.^ In addition, links to different mental health communities are available.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Community mental health centers seek to avoid or minimize mental hospitalization.

^ Propranolol (Inderal) is used in the mental health setting to manage which of the following conditions?
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many non-Western societies, schizophrenia may only be treated with more informal, community-led methods.^ Clients with schizophrenia may exhibit looseness of association, a pattern of thinking and communicating in which ideas aren't clearly linked to one another.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where Western psychologists normally utilize a “diagnose and then treat” methodology, a Zen Shiatsu therapist diagnoses and treats many times throughout a session.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (In some instances, placement in a least restrictive environment can be "more restrictive" for that child, i.e., if only one deaf child and interpreter are using signing as the means of communication for that child, that situation can be a most restrictive environment.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Multiple international surveys by the World Health Organization over several decades have indicated that the outcome for people diagnosed with schizophrenia in non-Western countries is on average better there than for people in the West.^ The explanation why there is decreasing prevalence rates in the older age has been attributed to a higher than average mortality among the severely mentally retarded and possibly due to errors in the method used in gathering the data.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Liberation Organization will strive to strengthen its solidarity with the socialist countries, and with forces of liberation and progress throughout the world, with the aim of frustration all the schemes of Zionism, reaction and imperialism.
  • Afghanastan Government News Board - Terrorists and Taliban hijacked American planes to the NYC WTC 16 September 2009 13:31 UTC www.afghan-government.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Obesity – People with diagnosed obesity are severely overweight, often over 100 pounds, and the excess weight threatens their health.

[117] .Many clinicians and researchers suspect the relative levels of social connectedness and acceptance are the difference,[118] although further cross-cultural studies are seeking to clarify the findings.^ Rather than taking a step forward in racial acceptance, America has taken a step backwards in many regards- we just choose to pretend everything is now different.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many disorders show abnormal orbitofrontal activity, and further research is sure to explore this fascinating structure.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study of elder status in the Filipino culture has many aspects that can be integrated into service guidelines for all elders.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Medication

.The first line psychiatric treatment for schizophrenia is antipsychotic medication.^ A client with schizophrenia is receiving antipsychotic medication.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And if not a medical problem, you have a duty to let a person go on their way or at least not falsely represent knowledge of psychiatric diseases and treatments that you don't possess.

^ A client with chronic schizophrenia who takes neuroleptic medication is admitted to the psychiatric unit.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119] These can reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis. .Most antipsychotics take around 7–14 days to have their main effect.^ Weekday mornings Greengrass and his wife take turns changing and dressing Rebecca, then most days he drops her off at day care on his way to work.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. Several minutes B. Several hours C. Several days D. Several weeks Rationale: Although most phenothiazines produce some effects within minutes to hours, their antipsychotic effects may take several weeks to appear.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most antipsychotic medications exert which of following effects on the central nervous system (CNS)?
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Currently available antipsychotics fail, however, to significantly ameliorate the negative symptoms, and the improvements on cognition may be attributed to the practice effect.^ Antipsychotic effects of the drug may take several weeks to appear.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISRCTN25455020 - Cognitive behavioural treatment of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenic disorders ( cached ) http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN25455020 ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A client begins clozapine (Clozaril) therapy after several other antipsychotic agents fail to relieve her psychotic symptoms.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[120][121][122][123]
Risperidone (trade name Risperdal) is a common atypical antipsychotic medication
.The newer atypical antipsychotic drugs are usually preferred for initial treatment over the older typical antipsychotic, although they are expensive and are more likely to induce weight gain and obesity-related diseases.^ Chlorpromazine is also an antipsychotic drug; however, it causes more pronounced sedation than haloperidol.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Judging that a young person is more likely to be the instigator of an argument than an older person, because you believe younger people are more likely to start fights.

^ When a tolerance is reached, the abuser must consume more and more of a drug to get the same feeling they had initially (Carlson, 2004).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[124] .In 2008, results from a major randomized trial sponsored by the US National Institute of Mental Health (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness, or CATIE) found that a representative first-generation antipsychotic, perphenazine, was as effective as and more cost-effective than several newer drugs (olanzapine, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone) taken for up to 18 months.^ And work on clinical trials for a drug company.

^ Nigeria has more traditional educational institutions even more than Britain that thought her, Uni.
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hopefully, further research of specific opiate receptors will bring about more effective treatments for drug addiction.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The atypical antipsychotic which patients were willing to continue for the longest, olanzapine, was associated with considerable weight gain and risk of metabolic syndrome.^ Posted by high metabolism gain weight on Saturday, Aug 18, 2007, 1:18 am .
  • WinBeta.org Beta News and Reviews 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.winbeta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Clozapine was most effective for people with a poor response to other drugs, but it had troublesome side effects.^ It is also a side-effect of antidepressants, sedatives and other psychotropic drugs."

^ The harmful side effects of psychoactive drugs.

^ If a person will benefit from using a hearing aid or other listening device, the audiologist can assist with the selection, fitting, and purchase of the most appropriate aid and with training the individual to use the aid effectively.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because the trial excluded patients with tardive dyskinesia, its relevance to these people is unclear.^ These findings suggest which life-threatening reaction: A. tardive dyskinesia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To try to categorize or deal with these people as if they are a foreign infection is a mistake, because it misrepresents the nature of the problem.
  • Subtle Psychopathy and Schizophrenic Supermen 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.newciv.org [Source type: Original source]

[125]
.Because of their reportedly lower risk of side effects that affect mobility, atypical antipsychotics have been first-line treatment for early-onset schizophrenia for many years before certain drugs in this class were approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in children and teenagers with schizophrenia.^ The harmful side effects of psychoactive drugs.

^ Concomitant use of which drug is likely to increase the risk of extrapyramidal effects?
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On top of this, say experts, many children don’t view their step-parents as “real parents” for the first few years—if ever—and parents in second marriages may treat their biological children differently from their stepchildren.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This advantage comes at the cost of an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity, which is of concern in the context of long-term use begun at an early age.^ It can cause them hatred and distrust of others, to be manifested in unconscious aggression against society and the government itself for as long as they have not come to terms with the injustice suffered.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A term applied to children who display behaviors, over long periods of time, that deviate significantly from socially acceptable norms for their age and situation.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The terms partially sighted, low vision, legally blind and totally blind are used in the educational context to describe students with visual impairments.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Especially in the case of children and teenagers who have schizophrenia, medication should be used in combination with individual therapy and family-based interventions.^ Therapy with lesbian and gay families and their children.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neurosurgeon, for example, often are called upon to insert or replace shunts used to drain excess fluids from the brain in children who have hydrocephalus.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reducing or eliminating delusional thinking using talking therapy and antipsychotic medications would be a desirable outcome.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.Recent reviews have refuted the claim that atypical antipsychotics have fewer extrapyramidal side effects than typical antipsychotics, especially when the latter are used in low doses or when low potency antipsychotics are chosen.^ Benztropine (Cogentin) is used to treat the extrapyramidal effects induced by antipsychotics.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. The absence of anticholinergic effects B. A lower incidence of extrapyramidal effects C. Photosensitivity and sedation D. No incidence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome Rationale: Risperdal has a lower incidence of extrapyramidal effects than the typical antipsychotics.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may want to ask if the pill might be switched to a lower dose formulation over time, since 50 microgram pills can be associated with increased side effects.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[126]
.Prolactin elevations have been reported in women with schizophrenia taking atypical antipsychotics.^ Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs for Schizophrenia: Access, Reimbursement and the Struggle for Parity ( cached ) http://leda.law.harvard.edu/leda/data/452/Kim.html ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[127] .It remains unclear whether the newer antipsychotics reduce the chances of developing neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a rare but serious and potentially fatal neurological disorder most often caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs.^ Dantrolene, a hydantoin drug that reduces the catabolic processes, is administered to alleviate the symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a potentially fatal adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C. neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neuroleptic malignant syndrome causes rigidity, fever, hypertension, and diaphoresis.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[128]
.Response of symptoms to medication is variable: treatment-resistant schizophrenia is a term used for the failure of symptoms to respond satisfactorily to at least two different antipsychotics.^ Because they are medical doctors, psychiatrists can prescribe medications to alleviate the symptoms of various mental disorders.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Participants from the two groups did not differ in grade point average, symptoms of depression or self-esteem.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term “schizophrenia” when used herein is broadly defined as a mental disorder that is associated with psychosis and a decline in general functioning.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[129] .Patients in this category may be prescribed clozapine,[130] a medication of superior effectiveness but several potentially lethal side effects including agranulocytosis and myocarditis.^ Misinterpretations of others’ moods, lack of initiative, and unconcern or underestimation of the gravity of a situation are all side effects that hinder patients’ relationships and every day lives.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients should be recommended those medical treatments that are voluntary, reasonably affordable, safe, appropriate, effective, and socially accepted that help.

^ Even ordinary depressed people become manic on antidepressants, because mania is a potential side effect.

[131] .Clozapine may have the additional benefit of reducing propensity for substance abuse in schizophrenic patients.^ However, in some cases, substance abuse may never turn into full-fledged substance dependence; likewise, preexisting substance abuse is not a requirement for substance dependence (Medical, 2003).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, bile acids may stimulate cells in the colon to produce leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a highly inflammatory substance.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[132] .For other patients who are unwilling or unable to take medication regularly, long-acting depot preparations of antipsychotics may be given every two weeks to achieve control.^ Antipsychotic effects of the drug may take several weeks to appear.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rationale: Long-acting psychotropic drugs can be administered by depot injection every 1 to 4 weeks.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C. his wife can be given a long-acting medication that is administered every 1 to 4 weeks.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States and Australia are two countries with laws allowing the forced administration of this type of medication on those who refuse but are otherwise stable and living in the community.^ We should allow those who passed the board to take their oath and be given their life.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bunye, who is also the Presidential Spokesman pointed out: "This is an isolated case and the culprits will be charged and tried, and those found guilty punished to the full extent of the law".
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PRC against take-two for passers To comply with the TRO, the PRC yesterday stopped the oath-taking of those who passed the June nursing licensure examination.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At least one study suggested that in the longer-term some individuals may do better not taking antipsychotics.^ The scientific study of the ways in which the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of one individual are influenced by the real, imagined, or inferred behavior or characteristics of other people.

^ Some have said that it is obscene to declare that one’s self is better than anyone else.
  • Subtle Psychopathy and Schizophrenic Supermen 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.newciv.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And when one takes into account our ability, collectively and individually, to shape it.
  • Subtle Psychopathy and Schizophrenic Supermen 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.newciv.org [Source type: Original source]

[133]

Psychological and social interventions

.Psychotherapy is also widely recommended and used in the treatment of schizophrenia, although services may often be confined to pharmacotherapy because of reimbursement problems or lack of training.^ Undifferentiated schizophrenia is the term used to indicate a lack of clear-cut patterns of disturbance.

^ Rationale: Because family members of a client with schizophrenia face difficult situations and great stress, the nurse should inform them of support services that can help them cope with such problems.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A process conducted by mental health professionals that results in an opinion about a child's mental or emotional capacity, and may include recommendations about treatment or placement.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[134]
.Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is used to target specific symptoms[135][136][137] and improve related issues such as self-esteem, social functioning, and insight.^ By use of a battery of such allele-specific probes, PCR amplification products can be screened to identify the presence of a previously identified polymorphism in the gene.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Functions such as caring for one's self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and working.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Social changes center around such issues as: 1.

.Although the results of early trials were inconclusive[138] as the therapy advanced from its initial applications in the mid 1990s, more recent reviews clearly show CBT is an effective treatment for the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.^ A client begins clozapine (Clozaril) therapy after several other antipsychotic agents fail to relieve her psychotic symptoms.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hopefully, further research of specific opiate receptors will bring about more effective treatments for drug addiction.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISRCTN25455020 - Cognitive behavioural treatment of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenic disorders ( cached ) http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN25455020 ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[139][140]
Another approach is cognitive remediation therapy, a technique aimed at remediating the neurocognitive deficits sometimes present in schizophrenia. .Based on techniques of neuropsychological rehabilitation, early evidence has shown it to be cognitively effective, with some improvements related to measurable changes in brain activation as measured by fMRI.^ Previous studies have shown evidence of large brain volume (primarily white matter) in children with autism.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Temporal dynamics of late second language acquisition: Evidence from event-related brain potentials.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ C. Cognitive changes vary significantly with some people showing declines and others not.

[141][142] A similar approach known as cognitive enhancement therapy, which focuses on social cognition as well as neurocognition, has shown efficacy.[143]
.Family therapy or education, which addresses the whole family system of an individual with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, has been consistently found to be beneficial, at least if the duration of intervention is longer-term.^ Most often individuals are designated as the decision makers for an elder, or the family makes a decision as a whole.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Communication and the family system have been studied as contributing factors in the development of schizophrenia.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IEP goals and objectives: The long and short-term behaviors that are the targets of special education or therapeutic intervention.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[144][145][146] .Aside from therapy, the impact of schizophrenia on families and the burden on carers has been recognized, with the increasing availability of self-help books on the subject.^ With that ever-busier culture, many psychologists report an increase in the number of dual-earner couples seeking help with balancing work and family.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Support is available to help family members meet their own needs.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The subjects were selected from families in which at least 2 siblings were identified with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder over about a 15-year period between 1985 and the present.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[147][148] .There is also some evidence for benefits from social skills training, although there have also been significant negative findings.^ Training of social skills in rehabilitation of chronic schizophrenic disorders) ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To repeat, absent a finding that the NCR accused represents a significant risk to the safety of the public, there can be no constitutional basis for restricting his or her liberty.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ One “benefit” of these unpleasant symptoms is that you find yourself eating less and thus losing some weight.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[149][150] .Some studies have explored the possible benefits of music therapy and other creative therapies.^ Even though the majority of Western counselors may not believe in all the benefits of Shiatsu, this form of therapy is not as abnormal [in terms of western values] as some.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some cases of tinnitus are caused by ear wax, ear infections or a reaction to antibiotics, but there are many other possible causes of this disorder.

[151][152][153]
.The Soteria model is alternative to inpatient hospital treatment using a minimal medication approach.^ Three medical, or somatic, approaches to treatment are pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and psychosurgery.

^ Medical Library Association: Informed Treatment: Milieu Management in Psychiatric Hospitals and Residential ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

It is described as a milieu-therapeutic recovery method, characterized by its founder as "the 24 hour a day application of interpersonal phenomenologic interventions by a nonprofessional staff, usually without neuroleptic drug treatment, in the context of a small, homelike, quiet, supportive, protective, and tolerant social environment."[154] Although research evidence is limited, a 2008 systematic review found the programme equally as effective as treatment with medication in people diagnosed with first and second episode schizophrenia.[155]

Other

.Electroconvulsive therapy is not considered a first line treatment but may be prescribed in cases where other treatments have failed.^ A client begins clozapine (Clozaril) therapy after several other antipsychotic agents fail to relieve her psychotic symptoms.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first case, the law discriminates by treating the individual differently on the basis of a group characteristic; in the second, the law discriminates by failing to take account of a group characteristic when the special position of the individual mandates that it should do so.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In its analysis, a court should consider, first, whether a law imposes differential treatment between the claimant and others.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

.It is more effective where symptoms of catatonia are present,[156] and is recommended for use under NICE guidelines in the UK for catatonia if previously effective, though there is no recommendation for use for schizophrenia otherwise.^ In other words, the authors attempted to make an explicit point that there are no schizophrenics, but only people with schizophrenia, i.e.

^ Moreover, there is no proof that under honest circumstances, they would fail the remaining 20%.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Undifferentiated schizophrenia- exhibit disordered thinking but no symptoms of one of the other types of schizophrenia .

[157] Psychosurgery has now become a rare procedure and is not a recommended treatment.[158]
.Service-user led movements have become integral to the recovery process in Europe and the United States; groups such as the Hearing Voices Network and the Paranoia Network have developed a self-help approach that aims to provide support and assistance outside the traditional medical model adopted by mainstream psychiatry.^ External resources are the formal (professionals and agencies), informal (ministers, support groups, volunteers), and natural (friends, relatives) network of the child and family.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even a family that has been in the United States for many generations may have passed on their traditional Filipino values from generation to generation (McBride).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Functions such as caring for one's self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and working.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By avoiding framing personal experience in terms of criteria for mental illness or mental health, they aim to destigmatize the experience and encourage individual responsibility and a positive self-image.^ They are an individual’s personal outlook on past experiences.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are individuals formed by their individual experiences.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since they do not do so, it follows that it is SOMETIMES okay to label mental states as illnesses.

.Partnerships between hospitals and consumer-run groups are becoming more common, with services working toward remediating social withdrawal, building social skills and reducing rehospitalization.^ A: That the social power and access, and social marginalization don’t just take place as some kind of a static entity between a particular culture’s dominant group and its subordinate group.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of adoptive parents turn to adoption agencies–or social work or adoption support groups–for postadoption counseling or services, but a handful of psychologists are also serving the adoption community.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An early intervention service that includes the activities that promote the acquisition of skills in a variety of developmental areas, including cognitive processes and social interaction.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[159]

Prognosis

Course

.
John Nash, a US mathematician, began showing signs of paranoid schizophrenia during his college years.
^ Schizophrenia has a tremendous cost to society, estimated at $32.5 billion per year in the US (statistic from Brain Facts , Society for Neuroscience, 1997).

^ A client with paranoid schizophrenia repeatedly uses profanity during an activity therapy session.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A client with paranoid schizophrenia has been experiencing auditory hallucinations for many years.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Despite having stopped taking his prescribed medication, Nash continued his studies and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1994. His life was depicted in the 2001 film A Beautiful Mind.
.Coordinated by the World Health Organization and published in 2001, The International Study of Schizophrenia (ISoS) was a long-term follow-up study of 1633 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia around the world.^ The appellant has a long history of mental illness and hospitalization, and has been diagnosed with chronic residual schizophrenia.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Over the long term, vitamin B12 insufficiency is a significant health risk.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such diagnoses may be performed by diagnostic laboratories, or, alternatively, diagnostic kits are manufactured and sold to health care providers or to private individuals for self-diagnosis.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Of the 75% who were available for follow-up, half had a favourable outcome, and 16% had a delayed recovery after an early unremitting course.^ If i tell you, you might not believe there are people who wake up very early in the morning .
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.More usually, the course in the first two years predicted the long-term course.^ Develop a parenting plan, which likely will involve having the stepparent play a secondary, nondisciplinary role for the first year or two.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Art, of course, is more than accident and has been for years a relative companion of science in hardwork and toil.
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The diagnosis of SMR does not usually occur in the first few years of life, rather it is usually identified later, typically at the school age years.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Early social intervention was also related to a better outcome.^ An early intervention service that includes the activities that promote the acquisition of skills in a variety of developmental areas, including cognitive processes and social interaction.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An intervention for relational and physical aggression in early childhood: A preliminary study.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Yet another difference between psychiatry and real medicine is that psychiatry is the only specialty where outcomes are better without intervention.

.The findings were held as important in moving patients, carers and clinicians away from the prevalent belief of the chronic nature of the condition.^ When psychiatric clinicians are initially analyzing a patient, medical conditions must be considered before a diagnosis is made.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In my opinion, the impulsive nature they display may partially be attributed to their belief that time is moving faster (Berline, Rolls, & Kischka, 2004).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[160] .A review of major longitudinal studies in North America noted this variation in outcomes, although outcome was on average worse than for other psychotic and psychiatric disorders.^ A major mood disorder accompanied by psychotic symptoms is called an affective psychosis.

^ Schizophrenia affects men and women in equal numbers, although on average, men appear to develop schizophrenia earlier than women.

^ No paths ever split off in any direction other than North and South.
  • Writing.Com: SCHIZOPHRENIC RESCUE (Book) 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

.A moderate number of patients with schizophrenia were seen to remit and remain well; the review raised the question that some may not require maintenance medication.^ Also if you have suggestions for things that I need to add to the review or specific questions you may have just e-mail me.

^ United States have schizophrenia, yet the disorder remains a medical mystery.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even Sherry speaks of some types of “blatant” enough schizophrenia that would require psychiatric care.

[161]
.A clinical study using strict recovery criteria (concurrent remission of positive and negative symptoms and adequate social and vocational functioning continuously for two years) found a recovery rate of 14% within the first five years.^ It's what I continue to experience with never lessening sharpness two years after my last trip to Iraq.
  • After Reporting in Iraq, America Feels Like a Bizarre Disneyland | World | AlterNet 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The significance of first language development in five to nine year old children for second and foreign language learning.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, I would tell them it is likely that their family member will have to be readmitted to the hospital within the next two years even with treatment.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[162] A 5-year community study found that 62% showed overall improvement on a composite measure of clinical and functional outcomes.[163]
.World Health Organization studies have noted that individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have much better long-term outcomes in developing countries (India, Colombia and Nigeria) than in developed countries (United States, United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Japan, and Russia),[164] despite antipsychotic drugs not being widely available.^ Chlorpromazine is also an antipsychotic drug; however, it causes more pronounced sedation than haloperidol.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The appellant has a long history of mental illness and hospitalization, and has been diagnosed with chronic residual schizophrenia.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Recently, other countries like India, Japan, and Taiwan have been added to the list of places where the test can be administered.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Defining recovery

.Rates are not always comparable across studies because exact definitions of remission and recovery have not been widely established.^ Clinical and demographic characteristics of participants in the study and outside of the study were compared using Fisher’s exact test, the chi-square test, Student’s t test, and the Mann-Whitney rank sum test.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies may even be less conclusive because of the limited amount of years in childhood compared to adulthood.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A "Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group" has proposed standardized remission criteria involving "improvements in core signs and symptoms to the extent that any remaining symptoms are of such low intensity that they no longer interfere significantly with behavior and are below the threshold typically utilized in justifying an initial diagnosis of schizophrenia".[165] Standardized recovery criteria have also been proposed by a number of different researchers, with the stated DSM definitions of a "complete return to premorbid levels of functioning” or "complete return to full functioning" seen as inadequate, impossible to measure, incompatible with the variability in how society defines normal psychosocial functioning, and contributing to self-fulfilling pessimism and stigma.^ Assessment of such a client typically reveals alterations in thought content and process, perception, affect, and psychomotor behavior; changes in personality, coping, and sense of self; lack of self-motivation; presence of psychosocial stressors; and degeneration of adaptive functioning.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because they are medical doctors, psychiatrists can prescribe medications to alleviate the symptoms of various mental disorders.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Educators and professionals from different parts of the country or different states might utilize their own jargon.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[166] .Some mental health professionals may have quite different basic perceptions and concepts of recovery than individuals with the diagnosis, including those in the Consumer/Survivor/Ex-Patient Movement.^ It follows that different legal treatment reflecting the particular needs and circumstances of an individual or group may not only be justified, but may be required in order to fulfill s.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A disturbance limited to a conflict between an individual and society may represent social deviance, which may or may not be commendable, but it is not by itself a mental disorder.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Part XX.1 thus recognizes that, contrary to the stereotypical notions that some may still harbour, the mentally ill are not inherently dangerous.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

[167] .One notable limitation of nearly all the research criteria is failure to address the person's own evaluations and feelings about their life.^ So please don't limit your understanding of who or what God is by the cultural customs of one person over the next.
  • Afghanastan Government News Board - Terrorists and Taliban hijacked American planes to the NYC WTC 16 September 2009 13:31 UTC www.afghan-government.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Don’t tell me about God, Tell me about life when I’m gone If I were the King I will close more churches To build more cemeteries We’re all going to die Anyway.
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Projection is falsely attributing to another person one's own unacceptable feelings.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Schizophrenia and recovery often involve a continuing loss of self-esteem, alienation from friends and family, interruption of school and career, and social stigma, "experiences that cannot just be reversed or forgotten".[115] An increasingly influential model defines recovery as a process, similar to being "in recovery" from drug and alcohol problems, and emphasizes a personal journey involving factors such as hope, choice, empowerment, social inclusion and achievement.^ Schizophrenia is characterized by: A. loss of identity and self-esteem.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. multiple personalities and decreased self-esteem.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[115]

Predictors

Several factors have been associated with a better overall prognosis: Being female, rapid (vs. insidious) onset of symptoms, older age of first episode, predominantly positive (rather than negative) symptoms, presence of mood symptoms, and good pre-illness functioning.[168][169] .The strengths and internal resources of the individual concerned, such as determination or psychological resilience, have also been associated with better prognosis.^ Since such pathologies can now be detected earlier (i.e., before overt symptoms appear) and more definitively, better treatment options will be available in those individuals identified as having pathologies associated with the disclosed polymorphisms.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While individuals with the paranoid schizophrenic subtype normally have a better prognosis, there is little variation on prognosis by subtype alone.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internal resources are the strengths, capabilities and motivations of the child and family.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[161] .The attitude and level of support from people in the individual's life can have a significant impact; research framed in terms of the negative aspects of this—the level of critical comments, hostility, and intrusive or controlling attitudes, termed high 'Expressed emotion'—has consistently indicated links to relapse.^ Causes- most popular ideas is biological, dopamine hypothesis, people with schizophrenia have high dopamine levels.

^ Early life events that are associated with less than optional development outcomes (e.g., maternal education, low social support, or high levels of family parenting/stress).
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The level and style of functioning of the psyche, including a person's intellectual functioning and emotional, attitudinal, psychological and personality aspects.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[170] .Most research on predictive factors is correlational in nature, however, and a clear cause-and-effect relationship is often difficult to establish.^ Darwin’s theory of natural selection caused many psychologists to try and explain all human behaviors through instincts, most agree that our behavior is motivated by other biological and psychological factors.

^ Methadone helps in the treatment of opiate addiction (most often painkillers and heroin) because taking other narcotics actually decreases the effects of methadone.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common concern is the ethical dilemma in researching animals, which often includes operating and eventually putting these creatures to sleep.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mortality

.In a study of over 168,000 Swedish citizens undergoing psychiatric treatment, schizophrenia was associated with an average life expectancy of approximately 80–85% of that of the general population; women were found to have a slightly better life expectancy than men, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia was associated with an overall better life expectancy than substance abuse, personality disorder, heart attack and stroke.^ Schizophrenia is not a split personality or bipolar disorder.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Foundations Associates Dual Diagnosis Treatment Drug Rehab Programs ( cached ) http://www.dualdiagnosis.org/index.php?id=9 47% of individuals with a schizophrenic disorder, abuse substances ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Southern Illinois Associates, LLC ( cached ) http://sia-llc.net/ __ Psychotic Disorders/ Schizophrenic Disorders __ Personality Disorders __ Substance Abuse Disorders __ other psychiatric disorders ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[171] .Other identified factors include smoking,[172] poor diet, little exercise and the negative health effects of psychiatric drugs.^ But if we're going to be listing other contributing factors, then why not include his belief in an immortal soul?

^ It is also a side-effect of antidepressants, sedatives and other psychotropic drugs."

^ I like pedestrian as well and pedantic; other favorites include noisome, miasma, and most uses of double negatives.

[8]
.There is a higher than average suicide rate associated with schizophrenia.^ The explanation why there is decreasing prevalence rates in the older age has been attributed to a higher than average mortality among the severely mentally retarded and possibly due to errors in the method used in gathering the data.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Rates of unemployment, educational difficulties, and out of wedlock births are much higher than the national average for blacks and Indians.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schizophrenia affects men and women in equal numbers, although on average, men appear to develop schizophrenia earlier than women.

.This has been cited at 10%, but a more recent analysis of studies and statistics revises the estimate at 4.9%, most often occurring in the period following onset or first hospital admission.^ While most view this statistic as “blacks commit more crimes”, one should see how skin color alone increases the percentage of arrests for blacks.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An inability to focus attention on a task for a sustained period, often more than a few seconds or minutes.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This problem occurs more often after meals rich in fats or sugars.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[173] Several times more attempt suicide.[174] .There are a variety of reasons and risk factors.^ When the brain releasing factors do not stimulate follicle development, there are few estrogens produced and a woman is then at risk for osteoporosis at a young age.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[175][176]

Violence

.The relationship between violent acts and schizophrenia is a contentious topic.^ The relationship between psychoanalysis and schizophrenia by Richard Lucas - A Commentary by Robert Michels ( cached ) http://www.ijpa.org/michelsfeb03.htm ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Relationship Between BPD, MPD, DID and Schizophrenia ( cached ) http://www.mhsanctuary.com/therapist/157.htm ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

.Current research indicates that the percentage of people with schizophrenia who commit violent acts is higher than the percentage of people without any disorder, but lower than is found for disorders such as alcoholism, and the difference is reduced or not found in same-neighbourhood comparisons when related factors are taken into account, notably sociodemographic variables and substance misuse.^ So it is for the same reasons for which we are "higher" that we are becoming lower than animals.
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Schizophrenia – The incidence of schizophrenic disorders has been found to be ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-biased studies have shown once factors such as socioeconomic status are taken into account, there are comparable rates of schizophrenia in Caucasians and African Americans.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[177] .Studies have indicated that 5% to 10% of those charged with murder in Western countries have a schizophrenia spectrum disorder.^ Individuals with schizophreniform disorder can have the same symptoms as those with schizophrenia, but the symptoms must only last between one to six months.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epidemiology of Schizophrenia ( cached ) http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Epidemiology%20of%20Schizophrenia.pdf Cognitive/neuropsychological studies of children with a schizophrenic disorder.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The family manual on understanding Schizophrenia - Autism Spectrum Disorders ( cached ) http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art33264.asp The family manual on understanding Schizophrenia - Autism Spectrum Disorders is a ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[178][179][180]
.The occurrence of psychosis in schizophrenia has sometimes been linked to a higher risk of violent acts.^ A diet high in meats is also linked to a higher risk of colon cancer.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Findings on the specific role of delusions or hallucinations have been inconsistent, but have focused on delusional jealousy, perception of threat and command hallucinations. .It has been proposed that a certain type of individual with schizophrenia may be most likely to offend, characterized by a history of educational difficulties, low IQ, conduct disorder, early-onset substance misuse and offending prior to diagnosis.^ In paranoid schizophrenia (the most common type), outlandish delusions of grandeur and persecution are coupled with psychotic symptoms and personality breakdown.

^ Individuals with schizophreniform disorder can have the same symptoms as those with schizophrenia, but the symptoms must only last between one to six months.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A disturbance limited to a conflict between an individual and society may represent social deviance, which may or may not be commendable, but it is not by itself a mental disorder.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[178]
.Individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia are often the victims of violent crime—at least 14 times more often than they are perpetrators.^ Money is a more powerful incentive for this individual than free time.

^ As for the suffering of the Iraqi people, they need to be seen as more than just "stepping stones" to profit.
  • After Reporting in Iraq, America Feels Like a Bizarre Disneyland | World | AlterNet 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ They passed an edited exam cleansed of leakage, a condition much more honorable than those in the years of the complaining deans where the exams were not purged of leakage.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[181][182] .Another consistent finding is a link to substance misuse, particularly alcohol,[183] among the minority who commit violent acts.^ Rather, it is an acknowledgement that people who commit criminal acts under the influence of mental illnesses should not be held criminally responsible for their acts or omissions in the same way that sane responsible people are.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Review Board consisted of three people: N. J. Prelypchan, who acted as chairperson, Susan Irwin, and Dr. A. Marcus, a psychiatrist.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Historically at common law, those who committed criminal acts while mentally ill were charged and required to stand trial like other offenders.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Violence by or against individuals with schizophrenia typically occurs in the context of complex social interactions within a family setting,[184] and is also an issue in clinical services[185] and in the wider community.^ These relationships, the process of interaction, are responsive to individual and family needs.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The threat must also be “significant”, both in the sense that there must be a real risk of physical or psychological harm occurring to individuals in the community and in the sense that this potential harm must be serious.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Providing resources, helping the client or family to set goals, and encouraging a positive social network would be strategies I would employ in a diabetic prevention program.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[186]

Epidemiology

Disability-adjusted life year for schizophrenia per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.
     no data      ≤ 185      185–197      197–207      207–218      218–229      229–240      240–251      251–262      262–273      273–284      284–295      ≥ 295
.Schizophrenia occurs equally in males and females, although typically appears earlier in men—the peak ages of onset are 20–28 years for males and 26–32 years for females.^ Schizophrenia affects men and women in equal numbers, although on average, men appear to develop schizophrenia earlier than women.

^ Although posturing may occur in clients with schizophrenia, it isn't the same as neck and jaw spasms.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schizophrenia has a tremendous cost to society, estimated at $32.5 billion per year in the US (statistic from Brain Facts , Society for Neuroscience, 1997).

[1] .Onset in childhood is much rarer,[187] as is onset in middle- or old age.^ Personality disorders are generally recognizable by adolescence or earlier, continued throughout adulthood, and become less obvious in middle or old age.
  • Woodford County Special Education - Commonly Used Terms and Definitions 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC schools.mtco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[188] .The lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia—the proportion of individuals expected to experience the disease at any time in their lives—is commonly given at 1%.^ The majority of individuals experience some motion sickness in their lifetime, while a small number of persons have either none at all or are highly susceptible (Lacker, 2004.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, they can remember experiences when given choices to pick from and benefit from cues- exactly the opposite of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Statistically Speaking Having spent a fair amount of time in occupied Iraq, I now find living in the United States nothing short of a schizophrenic experience.
  • After Reporting in Iraq, America Feels Like a Bizarre Disneyland | World | AlterNet 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.However, a 2002 systematic review of many studies found a lifetime prevalence of 0.55%.^ Review: Lifetime Prevalence of Schizophrenia and...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Despite the received wisdom that schizophrenia occurs at similar rates worldwide, its prevalence varies across the world,[189] within countries,[190] and at the local and neighbourhood level.^ These results show an increased prevalence for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in individuals having a variation in the HOPA gene.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They easily reach their level of incompetence because they cannot adjust to the varying and unstructured demands from management by a dynamic environment in a rapidly changing world.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[191] .One particularly stable and replicable finding has been the association between living in an urban environment and schizophrenia diagnosis, even after factors such as drug use, ethnic group and size of social group have been controlled for.^ For one thing, methadone is addictive (just like heroin) even though it doesn’t cause potential health problems that illegal drugs do.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nature of dual disorders becomes even more complex when alcohol and drug use ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Different ethnic group of muslims are fighting one another too.
  • Afghanastan Government News Board - Terrorists and Taliban hijacked American planes to the NYC WTC 16 September 2009 13:31 UTC www.afghan-government.com [Source type: Original source]

[67] Schizophrenia is known to be a major cause of disability. .In a 1999 study of 14 countries, active psychosis was ranked the third-most-disabling condition after quadriplegia and dementia and ahead of paraplegia and blindness.^ Schizophrenic patients with dementia (double blind study) ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Iraq now ranks as the planet's second most unstable country, according to the 2007 Failed States Index.
  • After Reporting in Iraq, America Feels Like a Bizarre Disneyland | World | AlterNet 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[192]

History

Accounts of a schizophrenia-like syndrome are thought to be rare in the historical record before the 1800s, although reports of irrational, unintelligible, or uncontrolled behavior were common. .A detailed case report in 1797 concerning James Tilly Matthews, and accounts by Phillipe Pinel published in 1809, are often regarded as the earliest cases of the illness in the medical and psychiatric literature.^ Stein & Christenson (1998) report this disorder is often overlooked and unseen in most psychiatric literature because it occurs most frequently in children with mental retardation; however, this disorder can occur in children of normal intelligence.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He supports the idea that psychiatric illnesses do exist (but criticizes drug companies' creating new alleged illnesses for the sake of prescribing medications to them).

^ Although there’s nothing in the medical literature to support this linkage, some women have reported that hair loss was made worse by metformin.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[193] .Schizophrenia was first described as a distinct syndrome affecting teenagers and young adults by Bénédict Morel in 1853, termed démence précoce (literally 'early dementia').^ Psychology 4310 Schizophrenia Lecture Dementia Praecox-early dementia.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

.The term dementia praecox was used in 1891 by Arnold Pick to in a case report of a psychotic disorder.^ Kraepelin's dementia praecox should include all the schizophrenic disorders.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Traditionally, the term neurosis has been used to describe milder, anxiety-related disorders.

^ The term “schizophrenia” when used herein is broadly defined as a mental disorder that is associated with psychosis and a decline in general functioning.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1893 Emil Kraepelin introduced a broad new distinction in the classification of mental disorders between dementia praecox and mood disorder (termed manic depression and including both unipolar and bipolar depression).^ Kraepelin's dementia praecox should include all the schizophrenic disorders.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mood disorders: Anxiety disorders: Schizophrenic disorders: bipolar disorder ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bipolar disorder, which was once termed manic-depressive disorder, is a mood disorder that affects around one percent of the population.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kraepelin believed that dementia praecox was primarily a disease of the brain,[194] and particularly a form of dementia, distinguished from other forms of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, which typically occur later in life.^ Paragraph 20 reads: "Apathy disorder also has been suggested for inclusion in the DMS. Experts have argued apathy can occur alone, or in conjunction with such other conditions as Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and stroke.

^ Kraepelin's dementia praecox should include all the schizophrenic disorders.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Two of the most common brain disorders are Alzheimer's Disease and Schizophrenia.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

[195]
.The word schizophrenia—which translates roughly as "splitting of the mind" and comes from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν, "to split") and phrēn, phren- (φρήν, φρεν-, "mind")[196]—was coined by Eugen Bleuler in 1908 and was intended to describe the separation of function between personality, thinking, memory, and perception.^ Schizophrenia is not a split personality or bipolar disorder.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia means split mind.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia literally means "split mind.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

Bleuler described the main symptoms as 4 A's: flattened Affect, Autism, impaired Association of ideas and Ambivalence.[197] .Bleuler realized that the illness was not a dementia as some of his patients improved rather than deteriorated and hence proposed the term schizophrenia instead.^ I generally consider myself unshockable when it comes to new disorders and illnesses that some psychiatrists want to include in the DSM, but a new proposal to include bitterness in the forthcoming edition of DSM-V real shakes me up.

^ I have always wondered, instead of keeping silent about these pacing phenomena: is it not better we voice it out, rather than living in pretence ?
  • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The objective is to be achieved by treatment of the patient in a hospital, rather than in a prison environment.
  • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In the early 1970s, the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia was the subject of a number of controversies which eventually led to the operational criteria used today.^ Fourteen years later, Dr. Robert White felt the techniques he used in these operations were advanced enough for human subjects (Weir & Human, 2004, 1988).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Distinguishing Characteristics of Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence Disorganized or Residual Schizophrenia Schizophreniform vs. Schizoaffective Disorder ADHD Diagnosis Controversy .
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS ( cached ) http://members.aol.com/krisd922/Abnormal/Schizophrenia.pdf SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS. SCHIZOPHRENIA. A. ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

.It became clear after the 1971 US-UK Diagnostic Study that schizophrenia was diagnosed to a far greater extent in America than in Europe.^ How is it, then, that African Americans with mood disorders or depression are more often than not diagnosed with schizophrenia (Kimmon)?
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I definitely think the social phobia is far more disabling and impacts my life to a greater degree than the bipolar disorder.

^ We feel we three can combine our talents and achieve far greater things together than if we strive individually.
  • Writing.Com: SCHIZOPHRENIC RESCUE (Book) 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

[198] .This was partly due to looser diagnostic criteria in the US, which used the DSM-II manual, contrasting with Europe and its ICD-9.^ Although Glucophage has been used in Europe for over 25 years, it was not available in the US until 1995.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Publications/gj06pp.pdf schizophrenic patients who fulfilled Diagnostic and Statis- tical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV and Interna ...
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, DSM-IV™”, American Psychiatric Association, pp.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.David Rosenhan's 1972 study, published in the journal Science under the title On being sane in insane places, concluded that the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the US was often subjective and unreliable.^ Schizophrenia Research - Elsevier ( cached ) http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506091/description Other journals in same subject area.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain journal titles may not appear in a particular listing if no new issue was available to us when our survey was done.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

[199] These were some of the factors in leading to the revision not only of the diagnosis of schizophrenia, but the revision of the whole DSM manual, resulting in the publication of the DSM-III in 1980.{subscription required}[200]
.The term schizophrenia is commonly misunderstood to mean that affected persons have a "split personality". Although some people diagnosed with schizophrenia may hear voices and may experience the voices as distinct personalities, schizophrenia does not involve a person changing among distinct multiple personalities.^ Schizophrenia is not a split personality or bipolar disorder.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia means split mind.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia literally means "split mind.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

The confusion arises in part due to the literal interpretation of Bleuler's term schizophrenia. The first known misuse of the term to mean "split personality" was in an article by the poet T. S. Eliot in 1933.[201]

Society and culture

Stigma

Social stigma has been identified as a major obstacle in the recovery of patients with schizophrenia.[202] .In a large, representative sample from a 1999 study, 12.8% of Americans believed that individuals with schizophrenia were "very likely" to do something violent against others, and 48.1% said that they were "somewhat likely" to.^ But they can apply in other hospitals," he said.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polymorphisms in this region, designated “PCTG4”, were identified by genotyping a large sample of DNAs from a diverse population of mentally ill individuals with respect to a number of loci.
  • Identification of polymorphisms in the PCTG4 region of Xq13 - Patent 6566061 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I would like to ask some of these individuals to consider this: Maybe they do not prefer it, but rather are persuaded into it?
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over 74% said that people with schizophrenia were either "not very able" or "not able at all" to make decisions concerning their treatment, and 70.2% said the same of money management decisions.^ In other words, the authors attempted to make an explicit point that there are no schizophrenics, but only people with schizophrenia, i.e.

^ All humankind deserves the truth and knowledge upon which to make the decisions for the directions of their lives.
  • Writing.Com: SCHIZOPHRENIC RESCUE (Book) 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He said they would collect the signatures of all those who passed the board and submit this to Malacañang, the Senate, House of Representatives and other concerned bodies.
  • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[203] .The perception of individuals with psychosis as violent has more than doubled in prevalence since the 1950s, according to one meta-analysis.^ For the first time in census history, an individual was able to mark more than one race on the 2000 survey (Rosenblum and Travis, 2006).
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polarization - Shift in attitudes by members of a group toward more extreme positions than the ones held before group’s discussion .

^ Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis.
  • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

[204]
.In 2002, the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology changed the term for schizophrenia from Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo 精神分裂病 (mind-split-disease) to Tōgō-shitchō-shō 統合失調症 (integration disorder) to reduce stigma,[205] The new name was inspired by the biopsychosocial model, and it increased the percentage of cases in which patients were informed of the diagnosis from 36.7% to 69.7% over three years.^ The change cannot be explained by a previous personality disorder and should be differentiated from residual schizophrenia and other states of incomplete recovery from an antecedent mental disorder.

^ In the patient has an equal, or significant, proportion of mood symptoms occurring along with the schizophrenic criteria, then a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder would be warranted.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At three years old, a child should be worried about naptime; yet, society’s indirect racial stigmatisms are surprisingly apparent even to the young.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[206]

Iconic cultural depictions

The book and film A Beautiful Mind chronicled the life of John Forbes Nash, a Nobel Prize-winning mathematician who was diagnosed with schizophrenia. .The Marathi film Devrai (featuring Atul Kulkarni) is a presentation of a patient with schizophrenia.^ Again, your position, as I understand it, is that if the potential for involuntary containment and treatment is present in an interaction between a physician and a patient, then involuntary containment and treatment are essential features of that physician’s specialty.

.The film, set in Western India, shows the behavior, mentality, and struggle of the patient as well as his loved-ones.^ It is for us to show the non believers that there is a GOD who loves us and through our behavior not by our force to guide them with patience and love not by threaten and murder.
  • Afghanastan Government News Board - Terrorists and Taliban hijacked American planes to the NYC WTC 16 September 2009 13:31 UTC www.afghan-government.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The destructive behavior manic patients often engage in may have serious consequences, not just for themselves, but to their relationship as well.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, he’s found that children who receive more father love are less likely to struggle with behavioral or substance abuse problems.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other factual books have been written by relatives on family members; Australian journalist Anne Deveson told the story of her son's battle with schizophrenia in Tell me I'm Here,[207] later made into a movie.^ In addition, I would tell them it is likely that their family member will have to be readmitted to the hospital within the next two years even with treatment.
  • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know what schizophrenia is and isn't..and i have a family member who has one of the many forms of schizophrenia.
  • After Reporting in Iraq, America Feels Like a Bizarre Disneyland | World | AlterNet 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

In Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita the poet Ivan Bezdomnyj is institutionalized and diagnosed with schizophrenia after witnessing the devil (Woland) predict Berlioz's death. The book The Eden Express by Mark Vonnegut recounts his struggle with schizophrenia and his recovering journey.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Castle D, Wesseley S, Der G, Murray RM (1991). "The incidence of operationally defined schizophrenia in Camberwell 1965–84". British Journal of Psychiatry 159: 790–794. doi:10.1192/bjp.159.6.790. PMID 1790446. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/159/6/790. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  2. ^ Bhugra D (2006). "The global prevalence of schizophrenia". PLoS Medicine 2 (5): 372–373. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020151. PMID 15916460. PMC 1140960. http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0020151. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  3. ^ a b Goldner EM, Hsu L, Waraich P, Somers JM (2002). "Prevalence and incidence studies of schizophrenic disorders: a systematic review of the literature". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 47 (9): 833–43. PMID 12500753. http://ww1.cpa-apc.org:8080/publications/archives/CJP/2002/November/goldner.asp. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  4. ^ a b c d American Psychiatric Association (2000). "Schizophrenia". Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.. ISBN 0-89042-024-6. http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/schiz.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  5. ^ Rathus, Spencer; Jeffrey Nevid (1991). Abnormal Psychology. Prentice Hall. p. 228. ISBN 0130052167. 
  6. ^ a b Becker T, Kilian R (2006). "Psychiatric services for people with severe mental illness across western Europe: what can be generalized from current knowledge about differences in provision, costs and outcomes of mental health care?". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplement 429 (429): 9–16. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00711.x. PMID 16445476. 
  7. ^ Sim K, Chua TH, Chan YH, Mahendran R, Chong SA (October 2006). "Psychiatric comorbidity in first episode schizophrenia: a 2 year, longitudinal outcome study". Journal of Psychiatric Research 40 (7): 656–63. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.06.008. PMID 16904688. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-3956(06)00122-1. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  8. ^ a b Brown S, Barraclough B, Inskip H (2000). "Causes of the excess mortality of schizophrenia". British Journal of Psychiatry 177: 212–7. doi:10.1192/bjp.177.3.212. PMID 11040880. 
  9. ^ Palmer BA, Pankratz VS, Bostwick JM (March 2005). "The lifetime risk of suicide in schizophrenia: a reexamination". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62 (3): 247–53. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.3.247. PMID 15753237. 
  10. ^ a b Cullen KR, Kumra S, Regan J et al. (2008). "Atypical Antipsychotics for Treatment of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders". Psychiatric Times 25 (3). http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/article/10168/1147536. 
  11. ^ Addington J; Cadenhead KS, Cannon TD, Cornblatt B, McGlashan TH, Perkins DO, Seidman LJ, Tsuang M, Walker EF, Woods SW, Heinssen R (2007). "North American prodrome longitudinal study: a collaborative multisite approach to prodromal schizophrenia research". Schizophrenia Bulletin 33 (3): 665–72. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbl075. PMID 17255119. 
  12. ^ Parnas J; Jorgensen A (1989). "Pre-morbid psychopathology in schizophrenia spectrum". British Journal of Psychiatry 115: 623–7. PMID 2611591. 
  13. ^ Amminger GP; Leicester S, Yung AR, Phillips LJ, Berger GE, Francey SM, Yuen HP, McGorry PD (2006). "Early-onset of symptoms predicts conversion to non-affective psychosis in ultra-high risk individuals". Schizophrenia Research 84 (1): 67–76. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.02.018. PMID 16677803. 
  14. ^ Schneider, K (1959). Clinical Psychopathology (5 ed.). New York: Grune & Stratton. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ofzOAAAAMAAJ. 
  15. ^ Nordgaard J, Arnfred SM, Handest P, Parnas J (January 2008). "The diagnostic status of first-rank symptoms". Schizophr Bull 34 (1): 137–54. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm044. PMID 17562695. PMC 2632385. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17562695. 
  16. ^ Sims A (2002). Symptoms in the mind: an introduction to descriptive psychopathology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. ISBN 0-7020-2627-1. 
  17. ^ Velligan DI and Alphs LD (March 1, 2008). "Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: The Importance of Identification and Treatment". Psychiatric Times 25 (3). http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/article/10168/1147581. 
  18. ^ Peralta V; Cuesta MJ (2001). "How many and which are the psychopathological dimensions in schizophrenia? Issues influencing their ascertainment". Schizophrenia Research 49 (3): 269–85. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(00)00071-2. PMID 11356588. 
  19. ^ Manji, Hk; Gottesman, Ii; Gould, Td (Nov 2003). "Signal transduction and genes-to-behaviors pathways in psychiatric diseases.". Science's STKE: signal transduction knowledge environment 2003 (207): pe49. doi:10.1126/stke.2003.207.pe49. PMID 14600293. 
  20. ^ Jakobsen KD; Frederiksen JN, Hansen T, Jansson LB, Parnas J, Werge T (2005). "Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses". Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 59 (3): 209–12. doi:10.1080/08039480510027698. PMID 16195122. 
  21. ^ Bowie, C.R. (2005) Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia spectrum personality Current Psychosis and Therapeutics Reports, Volume 3, Number 4, Pages 147-151 DOI 10.1007/BF02629446
  22. ^ Pope HG (1983). "Distinguishing bipolar disorder from schizophrenia in clinical practice: guidelines and case reports" (PDF). Hospital and Community Psychiatry 34: 322–28. http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/34/4/322.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  23. ^ McGlashan TH (February 1987). "Testing DSM-III symptom criteria for schizotypal and borderline personality disorders". Archives of General Psychiatry 44 (2): 143–8. PMID 3813809. 
  24. ^ Bottas A (April 15, 2009). "Comorbidity: Schizophrenia With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder". Psychiatric Times 26 (4). http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/ocd/article/10168/1402540. 
  25. ^ American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Work Groups (2010) Proposed Revisions - Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders Retrieved 17 February 2010
  26. ^ Boyle, Mary (2002). Schizophrenia: a scientific delusion?. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22718-6. 
  27. ^ Bentall, Richard P.; Read, John E; Mosher, Loren R. (2004). Models of Madness: Psychological, Social and Biological Approaches to Schizophrenia. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge. ISBN 1-58391-906-6. 
  28. ^ "Schizophrenia term use 'invalid'". BBC. United Kingdom: BBC News online. 9 October 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6033013.stm. Retrieved 16 May 2007. 
  29. ^ "CASL Biography". http://www.caslcampaign.com/aboutus_biography.php. Retrieved 2009-02-01.  and "CASL History". http://www.caslcampaign.com/aboutus.php. Retrieved 2009-02-01. 
  30. ^ a b Tsuang MT; Stone WS, Faraone SV (2000). "Toward reformulating the diagnosis of schizophrenia". American Journal of Psychiatry 157 (7): 1041–50. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.7.1041. PMID 10873908. 
  31. ^ Peralta V, Cuesta MJ (June 2007). "A dimensional and categorical architecture for the classification of psychotic disorders". World Psychiatry 6 (2): 100–1. PMID 18235866. 
  32. ^ Verdoux H; van Os J (2002). "Psychotic symptoms in non-clinical populations and the continuum of psychosis". Schizophrenia Research 54 (1–2): 59–65. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(01)00352–8 (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 11853979. 
  33. ^ Johns LC; van Os J (2001). "The continuity of psychotic experiences in the general population". Clinical Psychology Review 21 (8): 1125–41. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(01)00103–9 (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 11702510. 
  34. ^ Peters ER; Day S, McKenna J, Orbach G (2005). "Measuring delusional ideation: the 21-item Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI)". Schizophrenia Bulletin 30 (4): 1005–22. PMID 15954204. 
  35. ^ Edgar Jones (1999). "The Phenomenology of Abnormal Belief: A Philosophical and Psychiatric Inquiry". Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology 6 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1353/ppp.1999.0004 (inactive 2009-12-08). http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/philosophy_psychiatry_and_psychology/v006/6.1jones01.html. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  36. ^ David AS (1999). "On the impossibility of defining delusions". Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology 6 (1): 17–20. doi:10.1353/ppp.1999.0006 (inactive 2009-12-08). http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/philosophy_psychiatry_and_psychology/v006/6.1david.html. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  37. ^ S. Nassir Ghaemi (1999). "An Empirical Approach to Understanding Delusions". Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology 6 (1): 21–24. doi:10.1353/ppp.1999.0007 (inactive 2009-12-08). http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/philosophy_psychiatry_and_psychology/v006/6.1ghaemi.html. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  38. ^ Andreasen NC (March 2000). "Schizophrenia: the fundamental questions". Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 31 (2–3): 106–12. doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(99)00027-2. PMID 10719138. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165017399000272. 
  39. ^ Andreasen NC (September 1999). "A unitary model of schizophrenia: Bleuler's "fragmented phrene" as schizencephaly". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 56 (9): 781–7. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.9.781. PMID 12884883. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12884883. 
  40. ^ a b Jansson LB, Parnas J (September 2007). "Competing definitions of schizophrenia: what can be learned from polydiagnostic studies?". Schizophr Bull 33 (5): 1178–200. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbl065. PMID 17158508. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17158508. 
  41. ^ Green MF, Nuechterlein KH (1999). "Should schizophrenia be treated as a neurocognitive disorder?". Schizophr Bull 25 (2): 309–19. PMID 10416733. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10416733. 
  42. ^ Green, Michael (2001). Schizophrenia revealed: from neurons to social interactions. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-70334-7. Lay summary. 
  43. ^ Lake CR, Hurwitz N (July 2007). "Schizoaffective disorder merges schizophrenia and bipolar disorders as one disease—there is no schizoaffective disorder". Curr Opin Psychiatry 20 (4): 365–79. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e3281a305ab. PMID 17551352. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?an=00001504-200707000-00011. 
  44. ^ Malhi GS, Green M, Fagiolini A, Peselow ED, Kumari V (February 2008). "Schizoaffective disorder: diagnostic issues and future recommendations". Bipolar Disord 10 (1 Pt 2): 215–30. doi:10.1111/j.1399–5618.2007.00564.x (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 18199238. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=1398-5647&date=2008&volume=10&issue=1%20Pt%202&spage=215. 
  45. ^ Craddock N, Owen MJ (May 2005). "The beginning of the end for the Kraepelinian dichotomy". Br J Psychiatry 186: 364–6. doi:10.1192/bjp.186.5.364. PMID 15863738. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15863738. 
  46. ^ Cooper, David A. (1969). The Dialectics of Liberation (Pelican). London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-021029-6. 
  47. ^ Szasz, Thomas Stephen (1974). The myth of mental illness: foundations of a theory of personal conduct. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-091151-4. 
  48. ^ ;Meyer-Lindenberg A; Miletich RS, Kohn PD, Esposito G, Carson RE, Quarantelli M, Weinberger DR, Berman KF (2002). "Reduced prefrontal activity predicts exaggerated striatal dopaminergic function in schizophrenia". Nature Neuroscience 5 (3): 267–71. doi:10.1038/nn804. PMID 11865311. 
  49. ^ Harrison PJ; Owen MJ (2003). "Genes for schizophrenia? Recent findings and their pathophysiological implications". The Lancet 361 (9355): 417–19. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12379–3 (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 12573388. 
  50. ^ Day R; Nielsen JA, Korten A, Ernberg G, Dube KC, Gebhart J, Jablensky A, Leon C, Marsella A, Olatawura M, et al. (1987). "Stressful life events preceding the acute onset of schizophrenia: a cross-national study from the World Health Organization". Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 11 (2): 123–205. doi:10.1007/BF00122563. PMID 3595169. 
  51. ^ Corcoran C; Walker E, Huot R, Mittal V, Tessner K, Kestler L, Malaspina D (2003). "The stress cascade and schizophrenia: etiology and onset". Schizophrenia Bulletin 29 (4): 671–92. PMID 14989406. 
  52. ^ O'Donovan MC; Williams NM, Owen MJ (2003). "Recent advances in the genetics of schizophrenia". Human Molecular Genetics 12 Spec No 2: R125–33. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddg302. PMID 12952866. 
  53. ^ Owen MJ; Craddock N, O'Donovan MC (2005). "Schizophrenia: genes at last?". Trends in Genetics 21 (9): 518–25. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2005.06.011. PMID 16009449. 
  54. ^ Craddock N; O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ (2006). "Genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? Implications for psychiatric nosology". Schizophrenia Bulletin 32 (1): 9–16. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbj033. PMID 16319375. 
  55. ^ Datta, SR.; McQuillin, A.; Rizig, M.; Blaveri, E.; Thirumalai, S.; Kalsi, G.; Lawrence, J.; Bass, NJ. et al. (Dec 2008). "A threonine to isoleucine missense mutation in the pericentriolar material 1 gene is strongly associated with schizophrenia.". Mol Psychiatry. doi:10.1038/mp.2008.128. PMID 19048012. 
  56. ^ Hennah, W.; Thomson, P.; McQuillin, A.; Bass, N.; Loukola, A.; Anjorin, A.; Blackwood, D.; Curtis, D. et al. (Sep 2009). "DISC1 association, heterogeneity and interplay in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.". Mol Psychiatry 14 (9): 865–73. doi:10.1038/mp.2008.22. PMID 18317464. 
  57. ^ O'Donovan MC, Craddock NJ, Owen MJ (2009). "Genetics of psychosis; insights from views across the genome". Hum Genet 126 (1): 3–12. doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0703-0. PMID 19521722. 
  58. ^ Purcell, SM.; Wray, NR.; Stone, JL.; Visscher, PM.; O'Donovan, MC.; Sullivan, PF.; Sklar, P.; Purcell, SM. et al. (Aug 2009). "Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.". Nature 460 (7256): 748–52. doi:10.1038/nature08185. PMID 19571811. 
  59. ^ Sanders AR, Duan J, Levinson DF, et al. (April 2008). "No significant association of 14 candidate genes with schizophrenia in a large European ancestry sample: implications for psychiatric genetics". Am J Psychiatry 165 (4): 497–506. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07101573. PMID 18198266. 
  60. ^ Walsh T, McClellan JM, McCarthy SE et al. (2008). "Rare structural variants disrupt multiple genes in neurodevelopmental pathways in schizophrenia". Science 320 (5875): 539–43. doi:10.1126/science.1155174. PMID 18369103. 
  61. ^ Kirov G, Grozeva D, Norton N et al. (2009). "Support for the involvement of large CNVs in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia". Hum Mol Genet 18 (8): 1497. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp043. PMID 19181681. 
  62. ^ The International Schizophrenia Consortium (11 September 2008). "Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications increase risk of schizophrenia". Nature 455 (7210): 237–41. doi:10.1038/nature07239. PMID 18668038. 
  63. ^ Crow TJ (July 2008). "The 'big bang' theory of the origin of psychosis and the faculty of language". Schizophr. Res. 102 (1–3): 31–52. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2008.03.010. PMID 18502103. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0920-9964(08)00149–7. 
  64. ^ Mueser KT, Jeste DV (2008). Clinical Handbook of Schizophrenia. New York: Guilford Press. p. 22–23. ISBN 1593856520. 
  65. ^ Davies G; Welham J, Chant D, Torrey EF, McGrath J (2003). "A systematic review and meta-analysis of Northern Hemisphere season of birth studies in schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin 29 (3): 587–93. PMID 14609251. 
  66. ^ Brown AS (2006). "Prenatal infection as a risk factor for schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin 32 (2): 200–2. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbj052. PMID 16469941. 
  67. ^ a b Van Os J (2004). "Does the urban environment cause psychosis?". British Journal of Psychiatry 184 (4): 287–288. doi:10.1192/bjp.184.4.287. PMID 15056569. 
  68. ^ van Os J, Krabbendam L, Myin-Germeys I, Delespaul P (March 2005). "The schizophrenia envirome". Current Opinion in Psychiatry 18 (2): 141–5. PMID 16639166. http://www.co-psychiatry.com/pt/re/copsych/abstract.00001504-200503000-00006.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  69. ^ Mueser KT, McGurk SR (2004). "Schizophrenia". The Lancet 363 (9426): 2063–72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16458–1 (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 15207959. 
  70. ^ Selten JP, Cantor-Graae E, Kahn RS (March 2007). "Migration and schizophrenia". Current Opinion in Psychiatry 20 (2): 111–115. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e328017f68e. PMID 17278906. http://www.co-psychiatry.com/pt/re/copsych/abstract.00001504-200703000-00003.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  71. ^ Schenkel LS; Spaulding WD, Dilillo D, Silverstein SM (2005). "Histories of childhood maltreatment in schizophrenia: Relationships with premorbid functioning, symptomatology, and cognitive deficits". Schizophrenia Research 76 (2–3): 273–286. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.03.003. PMID 15949659. 
  72. ^ Janssen; Krabbendam L, Bak M, Hanssen M, Vollebergh W, de Graaf R, van Os J (2004). "Childhood abuse as a risk factor for psychotic experiences". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 109 (1): 38–45. doi:10.1046/j.0001–690X.2003.00217.x (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 14674957. 
  73. ^ a b Bentall RP; Fernyhough C, Morrison AP, Lewis S, Corcoran R (2007). "Prospects for a cognitive-developmental account of psychotic experiences". Br J Clin Psychol 46 (Pt 2): 155–73. doi:10.1348/014466506X123011. PMID 17524210. 
  74. ^ Subotnik, KL; Goldstein, MJ, Nuechterlein, KH, Woo, SM and Mintz, J (2002). "Are Communication Deviance and Expressed Emotion Related to Family History of Psychiatric Disorders in Schizophrenia?". Schizophrenia Bulletin 28 (4): 719–29. PMID 12795501. 
  75. ^ Ferdinand RF, Sondeijker F, van der Ende J, Selten JP, Huizink A, Verhulst FC (2005). "Cannabis use predicts future psychotic symptoms, and vice versa". Addiction 100 (5): 612–8. doi:10.1111/j.1360–0443.2005.01070.x (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 15847618. 
  76. ^ Moore THM, Zammit S, Lingford-Hughes A et al. (2007). "Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review". Lancet 370 (9584): 319–328. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61162-3. PMID 17662880. 
  77. ^ Gregg L, Barrowclough C, Haddock G (2007). "Reasons for increased substance use in psychosis". Clin Psychol Rev 27 (4): 494–510. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.09.004. PMID 17240501. 
  78. ^ Mahoney JJ, Kalechstein AD, et al. (Mar-Apr 2008). "Presence and persistence of psychotic symptoms in cocaine- versus methamphetamine-dependent participants.". Am J Addict 27 (2): 83–98. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18393050?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed. 
  79. ^ Broome MR; Woolley JB, Tabraham P, Johns LC, Bramon E, Murray GK, Pariante C, McGuire PK, Murray RM (2005). "What causes the onset of psychosis?". Schizophrenia Research 79 (1): 23–34. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.02.007. PMID 16198238. 
  80. ^ Lewis R (2004). "Should cognitive deficit be a diagnostic criterion for schizophrenia?". Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 29 (2): 102–113. PMID 15069464. 
  81. ^ Brune M; Abdel-Hamid M, Lehmkamper C, Sonntag C (2007). "Mental state attribution, neurocognitive functioning, and psychopathology: What predicts poor social competence in schizophrenia best?". Schizophrenia Research 92 (1–2): 151–9. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2007.01.006. PMID 17346931. 
  82. ^ Sitskoorn MM; Aleman A, Ebisch SJH, Appels MCM, Khan RS (2004). "Cognitive deficits in relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis". Schizophrenia Research 71 (2): 285–295. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.03.007. PMID 15474899. 
  83. ^ Kurtz MM (2005). "Neurocognitive impairment across the lifespan in schizophrenia: an update". Schizophrenia Research 74 (1): 15–26. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.07.005. PMID 15694750. 
  84. ^ a b Cohen AS; Docherty, NM (2004). "Affective reactivity of speech and emotional experience in patients with schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research 69 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(03)00069–0 (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 15145465. 
  85. ^ Horan WP; Blanchard JJ (2003). "Emotional responses to psychosocial stress in schizophrenia: the role of individual differences in affective traits and coping". Schizophrenia Research 60 (2–3): 271–83. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00227-X. PMID 12591589. 
  86. ^ Barrowclough C; Tarrier N, Humphreys L, Ward J, Gregg L, Andrews B (2003). "Self-esteem in schizophrenia: relationships between self-evaluation, family attitudes, and symptomatology". J Abnorm Psychol 112 (1): 92–9. doi:10.1037/0021–843X.112.1.92 (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 12653417. 
  87. ^ Birchwood M; Meaden A, Trower P, Gilbert P, Plaistow J (2000). "The power and omnipotence of voices: subordination and entrapment by voices and significant others". Psychol Med 30 (2): 337–44. doi:10.1017/S0033291799001828. PMID 10824654. 
  88. ^ Smith B; Fowler DG, Freeman D, Bebbington P, Bashforth H, Garety P, Dunn G, Kuipers E (2006). "Emotion and psychosis: links between depression, self-esteem, negative schematic beliefs and delusions and hallucinations". Schizophrenia Research 86 (1–3): 181–8. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.06.018. PMID 16857346. 
  89. ^ Beck, AT (2004). "A Cognitive Model of Schizophrenia". Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 18 (3): 281–88. doi:10.1891/jcop.18.3.281.65649. 
  90. ^ Bell V; Halligan PW, Ellis HD (2006). "Explaining delusions: a cognitive perspective". Trends in Cognitive Science 10 (5): 219–26. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2006.03.004. PMID 16600666. 
  91. ^ Freeman D; Garety PA, Kuipers E, Fowler D, Bebbington PE, Dunn G (2007). "Acting on persecutory delusions: the importance of safety seeking". Behaviour Research and Therapy 45 (1): 89–99. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.01.014. PMID 16530161. 
  92. ^ Kuipers E; Garety P, Fowler D, Freeman D, Dunn G, Bebbington P (2006). "Cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis: refining cognitive behavioral therapy for persistent positive symptoms". Schizophrenia Bulletin 32 (Suppl 1): S24–31. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbl014. PMID 16885206. 
  93. ^ Kircher, Tilo; Renate Thienel (2006). "Functional brain imaging of symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia". The Boundaries of Consciousness. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 302. ISBN 0444528768. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=YHGacGKyVbYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA302. 
  94. ^ Green MF (2006). "Cognitive impairment and functional outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67 (Suppl 9): 3–8. PMID 16965182. 
  95. ^ Laruelle M; Abi-Dargham A, van Dyck CH, Gil R, D'Souza CD, Erdos J, McCance E, Rosenblatt W, Fingado C, Zoghbi SS, Baldwin RM, Seibyl JP, Krystal JH, Charney DS, Innis RB (1996). "Single photon emission computerized tomography imaging of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in drug-free schizophrenic subjects". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 93 (17): 9235–40. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.17.9235. PMID 8799184. 
  96. ^ Jones HM; Pilowsky LS (2002). "Dopamine and antipsychotic drug action revisited". British Journal of Psychiatry 181: 271–275. doi:10.1192/bjp.181.4.271. PMID 12356650. 
  97. ^ Konradi C; Heckers S (2003). "Molecular aspects of glutamate dysregulation: implications for schizophrenia and its treatment". Pharmacology and Therapeutics 97 (2): 153–79. doi:10.1016/S0163-7258(02)00328–5 (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 12559388. 
  98. ^ Lahti AC; Weiler MA, Tamara Michaelidis BA, Parwani A, Tamminga CA (2001). "Effects of ketamine in normal and schizophrenic volunteers". Neuropsychopharmacology 25 (4): 455–67. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(01)00243–3 (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 11557159. 
  99. ^ Coyle JT; Tsai G, Goff D (2003). "Converging evidence of NMDA receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1003: 318–27. doi:10.1196/annals.1300.020. PMID 14684455. 
  100. ^ Tuominen HJ; Tiihonen J, Wahlbeck K (2005). "Glutamatergic drugs for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Schizophrenia Research 72 (2-3): 225–34. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.05.005. PMID 15560967. 
  101. ^ Steen RG, Mull C, McClure R, Hamer RM, Lieberman JA (June 2006). "Brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies". Br J Psychiatry 188: 510–8. doi:10.1192/bjp.188.6.510. PMID 16738340. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16738340. 
  102. ^ Lieberman JA, Bymaster FP, Meltzer HY, Deutch AY, Duncan GE, Marx CE, Aprille JR, Dwyer DS, Li XM, Mahadik SP, Duman RS, Porter JH, Modica-Napolitano JS, Newton SS, Csernansky JG (September 2008). "Antipsychotic drugs: comparison in animal models of efficacy, neurotransmitter regulation, and neuroprotection". Pharmacol. Rev. 60 (3): 358–403. doi:10.1124/pr.107.00107. PMID 18922967. 
  103. ^ DeLisi LE (March 2008). "The concept of progressive brain change in schizophrenia: implications for understanding schizophrenia". Schizophr Bull 34 (2): 312–21. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm164. PMID 18263882. PMC 2632405. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18263882. 
  104. ^ Ellison-Wright I, Bullmore E (March 2009). "Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies in schizophrenia". Schizophr. Res. 108 (1–3): 3–10. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2008.11.021. PMID 19128945. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0920-9964(08)00527–6. 
  105. ^ Broyd SJ, Demanuele C, Debener S, Helps SK, James CJ, Sonuga-Barke EJS (2008). "Default-mode brain dysfunction in mental disorders: a systematic review". Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33 (3): 279. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.09.002. PMID 18824195. 
  106. ^ Cannon TD, Cornblatt B, McGorry P (May 2007). "The empirical status of the ultra high-risk (prodromal) research paradigm". Schizophrenia Bulletin 33 (3): 661–4. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm031. PMID 17470445. PMC 2526144. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17470445. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  107. ^ Drake RJ, Lewis SW (March 2005). "Early detection of schizophrenia". Current Opinion in Psychiatry 18 (2): 147–50. doi:10.1097/00001504-200503000-00007. PMID 16639167. http://www.co-psychiatry.com/pt/re/copsych/abstract.00001504-200503000-00007.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  108. ^ Van Os J, Delespaul P (2005). "Toward a world consensus on prevention of schizophrenia". Dialogues Clin Neurosci 7 (1): 53–67. PMID 16060596. 
  109. ^ McGorry, PD.; Yung, A.; Phillips, L. (Aug 2001). "Ethics and early intervention in psychosis: keeping up the pace and staying in step.". Schizophr Res 51 (1): 17–29. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(01)00235-3. PMID 11479062. 
  110. ^ Haroun N, Dunn L, Haroun A, Cadenhead KS (January 2006). "Risk and protection in prodromal schizophrenia: ethical implications for clinical practice and future research". Schizophrenia Bulletin 32 (1): 166–78. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbj007. PMID 16207892. PMC 2632176. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16207892. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  111. ^ Häfner H, Maurer K, Ruhrmann S, et al. (April 2004). "Early detection and secondary prevention of psychosis: facts and visions". European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 254 (2): 117–28. doi:10.1007/s00406-004-0508-z. PMID 15146341. 
  112. ^ van Os, J.; Burns, T.; Cavallaro, R.; Leucht, S.; Peuskens, J.; Helldin, L.; Bernardo, M.; Arango, C. et al. (Feb 2006). "Standardized remission criteria in schizophrenia.". Acta Psychiatr Scand 113 (2): 91–5. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00659.x. PMID 16423159. 
  113. ^ Kay, SR.; Fiszbein, A.; Opler, LA. (1987). "The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia.". Schizophr Bull 13 (2): 261–76. PMID 3616518. 
  114. ^ Turner T. (2007). "Unlocking psychosis". Brit J Med 334 (suppl): s7. doi:10.1136/bmj.39034.609074.94. PMID 17204765. 
  115. ^ a b c Bellack, AS. (Jul 2006). "Scientific and consumer models of recovery in schizophrenia: concordance, contrasts, and implications.". Schizophr Bull 32 (3): 432–42. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbj044. PMID 16461575. PMC 2632241. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2632241/?tool=pubmed. 
  116. ^ McGurk, SR.; Mueser, KT.; Feldman, K.; Wolfe, R.; Pascaris, A. (Mar 2007). "Cognitive training for supported employment: 2-3 year outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.". Am J Psychiatry 164 (3): 437–41. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.164.3.437. PMID 17329468. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/3/437. 
  117. ^ Kulhara, P. (1994). "Outcome of schizophrenia: some transcultural observations with particular reference to developing countries.". Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 244 (5): 227–35. doi:10.1007/BF02190374. PMID 7893767. 
  118. ^ Shankar Vedantam (27 June 2005). "Social Network's Healing Power Is Borne Out in Poorer Nations". USA: Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/26/AR2005062601091.html. 
  119. ^ National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (2009-03-25). "Schizophrenia: Full national clinical guideline on core interventions in primary and secondary care" (PDF). Gaskell and the British Psychological Society. http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG82FullGuideline.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-25. 
  120. ^ Murphy BP, Chung YC, Park TW, McGorry PD (December 2006). "Pharmacological treatment of primary negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a systematic review". Schizophr. Res. 88 (1–3): 5–25. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.07.002. PMID 16930948. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0920-9964(06)00311–2. 
  121. ^ Gray JA, Roth BL (October 2007). "The pipeline and future of drug development in schizophrenia". Mol. Psychiatry 12 (10): 904–22. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4002062. PMID 17667958. 
  122. ^ Jarskog LF, Miyamoto S, Lieberman JA (2007). "Schizophrenia: new pathological insights and therapies". Annu. Rev. Med. 58: 49–61. doi:10.1146/annurev.med.58.060904.084114. PMID 16903799. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.med.58.060904.084114?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 
  123. ^ Tandon R, Keshavan MS, Nasrallah HA (March 2008). "Schizophrenia, "Just the Facts": what we know in 2008 part 1: overview". Schizophr. Res. 100 (1-3): 4–19. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2008.01.022. PMID 18291627. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0920-9964(08)00071-6. 
  124. ^ Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, et al. (September 2005). "Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia". New England Journal of Medicine 353 (12): 1209–23. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa051688. PMID 16172203. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=short&pmid=16172203&promo=ONFLNS19. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  125. ^ Swartz MS, Stroup TS et al. (2008). "What CATIE Found: Results From the Schizophrenia Trial". Psychiatr Serv 59 (5): 500–506. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.59.5.500. PMID 18451005. http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/59/5/500. 
  126. ^ Leucht S, Wahlbeck K, Hamann J, Kissling W (May 2003). "New generation antipsychotics versus low-potency conventional antipsychotics: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Lancet 361 (9369): 1581–89. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13306-5. PMID 12747876. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140-6736(03)13306-5. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  127. ^ Dickson RA, Dalby JT, Williams R, Edwards AL (July 1995). "Risperidone-induced prolactin elevations in premenopausal women with schizophrenia". American Journal of Psychiatry 152 (7): 1102–03. PMID 7540803. 
  128. ^ Ananth J, Parameswaran S, Gunatilake S, Burgoyne K, Sidhom T (April 2004). "Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and atypical antipsychotic drugs". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65 (4): 464–70. PMID 15119907. http://article.psychiatrist.com/?ContentType=START&ID=10000823. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  129. ^ Meltzer HY (1997). "Treatment-resistant schizophrenia—the role of clozapine". Current Medical Research and Opinion 14 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1185/03007999709113338 (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 9524789. 
  130. ^ Wahlbeck K, Cheine MV, Essali A (2007). "Clozapine versus typical neuroleptic medication for schizophrenia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.) (2): CD000059. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000059. PMID 10796289. 
  131. ^ Haas SJ, Hill R, Krum H (2007). "Clozapine-associated myocarditis: a review of 116 cases of suspected myocarditis associated with the use of clozapine in Australia during 1993–2003". Drug Safety 30 (1): 47–57. doi:10.2165/00002018-200730010-00005. PMID 17194170. 
  132. ^ Lee M, Dickson RA, Campbell M, Oliphant J, Gretton H, Dalby JT. (1998). "Clozapine and substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 43: 855–856. 
  133. ^ Harrow M, Jobe TH (May 2007). "Factors involved in outcome and recovery in schizophrenia patients not on antipsychotic medications: a 15-year multifollow-up study". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 195 (5): 406–414. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000253783.32338.6e (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 17502806. 
  134. ^ Moran, M (18 November 2005). "Psychosocial Treatment Often Missing From Schizophrenia Regimens". Psychiatric News (USA: Psychiatry Online) 40 (22): 24. http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/40/22/24-b. Retrieved 17 May 2007. 
  135. ^ Sensky T, Turkington D, Kingdon D, Scott JL, Scott J, Siddle R, O'Carroll M, Barnes TR (February 2000). "A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for persistent symptoms in schizophrenia resistant to medication". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57 (2): 165–72. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.2.165. PMID 10665619. 
  136. ^ Kuipers E, Garety P, Fowler D, Dunn G, Bebbington P, Freeman D, Hadley C (October 1997). "London-East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis. I: effects of the treatment phase". Br J Psychiatry 171: 319–27. doi:10.1192/bjp.171.4.319. PMID 9373419. 
  137. ^ Lewis S, Tarrier N, Haddock G, Bentall R, Kinderman P, Kingdon D, Siddle R, Drake R, Everitt J, Leadley K, Benn A, Grazebrook K, Haley C, Akhtar S, Davies L, Palmer S, Faragher B, Dunn G (September 2002). "Randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy in early schizophrenia: acute-phase outcomes". Br J Psychiatry Suppl 43: s91–7. PMID 12271807. 
  138. ^ Cormac I, Jones C, Campbell C (2002). "Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia". Cochrane Database of systematic reviews (1): CD000524. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000524. PMID 11869579. 
  139. ^ Wykes T, Steel C, Everitt B, Tarrier N (May 2008). "Cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: effect sizes, clinical models, and methodological rigor". Schizophr Bull 34 (3): 523–37. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm114. PMID 17962231. 
  140. ^ Zimmermann G, Favrod J, Trieu VH, Pomini V (September 2005). "The effect of cognitive behavioral treatment on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis". Schizophrenia Research 77 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.02.018. PMID 16005380. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0920-9964(05)00084-8. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  141. ^ Wykes T, Brammer M, Mellers J, et al. (August 2002). "Effects on the brain of a psychological treatment: cognitive remediation therapy: functional magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia". British Journal of Psychiatry 181: 144–52. doi:10.1192/bjp.181.2.144 (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 12151286. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12151286. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  142. ^ Medalia A (2009). "Cognitive Remediation for Psychiatric Patients: Improving Functional Outcomes for Patients With Schizophrenia". Psychiatric Times 26 (3). http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/display/article/10168/1386195. 
  143. ^ Hogarty GE, Flesher S, Ulrich R, et al. (September 2004). "Cognitive enhancement therapy for schizophrenia: effects of a 2-year randomized trial on cognition and behavior". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 61 (9): 866–76. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.9.866. PMID 15351765. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15351765. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  144. ^ McFarlane WR, Dixon L, Lukens E, Lucksted A (April 2003). "Family psychoeducation and schizophrenia: a review of the literature". J Marital Fam Ther 29 (2): 223–45. doi:10.1111/j.1752–0606.2003.tb01202.x (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 12728780. 
  145. ^ Glynn SM, Cohen AN, Niv N (January 2007). "New challenges in family interventions for schizophrenia". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 7 (1): 33–43. doi:10.1586/14737175.7.1.33. PMID 17187495. http://www.future-drugs.com/doi/abs/10.1586/14737175.7.1.33?url_ver=Z39.88–2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  146. ^ Pharoah, F.; Mari, J.; Rathbone, J.; Wong, W.; Pharoah, Fiona (2006). "Family intervention for schizophrenia.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD000088. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000088.pub2. PMID 17054127. http://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab000088.html. 
  147. ^ Jones S, Hayward P (2004). Coping with Schizophrenia: A Guide for Patients, Families and Caregivers. Oxford, England: Oneworld Pub.. ISBN 1-85168-344-5. 
  148. ^ Torrey EF (2006). Surviving Schizophrenia: A Manual for Families, Consumers, and Providers (5th ed.). HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-084259-8. 
  149. ^ Kopelowicz A, Liberman RP, Zarate R (October 2006). "Recent advances in social skills training for schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin 32 Suppl 1: S12–23. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbl023. PMID 16885207. PMC 2632540. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16885207. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  150. ^ American Psychiatric Association (February 2004). "Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Schizophrenia. Second Edition". USA: National Guideline Clearinghouse. http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?ss=15&doc_id=5217. 
  151. ^ Talwar N, Crawford MJ, Maratos A, Nur U, McDermott O, Procter S (November 2006). "Music therapy for in-patients with schizophrenia: exploratory randomised controlled trial". The British Journal of Psychiatry 189: 405–9. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.105.015073. PMID 17077429. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17077429. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  152. ^ Ruddy, R.; Milnes, D. (2005). "Art therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD003728. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003728.pub2. PMID 16235338. http://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab003728.html. 
  153. ^ Ruddy, RA.; Dent-Brown, K. (2007). "Drama therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD005378. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005378.pub2. PMID 17253555. http://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab005378.html. 
  154. ^ Mosher LR (March 1999). "Soteria and other alternatives to acute psychiatric hospitalization: a personal and professional review". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 187 (3): 142–9. doi:10.1097/00005053-199903000-00003. PMID 10086470. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0022–3018&volume=187&issue=3&spage=142. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  155. ^ Calton T, Ferriter M, Huband N, Spandler H (January 2008). "A systematic review of the Soteria paradigm for the treatment of people diagnosed with schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin 34 (1): 181–92. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm047. PMID 17573357. PMC 2632384. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17573357. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  156. ^ Greenhalgh J, Knight C, Hind D, Beverley C, Walters S (March 2005). "Clinical and cost-effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy for depressive illness, schizophrenia, catatonia and mania: systematic reviews and economic modelling studies". Health Technol Assess. 9 (9): 1–156. PMID 15774232. 
  157. ^ "The clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) for depressive illness, schizophrenia, catatonia and mania.". National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. April 2003. http://www.nice.org.uk/page.aspx?o=TA059. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  158. ^ Mashour GA, Walker EE, Martuza RL (June 2005). "Psychosurgery: past, present, and future". Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 48 (3): 409–19. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.09.002. PMID 15914249. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-0173(04)00129-8. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  159. ^ Goering P, Durbin J, Sheldon CT, Ochocka J, Nelson G, Krupa T (July 2006). "Who uses consumer-run self-help organizations?". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 76 (3): 367–73. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.3.367. PMID 16981815. http://content.apa.org/journals/ort/76/3/367. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  160. ^ Harrison G, Hopper K, Craig T, et al. (June 2001). "Recovery from psychotic illness: a 15- and 25-year international follow-up study". British Journal of Psychiatry 178: 506–17. doi:10.1192/bjp.178.6.506. PMID 11388966. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11388966. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  161. ^ a b Jobe TH, Harrow M (December 2005). 05-Harrow-IR.pdf "Long-term outcome of patients with schizophrenia: a review" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 50 (14): 892–900. PMID 16494258. http://ww1.cpa-apc.org:8080/Publications/Archives/CJP/2005/december/cjp-December 05-Harrow-IR.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  162. ^ Robinson DG, Woerner MG, McMeniman M, Mendelowitz A, Bilder RM (March 2004). "Symptomatic and functional recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder". American Journal of Psychiatry 161 (3): 473–9. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.161.3.473. PMID 14992973. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14992973. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  163. ^ Harvey CA, Jeffreys SE, McNaught AS, Blizard RA, King MB (2007). "The Camden Schizophrenia Surveys III: Five-Year Outcome of a Sample of Individuals From a Prevalence Survey and the Importance of Social Relationships". International Journal of Social Psychiatry 53 (4): 340–356. doi:10.1177/0020764006074529. PMID 17703650. http://isp.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/53/4/340. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  164. ^ Hopper K, Wanderling J (1 January 2000). "Revisiting the developed versus developing country distinction in course and outcome in schizophrenia: results from ISoS, the WHO collaborative followup project. International Study of Schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin 26 (4): 835–46. PMID 11087016. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11087016. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  165. ^ Andreasen NC, Carpenter WT, Kane JM, Lasser RA, Marder SR, Weinberger DR (March 2005). "Remission in schizophrenia: proposed criteria and rationale for consensus". The American Journal of Psychiatry 162 (3): 441–9. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.3.441. PMID 15741458. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15741458. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  166. ^ Liberman RP, Kopelowicz A (June 2005). "Recovery From Schizophrenia: A Concept in Search of Research". Psychiatric Services 56 (6): 735–742. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.56.6.735. PMID 15939952. http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/56/6/735. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  167. ^ Davidson L, Schmutte T, Dinzeo T, Andres-Hyman R (January 2008). "Remission and recovery in schizophrenia: practitioner and patient perspectives". Schizophrenia Bulletin 34 (1): 5–8. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm122. PMID 17984297. PMC 2632379. http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17984297. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  168. ^ Davidson L, McGlashan TH (February 1997). "The varied outcomes of schizophrenia". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 42 (1): 34–43. PMID 9040921. 
  169. ^ Lieberman JA, Koreen AR, Chakos M, et al. (1996). "Factors influencing treatment response and outcome of first-episode schizophrenia: implications for understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 57 Suppl 9: 5–9. PMID 8823344. 
  170. ^ Bebbington P, Kuipers L (August 1994). "The predictive utility of expressed emotion in schizophrenia: an aggregate analysis". Psychological Medicine 24 (3): 707–18. doi:10.1017/S0033291700027860. PMID 7991753. 
  171. ^ Hannerz H, Borgå P, Borritz M (September 2001). "Life expectancies for individuals with psychiatric diagnoses". Public Health 115 (5): 328–37. doi:10.1038/sj.ph.1900785. PMID 11593442. 
  172. ^ Evins AE (March 1, 2008). "Nicotine Dependence in Schizophrenia: Prevalence, Mechanisms, and Implications for Treatment". Psychiatric Times 25 (3). http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/article/10168/1147496. 
  173. ^ Palmer, BA.; Pankratz, VS.; Bostwick, JM. (Mar 2005). "The lifetime risk of suicide in schizophrenia: a reexamination.". Arch Gen Psychiatry 62 (3): 247–53. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.3.247. PMID 15753237. 
  174. ^ Radomsky ED, Haas GL, Mann JJ, Sweeney JA (1 October 1999). "Suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders". American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (10): 1590–5. PMID 10518171. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10518171. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  175. ^ Caldwell CB, Gottesman II (1990). "Schizophrenics kill themselves too: a review of risk factors for suicide". Schizophr Bull 16 (4): 571–89. PMID 2077636. 
  176. ^ Dalby JT, Williams RJ (1989). Depression in schizophrenics. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-43240-4. 
  177. ^ Violence and schizophrenia:
  178. ^ a b Mullen PE (2006). "Schizophrenia and violence: from correlations to preventive strategies". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 12: 239–248. doi:10.1192/apt.12.4.239. http://apt.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/4/239. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  179. ^ Simpson AI, McKenna B, Moskowitz A, Skipworth J, Barry-Walsh J (November 2004). "Homicide and mental illness in New Zealand, 1970–2000". British Journal of Psychiatry 185: 394–8. doi:10.1192/bjp.185.5.394. PMID 15516547. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15516547. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  180. ^ Fazel S, Grann M (November 2004). "Psychiatric morbidity among homicide offenders: a Swedish population study". American Journal of Psychiatry 161 (11): 2129–31. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.161.11.2129. PMID 15514419. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15514419. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  181. ^ Brekke JS, Prindle C, Bae SW, Long JD (October 2001). "Risks for individuals with schizophrenia who are living in the community". Psychiatr Serv 52 (10): 1358–66. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.52.10.1358. PMID 11585953. http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11585953. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  182. ^ Fitzgerald PB, de Castella AR, Filia KM, Filia SL, Benitez J, Kulkarni J (March 2005). "Victimization of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39 (3): 169–74. doi:10.1111/j.1440–1614.2005.01539.x (inactive 2009-12-08). PMID 15701066. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0004–8674&date=2005&volume=39&issue=3&spage=169. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  183. ^ Walsh E, Gilvarry C, Samele C, et al. (April 2004). "Predicting violence in schizophrenia: a prospective study". Schizophrenia Research 67 (2–3): 247–52. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(03)00091-4. PMID 14984884. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0920996403000914. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  184. ^ Solomon PL, Cavanaugh MM, Gelles RJ (January 2005). "Family violence among adults with severe mental illness: a neglected area of research". Trauma Violence Abuse 6 (1): 40–54. doi:10.1177/1524838004272464. PMID 15574672. http://tva.sagepub.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15574672. Retrieved 2008-07-04. {subscription required)
  185. ^ Chou KR, Lu RB, Chang M (December 2001). "Assaultive behavior by psychiatric in-patients and its related factors". J Nurs Res 9 (5): 139–51. PMID 11779087. 
  186. ^ Lögdberg B, Nilsson LL, Levander MT, Levander S (August 2004). "Schizophrenia, neighbourhood, and crime". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 110 (2): 92–7. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0047.2004.00322.x. PMID 15233709. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0001-690X&date=2004&volume=110&issue=2&spage=92. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  187. ^ Kumra S; Shaw M, Merka P, Nakayama E, Augustin R (2001). "Childhood-onset schizophrenia: research update". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 46 (10): 923–30. PMID 11816313. 
  188. ^ Hassett, Anne, et al. (eds) (2005). Psychosis in the Elderly. London: Taylor and Francis. ISBN 18418439446. pp. 6. http://books.google.com/books?id=eLaMOJ9oj28C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Psychosis+in+the+Elderly&ei=LC3tSYCYH4G4M9Sz6OkN. 
  189. ^ Jablensky A; Sartorius N, Ernberg G, Anker M, Korten A, Cooper JE, Day R, Bertelsen A (1992). "Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study". Psychological Medicine Monograph Supplement 20: 1–97. doi:10.1017/S0264180100000904. PMID 1565705. 
  190. ^ Kirkbride JB; Fearon P, Morgan C, Dazzan P, Morgan K, Tarrant J, Lloyd T, Holloway J, Hutchinson G, Leff JP, Mallett RM, Harrison GL, Murray RM, Jones PB (2006). "Heterogeneity in incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes: findings From the 3-center ÆSOP study". Archives of General Psychiatry 63 (3): 250–58. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.3.250. PMID 16520429. 
  191. ^ Kirkbride JB; Fearon P, Morgan C, Dazzan P, Morgan K, Murray RM, Jones PB (2007). "Neighbourhood variation in the incidence of psychotic disorders in Southeast London". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 42 (6): 438–45. doi:10.1007/s00127-007-0193-0. PMID 17473901. 
  192. ^ Ustun TB; Rehm J, Chatterji S, Saxena S, Trotter R, Room R, Bickenbach J, and the WHO/NIH Joint Project CAR Study Group (1999). "Multiple-informant ranking of the disabling effects of different health conditions in 14 countries". The Lancet 354 (9173): 111–15. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07507-2. PMID 10408486. 
  193. ^ Heinrichs RW (2003). "Historical origins of schizophrenia: two early madmen and their illness". J Hist Behav Sci 39 (4): 349–63. doi:10.1002/jhbs.10152. PMID 14601041. 
  194. ^ Kraepelin, E. (1907). Text book of psychiatry. Diefendorf A.R. (7 ed.). London: Macmillan. 
  195. ^ Hansen RA, Atchison B (2000). Conditions in occupational therapy: effect on occupational performance. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-30417-8. 
  196. ^ Kuhn R; (2004). tr. Cahn CH. "Eugen Bleuler's concepts of psychopathology". Hist Psychiatry 15 (3): 361–6. doi:10.1177/0957154X04044603. PMID 15386868. 
  197. ^ Stotz-Ingenlath G (2000). "Epistemological aspects of Eugen Bleuler's conception of schizophrenia in 1911" (PDF). Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (2): 153–9. doi:10.1023/A:1009919309015. PMID 11079343. http://www.kluweronline.com/art.pdf?issn=1386-7423&volume=3&page=153. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  198. ^ Wing JK (January 1971). "International comparisons in the study of the functional psychoses". British Medical Bulletin 27 (1): 77–81. PMID 4926366. 
  199. ^ Rosenhan D (1973). "On being sane in insane places". Science 179 (70): 250–8. doi:10.1126/science.179.4070.250. PMID 4683124. 
  200. ^ Wilson M (March 1993). "DSM-III and the transformation of American psychiatry: a history". American Journal of Psychiatry 150 (3): 399–410. PMID 8434655. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8434655. Retrieved 2008-07-03. {subscription required}
  201. ^ Porter, Roy; Berrios, G. E. (1995). A history of clinical psychiatry: the origin and history of psychiatric disorders. London: Athlone Press. ISBN 0-485-24211-7. 
  202. ^ Maj, Mario; Sartorius, N. (15 September 1999). Schizophrenia. Chichester: Wiley. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-471-99906-5. 
  203. ^ Pescosolido BA, Monahan J, Link BG, Stueve A, Kikuzawa S (September 1999). "The public's view of the competence, dangerousness, and need for legal coercion of persons with mental health problems". American Journal of Public Health 89 (9): 1339–45. doi:10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1339. PMID 10474550. PMC 1508769. http://www.ajph.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10474550. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  204. ^ Phelan JC, Link BG, Stueve A, Pescosolido BA (June 2000). "Public Conceptions of Mental Illness in 1950 and 1996: What Is Mental Illness and Is It to be Feared?". Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41 (2): 188–207. doi:10.2307/2676305. 
  205. ^ Kim, Y.; Berrios, GE. (2001). "Impact of the term schizophrenia on the culture of ideograph: the Japanese experience.". Schizophr Bull 27 (2): 181–5. PMID 11354585. 
  206. ^ Sato M (2004). "Renaming schizophrenia: a Japanese perspective". World Psychiatry 5 (1): 53–55. PMID 16757998. 
  207. ^ Deveson A (1991). Tell Me I'm Here. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-027257-7. 

Further reading

  • Bentall, Richard (2003). Madness explained: psychosis and human nature. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9249-2. 
  • Dalby, J. Thomas (1996). Mental disease in history: a selection of translated readings. Bern: Peter Lang. ISBN 0-8204-3056-0. 
  • Fallon, James H. (2003). ."The Neuroanatomy of Schizophrenia: Circuitry and Neurotransmitter Systems". Clinical Neuroscience Research 3: 77–107. doi:10.1016/S1566-2772(03)00022-7. 
  • Fleck, Stephen; Theodore Lidz and Alice Cornelison (1985).^ Autoimmunity and Infection in Schizophrenia Research -- Neurotransmitter.net ( cached ) http://www.neurotransmitter.net/schizophrenia.html Disorders Research.
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    Schizophrenia and the family. .New York: International Universities Press.^ International Universities Press, 1990.
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985, 115.
    • Supreme Court of Canada - Decisions - Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC scc.lexum.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The 4th Biennial Conference on Adoption will be held at St. John’s University in New York City, Oct.
    • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-8236-6001-X. 
  • Keen TM (December 1999). "Schizophrenia: orthodoxy and heresies. A review of alternative possibilities". .Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 6 (6): 415–24. doi:10.1046/j.1365–2850.1999.00237.x (inactive 2009-12-08).^ International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12 (1) Dilans, G. (2009).
    • IOPJ.92.1.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC mlj.miis.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing, 4th Ed."
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ HHS: Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing - Table of Contents ( cached ) http://www3.us.elsevierhealth.com/SIMON/Varcarolis/archive/toc.html Psychobiology of Mental Disorders.
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    PMID 10818864. .http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=1351–0126&date=1999&volume=6&issue=6&spage=415.^ InteliHealth: ( cached ) http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/8271/8282/33022.html?d=dmtContent ...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pediatricians And Spectrum Development Disorders An Overview ( cached ) http://www.haveinfo.net/Article/Pediatricians-And-Spectrum-Development-Disorders--An-Overview/4253 ...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cognition/Safety of Peyote when Used Religiously.doc ( cached ) http://www.cyjack.com/Cognition/Safety%20of%20Peyote%20when%20Used%20Religiously.doc ...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2008-07-07
    .
     
  • Laing, Ronald D. (1990). The divided self: an existential study in sanity and madness. .New York: Penguin Books.^ New York: Basic Books.
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There’s a new book series, the “Penguin African Writers Series,” which will include not only new books from emerging writers, but also classics taken over from the defunct Heinemann African Writers Series.
    • DIARY OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC DANCER 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC qudus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-14-013537-5.
     
  • Noll, Richard (2006). .The Encyclopedia of Schizophrenia And Other Psychotic Disorders (Facts on File Library of Health and Living).^ Schizoid personality disorder ( cached ) http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/DS/00865.html ...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ NIH Guide: MENTAL HEALTH CLINICAL TRAINING GRANTS: INDIVIDUAL FACULTY SCHOLARAWARDS ( cached ) http://grants.nih.gov/Grants/guide/notice-files/not92-039.html RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Schizophrenic Disorders NIMH has designated schizophrenia as ...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Schizophrenic, Paranoid and Other Psychotic Disorders: Characterized by ...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-6405-9.
     
  • Roazen, Paul; Victor Tausk (1991). Sexuality, war, and schizophrenia: collected psychoanalytic papers. New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-88738-365-3.  (On the Origin of the 'Influencing Machine' in Schizophrenia.)
  • Shaner A, Miller G, Mintz J (September 2004). "Schizophrenia as one extreme of a sexually selected fitness indicator" (PDF). Schizophr. .Res. 70 (1): 101–9. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2003.09.014.^ Thursday, September 18, 2008 10:09 PM by Jrvmawci # I answer you I have perfectly taken pleasure, thanks for executionstfy 8-)70 .
    • Matt Hempey : SharePoint UI Customization 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC blogs.vertigosoftware.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Monday, November 10, 2008 2:46 PM by Ojutrmwe # You're just awesome Best viewsitfu - 70 .
    • Matt Hempey : SharePoint UI Customization 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC blogs.vertigosoftware.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    PMID 15246469. .http://www.unm.edu/~gfmiller/new_papers/shaner%20miller%202004%20schizo.pdf.^ Retrieved January 22, 2006 from http://www.graybiel.brandeis.edu/publications/PDF/191_ms_encns.pdf .
    • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Retrieved February 18, from http://www.mind.ilstu.edu/published/Phillips/PhillipsCh4.html .
    • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Retrieved February 15, 2006 from http://www.bcm.edu/neurology/challeng/pat44/summary.html .
    • Screwed-up Medical Misfortunes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC freednerd.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2008-07-07
    . 
  • Szasz, Thomas Stephen (1976). Schizophrenia: the sacred symbol of psychiatry. .New York: Basic Books.^ New York: Basic Books.
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Jason Aronson.Bellak Leopold (1979: Disorder of Schizophrenic Syndrom, Neuva York: Basic Books...
    • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York, NY. University Books.

    ISBN 0-465-07222-4.
     

External links

.

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< Psychiatric Disorders | Psychotic Disorders
.Schizophrenia is a devastating illness that affects approximately 1% of the population.^ Approximately 1% of the worlds population is affected by this condition.
  • Fatty Acids Help Schizophrenic Patients | Bastyr Center for Natural Health 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC bastyrcenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia affects about 1 percent of the population.
  • Early treatment of schizophrenia may improve outcomes - He@lthLINK: Mental health - Yale-New Haven Hospital 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ynhh.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia affects approximately 1 person in 100, or 1% of the population.
  • People Say I'm Crazy | What is Schizophrenia? 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.peoplesayimcrazy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its primary impact is on thought, and its cardinal symptom is psychotic thinking in affecting individuals.^ Patients with the worst brain tissue loss also had the worst symptoms, which included hallucinations, delusions, bizarre and psychotic thoughts, hearing voices, and depression.
  • Schizophrenia.com - Schizophrenia is a Brain Disease 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.schizophrenia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Paul Thompson's Research Publications 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.loni.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with this condition can experience a range of symptoms from extreme apathy to experiencing hallucinations, paranoid and delusional thinking.
  • Schizophrenia | cnstrial.com 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.cnstrial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He suggested the primary symptoms were ambivalence, autism , (loss of interest in the outside world), affective blunting (loss of emotional responses) and altered associations (thought fragmentation).

.In addition, however, it can affect many aspects of cortical function.^ In addition, schizophrenia affects people’s concentration, memory, thoughts, planning skills, and ability to solve problems, which are called cognitive functions .
  • Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness associated with hallucinations, delusions, disordered thinking and unusual behaviour 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.psychiatry24x7.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a recent review suggested that there are weaknesses in many family intervention studies, and that there is a need for additional investigation.
  • Schizophrenia: A Review - June 15, 2007 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I have always had a fear of spiders, as do many people, but at this particular time my anxiety had escalated to an unmanageable level which was affecting my ability to function on a day to day basis.

.Although great strides have occurred in treating this disorder it remains one of the most debilitating of psychiatric disorders.^ Kraepelin believed that all psychiatric disorders were caused by organic factors, and his experience suggested to him that the onset of the disease occured early in the life of the individual.
  • Types of Disorders: Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.purgatory.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The basic behavioral scientists all have unique skills and talents that, when combined with the expertise of the clinical investigators, has created a synergy that may illuminate one of the most perplexing of all psychiatric disorders.
  • Welcome to the Center for Neurocognition and Emotion in Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.schizophrenia.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of the deterioration that occurs in patients with schizophrenia occurs in the first 5-10 years of the illness and is usually followed by decades of relative stability, although a return to baseline is unusual.

Contents

Phenomenology

.Schizophrenia is a chronic and often progressively deteriorating disorder of thought,and mind, which affect behavior and perception.^ Schizophrenia is a complex brain disorder affecting thoughts and perceptions.
  • The NIMH Genetic Study of Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC gauss.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia is often a chronic relapsing psychotic disorder that primarily affects thought and behaviour.
  • Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.priory.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by severely disorganized thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.

.The signs and symptoms of schizophrenia are usually divided into positive and negative symptoms.^ Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia .
  • Understanding Schizophrenia: Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Effects 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms fall into two categories that include negative and positive symptoms.
  • Schizophrenia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I defeated schizophrenia and its negative symptoms.
  • PsychosisBook|The Best Available Treatment For Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.psychosisbook.com [Source type: General]

.Positive symptoms are disorders of commission, including things patients do or think.^ Symptoms of this disorder are described as positive or negative.
  • Acute Schizophrenic Episode - information, treatment and medications 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.nmihi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several different brain disorders can lead to psychotic symptoms, including lesions in the brain resulting from head traumas, strokes, tumors, infections or the use of illegal drugs.
  • Schizophrenia Symptoms 19 September 2009 3:33 UTC www.schizophrenia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients with the worst brain tissue loss also had the worst symptoms, which included hallucinations, delusions, bizarre and psychotic thoughts, hearing voices, and depression.
  • Schizophrenia.com - Schizophrenia is a Brain Disease 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.schizophrenia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Paul Thompson's Research Publications 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.loni.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Examples are hallucinations, delusions, other formal thought disorders, and bizarre or disorganized behavior.^ Positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorders.
  • What is Psychiatric Disability and Mental Illness? 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prominent features include thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations.
  • schizophrenia 19 September 2009 3:33 UTC www.drhull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schizophrenia results in hallucinations, delusions and disordered thinking and behavior.

.Negative symptoms are disorders of omission, or things patients do not do.^ Symptoms of this disorder are described as positive or negative.
  • Acute Schizophrenic Episode - information, treatment and medications 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.nmihi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At sometime or another about 50% of all schizophrenia patients have substance abuse problems.There are two categories of symptoms of Schizophrenia, positive symptoms and negative symptoms.
  • The Various Symptoms and Types of Schizophrenia - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The infusions reproduced the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, including paranoia, thought disorder, loose associations, illusions, emotional withdrawal, and psychomotor retardation.
  • Emerging Schizophrenia Treatments Aim to Enhance NMDA Receptor Function 19 September 2009 3:33 UTC www.neuropsychiatryreviews.com [Source type: Academic]

Negative symptoms include:
  • alogia: marked poverty of speech, or poverty of content of speech
  • affective flattening
  • anhedonia: inability to experience pleasure
  • asociality: a lack of interest in social contacts)
  • avolition: a lack of motivation
  • apathy: a general lack of interest.

Motor disturbances

.Motor disturbances include disorders of mobility, activity and volition.^ Catatonic schizophrenics have disordered motor activity.
  • Types of Schizophrenia | in Chapter 12: Abnormal | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.intropsych.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disturbed voluntary motor activity in schizophrenic disorder.
  • http://heybryan.org/~bbishop/search/AP_Psychology/schizophrenic%20disorders.html 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC heybryan.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) causes inattention, impulsivity, and exaggerated motor activity in a child.
  • http://library.thinkquest.org/14028/psychdisorder.html 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Schizophrenic patients can exhibit either too little or too much movement.^ Facial expressions in schizophrenic patients are often described as bizarre and manneristic movements and were already observed long before the introduction of neuroleptics (Rogers, 1992).
  • GJP 1998; 1: 6-9 Juckel & Polzer: Fine Analysis... 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.gwdg.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Relationship between neuroleptic dosage and subjective cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenic patients treated with either conventional or atypical neuroleptic medication.
  • Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www3.telus.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It can be therefore assumed that possibly only movement details of facial expressions, but not facial activity in total, are specifically changed in schizophrenic patients.
  • GJP 1998; 1: 6-9 Juckel & Polzer: Fine Analysis... 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.gwdg.de [Source type: Academic]

.Catatonia (from Greek 'katatonos' or “stretching tight”) is a broad term used to describe a variety of movement disorders thought to have a psychiatric cause.^ Hallucinations Delusions Disorders of movement Thought disorders .

^ Other thought disorders are described below.
  • Schizophrenia - Symptoms 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.nhs.uk [Source type: General]
  • Patient information leaflet - Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state in which thought and perception are severely impaired.
  • ScienceDaily: Schizophrenia Articles 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, Catatonic Stupor is a state in which patients are immobile, mute, yet conscious.^ During episodes of catatonic stupor or excitement, the patient requires careful supervision in order to avoid harming themselves or those around them.

^ Patients with catatonic Schizophrenia may show complete stillness and stupor, or great excitement and agitation.
  • The Various Symptoms and Types of Schizophrenia - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catatonic schizophrenia is evidenced by excessive, sometimes violent motor activity or by a mute, unresponsive, stuporous condition in which a person may retain the same posture for hours.
  • Psychology: Classifying Psychological Disorders - CliffsNotes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They may exhibit waxy flexibility, so one can move their limbs into postures and the patient will retain these postures, like a wax doll.^ They engage in purposeless behavior, and may exhibit unusual flexibility or postures.
  • Schizophrenia: Symptoms of Schizophrenia 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.epigee.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These symptoms may take the extreme form called catatonia, and include stupor, rigidity and posturing.
  • Coach Training: Schizophrenia & Identity Loss 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.soulwork.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the drugs currently available, like Clozapine, Risperidone, and Abilify, were tested in these clinics before they became available to the general public.
  • Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Schizophrenia: Yale Psychiatry 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC info.med.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Catatonic excitement is uncontrolled and aimless motor activity.^ Catatonic schizophrenics have disordered motor activity.
  • Types of Schizophrenia | in Chapter 12: Abnormal | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.intropsych.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the catatonic type of schizophrenia has a prevalence of eccentric behavior demonstrated by pronounced motor activity that is markedly excited or in a stupor.
  • Office of the Mental Health Advocate 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.gpdsc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catatonic schizophrenia is evidenced by excessive, sometimes violent motor activity or by a mute, unresponsive, stuporous condition in which a person may retain the same posture for hours.
  • Psychology: Classifying Psychological Disorders - CliffsNotes 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other disorders of movement include:
  • Stereotypy: repeated but non-goal-directed movement such as rocking.
  • Mannerisms: normal goal-directed activities that appear to have social significance but are either odd in appearance or out of context, such as repeatedly running one's hand through one's hair or grimacing.
  • Mitgehen: moving a limb in response to slight pressure on it despite being told to resist the pressure.
  • Echopraxia: imitating the movements of another person.
  • Automatic obedience: carrying out simple commands in a robot-like fashion.
  • Negativism: refusing to cooperate with simple requests for no apparent reason.

Behavioral Disturbances

Disorders of behavior may involve deterioration of social functioning-- social withdrawal, self-neglect, neglect of environment (i.e. deterioration of housing) or socially inappropriate behaviors (talking to oneself in public, obscene language, exposing self). .Substance abuse is another disorder of behavior.^ High rates of substance abuse disorders.
  • Schizophrenia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Demographics, Diagnosis, Treatments, Prognosis, Prevention, Resources 19 September 2009 3:33 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At sometime or another about 50% of all schizophrenia patients have substance abuse problems.There are two categories of symptoms of Schizophrenia, positive symptoms and negative symptoms.
  • The Various Symptoms and Types of Schizophrenia - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with schizophrenia are likely to have additional (comorbid) conditions, including major depression and anxiety disorders; the lifetime occurrence of substance abuse is around 40%.

.Patients may abuse cigarettes, alcohol or other substances; substance abuse is associated with poor treatment compliance, and may be a form of "self-medication" for negative symptoms or medication effects.^ Is ECT a form of patient abuse?

^ Such patients may be helped by a combination of therapies such as medication, rehabilitation, psychotherapy, or Alcoholics Anonymous or other substance abuse programs.
  • Schizophrenia - Questions And Answers 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hoptechno.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Substance abuse can also interfere with the efficacy of the medication, influencing patients' compliance.
  • Schizophrenia | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mood Disorders

.Disorders of mood and affect include affective flattening, which is a reduced intensity of emotional expression and responsiveness that leaves patients indifferent and apathetic.^ Mood disorders are also known as affective disorders or depressive disorders.
  • What is Psychiatric Disability and Mental Illness? 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An affect type that represents significant reduction in the intensity of emotional expression .

^ Mood or Affective Disorders- involves extreme or inappropriate emotions .

.Typically, one sees unchanging facial expression, decreased spontaneous movements, poverty of expressive gestures, poor eye contact, lack of vocal inflections, and slowed speech.^ Showing little facial expression, having poor eye contact, and slowed speech are characteristic.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Schizophrenia: Symptoms - AOL Health 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Schizophrenia - Symptoms - Yahoo! Health 19 September 2009 3:33 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visible generalized slowing of movements and speech.

^ Poverty of speech refers to a decreased amount of speech.
  • Schizophrenia: Schizophrenia and Delusional Disorder: Merck Manual Home Edition 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anhedonia, or the inability to experience pleasure, is also common, as is emotional emptiness.^ Inability to experience pleasure.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Schizophrenia: Symptoms - AOL Health 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Schizophrenia - Symptoms - Yahoo! Health 19 September 2009 3:33 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anhedonia - diminished ability to experience pleasure .
  • Risperdal.com: FAQs about Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.risperdal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Negative Symptoms include emotional flatness or lack of expression, an inability to start and follow through with activities, speech that is brief and lacks content, and a lack of pleasure or interest in life.

.Patients may also exhibit inappropriate affect, such as laughing at a funeral.^ He may exhibit inappropriate sexual behaviors.

^ Incoherence (not understandable) Regressive behavior Flat affect Delusions Hallucinations Inappropriate laughter Repetitive mannerisms Social withdrawal Undifferentiated type: Patient may have symptoms of more than one subtype of schizophrenia.

^ Sometimes people with disorganized schizophrenia express emotions that are inappropriate to the situation, such as laughing when something bad happens.

Epidemiology

The Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study reports the following statistics on schizophrenia:
  • 1% lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia
  • Relatively lower incidence rate of 1/10,000/year indicates this is a chronic illness
  • 1:1 male to female ratio
    • However, women have later onset and better psychosocial functioning
.The National Comorbidity Study reported a 0.7% incidence of "Nonaffective Psychosis:" an amalgam that included schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder and atypical psychosis.^ Schizoaffective Disorder: Schizoaffective disorder is a combination of schizophrenia and mood disorder.
  • Schizophrenia: Symptoms of Schizophrenia 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.epigee.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plus, this study looks at schizophreniform disorders, not just schizophrenia.
  • Drug WarRant :: View topic - Schizophrenic about Marijuana 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.drugwarrant.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Schizophrenia Website - including paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective .
  • Schizophrenia.com, The World's No. 1 Schizophrenia Website - including paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC schizophrenia.com [Source type: General]

Etiology

Neurotransmitter Theories: The Dopamine Theory

.Stated briefly, the dopamine theory suggests that psychosis is caused by dysregulation of dopamine in the brain.^ The "dopamine theory of schizophrenia" states that schizophrenia is caused by an overactive dopamine system in the brain.
  • Neuroscience for Kids - Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suggested causes include: genetics; changes in brain chemistry; brain damage before or during birth; stressful life events; or usage of street drugs.
  • Schizophrenia - TheSite.org 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.thesite.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theory is supported by the facts that all known medicines that treat psychosis block the dopamine receptor and that people who take medicines that increase brain dopamine in excessive amounts may develop psychosis.
  • The Infinite Mind: Fears and Phobias 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.lcmedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The simplest version of the dopamine theory suggested that schizophrenia was associated with an increase of dopamine in the central nervous system.^ Maintains balance in the central nervous system.
  • MoonDragon's Health & Wellness: Schizophrenia 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "dopamine theory of schizophrenia" states that schizophrenia is caused by an overactive dopamine system in the brain.
  • Neuroscience for Kids - Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E2 is a central nervous system depressant.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

.Evidence for this association includes the fact that all available medications used to treat psychosis are dopamine blockers and a number of dopamine agonists (ex.^ Antidepressant Medication used to treat depression.

^ First, dopamine antagonists are effective in treating all psychosis.

^ There are a number of medications to treat schizophrenia.
  • Guidance Center Online: About Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wacgc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.levodopa, amphetamine) can cause psychosis.^ High doses of amphetamines cause schizophrenic-like symptoms in a disorder called "amphetamine psychosis."
  • Neuroscience for Kids - Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are, however, problems with the dopamine neurotransmitter theory.^ A recent and more complex theory of the role of dopamine in schizophrenia suggests that there is excess dopamine activity in the _____ _____, but unusually low dopamine activity in the _____ _____.

^ However, there are hypotheses that many neurotransmitter systems may be involved in schizophrenia, including norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and serotonin, to name just a few.
  • What is Schizophrenia? — Psychotic Disorders - UNC School of Medicine 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.psychiatry.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nobody really knows what is wrong with the brain but it looks like it involves a problem with certain brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, in particular the release of excessive dopamine in certain parts of the brain.
  • Schizophrenia Treatment - Reality Distortions: Balancing the Mind in Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC healthinfocenter.healthology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Studies measuring dopamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid are inconclusive.^ A study was conducted in which presynaptic dopamine function (measured by the uptake of fluorodopa) was observed by PET in the brains of seven schizophrenic patients and eight healthy people (controls).
  • The Role of Dopamine Receptors in Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC wwwchem.csustan.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, several studies find people with schizophrenia have enlarged ventricles, cavities in the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  • Schizophrenia | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, the dopamine blockers used to treat schizophrenia are not disease specific: they are equally effective in treating other types of psychosis, for example, a drug-induced psychosis.^ LSD psychosis or LSD-induced schizophrenia?
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : LSD Psychosis 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common type of psychosis is schizophrenia.
  • emental-health.com, mental health matters 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.emental-health.com [Source type: General]

^ The first drug of this type used for treating schizophrenia was chlorpromazine (Thorazine).
  • Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.abess.com [Source type: Academic]

.Finally, a simple dopamine theory does not adequately account for the negative symptoms, which are also prominent in many patients with schizophrenia.^ Positive and negative symptoms of Schizophrenia .
  • Schizophrenia Symptoms | Positive and Negative Symptoms 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.abilify.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Negative symptoms of schizophrenia .
  • Patient information leaflet - Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amelioration of negative symptoms in schizophrenia by glycine.
  • Schizophrenia | Iceland Health 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.icelandhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MotherNature.com - Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mothernature.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Schizophrenia | ThirdAge Articles 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Schizophrenia - [Alternative Medicine] 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.peacehealth.org [Source type: Academic]

.The theory has subsequently undergone refinements.^ This theory has recently undergone considerable refinement.

For example:
===Specific dopamine pathways and schizophrenia===. .In the central nervous system, dopamine neurons follow relatively discrete pathways.^ E2 is a central nervous system depressant.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autonomic nervous system Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system .
  • Schizophrenia - Medical Look 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.medical-look.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcineurin is prevalent in the central nervous system, where it plays a role in many neuronal functions whose disturbances would play into the disorganized thinking, attention deficits, memory and language problems that characterize schizophrenia.
  • Study Shows Genetic Link For Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: Academic]

Two pathways seem particularly relevant in schizophrenia:
  • Mesolimbic System. .This system is composed of the dopamine neurons from the ventral tegmental area that release dopamine to the nucleus accumbens.^ NEUROTRANSMITTER STUDIES Many postmortem neurotransmitter studies have reported increased numbers of D2 receptors in the basal ganglia and the limbic system (particularly the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus).

    ^ Since the dopaminergic and serotonergic system are involved in modulating neuronal excitability of the nucleus accumbens as well as in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, it can be speculated whether or not disordered motor activity in schizophrenic patients may be caused by dysfunctional dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens.
    • GJP 1998; 1: 6-9 Juckel & Polzer: Fine Analysis... 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.gwdg.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Prog Neurobiol 1980; 14: 69-97.  Pakkenberg B. Pronounced reduction of total neuron number in mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and nucleus accumbens in schizophrenics.
    • GJP 1998; 1: 6-9 Juckel & Polzer: Fine Analysis... 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.gwdg.de [Source type: Academic]

    .This system regulates reward pathways and emotional processes and is associated with the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
  • Mesocortical System.^ Three categories of symptoms are associated with schizophrenia.
    • Schizophrenic Disorders & Treatments | eHow.com 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Which of the following is not a positive symptom of schizophrenia?

    ^ Option A lists the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
    • June 2009 Nursing Board Exam Results November PRC Nurse Licensure Examination Results 25 September 2009 11:23 UTC pinoybsn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This system is composed of the dopamine neurons from the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra.^ Both of these tracts have their cell bodies in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area.

    ^ Clusters of neurons located deep in the brain; they include the caudate nucleus and the putamen (corpus striatum), the globus pallidus, the subthalamic nucleus, and the substantia nigra.

    ^ A related hypothesis is that the dopamine system in another brain area--the prefrontal cortex--is involved in the decrease in experience of emotions and other negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
    • What is Schizophrenia? — Psychotic Disorders - UNC School of Medicine 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.psychiatry.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The ventral tegmental area neurons included in the mesocortical system release dopamine to the prefrontal cortex and regulate areas involved in cognitive processing (i.e. the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex that regulates executive function). The neurons in the substantia nigra release dopamine to the basal ganglia and regulate areas involved with motor control. The mesocortical system is associated with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
.It is hypothesized that hyperactivity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons and hypoactivity of mesocortical dopamine neurons are responsible for positive and negative symptoms, respectively.^ Positive and negative symptoms of Schizophrenia .
  • Schizophrenia Symptoms | Positive and Negative Symptoms 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.abilify.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Negative and positive symptoms are defined below.

^ Cholinergic hyperactivity and negative schizophrenic symptoms.
  • Antibodies Against Cerebral M1 Cholinergic Muscarinic Receptor from Schizophrenic Patients: Molecular Interaction -- Borda et al. 168 (7): 3667 -- The Journal of Immunology 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

.Support for this includes the observation that the use of amphetamines, which can cause psychosis, seems preferentially to produce hyperactivity of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons.^ BMJ Group, 3 Dec 2009: The newer antipsychotics seem to cause side effects that are less unpleasant than the standard antipsychotics Commonly used standard antipsychotics .
  • Schizophrenia | Life and style | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Emphasis on possible drug induced psychosis and may well include the use of hallucinogenic drugs.
  • Film & Sound Online - Differential Diagnosis in Psychiatry: Schizophrenia and Delusional Disorders 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.filmandsound.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ This volume loss seems primarily underpinned by dendritic abnormalities, without gliosis and possibly preferentially in the glutamatergic neurones of the hippocampus.

.Patients with schizophrenia seem to be particularly sensitive to amphetamines, and can experience exacerbations of their disease at even small doses.^ Schizophrenia seems to be related to thyroid disease.
  • Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ithyroid.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depression is common at the time of the diagnosis of schizophrenia, [1] and many patients will remain persistently depressed even though positive symptoms are controlled.
  • Moving Beyond Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Introduction 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While between 0.4 and 1.1 percent of the U.S. population may seem a small percentage, schizophrenia's severity makes it problematic for the sufferer, family and friends---all of whom may be affected.
  • What Is Schizophrenic? | eHow.com 12 October 2009 14:49 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, hypoactivity of mesocortical dopamine neurons has been correlated with severity of negative symptoms and impairment in performance on tests of prefrontal cortical function.^ Negative symptoms show a reduction or loss of normal functions, such as a restriction and flattening of emotions, severely reduced speech or thought, and lack of interest in any goal-directed activities.
  • Acute Schizophrenic Episode - information, treatment and medications 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.nmihi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been hypothesized that nicotine may reduce negative symptoms in schizophrenia by preferentially increasing dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex compared to other areas of the brain, as indeed is observed in animal models (32 , 34) .
  • Investigating the Association Between Cigarette Smoking and Schizophrenia in a Cohort Study -- Zammit et al. 160 (12): 2216 -- Am J Psychiatry 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC ajp.psychiatryonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, negative symptoms appear more prominent in male patients and males have an earlier age of onset, a worse course of illness and more cognitive impairments.
  • LONI: Laboratory of Neuro Imaging 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.loni.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, schizophrenia is more than simply a neurochemical disorder.^ More than half will have bouts of the disorder just a few times in their lifetime, though they can be debilitating, lasting weeks to months.
  • Zacarias Moussaoui: Wicked But Not Schizophrenic | LiveScience 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More or less equal numbers of young men and women develop schizophrenia, though women are usually four or five years older than men at the onset.
  • SANE.org.uk - Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sane.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies have shown that schizophrenia is more prevalent in the male gender, with women developing the condition at a rate of approximately 30% to 50% less than men.

.Concentration on relative levels of dopamine does not account for the time lag until antipsychotics exert their effect: most of the dopamine blockers start blocking dopamine immediately, yet it takes about 2 weeks for psychosis to resolve.^ Until that time, I knew nothing about it.
  • Why does everybody hate me? | MetaFilter 2 February 2010 17:30 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What about side-effects from antipsychotic drugs?
  • Schizophrenia | Health | Patient UK 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antipsychotics work by blocking the effect that dopamine has on the brain.
  • Patient information leaflet - Schizophrenia 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most likely, the dopamine dysregulations represent a final common pathway for psychotic episodes.^ It may represent a transition between a full-blown episode and complete remission , or it may continue for years without any further psychotic episodes.

^ Further, treatment is most successful when symptoms of the first psychotic episode are addressed properly and promptly.
  • Schizophrenia - My Child Has - Children's Hospital Boston 28 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.childrenshospital.org [Source type: FILTER