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Sciences Po (Paris Institute of Political Studies)
Sciences Po (Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris)
LogoScPo.png
Motto Excellence, Innovation, Diversité
Established 1872
Endowment 110M
Director Richard Descoings
Students 7,500 (33% foreign)
Location Paris, France
Website www.sciences-po.fr
(data for 2008)[1]

Sciences Po - Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris (English: Paris Institute of Political Studies), officially referred to as Sciences Po Paris (pronounced see-ohns po), is a highly selective Grand Établissement in Paris, France. Sciences Po has traditionally educated France's political and diplomatic elite, but its academic focus spans not only the political and economic sciences, but also law, communications, finance, business, urban policy, management, and journalism. Its campus is just off the Seine River, between Boulevard Saint Germain and Boulevard Raspail, within walking distance of most major sights, such as Notre Dame de Paris, the Panthéon, and the Assemblée Nationale. It comprises 17th and 18th century mansions located on and around Rue Saint-Guillaume and Rue de l'Université in the 7th arondissement on the left bank.

Contents

History of Sciences Po

The name Sciences Poreface refers to three distinct, yet complementary institutions:

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1872-1945

Sciences Po was established in February 1872 as the École Libre des Sciences Politiques by a group of French intellectuals, politicians and businessmen led by Émile Boutmy, and including Hippolyte Taine, Ernest Renan, Albert Sorel, Paul Leroy Beaulieu, and François Guizot. Following defeat in the 1870 war, the demise of Napoleon III, and the Paris Commune, these men sought to reform the training of French politicians. Politically and economically, people feared France's international stature was waning due to inadequate teaching of its political and diplomatic corps. ELSP was meant to serve as “the breeding ground where nearly all the major, non-technical state commissioners were trained.”[2]

The school developed a humanistic and pragmatic teaching program: instructors included academics as well as ministers, high civil servants, and businessmen. New discipines such as International Relations, International Law, Political Economy and Comparative Government were introduced. In August 1894, the British Association for the Advancement of Science spoke out for the need to advance the study of politics along the lines of ELSP. Sidney and Beatrice Webb used the purpose and curriculum of Sciences Po as part of their inspiration for creating the London School of Economics in 1895.[2]

The situation since 1945

As per ordinance 45-2284, issued by Charles de Gaulle on 9 October 1945, two entities were created from ELSP: Fondation nationale des sciences politiques (English: National Foundation of Political Science) or FNSP and Paris Institute of Political Studies (French: Institut d'études politiques de Paris) or IEP Paris.[3] Both entities were tasked by the French government to ensure “the progress and the diffusion, both within and outside France, of political science, economics, and sociology”[2]

The epithet Sciences Po was applied to both entities, which inherited the reputation previously vested in ELSP.[4] France's Legislature entrusted FNSP with managing IEP Paris, its library, and budget, and an administrative council assured the development of these activities. The curriculum and methodology of the ELSP were also the template for creating an entire system of institutes of political studies (French: Institut d'études politiques) across France, namely in Strasbourg, Lyon, Aix, Bordeaux, Grenoble, Toulouse, and then in Rennes and Lille. They are not to be confounded with Sciences Po's satellite campuses.

FNSP further strengthened its role as a scientific publication center with significant donations from the Rockefeller Foundation. FNSP periodicals such as la Revue française de science politique, le Bulletin analytique de documentation, la Chronologie politique africaine, and the Cahiers de la Fondation as well as its seven research centres and main publishing house, Presses de Sciences Po, contribute to the reputation attained by Sciences Po research.[2]

Recent reforms

Sciences Po has undergone myriad reforms under Richard Descoings, Director of Sciences Po (1997-present). Sciences Po has introduced a compulsory year abroad component to its undergraduate degree, and now offers a multilingual curriculum in French, English, and other languages. New educational sites have been set up in Nancy, Dijon, Poitiers, Menton and Le Havre. Sciences Po also set the length of its undergraduate program to three years and its graduate program to two years in line with the Bologna Process.

Sciences Po also implemented reforms in its admissions process. Previously, Sciences Po recruited its students almost exclusively from elite schools (mostly state-funded) in France, but in March 2001, the school's governing council widened its admissions policy.[5] From September 2002, Sciences Po began accepting a small batch of students from economically depressed suburbs of Paris on the basis of their school record and a 45-minute interview, rather than the name-blind examination all other students must pass to be admitted. The reform is intended to broaden the socio-economic characteristics of Sciences Po student-body, and gained national and international media attention for being the first affirmative action experience in France, despite the initial controversy it brought up it is now broadly accepted by the French and considered a relative success. Moreover, Sciences Po introduced an alternative recruitment method -the so-called procédure internationale- for foreign students or students with an international background, as they are not well prepared for the French written examination. Sciences Po also accepts a large contingent of graduate students from abroad without written exams.

Rankings

In the THES Ranking 2006 Sciences Po was rated 52nd of the best universities worldwide.[3] Sciences Po did not return in the 2007 and 2008 rankings.[4][5] In September 2007, Sciences Po was rated the 8th best university in the world by the annual higher education survey conducted by the École des Mines de Paris thus placing it above both Oxford and Yale.[citation needed] In 2008 Sciences Po ranked 11th, below Oxford and just above Yale[6], and in 2009 it ranked 15th[7]. The ranking by the École des Mines asked CEOs of the 500 biggest multinational companies where they did their studies.

Organization

Admissions

There are different admission procedures at Sciences Po (figures of 2007):

  • Undergraduate programs:
    • For holders of the French baccalauréat:
      • Admission based on the "concours" examination at Bac+0 level: 280 successful candidates / acceptance rate: 12%
      • Admission based on the "concours" examination at Bac+1 level: 170 / <10% (This procedure will be deleted in 2008-2009)
      • Admission based on the student file and an interview for students from disenfranchised neighbourhoods: 95 / 13%
      • Admission based on the student file for summa cum laude baccalauréat holders: 383 / 32%
    • For holders of foreign secondary school diplomas:
      • Admission based on the student file and an interview: 243 / 30%
  • Graduate programs (except double degrees and post-experience programs): acceptance rate 16%
    • Examination for the students who have validated 180 ECTS
    • Admission by the International cycle of political studies(CIEP)
    • Admission for the persons who have worked during 5 years.

Since 2002, the number of applicants has steadily increased. In 2002, there were 200 applicants for the international program. By contrast there were 800 applicants in 2008: an increase of 300% in 5 years. For the examination, the number of applicants has doubled in five years. There was an increase of 500% of the number of applicants with a Summa cum laude mention.

Campuses

Sciences Po's garden, between the rue Saint-Guillaume and the rue des Saints-Pères.

Sciences Po is located in the center of Paris, in the 6th and 7th districts (arrondissements) :

  • 27 rue Saint-Guillaume houses the head office since 1879. There are the biggest meeting rooms of Sciences Po are Amphitheatres Émile Boutmy and Jacques Chapsal.
  • 9, rue de la Chaise: administrative offices.
  • 56, rue des Saints-Pères : languages courses, language laboratory, audiovisual service and a cartography workshop.
  • 117, boulevard Saint-Germain: Master of Public Affairs, office of the School of Journalism
  • 174, boulevard Saint-Germain: MBA offices and classrooms
  • 199, boulevard Saint-Germain: offices of Graduate Program staff.
  • 224, boulevard Saint-Germain: classrooms
  • 56, rue Jacob: Research Centers in History (Centre d'histoire de Sciences Po) and in international relations (Centre d'études et de recherches internationales)
  • 13, rue de l'Université / The René Rémond building: classrooms and amphitheater
  • 8, rue Jean-Sébastien-Bach : Urban Studies Graduate Program
  • rue d'Assas & rue de la Cassette in the Institut Catholique

Student union and clubs

  • The entire political spectrum is represented in the Student Union: UNEF (left), InterZaid-Fac Verte, Nouvelle Donne, UNI (right) and Sud Etudiant (far left). Delegates are elected each January by the students.

There are more than 70 clubs and organizations, such as Paris International Model United Nations (PIMUN) and Sciences Po Finance (Finance society).

Undergraduate program

Description

In 2000, Sciences Po set the length of its undergraduate program to three years and the length of its graduate program to two years in line with the Bologna Process. The first three years of study are referred to as the premiers cycles, which focuses on the full-range of the social sciences, particularly public policy, International Relations, economics and political economy, management studies, finance, geography, constitutional and administrative law, philosophy, and sociology. Students generally spend their third year of the premier cycle abroad, at one of Sciences Po's nearly 300 partner schools around the world. Students are, however, also given the option of spending the year interning for an institution related to their field of study. In addition to academics, Sciences Po's curriculum incorporates more practice-oriented skills like teamwork, effective oral communication and presentation skills, and nurturing leadership potential. Sciences Po's student-body is active, with more than seventy student clubs, councils, and organizations.

As of 2004, approximately one third of the student body was foreign. In recent years, Sciences Po has adopted a multi-lingual education policy: students are expected to be proficient in at least two foreign languages. More than one-third of classes are provided in languages others than French, including English, Spanish, German, and Italian. Currently, however, fluency in French is required for admission to most Sciences Po degrees.

Satellite Campuses

While all of Sciences Po's graduate programs are taught in Paris, the school has five additional undergraduate campuses in France. Each of the five campuses has its own distinct cultural identity and academic focus. They are designed to widen the academic concentration of the wider Sciences Po community, and allow students enrolled in the three-year Sciences Po undergraduate program, the premier cycle, to specialize in a given region. Students who wish to study at either of the four satellite campuses usually need to apply directly to the campus in question, each of which maintain separate admissions policies and procedures from that of Sciences Po's Paris campus. Upon completing their undergraduate studies by spending a year abroad, all students usually move to Paris for their graduate studies (Master).

As the satellite campuses are part of Sciences Po Paris, their official designations always include the word "Paris" in order to distinguish them from the so-called "IEP de province". For instance, Sciences Po Paris' Dijon campus is officially named Sciences Po Paris in Dijon:

These are the 5 satellite campuses:

The French-German Undergraduate Program is located in Nancy, which is at the centre of the Lorraine region of France, and maintains close ties to the German-speaking world given its proximity to the German border. Strasbourg and the European Parliament are also located nearby. This premier cycle focuses on the history of Franco-German relations, and its relevance for the future integration of the European continent. The main languages of instruction on campus are English, German, and French, and the student body is primarily made up of students from France and German-speaking countries.

The East-European Undergraduate Program is located in Dijon, which is the capital of the Burgundy region of France. The area is renowned for its winemaking and gastronomic heritage. The campus, opened in 2001, recruits students from more than twenty-five nationalities, including Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Russia, and France. This premier cycle initiates students into the challenges of the widened European Union, and Central European politics and history. Courses are taught in English and French, but students must also study at least one Central-European language (either Czech, Hungarian or Polish).

The Ibero-American Undergraduate Program is located in Poitiers, a small city in western France. This premier cycle specializes in the politics and history of Iberia and Latin America. Courses are taught in French, Spanish, Portuguese, and English. The majority of students come from Spain, Portugal, and Latin America.

The Middle Eastern and Mediterranean Undergraduate Program is located in Menton, a town on the French Riviera minutes from Monaco and the Italian border. This premier cycle gathers students from North Africa, the Middle East, the Persian Gulf, Israel, and all European nations. In particular, it focuses on the study of relationships between the northern and southern sides of the Mediterranean, as well as the analysis of the links between Europe and the Middle East. Courses are taught in French, English, and Arabic.

The Euro-Asian Undergraduate Program is located in Le Havre, a city in Normandy in northern France. The city has commercial relations with Shanghai, especially with their ports. French students can learn Chinese, Japanese, Hindi, and Korean, in addition to English. All courses are in English.

The Transatlantic Campus in Reims, housed in a former Jesuit College, will open its doors in September 2010 and will focus on transatlantic relations. 45 minutes from Paris by train, Reims is famous for being the coronation site of the Kings of France and for its impressive Gallo-Roman heritage. Its rich past, its architecture ans its ancient Champagne producing tradition put this city of the Champagne-Ardennes region at the very heart of European and French history.

Third Year abroad

Richard Descoings has decided in the reforms he engaged at Sciences Po that the third year will be compulsory abroad. Thanks to 300 university partners[citation needed], students at Sciences Po have a great range of possibilities. Students can also do an internship in a company, cultural associations, embassies, etc.

Master's degrees

Description

Upon completion of the third year of undergraduate studies, students return to Paris for a two-year graduate program of their choosing leading to a Master's degree. Students from the school's undergraduate programs make up about half of the graduate programs' student population, the remainder having completed undergraduate studies elsewhere in France or abroad. Most programs are taught in more than one language though English-only programs are also available. Students can choose from a wide array of programs designed either by Sciences Po alone or in conjunction with other universities.

Single Master's degrees

The school's traditional "single" Master's degrees are suited for those seeking to develop professional skills in a specific area without losing the benefits of a generalist education. The curriculum generally comprises a set of generalist courses known as the "tronc commun," specific courses related to the chosen field of study, and an internship semester.

  • International Affairs
  • European Affairs
  • Public Administration (with a focus on France)
  • Urban Planning and Regional Studies
  • Judicial and Legal Careers
  • Business and Regulation Law
  • Human Resource Management
  • Finance and Strategy
  • Marketing
  • Journalism School
  • School of Communication
  • Economics and Public Policy in association with the Polytechnique and the ENSAE (School of Statistics) with support of Nobel Prize laureates such as Edmund Phelps, Joseph Stiglitz and Amartya Sen.

Students eyeing with an academic career can apply for admission into research-based programs with an additional focus on scientific methods. The requirement to gain work experience during the internship semester is replaced with a requirement to write a Master's thesis. The school has offered Master recherche programs in such fields as economic governance, theory of organisations, political theory, sociology, and history. However, as of early 2009, the school is overhauling all of its research-based programs.

Dual Master's degrees

Alternatively, students can apply for admission into one of the school's double degree programs designed in conjunction with partner universities in France and abroad. Students are awarded two degrees upon studying one year at each university. As the writing of a Master's thesis is often part of the graduation requirements at partner universities, dual programs can also be suited for those interested in an academic career.

Post-experience Master's degrees

In addition to its pre-experience graduate programs, Sciences Po is offering a Master of Public Affairs (MPA) and a Master of Business Administration (MBA).

Instructors

Instruction is provided by a staff of around 1,400 teachers, a majority of whom are practitioners in their respective fields. Most recently, instructors included or still include former French Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin, current WTO president Pascal Lamy, former French Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, former French foreign minister Hubert Védrine, Nobel Prize Laureate economist Joseph Stiglitz, former Lebanese Minister of Culture Ghassan Salame and former Economics minister as well as current Managing Director of IMF Dominique Strauss-Kahn. These instructors are anchored by around 800 tenured professors

Global Public Policy Network

Sciences Po offers dual master’s degrees with the London School of Economics, the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University, the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, and the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore. This collaboration has existed since the early 1990s, but was formalized in September 2005 with the official launch of the Global Public Policy Network in Beijing, China. The partnership is meant to foster greater academic collaboration between students, faculty, and research centers of four leading public policy schools in what could arguably be termed four world capital cities.[6] The network is further intended to facilitate collaboration on public policy research, student and faculty exchanges, and international conferences and fora with policymakers from the USA, Germany, UK, France and Singapore. This alliance has produced five degree programs with LSE, including masters degrees in International Relations, Negotiation, International Political Economy, Public Affairs, the Practice of International Affairs, and Urban Policy, two degree programs with Columbia, specifically a Master in International Affairs, dual Master of Public Policy and Master of Public Administration with the Hertie School of Governance, and a Master in Public Affairs, and one degree program with LKS, a Master in Public Policy.[7]

Research

Doctoral School

The Doctoral School, headed by Marc Lazar until September 2007 and now directed by Patrick Weil, includes 175 faculty members and 600 doctoral students. It was created in 1988 and welcomes students to their Master and PhD studies.

Research Master's

The Research Master’s program entails two years of interdisciplinary instruction in four basic social sciences: political science, history, sociology and economics. This interdisciplinary approach is designed to reinforce and round out graduate-level training. The Research Master’s program prepares students for doctoral studies and subsequent careers in research and higher education. But it also opens out into a wider range of career options (work in consulting, expertise, public opinion polling, publishing etc.) thanks to the links between the Sciences Po Master’s degree and Research Master’s programs in the form of joint courses and degrees.

The Research Master’s program offers:

  • an outstanding academic framework
  • close administrative support all the way through to entry into professional life
  • openness and close links to outside academic and professional domains at national and international levels.

Students in the Research Master’s program can choose from among six concentrations: History and Theory of Politics, International Relations, Politics and Society in Europe, Comparative Politics, Sociology of Action, Economic Governance.

PhD Program

Sciences Po is accredited to confer PhD degrees in economics, history, political science and sociology.

The Sciences Po PhD Program counts roughly 600 doctoral candidates, a third of whom hail from abroad. About 40 defend their dissertations each year. The program has a long-standing tradition of multi-disciplinary scholarship.

The PhD Program covers 15 fields of study, which follow up on those offered in the Master’s program: Latin America, Sociological Analysis of Change, Asia, Economics of International Relations, United States, Europe, International Finance, Economic Governance, History, Muslim World, Political Thought, Russia/CIS, Political Science of International Relations, Sociology of Action, Political Sociology and Public Policy.

In addition to academic training, the PhD Program provides a number of student services, including financial aid for PhD studies as well as for research abroad, support and promotion for publications, and job placement guidance and assistance.

Habilitation

Sciences Po awards a French postdoctoral degree called Habilitation qualifying the holder to supervise doctoral research in economics, history, political science and sociology.

Habilitation is the crowning degree for university studies in France: it attests to the holder’s high level of scholarship, the originality of their approach, the ability to master a research strategy in a sufficiently broad field of inquiry and to supervise young scholars. It qualifies the holder, moreover, to join the corps of university professors.

Research centres

FNSP manages the research faculty and facilities of Sciences Po, and is one of the largest social sciences research bodies in Europe. FNSP manages research centres, a doctoral school, a library and a publishing house. The FNSP manages eight research centres (*five jointly with CNRS). The foundation of Sciences Po predates by a few decades the creation of political science, as such the Institute focuses on all the social sciences that study the political field.

  • History
    • CHSP (Centre d’histoire de Sciences Po)* directed by Jean-François Sirinelli
  • Sociology
    • OSC (Observatoire sociologique du changement)* directed by Alain Chenu
    • CSO (Centre de Sociologie des organisations)*, whose researchers include Michel Crozier, Erhard Friedberg and Bruno Latour, directed by Christine Musselin
  • Economics, including economic policy
    • GEM (Groupe d'économie mondiale) directed by Patrick Messerlin
    • OFCE (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques) directed by Jean-Paul Fitoussi
  • International Relations
    • CERI (Centre d’études et de recherches internationales)* Christophe Jaffrelot
    • CEE (Centre d’études européennes de Sciences Po) directed by Renaud Dehousse
  • Political Science in France and Europe
    • CEVIPOF (Centre d’étude de la vie politique française)* Pascal Perrineau
    • CDSP (Centre de données sociopolitiques de Sciences Po)* directed by Alain Chenu

Research networks

  • EUREDOCS : European Research & Higher Education Doctoral Studies network:

Euredocs is a network run by Sciences Po made up of doctoral students and recent PhD recipients (who have defended their dissertations within the past three years). The network addresses the Europeanization of higher education and research, including such issues as the structure of academic curricula, evaluation/accreditation procedures, changes in national education policies and university governance, academic career patterns, the production of knowledge, the impact of internationalization/globalization etc.

Funded under the European Commission’s 6th Framework Programme, the GARNET network gathers 42 leading research centres and universities in Europe and operates with a budget of 5,4 millions euros over 5 years (2005-2010). Sciences Po is represented in the network by CERI who runs a specific “dissemination of excellence” programme. A number of GARNET activities address doctoral students and finance their participation:

    • PhD School Network develops interdisciplinary seminar programmes focusing on key theoretical and methodological issues on global governance and the role of the EU. These one-week seminars bring together professors and PhD students from all over Europe and the world;
    • Research programmes are particularly welcoming participation of doctoral students, namely 18 Jointly Executed Research Projects, the “Capacity Building in Professional Training on Issues of Global Governance and Regulation” program and GARNET Annual Conferences;
    • Mobility programme offers up to 1,500 Euros/ month allowance to doctoral students at the later stages of their dissertation wishing to participate in the research activities of GARNET partner institutions for short or long period.
  • Connex Network of Excellence on Efficient and Democratic Governance in a Multi-level Europe:

CONNEX is a network set up under the 6th Framework Programme for European Research and Technological Development (2002–2006) to analyze various facets of democratic governance in Europe.

Library and publishing

Library (Bibliothèque de Sciences Po)

Founded in 1871, the nucleus of the school’s research is Bibliothèque de Sciences Po, which "houses" 650,000 books about social sciences and 4,500 journals and annual publications, although only approximately one fifteenth of these is available to students at any given time. The Bibliothèque is also the hub of the Documentary Service which maintains 18,000 press dossiers on a wide range of sub-topics, and which each years abstracts and indexes some 10,000 articles from 1,200 periodicals each year.[8] In 1982, the National Ministry of Education made the Bibliothèque the Centre for Acquisition and Dissemination of Scientific and Technical Information in the field of political science, and since 1994, it has been the antenna associated with Bibliothèque Nationale de France.[9] Bibliothèque de Sciences Po is also the main French partner in the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, which is based at the London School of Economics.[10]

Publishing House / Presses de Sciences Po

Presses de Sciences-Po is the publishing house of Sciences Po. It publishes academic works related to the social sciences, and is the leading French publisher in the fields of public policy, international relations, political history, French government, and economics.[11] It publishes 6 French academic journals in the social sciences, and has 900 titles in its catalogue, with 30 new titles added annually.

Notable faculty and alumni

See List of Sciences Po People

"Rue Saint Guillaume" is the Sciences Po's alumni magazine.

Sciences Po alumni and former staff include twenty-eight heads of state or government, specifically the two immediate past French presidents (Jacques Chirac and François Mitterrand), thirteen past or present French prime ministers, twelve past or present foreign heads of state or government, and a former United Nations Secretary-General. Nearly every French politician or diplomat has attended Sciences Po since its inception; however the school has also educated fourteen current CEOs of France's forty largest companies. Graduates of Sciences Po are usually referred to as Sciences Po.

Some French students further their studies at École nationale d'administration (ENA), which is often viewed as the compulsory educational step before serving in French politics or diplomacy. The vast majority of teachers and professors working in Sciences Po are alumni.

References and notes

Bibliography

  • Richard Descoings, Sciences Po. De la Courneuve à Shanghai fr:Richard Descoings#Publications, préface de René Rémond, Presses de Sciences Po, Paris, 2007 (ISBN 2-7246-0990-5)
  • Jacques Chapsal, « L'Institut d'études politiques de l'Université de Paris », Annales de l'Université de Paris, n° 1, 1950
  • « Centenaire de l'Institut d'études politiques de Paris (1872–1972) », brochure de l'Institut d'études politiques de Paris, 1972
  • [12], A Sciences-Po, les voyages forment la jeunesse, Monde Diplomatique, Février 2006
  • Pierre Favre, Cent dix années de cours à l'École libre des sciences politiques et à l'Institut d'études politiques de Paris (1871–1982), thèse de doctorat, 2 volumes, 1986
  • Gérard Vincent, Sciences Po. Histoire d'une réussite, Orban, Paris, 1987
  • Marie-Estelle Leroty, L'Enseignement de l'histoire à l'École libre des sciences politiques et à l'Institut d'études politiques de l'Université de Paris de 1943 à 1968, mémoire de diplôme d'études approfondies dirigé par Jean-François Sirinelli, Institut d'études politiques de Paris, 2000
  • Anne Muxel (direction), Les Étudiants de Sciences Po, Presses de Sciences Po, Paris, 2004, ISBN 2-7246-0937-9 : Résultats d'une grande enquête menée en janvier 2002 auprès des élèves par le Cevipof
  • Comité national d'évaluation des établissements publics à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel, Rapport d'évaluation de l'Institut d'études politiques de ParisPDF, septembre 2005
  • Cyril Delhay, Promotion ZEP. Des quartiers à Sciences Po, Hachette, Paris, 2006, ISBN 2-01-235949-3

Notes

  1. ^  "LSE: A History of the London School of Economics and Political Science, 1895-1995", Oxford University Press, 1 June 1995.
  2. ^  "Consolidation de L'autonomie de Sciences Po" Sénat, 1996.
  3. ^  "Le statut juridique de Sciences Po: la dualité FNSP et IEP de Paris" Centre d’histoire de Sciences Po
  4. ^  “Sciences Po Paris Overview: Introducing Sciences Po” Sciences Po Website, 2001.
  5. ^  “Sciences Po Paris Overview: Introducing Sciences Po” Sciences Po Website, 2001.
  6. ^  “Sciences Po Paris Overview: Introducing Sciences Po” Sciences Po Website, 2001.
  7. ^  "La Bibliothèque de Sciences Po", Sciences Po Website, 2007
  8. ^  "IBSS Boosts Coverage of French Social Science Journals", IBSS, 2005.
  9. ^  "Presses de Sciences Po", Sciences Po Website, 21 October 2004.
  10. ^  "Columbia University, LSE and Sciences Po launch Global Public Policy Network", PRNewsWire, 19 September 2005.
  11. ^  "Sciences Po’s Joint Degrees", Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, 21 October 2004.
  12. ^  "Sciences Po ― an elite institution's introspection on its power, position and worth in French society" NYU Department of Journalism, 9 September 2003.

External links

Coordinates: 48°51′15.02″N 2°19′42.49″E / 48.8541722°N 2.3284694°E / 48.8541722; 2.3284694


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