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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

—  State of Germany  —


Coat of arms
Coordinates: 54°28′12″N 9°30′50″E / 54.47°N 9.51389°E / 54.47; 9.51389
Country Germany
Capital Kiel
 - Minister-President Peter Harry Carstensen (CDU)
 - Governing parties CDU / FDP
 - Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69)
 - Total 15,763.18 km2 (6,086.2 sq mi)
Population (2007-09-30)[1]
 - Total 2,837,021
 - Density 180/km2 (466.1/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 code DE-SH
GDP/ Nominal € 69 billion (2005) [2]

Schleswig-Holstein (About this sound Schleswig-Holstein ) is the northernmost of the sixteen states of Germany, comprising most of the two historical duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Its capital city is Kiel, other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg.

Schleswig-Holstein borders Denmark (Region Syddanmark) to the north, the North Sea to the west, the Baltic Sea to the east, and the German states of Lower Saxony, Hamburg, and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern to the south.

The former English name was Sleswick-Holsatia, the Danish name is Slesvig-Holsten, the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, and the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County (Northern Schleswig) in Denmark.



Evangelical Church in Germany 54.3 %[3], Catholic Church 6 %[4].



Schleswig-Holstein lies on the base of Jutland Peninsula between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Strictly speaking, "Schleswig" refers to the German Southern Schleswig, whereas Northern Schleswig is in Denmark. The state of Schleswig-Holstein further consists of Holstein as well as Lauenburg, and the formerly independent city of Lübeck. This makes it one of the few nations with a boundary where the name is used in two countries; usually it is two counties villages that share the same name, as in Somerset.

In the western part of the state, there are lowlands with virtually no hills. The North Frisian Islands, as well as almost all of Schleswig-Holstein's North Sea coast, form Schleswig-Holstein's Wadden Sea National Parks (Nationalpark Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer) which is the largest national park in Central Europe. Germany's only high-sea island, Heligoland, is situated in the North Sea.

The Baltic Sea coast in the east of Schleswig-Holstein is marked by bays, fjords and cliff lines. There are rolling hills (the highest elevation is the Bungsberg at 168 metres or 550 feet) and many lakes, especially in the eastern part of Holstein, called the Holsteinische Schweiz ("Holsatian Switzerland") and the former Duchy of Lauenburg (Herzogtum Lauenburg). Fehmarn is the only island off the eastern coast. The longest river besides the Elbe is the Eider; the most important waterway is the Kiel Canal which connects the North Sea and Baltic Sea.


Schleswig-Holstein is divided into 11 Kreise (districts):

  1. Dithmarschen
  2. Lauenburg (formally Herzogtum Lauenburg or "Duchy of Lauenburg")
  3. Nordfriesland
  4. Ostholstein
  5. Pinneberg
  6. Plön
  1. Rendsburg-Eckernförde
  2. Schleswig-Flensburg
  3. Segeberg
  4. Steinburg
  5. Stormarn

Furthermore, there are four separate urban districts:

  1. KI   - Kiel
  2. HL   - Hansestadt ("Hanseatic town") Lübeck
  3. NMS - Neumünster
  4. FL   - Flensburg


Heligoland island in the North Sea

The official language is German based on the standard dialect used by the Federal German government in Berlin. Low German, Danish and North Frisian enjoy legal protection or state promotion.

Historically, Low German, Danish (in Schleswig) and Frisian (in Schleswig) were spoken. Low German is still used in many parts of the state, and a pidgin of Low and standardised German (Missingsch) is used in most areas. Danish is used by the Danes in Southern Schleswig, and Frisian is spoken by the North Frisians of the North Sea Coast and the Northern Frisian Islands in Southern Schleswig. The North Frisian dialect called Heligolandic (Halunder) is spoken on the island of Heligoland.

High German was introduced in the 16th century, mainly for official purposes, but is today the predominant language.


Shared with the Danish neighbour: Rote Grütze served in Schleswig-Holstein with milk or custard

Schleswig-Holstein combines Danish and German aspects of culture. The castles and manors in the countryside are the best example for this tradition; some dishes like Rote Grütze are also shared.

The most important festivals are the Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival, an annual classic music festival all over the state, and the Nordische Filmtage, an annual film festival for movies from Scandinavian countries, held in Lübeck.

The annual Wacken Open Air festival is considered to be the largest heavy metal rock festival in the world.

The state's most important museum of cultural history is in Schloss Gottorf in Schleswig.

The old city of Lübeck is a world heritage site.


The Limes Saxoniae border between the Saxons and the Obotrites, established about 810 in present-day Schleswig-Holstein
Kiel is the state's capital and largest city.
The City of Lübeck was the centre of the Hanse, and its city centre is a World Heritage Site today. Lübeck is the birthplace of the author Thomas Mann.
A rapeseed field in Schleswig-Holstein — agriculture continues to play an important role in parts of the state.
Schleswig-Holstein's islands, beaches and cities are popular tourist attractions (here: Isle of Sylt).

The term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon, Holseta Land, meaning "the land of those who dwell in the wood" (Holz means wood in modern Standardised German). Originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the Elbe river, Tedmarsgoi, Holcetae, and Sturmarii. The area of the Holcetae was between the Stör river and Hamburg, and after Christianization their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811 the northern frontier of Holstein (and thus the Empire) was marked by the river Eider.

The term Schleswig takes its name from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet or settlement in Old Saxon and Old Norse. The name is similar to the place-names ending in the "-wick" or "-wich" element along the coast in the United Kingdom.

The Duchy of Schleswig or Southern Jutland was originally an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100 the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg.

Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, or have been virtually independent of both nations. The exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second War of Schleswig in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein, the Duke of Saxony. Essentially, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago. Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721 all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, and the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, and consequently Schleswig would always follow the same line of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark.

The German national awakening following the Napoleonic Wars led to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. However, this development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and northern Schleswig. It called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848 King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would not only give rights to all Danes, i.e., not only in the Kingdom of Denmark, but also to Danes (and Germans) living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig since the dominant language in almost a quarter of Schleswig had changed from Danish to German since the beginning of the 19th century.

A liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen, since it was a well-known fact that the political élite of Holstein had been far more conservative than Copenhagen's. This proved to be true, as the politicians of Holstein demanded that the Constitution of Denmark be scrapped — not only in Schleswig but also in Denmark. They also demanded that Schleswig immediately follow Holstein and become a member of the German Confederation, and eventually a part of the new united Germany. These demands were rejected and in 1848 the Germans of Holstein and Southern Schleswig rebelled. This was the beginning of the First War of Schleswig (1848–51) which ended in a Danish victory at Idstedt. Elements of this period were fictionalized in Royal Flash, the second of George MacDonald Fraser's Flashman novels.

In 1863 conflict broke out again as King Frederick VII of Denmark died leaving no heir. According to the line of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would now pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg (the future King Christian IX); the crown of Holstein was considered to be more problematic. This decision was challenged by a rival pro-German branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenburg (Danish: Augustenborg) who demanded, as in 1848, the crowns of both Schleswig and Holstein. The passing of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 then gave Otto von Bismarck a chance to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig which ended in a Danish defeat. British attempts to mediate failed, and Denmark lost Schleswig (Northern and Southern Schleswig), Holstein, and Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria.

Following the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, section five of the Peace of Prague stated that the people in northern Schleswig should be granted the right to a referendum on whether they would remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule. This promise was never fulfilled by Prussia.

Following the defeat of Germany in World War I, the Allied powers arranged a referendum in northern and central Schleswig. In northern Schleswig (10 February 1920) 75% voted for reunification with Denmark and 25% voted for Germany. In central Schleswig (14 March 1920) the results were reversed; 80% voted for Germany and just 20% for Denmark, primarily in Flensburg. No vote ever took place in the southern third of Schleswig, although it was planned. For the referendum under authority of an international commission (CIS, Commission Internationale de Surveillance du Plébiscite Slesvig) two (primarily three) election-zones were created. Primarily three zones were planned, Zone III should involve the rest of Southern Schleswig. Denmark passed on an election in this zone. Just the votes for the whole zone were crucial, not dissent votes in a single Kreis (district) or city:

Zone I
  1. Kreis (district) Hadersleben (Haderslev):  6.585 votes (16.0%) for Germany, 34.653 votes (84.0%) for Denmark - thereunder: city of Hadersleben: 3.275 votes (38.6%) for Germany, 5.209 votes (61.4%) for Denmark;
  2. Kreis (district) Apenrade (Aabenraa):  6.030 votes (32.3%) for Germany, 12.653 votes (67.7%) for Denmark - thereunder: city of Apenrade: 2.725 votes (55.1%) for Germany, 2.224 votes (44.9%) for Denmark;
  3. Kreis (district) Sonderburg (Sønderborg):  5.083 votes (22.9%) for Germany, 17.100 votes (77.1%) for Denmark - thereunder:  city of Sonderburg 2.601 votes (56.2%) for Germany, 2.029 votes (43.8%) for Denmark;
  4. northern part of Kreis (district) Tondern (Tønder):  7.083 votes (40.9%) for Germany, 10.223 votes (59.1%) for Denmark - thereunder: city of Tondern 2.448 votes (76.5%) for Germany, 750 votes (23.5%) for Denmark;
  5. northern part of Kreis (district) Flensburg (Flensborg) - without the city of Flensburg (Flensborg): 548 votes (40.6%) for Germany, 802 votes (59.4%) for Denmark.
Zone II
  1. southern part of Kreis (district) Tondern (Tønder): 17.283 votes (87.9%) for Germany, 2.376 votes (12.1%) for Denmark;
  2. southern part of Kreis (district) Flensburg (Flensborg) - without the city of Flensburg (Flensborg): 6.688 votes (82.6%) for Germany, 1.405 votes (17.4%) for Denmark;
  3. northern part of Kreis (district) Husum:  672 votes (90.0%) for Germany, 75 votes (10.0%) for Denmark;
  4. city of Flensburg (Flensborg): 27.081 votes (75.2%) for Germany, 8.944 votes (24.8%) for Denmark.[5]

On 15 June 1920, northern Schleswig officially returned to Danish rule. The Danish/German border was the only one of the borders imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I which was never challenged by Adolf Hitler.

In 1937 the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act (Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz), where the nearby Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg was expanded, to encompass towns that had formally belonged to the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. To compensate Prussia for these losses (and partly because Hitler had a personal dislike for Lübeck), the 711-year-long independence of the Hansestadt Lübeck came to an end, and almost all its territory was incorporated into Schleswig-Holstein.

After the Second World War, the Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein came under British occupation. On August 23, 1946, the Military Government abolished the province and reconstituted it as a separate Land[6].


The coat of arms shows the symbols of the two duchies united in Schleswig-Holstein, i.e., the two lions for Schleswig and the leaf of a nettle for Holstein. Supposedly, Otto von Bismarck decreed that the two lions were to face the nettle because of the discomfort to their bottoms which would have resulted if the lions faced away from it.

The motto of Schleswig-Holstein is "Up ewich ungedeelt" (Middle Low German: "Forever undivided", modern High German: "Auf ewig ungeteilt"). It goes back to the Vertrag von Ripen or Handfeste von Ripen (Danish: Ribe Håndfæstning) or Treaty of Ribe in 1460. Ripen (Ribe) is a historical small town at the North Sea coast in Northern Schleswig. See History of Schleswig-Holstein.

The anthem is usually referred to with its first line "Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen" (i.e., "Schleswig-Holstein embraced by the seas") from 1844.



List of Minister-presidents of Schleswig-Holstein

Minister-presidents of Schleswig-Holstein
No. Name Born-Died Party affiliation Begin of Tenure End of Tenure
1 Theodor Steltzer 1885-1967 CDU 1946 1947
2 Hermann Lüdemann 1880-1959 SPD 1947 1949
3 Bruno Diekmann 1897-1982 SPD 1949 1950
4 Walter Bartram 1893-1971 CDU 1950 1951
5 Friedrich-Wilhelm Lübke 1887-1954 CDU 1951 1954
6 Kai-Uwe von Hassel 1913-1997 CDU 1954 1963
7 Helmut Lemke 1907-1990 CDU 1963 1971
8 Gerhard Stoltenberg 1928-2001 CDU 1971 1982
9 Uwe Barschel 1944-1987 CDU 1982 1987
10 Henning Schwarz 1928-1993 CDU 1987 1988
11 Björn Engholm *1939 SPD 1988 1993
12 Heide Simonis *1943 SPD 1993 2005
13 Peter Harry Carstensen *1947 CDU 2005 incumbent

Last election (2009)

See also: Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2009


The Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2009 was held on 27 September 2009, and the result of it was a coalition of the conservative CDU and the liberal FDP under the leadership of CDU state premier Peter Harry Carstensen.


See also: Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2005

Seat results — SPD in red, Greens in green, SSW in gray, FDP in yellow, CDU in black

The state election was held on 20 February 2005, and the result of it was a grand coalition of the conservative CDU and the social democratic SPD under the leadership of CDU state premier Peter Harry Carstensen.

Party Party List votes Vote percentage (change) Total Seats (change) Seat percentage
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 576,100 40.2% +5.0% 30 −3 43.5%
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 554,844 38.7% −4.4% 29 −12 42.0%
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 94,920 6.6% −1.0% 4 −3 5.8%
Alliance '90/The Greens 89,330 6.2% +0.0% 4 −1 5.8%
South Schleswig Voter Federation (SSW) 51,901 3.6% −0.5% 2 −1 2.9%
National Democratic Party (NPD) 27,656 1.9% +0.9% 0 +0 0.0%
Family 11,774 0.8% +0.8% 0 +0 0.0%
Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) 11,376 0.8% −0.6% 0 +0 0.0%
Grays 7,523 0.5% +0.3% 0 +0 0.0%
All Others 9,203 0.6% −0.5% 0 +0 0.0%
Totals 1,434,627 100.0%   69 −20 100.0%


See also

External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Central Europe : Germany : Northern Germany : Schleswig-Holstein

Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost state of Germany. It borders Denmark and has coasts on both the North and Baltic Seas.

Melldorf - a town in the Ditmarschen. The Ditmarschen is a flat land of mostly reclaimed land, with spectacular skies and lots of 'Ferien Wohnung'. It is a place where many Germans holiday and is a great place for a slice of Germany as the Germans live it. What's interesting in terms of history is that the Ditmarschen has not has a historical aristocracy, being a land of, usually well-to-do farmers.


German. Most people understand English. Many people from Denmark visit the Flensburg region for shopping, therefore it is possible also to speak Danish there.

The harbour of Puttgarden
The harbour of Puttgarden

Get in

The nearest international airport is in Hamburg. There are many boat services from Scandinavia. From the Danish Jutland you can get to Schleswig-Holstein by car.

The Kiel canal connecting the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
The Kiel canal connecting the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Meldorf Tourist Office Telefon: 04832/ 97 80-0 Fax: 04832/ 97 80-20

  • The old town of Lübeck
  • The North Sea coast
  • The Kiel canal


Visit Ditmarschen and eat the fabulous seafood. Try Friedrichskoog for great fish restaurants.


Shrimp: in Büsum you can buy small boiled shrimp by the kilo. Spend a happy communal time peeling them and eat them on black bread, with a fried egg over the top. An excellent abend brot (dinner) or snack!

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN, a province in the north-west of Prussia, formed out of the once Danish duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg, and bounded W. by the North Sea, N. by Denmark (Jutland), E. by the Baltic Sea, Lubeck and Mecklenburg, and S. by the lower course of the Elbe (separating it from Hanover). It thus consists of the southern half of the Cimbric peninsula, and forms the connecting link between Germany and Denmark. (For map, see Denmark.) In addition to the mainland, which decreases in breadth from south to north, the province includes several islands, the most important being Alsen and Fehmarn in the Baltic, and Rom, Sylt and Fohr of the North Frisian chain in the North Sea. The total area of the province is 7338 sq. m., 450 of which belong to the small duchy of Lauenburg in the S.E. corner, while the rest are divided almost equally between Holstein to the south of the Eider and Schleswig to the north of it. From north to south the province is about 140 m. long, while its breadth varies from 90 m. in Holstein to 35 m. at the narrower parts of Schleswig.

Schleswig-Holstein belongs to the great North-German plain, of the characteristic features of which it affords a faithful reproduction in miniature, down to the continuation of the Baltic ridge or plateau by a range of low wooded hills skirting its eastern coast and culminating in the Bungsberg (538 ft.), a little to the north of Eutin. This hilly district contains the most productive land in the province, the soil consisting of diluvial drift or boulder clay. The central part of the province forms practically a continuation of the great Luneburg Heath, and its thin sandy soil is of little use for cultivation. Along the west coast extends the "Marshland," a belt of rich alluvial soil formed by the deposits of the North Sea, and varying in breadth from 5 to 15 m. It is seldom more than a few feet above the sealevel, while at places it is below it, and it has consequently to be defended by an extensive _ system of dykes or embankments resembling those of Holland.

The more ancient geological formations are scarcely met with in Schleswig-Holstein. The contrast between the two coast-lines of the province is marked. The Baltic coast has generally steep welldefined banks and is irregular, being pierced by numerous long and narrow inlets (Feihrden) which often afford excellent harbours. The islands of Alsen and Fehmarn are separated from the coast by narrow channels. The North Sea coast is low and flat, and its smooth outline is interrupted only by the estuary of the Eider and the peninsula of Eiderstedt. Dunes or sand-hills, though rare on the protected mainland, occur on Sylt and other islands, while the small flat islands called Halligen are being washed away where not defended by dykes. The numerous islands on the west coast probably formed part of the peninsula at no remote period, and the sea between them and the mainland is shallow and full of sandbanks.

The climate of Schleswig-Holstein is mainly determined by the proximity of the sea, and the mean annual temperature, varying from 45° F. in the north to 49° F. in the south, is rather higher than is usual in the same latitude. Rain and fog are frequent, but the climate is on the whole healthy. The Elbe forms the southern boundary of Holstein for 65 m., but the only river of importance within the province is the Eider, which rises in Holstein, and after a course of 120 m. falls into the North Sea, forming an estuary 3 to 12 m. in breadth. It is navigable from its mouth as far as Rendsburg, which is on the Kaiser Wilhelm (Kiel-Elbe) canal, which intersects Holstein. There are numerous lakes in north-east Holstein, the largest of which are the Ploner See (12 sq. m.) and the Selenter See (9 sq. m.).

Of the total area of the province 57% is occupied by tilled land, 22% by meadows and pastures, and barely 7% by forests. The ordinary cereals are all cultivated with success and there is generally a considerable surplus for export. Rape is grown in the marsh lands and flax on the east coast, while large quantities of apples and other fruit are raised near Altona for the Hamburg and English markets. The marsh lands afford admirable pasture, and a greater proportion of cattle (65 per Iwo inhabitants) is reared in Schleswig-Holstein, mainly by small owners, than in any other Prussian province. Great numbers of cattle are exported to England. The Holstein horses are also in request, but sheep-farming is comparatively neglected. Bee-keeping is a productive industry. The hills skirting the bays of the Baltic coast are generally pleasantly wooded, but the forests are nowhere of great extent except in Lauenburg. The fishing in the Baltic is productive; Eckernforde is the chief fishing station in Prussia. The oysters from the beds on the west coast of Schleswig are widely known under the misnomer of "Holstein natives." The mineral resources are almost confined to a few layers of rocksalt near Segeberg. The more important industrial establishments, such as iron foundries, machine works, tobacco and cloth factories, are mainly confined to the large towns, such as Altona, Kiel and Flensburg. The shipbuilding of Kiel and other seaports, however, is important; and lace is made by the peasants of north Schleswig. The commerce and shipping of Schleswig-Holstein, stimulated by its position between two seas, as well as by its excellent harbours and waterways, are much more prominent than its manufactures. Kiel is one of the chief seaports of Prussia, while oversea trade is also carried on by Altona and Flensburg. The main exports are grain, cattle, horses, fish and oysters, in return for which come timber, coal, salt, wine and colonial produce.

The population of the province in 1905 was 1, 504, 248, comprising 1,454,526 Protestants, 41,227 Roman Catholics and 3270 Jews. The urban and rural communities are in the proportion of 4 to 6. The great bulk of the Holsteiners and a large proportion of the Schleswigers are of genuine German stock, but of the 148,000 inhabitants in the north part of Schleswig 139,000 are Danish-speaking. Among the Germans the prevalent tongue is Low German, but the North Frisians on the west coast of Schleswig and the North Sea islands (about 19,000 in all) still speak a Frisian dialect, which, however, is dying out. The peninsula of Angeln, between the Gulf of Flensburg and the Schlei, is supposed to have been the original seat of the English, and observers profess to see a striking resemblance between this district and the counties of Kent and Surrey. The peasants of Dithmarschen in the south-west also retain many of their ancient peculiarities. The boundary between the Danish and German languages is approximately a line running from Flensburg south-west to Joldelund and thence north-west to Tondern and the North Sea coast; not more than 15% of the entire population of the province speak Danish as their mother-tongue, but the proportion is far larger for Schleswig alone, where there is also a considerable bilingual population. The chief educational institution in Schleswig-Holstein is the university of Kiel.

Schleswig is the official capital of the province, but Altona and Kiel are the largest towns, the latter being the chief naval station of Germany. Kiel and Friedrichsort are fortified, but the old lines of Diippel have been dismantled. The province sends io members to the Reichstag and 19 to the Prussian Abgeordnetenhaus (house of deputies). The provincial estates meet in Rendsburg.

For the history of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein see Schleswig-Holstein Question below.

<< Schleswig

Schleswig-Holstein Question >>


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

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