School bullying: Wikis

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Bullying is detrimental to students’ well-being and development.
Bullying en IRFE, 7° Básico B, 2007.ogg
Students knocking themselves.

School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in connection with education, either inside or outside of school. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional and is usually repeated over a period of time.[1][2]

Many educational institutions have implemented anti-bullying campaigns. Studies in Norway and England confirm these programs can be effective. The programs usually focus on increasing awareness and supervision, establishing clear rules, and providing support and protection for victims.

Contents

Types of bullying and what it means to bully

School bullying is behavior intended to harm or disturb the victim. It can be physical or emotional and can occur in person, electronically, or indirectly.

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Physical school bullying

Some states of the United States have implemented laws to address school bullying.     Law prohibits bullying of students based on sexual orientation and gender identity      Law prohibits bullying of students based on sexual orientation      School regulation or ethical code for teachers that address bullying of students based on sexual orientation      Law prohibits bullying in school but lists no categories of protection      No statewide law that specifically prohibits bullying in schools
A bully, portrayed in the 1917 silent film Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm

Examples of physical bullying include:[1]

Emotional school bullying

Examples of emotional bullying include:[1]

  • Spreading bad rumors about people
  • Keeping certain people out of a "group"
  • Teasing people in mean ways and Cussing someone
  • Getting certain people to "gang up" on others
  • Name calling
  • Harassment
  • Provocation
  • Tormenting
  • Whispering to another in front of someone
  • Walking in groups at school
  • Keeping secrets away from a so-called friend

Electronic bullying: (cyber-bullying)

Bullying also can happen on-line or electronically. This form of harassment is known as cyber-bullying. It occurs when someone bullies through the Internet, mobile phones or other electronic means.[1] Examples include:

  • Sending mean spirited text, e-mail, or instant messages.
  • Posting inappropriate pictures or messages about others in blogs or on Web sites.
  • Using someone else's user name to spread rumors or lies about someone.

School shooting

School shootings have focused attention on student bullying, with shooters in several of the worst shootings reporting they were bullied.

School shootings are a bullying-related phenomenon that receive an enormous amount of media attention. An investigation undertaken by the United States Secret Service found that in over 2/3 of cases, attackers in school shooting incidents "felt persecuted, bullied, threatened, attacked, or injured by others prior to the incident" and discredits the idea that school shooters are "loners" who "just snap". Though observing that, "clearly, not every child who is bullied in school presents a risk for targeted violence in school", the investigation report states that, "a number of attackers had experienced bullying and harassment that was longstanding and severe. In those cases, the experience of bullying appeared to play a major role in motivating the attack at school". The report also observes "in a number of cases, attackers described experienced of being bullied in terms that approached torment". The report concluded that, "(t)hat bullying played a major role in a number of these school shootings should strongly support ongoing efforts to combat bullying in American schools".[3]

Studies prompted by the shootings have shown long-lasting emotional harm to victims. The studies also revealed that bullies themselves are likely to suffer problems as children and adults.[4]

Who bullies

One student or a group can bully another student or a group of students. Bystanders may participate or watch, sometimes out of fear of becoming the next victim. However, there is some research suggesting that a significant proportion of "normal" school children may not evaluate school-based violence (student-on-student victimization) as negatively or as being unacceptable as much as adults generally do, and may even derive enjoyment from it, and they may thus not see a reason to prevent it if it brings them joy on some level.[5]

Bullying appears to beyond a workplace violence related attitude, it is a system which can evolve among school children. Its effects are detrimental to the overall wellbeing of a child. Throughout the world, from Africa to Asia to the Americas, bullying manifests itself as an oppression to the young. It is one of the most common antisocial personality disorder.

Bullying can also be perpetrated by teachers and the school system itself: there is an inherent power differential in the system that can easily predispose to subtle or covert abuse, humiliation, or exclusion - even while maintaining overt commitments to anti-bullying policies.[6][7][8]

Strategies to cope with bullying

Helping victims at school

Many of the responsibilities of members of a school team are that they need to help the victims of bullying.[9] The following strategies may be considered:

  1. Speak with the victim and ask them if they want to do anything about it, if they refuse take your part and start investigating.
  2. After investigating the situation, it may be that intervention is necessary with the bully or bullies. The situation needs to be addressed. Ideally, a resolution to the problem will be found.
  3. Inform the parents of the victim and of the bully. Discuss possible solutions with them. Arrange a meeting with them if possible.
  4. Follow up in communicating with the victim, the parents and the teachers about the situation.
  5. Monitor the behavior of the bully and the safety of the victim on a school-wide basis.
  6. If the problem continues speak with the parents of the bully again and consider the idea of expulsion of the bully if problems continue, bullies normally attack not only one child but more of one, and normally 3 to 4 children are the attackers, find out exactly who they are.
  7. Finally you should decide for yourself the punishment, it depends on how they attacked the children, how many they have been attacking, since when has it been a problem, etc.

Strategies to reduce bullying within schools

Researchers (Olweus, 1993;[10] Craig & Peplar, 1999;[11] Ross, 1998;[12] Morrison, 2002;[13] Whitted & Dupper, 2005;[14] Aynsley-Green, 2006;[15]) provide several strategies which address ways to help reduce bullying, these include:

  • Make sure an adult knows what is happening to their children.
  • Actually enforce anti bully laws.
  • Make it clear that bullying is never acceptable
  • Recognise that bullying can occur at all levels within the hierarchy of the school (ie, including adults)
  • Hold a school conference day or forum devoted to bully/victim problems
  • Increase adult supervision in the yard, halls and washrooms more vigilantly
  • Emphasize caring, respect and safety
  • Emphasize consequences of hurting others
  • Enforce consistent and immediate consequences for aggressive behaviours
  • Improve communication among school administrators, teachers, parents and students
  • Have a school problem box where kids can report problems, concerns and offer suggestions
  • Teach cooperative learning activities
  • Help bullies with anger control and the development of empathy
  • Encourage positive peer relations
  • Offer a variety of extracurricular activities which appeal to a range of interests
  • Teach your child to defend himself or herself, verbally and physically, if necessary.
  • Keep in mind the range of possible causes: eg, medical, psychiatric, psychological, developmental, family problems, etc.
  • if problems continue, if your in high school, press harassment charges against the family of the person who is bullying you.

In popular culture

Bullies frequently appear as antagonists in TV shows about young people. For example, on the TV series Malcolm in the Middle, Malcolm's older brother Reese is notoriously known as the school and neighborhood bully. The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air also featured a bully who picked on Ashley Banks and who comes from a bullying family.

In the musical 'Missing Mel' (in association with Youth Music Theatre: UK), there is an entire number that revolves around two twins bullying a girl named Lauren. This musical has been praised for raising the awareness of the harm bullying can do to a victim.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Stop Bullying Now! Information, Prevention, Tips, and Games.
  2. ^ Teen Bully
  3. ^ Vossekuil, B., Reddy, M., Fein, R.; Borum, R.; & Modzeleski, W. (2000). USSS Safe School Initiative: An Interim Report on the Prevention of Targeted Violence in Schools, Washington, DC: US Secret Service National Threat Assessment Center.
  4. ^ Bullying Widespread in U.S. Schools
  5. ^ Kerbs, J.J. & Jolley, J.M. The Joy of Violence: What about Violence is Fun in Middle-School? American Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol. 32, No. 1-2/ Oct. 2007.
  6. ^ Garbarino, J. & de Lara, E. (2003). And Words CAN Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence. The Free Press: New York NY.
  7. ^ Whitted, K.S. (2005). Student reports of physical and psychological maltreatment in schools: An under-explored aspect of student victimization in schools. University of Tennessee.
  8. ^ Whitted, K. S. & Dupper, D. R. Do Teachers Bully Students?: Findings from a Survey of Students in an Alternative Education Setting. Education and Urban Society, 2008, 40(3), 329-341.
  9. ^ Thames Valley District School Board (2006). Safeschools. London, Ontario
  10. ^ Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Oxford Blackwell Publishers.
  11. ^ Craig, W.M. & Peplar, D.J. (1999). Children who bully - Will they just grow out of it? Orbit, 29 (4), 16 - 19.
  12. ^ Ross, P.N. (1998). Arresting violence: a resource guide for schools and their communities. Toronto: Ontario Public School Teachers' Federation.
  13. ^ Morrison, B. (2002). Bullying and victimisation in schools: a restorative justice approach. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. No.219; Feb. 2002. Australian Institute of Criminology.
  14. ^ Whitted, K.S. & Dupper, D.R. (2005). Best Practices for Preventing or Reducing Bullying in Schools. Children and Schools, Vol. 27, No. 3, July 2005 , pp. 167-175(9).
  15. ^ BULLYING TODAY: A Report by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner UK, with Recommendations and Links to Practitioner Tools. Nov. 2006. (retrieved 12.12.2007)

Further reading

  • Stuart W. Twemlow, Frank Sacco (2008). Why School Antibullying Programs Don't Work. Jason Aronson Inc, ISBN 978-0765704757

External links


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