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.Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.^ I have a new respect for the scientific method now.
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gradually, as the scientific method developed and was applied increasingly to explain phenomena, it was found that events occurred as a consequence of universal and unchangeable natural laws.
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed finding new methods of approximation is an important scientific activity.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.^ STEP 1 : The scientific method operates on the dual principles of OBSERVATION and EXPERIMENTATION .
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can you give kind of the specific steps then, that I guess that scientists follow when they go through the scientific method?
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Scientific Method (TM) is probably emphasized for two reasons.
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .A scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.^ STEP 1 : The scientific method operates on the dual principles of OBSERVATION and EXPERIMENTATION .
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can you give kind of the specific steps then, that I guess that scientists follow when they go through the scientific method?
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientific psychology is still young, and there is rapid turnover in our interests, our experimental apparatus and our tests, and our theoretical concepts.
  • Scientific Method vs. Correlation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.mnforsustain.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, identifiable features distinguish scientific inquiry from other methodologies of knowledge.^ First published Mon Dec 29, 2003 Francis Bacon (1561–1626) was one of the leading figures in natural philosophy and in the field of scientific methodology in the period of transition from the Renaissance to the early modern era.
  • Francis Bacon (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of this, I think that the scientific method is followed a lot more closely in something like organic chemistry than in other more conjectural fields.
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no area of scientific inquiry where truth is as unacceptable as in the human field.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.Scientific researchers propose hypotheses as explanations of phenomena, and design experimental studies to test these hypotheses.^ Scientific psychology is still young, and there is rapid turnover in our interests, our experimental apparatus and our tests, and our theoretical concepts.
  • Scientific Method vs. Correlation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.mnforsustain.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are lots of quasi-experimental and non-experimental research designs that are valid and informative, but don't follow the formalized scientific method as closely.
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an extreme form of this mistake, people who have not done any research, nor even seen it done, sometimes equate “the scientific method” with a step-by-step hypothesis-testing approach.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These steps must be repeatable in order to dependably predict any future results.^ All of these have different methods, and different ways of determining whether a particular result is legit (from statistical significance to correct predictions in controlled environments).
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evolution is unable to "repeat" the CREATION OF LIFE and thus prove the entirety of evolution, but experiments based on the principles of the evolutionary process produce the results that the "evolutionary theory" predicts.
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As mentioned in item 10 and section 3.3 , practically all scientific results have some limits to their validity, and you must clearly understand and clearly communicate these limits.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Theories that encompass wider domains of inquiry may bind many independently-derived hypotheses together in a coherent, supportive structure. This in turn may help form new hypotheses or place groups of hypotheses into context.
.Among other facets shared by the various fields of inquiry is the conviction that the process be objective to reduce biased interpretations of the results.^ Discussions of the logic of operationism, intervening variables, and mathematical models have sharpened both the formulation of hypotheses and the interpretation of results.
  • Scientific Method vs. Correlation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.mnforsustain.org [Source type: Academic]

.Another basic expectation is to document, archive and share all data and methodology so they are available for careful scrutiny by other scientists, thereby allowing other researchers the opportunity to verify results by attempting to reproduce them.^ Consider all the available data.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists do not accept all risks, nor do they decline all risks.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But measure a couple dozen lizards, and find they're all 32 degrees, and now it's science, as they all verify the results of each other.
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This practice, called full disclosure, also allows statistical measures of the reliability of these data to be established.

Introduction to scientific method

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), 965–1039, Basra.
Since Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen, 965–1039), one of the key figures in the development of scientific method, the emphasis has been on seeking truth:
Truth is sought for its own sake. .And those who are engaged upon the quest for anything for its own sake are not interested in other things.^ It also provides a valuable source of information for those more experienced researchers who are seeking to strengthen the methodology underlying their studies or who have an interest in the analysis of research methods in ecology.
  • scientific method - Lulu.com 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

^ There are those who say that Freud avoided controversy, offering as evidence his disdain for answering critics and his avoidance, whenever possible, of face to face arguments with others.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among other things, this includes recognizing the distinction between data and the interpretation that you wish to place upon the data.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Finding the truth is difficult, and the road to it is rough.[3]
.
"Light travels through transparent bodies in straight lines only" — Alhazen in Book of Optics (1021).
How does light travel through transparent bodies?^ This process resembles what happens when a person has worried about a mysterious pain in his body, only to find after a visit to a physician that he does not have a serious physical illness after all.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Light travels through transparent bodies in straight lines only.... We have explained this exhaustively in our Book of Optics. .But let us now mention something to prove this convincingly: the fact that light travels in straight lines is clearly observed in the lights which enter into dark rooms through holes....^ Adaptation and natural selection can be observed, but something like evolving from dinosaur to bird simply takes too long for us to observe, and how would you reproduce it in a lab?
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One that says that fairies make them or the scientific one of light refracting through rain drops and breaking up into the composite colors?
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Life of the Sun Questions Show – light speed, Andromeda galaxy, dark matter and black holes Ep.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[T]he entering light will be clearly observable in the dust which fills the air.[4]
The conjecture that "light travels through transparent bodies in straight lines only" was corroborated by Alhazen only after years of effort. His demonstration of the conjecture was to place a straight stick or a taut thread next to the light beam,[5] to prove that light travels in a straight line.
.Scientific methodology has been practiced in some form for at least one thousand years.^ And without the scientific method we would think the Earth was flat, a few thousand years old and the center of the Universe.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without the scientific method we'd probably still think the Earth is flat, only a few thousand years old and the center of the universe.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As mentioned in item 10 and section 3.3 , practically all scientific results have some limits to their validity, and you must clearly understand and clearly communicate these limits.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however.^ However, their data has not been obtained using the SCIENTIFIC METHOD , and there is no valid support for ANY such data.
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As William Whewell (1794–1866) noted in his History of Inductive Science (1837) and in Philosophy of Inductive Science (1840), "invention, sagacity, genius" are required at every step in scientific method.^ Specialized scientific methods are required.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STEP 1 : The scientific method operates on the dual principles of OBSERVATION and EXPERIMENTATION .
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can you give kind of the specific steps then, that I guess that scientists follow when they go through the scientific method?
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is not enough to base scientific method on experience alone;[6] multiple steps are needed in scientific method, ranging from our experience to our imagination, back and forth.^ THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD is a the framework for doing experiments.
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STEP 1 : The scientific method operates on the dual principles of OBSERVATION and EXPERIMENTATION .
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can you give kind of the specific steps then, that I guess that scientists follow when they go through the scientific method?
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the twentieth century, a hypothetico-deductive model for scientific method was formulated (for a more formal discussion, see below):
1. .Use your experience: Consider the problem and try to make sense of it.^ It is only when the concept love is used in the sense of intense warmth, as part of the life of pleasure and enjoyment, that love makes no room for the partial withdrawal dictated by hate.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whether or not you believe in God, you should live your life with love, kindness, compassion, mercy and tolerance while trying to make the world a better place.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What usually occurs is that scientists obtain a bit of data and try to put it together so it makes sense.
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Look for previous explanations. If this is a new problem to you, then move to step 2.
2. Form a conjecture: When nothing else is yet known, try to state an explanation, to someone else, or to your notebook.
3. Deduce a prediction from that explanation: If you assume 2 is true, what consequences follow?
4. Test: Look for the opposite of each consequence in order to disprove 2. It is a logical error to seek 3 directly as proof of 2. This error is called affirming the consequent.[7]
This model underlies the scientific revolution. .One thousand years ago, Alhazen demonstrated the importance of steps 1 and 4.^ The earliest written historical records of human beings go as far as six thousands years ago.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Evolutionists claim that the origin of life existed in this universe billions of years ago and that mankind was completely evolved hundreds of thousands of years ago.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

Galileo (1638) also showed the importance of step 4 (also called Experiment) in Two New Sciences. One possible sequence in this model would be 1, 2, 3, 4. .If the outcome of 4 holds, and 3 is not yet disproven, you may continue with 3, 4, 1, and so forth; but if the outcome of 4 shows 3 to be false, you will have go back to 2 and try to invent a new 2, deduce a new 3, look for 4, and so forth.^ "You're still new to all this," Lex tried to soothe him.

^ Then you try to take the observations that you’ve made and try to fit these back in to try to create a model that matches your hypothesis.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I realize a dildo may seem a little off-putting at first, but you're going to like this.

Note that this method can never absolutely verify (prove the truth of) 2. It can only falsify 2.[8] .(This is what Einstein meant when he said "No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong."[9]) However, as pointed out by Carl Hempel (1905-1997) this simple Popperian view of scientific method is incomplete; the formulation of the conjecture might itself be the result of inductive reasoning.^ Often, though, instead of proving a theory wrong, the scientific method reveals that it is incomplete.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Search Results: 'scientific method' RSS .
  • scientific method - Lulu.com 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

^ STEP 1 : The scientific method operates on the dual principles of OBSERVATION and EXPERIMENTATION .
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus the likelihood of the prior observation being true is statistical in nature [10] and would strictly require a Bayesian analysis. .To overcome this uncertainty, experimental scientists must formulate a crucial experiment, in order for it to corroborate a more likely hypothesis.^ The brain is a far more complex computer than man has ever built, but like the computer it must be programmed in order to function.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Skilled scientists can question assumptions somewhat more quickly and more methodically than other folks, because they have had more experience doing it.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a more basic science, we require genotypic constructs to describe situations, constructs like the physical scientist's temperature and pressure.
  • Scientific Method vs. Correlation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.mnforsustain.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the twentieth century, Ludwik Fleck (1896–1961) and others found that we need to consider our experiences more carefully, because our experience may be biased, and that we need to be more exact when describing our experiences.^ As many men have found, this process has no endpoint, because shame cannot be overcome through the deference of others.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Skilled scientists can question assumptions somewhat more quickly and more methodically than other folks, because they have had more experience doing it.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If an oversupply of feeling meets an undersupply of experience, helplessness intervenes, and in this disoriented state sexuality may enter with or without anxiety, destroying warmth and the ability to become more aware of the self and others.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[11] These considerations are discussed below.

DNA example

.The Keystones of Science project, sponsored by the journal Science, has selected a number of scientific articles from that journal and annotated them, illustrating how different parts of each article embody scientific method.^ How is any other method different?
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There's plenty of different scientific procedures for different areas of science...
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those can be informative, but they're often done in different ways--ways that are still valid even though they don't follow all the steps of THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD rigorously.
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Here [12] is an annotated example of this scientific method example titled "Microbial Genes in the Human Genome: Lateral Transfer or Gene Loss?".
DNA icon (25x25).png .Four basic elements of scientific method are illustrated below, by example from the discovery of the structure of DNA:
  • DNA-characterizations: in this case, although the significance of the gene had been established, the mechanism was unclear to anyone, as of 1950.
  • DNA-hypotheses: Crick and Watson hypothesized that the gene had a physical basis - it was helical.^ You can count the number of changes that have happened to human society because of our discoveries made with the scientific method.
    • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From biology, to chemistry, to physics, to astronomy it is impossible to count the number of changes that have happened to human society because of changes brought about from the scientific method.
    • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Without science, without the scientific method people would have these philosophical discussions on how many angels dance on the head of a pin and, that’s a bad example.
    • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [13]
  • DNA-predictions: from earlier work on tobacco mosaic virus,[14] Watson was aware of the significance of Crick's formulation of the transform of a helix.[15] Thus he was primed for the significance of the X-shape in photo 51.
  • DNA-experiments: Watson sees photo 51.[16]
The examples are continued in "Evaluations and iterations" with DNA-iterations.[17]

Truth and belief

Flying gallop falsified; see image below.
.Belief can alter observations; those with a particular belief will often see things as reinforcing their belief, even if to another observer they would appear not to do so.^ Those can be informative, but they're often done in different ways--ways that are still valid even though they don't follow all the steps of THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD rigorously.
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being smarter, they would stand a better chance of survival, and they would have even more "BHB".
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "When there are two people of whom one can say what life is, the other (almost) what the soul is, it is only right that they should see each other and talk together often . . . .
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even researchers admit that the first observation may have been a little imprecise, whereas the second and third were "adjusted to the facts," until tradition, education, and familiarity produce a readiness for new perception.^ "I realize a dildo may seem a little off-putting at first, but you're going to like this.

^ Mokele's first two examples are observational studies, the third is at best a quasi-experiment.
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During any relationship circumstances change, new facts are discovered and the relationship has to be modified to adjust to the changed situation.
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
Needham's Science and Civilization in China uses the 'flying gallop' image as an example of observation:[19] in it, the legs of a galloping horse are depicted as splayed, when the stop-action pictures of a horse's gallop by Eadweard Muybridge show otherwise. In a gallop, at the moment that no hoof is touching the ground, a horse's legs are gathered together and are not splayed. Earlier paintings depict the incorrect flying gallop observation (this is an example of observer bias).
.This demonstrates Ludwik Fleck's caution that people observe what they expect to observe, until shown otherwise; our beliefs will affect our observations (and therefore our subsequent actions).^ Few people care a whit about his death instinct, including most otherwise loyal psychoanalysts, but they do care about the need to understand violence.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Others will disagree, and they always will… but we all are entitled to our beliefs and opinions.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We start out with an attempt at an explanation for something, observe and analyze, refine our explanation, observe and analyze more, refine our explanation more, make predictions based on our explanation, and test to see if they work.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

.The purpose of a scientific method is to test a hypothesis, a proposed explanation about how things are, via repeatable experimental observations which can definitively contradict the hypothesis.^ STEP 1 : The scientific method operates on the dual principles of OBSERVATION and EXPERIMENTATION .
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases the original hypothesis must be completely DISCARDED and a new hypothesis must be proposed and tested.
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this episode we tell you about what the scientific method is, how you can use it to improve your life, and discuss why gravity isn't just a theory.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Elements of scientific method

.There are different ways of outlining the basic method used for scientific inquiry.^ In this episode we tell you about what the scientific method is, how you can use it to improve your life, and discuss why gravity isn't just a theory.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember that a major purpose of scientific methods is to make useful predictions and to avoid mistakes.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And all of you go out and use the scientific method in everything you do.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The scientific community and philosophers of science generally agree on the following classification of method components.^ Can you give kind of the specific steps then, that I guess that scientists follow when they go through the scientific method?
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As you work through your series of, Hmm, I wonder, you’re following through the scientific method at every step.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An important component of science, especially of scientific research , involves exploring new territory.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These methodological elements and organization of procedures tend to be more characteristic of natural sciences than social sciences. Nonetheless, the cycle of formulating hypotheses, testing and analyzing the results, and formulating new hypotheses, will resemble the cycle described below.
Four essential elements[20][21][22] of a scientific method[23] are iterations,[24][25] recursions,[26] interleavings, and orderings of the following:
.Each element of a scientific method is subject to peer review for possible mistakes.^ Remember that a major purpose of scientific methods is to make useful predictions and to avoid mistakes.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, it would be a spectacular mistake to take “the scientific method” literally.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an extreme form of this mistake, people who have not done any research, nor even seen it done, sometimes equate “the scientific method” with a step-by-step hypothesis-testing approach.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These activities do not describe all that scientists do (see below) but apply mostly to experimental sciences (e.g., physics, chemistry).^ An important scientific activity (which applies not just to pure science but also to engineering and even farming, etc.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Science is nothing more than a PROCESS that scientists use in an attempt to understand how the PHYSICAL UNIVERSE WORKS .
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also reference 1 , reference 8 , and reference 9 for sensible discussions of what science is, and how scientists do science.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The elements above are often taught in the educational system.[33]
.Scientific method is not a recipe: it requires intelligence, imagination, and creativity.^ Specialized scientific methods are required.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The acceptance of pseudoscience requires the embracing of irrationality and the denigration of logic and reason and thus is the antithesis of the scientific method.
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .It is also an ongoing cycle, constantly developing more useful, accurate and comprehensive models and methods.^ (Again, you might find that devising accurate, robust models is more easily said than done.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, when Einstein developed the Special and General Theories of Relativity, he did not in any way refute or discount Newton's Principia.^ This is how we went from Newton's theory of gravitation to Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
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^ Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity Theories are not easily discarded; new discoveries are first assumed to fit into the existing theoretical framework.
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^ For example: By studying how objects fall to the ground, Newton was able to develop a theory of gravitation that we can use to guide a trip to the moon, or to Mars, or to anywhere in the Universe.

.On the contrary, if the astronomically large, the vanishingly small, and the extremely fast are reduced out from Einstein's theories — all phenomena that Newton could not have observed — Newton's equations remain.^ Freud could not understand the commitments of responsible power because he was intent on reducing all human phenomena to the interaction between libido and destruction.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The realization is yeah, Mercury refuses to behave normally if you look at Kepler’s equations, or if you look at Newton’s equations, there’s got to be something else out there.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then Einstein, also looked at Newton’s theory’s that was built on Kepler’s theories, and said well, let’s take this a step further.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Einstein's theories are expansions and refinements of Newton's theories and, thus, increase our confidence in Newton's work.^ Then Einstein, also looked at Newton’s theory’s that was built on Kepler’s theories, and said well, let’s take this a step further.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fraser: And once again, this theory will need to incorporate all of Newton’s material and Einstein’s material and then explain the things that Einstein wasn’t able to explain.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We start out with an attempt at an explanation for something, observe and analyze, refine our explanation, observe and analyze more, refine our explanation more, make predictions based on our explanation, and test to see if they work.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

A linearized, pragmatic scheme of the four points above is sometimes offered as a guideline for proceeding:[35]
  1. Define the question
  2. Gather information and resources (observe)
  3. Form hypothesis
  4. Perform experiment and collect data
  5. Analyze data
  6. Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypothesis
  7. Publish results
  8. Retest (frequently done by other scientists)
.The iterative cycle inherent in this step-by-step methodology goes from point 3 to 6 back to 3 again.^ A linearized, pragmatical scheme of the four above points is sometimes offered as a guideline for proceeding: 1- Define the question 2- Gather information and resources 3- Form hypothesis 4- Perform experiment and collect data 5- Analyze data 6- Interpret data & draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypotheses 7- Publish results The iterative cycle inherent in this step-by-step methodology goes from point 3 to 6 back to 3 again.

.While this schema outlines a typical hypothesis/testing method,[36] it should also be noted that a number of philosophers, historians and sociologists of science (perhaps most notably Paul Feyerabend) claim that such descriptions of scientific method have little relation to the ways science is actually practiced.^ I put my trust in the scientific method as the best way to understand the universe and our place in it , however, I do like to keep abreast of the current theories in the areas of science I am most interested in, i.e.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You can count the number of changes that have happened to human society because of our discoveries made with the scientific method.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 90: The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, their data has not been obtained using the SCIENTIFIC METHOD , and there is no valid support for ANY such data.
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The "operational" paradigm combines the concepts of operational definition, instrumentalism, and utility:
.The essential elements of a scientific method are operations, observations, models, and a utility function for evaluating models.^ STEP 1 : The scientific method operates on the dual principles of OBSERVATION and EXPERIMENTATION .
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]
.
  • Operation - Some action done to the system being investigated
  • Observation - What happens when the operation is done to the system
  • Model - A fact, hypothesis, theory, or the phenomenon itself at a certain moment
  • Utility Function - A measure of the usefulness of the model to explain, predict, and control, and of the cost of use of it.^ When evaluating a hypothesis, do not “select” just the data the happens to support your pet theory.
    • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If the repeated observations and experimental results support the hypothesis and they are said to be " REPRODUCIBLE ", the hypothesis then becomes a THEORY .
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    ^ This theory predicts differences in anxiety between certain groups, and traditional correlational methods can test those predictions.
    • Scientific Method vs. Correlation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.mnforsustain.org [Source type: Academic]

    One of the elements of any scientific utility function is the refutability of the model. Another is its simplicity, on the Principle of Parsimony also known as Occam's Razor.

Characterizations

.Scientific method depends upon increasingly more sophisticated characterizations of the subjects of investigation.^ Gradually, as the scientific method developed and was applied increasingly to explain phenomena, it was found that events occurred as a consequence of universal and unchangeable natural laws.
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^ Psychology continues to this day to be limited by the dedication of its investigators to one or the other method of inquiry rather than to scientific psychology as a whole.
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(The subjects can also be called unsolved problems or the unknowns.) For example, Benjamin Franklin correctly characterized St. Elmo's fire as electrical in nature, but it has taken a long series of experiments and theory to establish this. While seeking the pertinent properties of the subjects, this careful thought may also entail some definitions and observations; the observations often demand careful measurements and/or counting.
.The systematic, careful collection of measurements or counts of relevant quantities is often the critical difference between pseudo-sciences, such as alchemy, and a science, such as chemistry or biology.^ It is important to know the difference between science and pseudo-science.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But we do find that a person learns more easily from one method than another, that this best method differs from person to person, and that such between-treatments differences are correlated with tests of ability and personality.
  • Scientific Method vs. Correlation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.mnforsustain.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A sampling procedure such as Bruswik suggests will often be a forward step, but the important matter is not to establish laws which apply loosely to a random, unorganized collection of situations.
  • Scientific Method vs. Correlation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.mnforsustain.org [Source type: Academic]

Scientific measurements taken are usually tabulated, graphed, or mapped, and statistical manipulations, such as correlation and regression, performed on them. .The measurements might be made in a controlled setting, such as a laboratory, or made on more or less inaccessible or unmanipulatable objects such as stars or human populations.^ The measurements might be made in a controlled setting, such as a laboratory, or made on more or less inaccessible or unmanipulatable objects such as stars or human populations.
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^ Researchers in Bragg's laboratory at Cambridge University made X-ray diffraction pictures of various molecules, starting with crystals of salt, and proceeding to more complicated substances.

^ A. Human error: failure to follow procedures, failure to use the equipment properly, failure to prepare solution correctly, measurements made by 2 researchers, simple arithmetic errors, etc...
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.The measurements often require specialized scientific instruments such as thermometers, spectroscopes, or voltmeters, and the progress of a scientific field is usually intimately tied to their invention and development.^ Specialized scientific methods are required.
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^ The measurements often require specialized scientific instruments such as thermometers, spectroscopes, or voltmeters, and the progress of a scientific field is usually intimately tied to their invention and development.
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^ Over a period spanning a variety of experimental tests (usually several years), a consensus develops in scientific community as to which experimental results have stood the test of time and become ----> THEORY .
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"I am not accustomed to saying anything with certainty after only one or two observations."—Andreas Vesalius (1546) [38]

Uncertainty

.Measurements in scientific work are also usually accompanied by estimates of their uncertainty.^ Measurements in scientific work are also usually accompanied by estimates of their uncertainty.

^ Measurements in scientific work are also usually accompanied by estimates of their uncertainty .
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^ Scientific observations and measurements are often taken repeatedly (iteratively), and they are also usually tabulated, graphed, mapped, and/or statistically manipulated.
  • A Primer on Inference 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.apsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The uncertainty is often estimated by making repeated measurements of the desired quantity.^ The uncertainty is often estimated by making repeated measurements of the desired quantity.
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^ This means, in short, that one may test a given idea as often as desire or necessity dictates, and others, wishing to see for themselves, may make their own private tests.
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^ Measurements in scientific work are also usually accompanied by estimates of their uncertainty.

.Uncertainties may also be calculated by consideration of the uncertainties of the individual underlying quantities that are used.^ Uncertainties may also be calculated by consideration of the uncertainties of the individual underlying quantities that are used.
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^ Therefore, observations depend on some underlying understanding of the way in which the world functions, and that understanding may influence what is perceived, noticed, or deemed worthy of consideration.
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^ Counts of things, such as the number of people in a nation at a particular time, may also have an uncertainty due to limitations of the method used.
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.Counts of things, such as the number of people in a nation at a particular time, may also have an uncertainty due to limitations of the method used.^ Counts of things, such as the number of people in a nation at a particular time, may also have an uncertainty due to limitations of the method used.

^ People use scientific methods all the time.

^ No working scientist, when he plans an experiment in the laboratory, asks himself whether he is being properly scientific, nor is he interested in whatever method he may be using as method.
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.Counts may only represent a sample of desired quantities, with an uncertainty that depends upon the sampling method used and the number of samples taken.^ Counts may only represent a sample of desired quantities, with an uncertainty that depends upon the sampling method used and the number of samples taken.
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^ Uncertainties may also be calculated by consideration of the uncertainties of the individual underlying quantities that are used.
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^ No working scientist, when he plans an experiment in the laboratory, asks himself whether he is being properly scientific, nor is he interested in whatever method he may be using as method.
  • The Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.buildfreedom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Definition

.Measurements demand the use of operational definitions of relevant quantities.^ Measurements demand the use of operational definitions of relevant quantities.
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^ The operational definition of a thing often relies on comparisons with standards: the operational definition of "mass" ultimately relies on the use of an artifact, such as a certain kilogram of platinum kept in a laboratory in France.
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^ This is not just because most statistical manipulations are based on estimates of uncertainty, but because measurement itself demands the use of operational definitions which may be far less optimal than a perfect or "idealized" definition of something.
  • A Primer on Inference 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.apsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.That is, a scientific quantity is described or defined by how it is measured, as opposed to some more vague, inexact or "idealized" definition.^ That is, a scientific quantity is described or defined by how it is measured, as opposed to some more vague, inexact or "idealized" definition.
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^ For example, electrical current , measured in Amperes, may be operationally defined in terms of the mass of silver deposited in a certain time on an electrode in an electrochemical device that is described in some detail.
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^ Quantitative Observations are observations about quantity (how many).  There will always be a number based on a type of measurement.

.For example, electrical current, measured in amperes, may be operationally defined in terms of the mass of silver deposited in a certain time on an electrode in an electrochemical device that is described in some detail.^ It had a certain measure of popularity at the time Freud's letter was written.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not define, for any bit of order, either the time frame in which this must occur or the path a bit of order may take before becoming disorder.
  • CHAPTER #6: EVOLUTION, LIFE & THE SCI. METHOD 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The operational definition of a thing often relies on comparisons with standards: the operational definition of "mass" ultimately relies on the use of an artifact, such as a certain kilogram of platinum-iridium kept in a laboratory in France.^ The operational definition of a thing often relies on comparisons with standards: the operational definition of "mass" ultimately relies on the use of an artifact, such as a certain kilogram of platinum kept in a laboratory in France.
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^ The operational definition of a thing often relies on comparisons with standards: the operational definition of "mass" ultimately relies on the use of an artifact, such as a certain kilogram of platinum-iridium kept in a laboratory in France.

^ Just as the scientific method has brought such great benefits to society, using the scientific method can do great things for you too.

The scientific definition of a term sometimes differs substantially from its natural language usage. For example, mass and weight overlap in meaning in common discourse, but have distinct meanings in mechanics. .Scientific quantities are often characterized by their units of measure which can later be described in terms of conventional physical units when communicating the work.^ Evolution IS an attempt to describe how, in the framework of the LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS and other physical/chemical laws, biological organisms work and why they work the way they do.
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.New theories sometimes arise upon realizing that certain terms had not previously been sufficiently clearly defined.^ New theories sometimes arise upon realizing that certain terms had not previously been sufficiently clearly defined.
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^ New theories often arise from redefining certain terms which had not been previously well-defined.
  • A Primer on Inference 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.apsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wikipedia Encyclopedia defines " Proof of concept " as "a short and/or incomplete realization (or synopsis ) of a certain method or idea(s) to demonstrate its feasibility, or a demonstration in principle, whose purpose is to verify that some concept or theory is probably capable of exploitation in a useful manner.
  • Jones' Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC drjudywood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, Albert Einstein's first paper on relativity begins by defining simultaneity and the means for determining length. .These ideas were skipped over by Isaac Newton with, "I do not define time, space, place and motion, as being well known to all." Einstein's paper then demonstrates that they (viz., absolute time and length independent of motion) were approximations.^ There was a time when religion thought it could explain all the world, then came science, they both come up short.” .
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The social standards on which justice is based change according to the time and place where they occur.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.Francis Crick cautions us that when characterizing a subject, however, it can be premature to define something when it remains ill-understood.^ Francis Crick cautions us that when characterizing a subject, however, it can be premature to define something when it remains ill-understoodCri94.

^ However, the primary subject matter (stars, galaxies, et cetera) remain beyond the reach of real experimentation.
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^ He remained intensely aware, however, of the conventional opinions of mankind on every subject that touched his interests, and he formed his rhetoric on a framework which was always controversial.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[39] In Crick's study of consciousness, he actually found it easier to study awareness in the visual system, rather than to study free will, for example. .His cautionary example was the gene; the gene was much more poorly understood before Watson and Crick's pioneering discovery of the structure of DNA; it would have been counterproductive to spend much time on the definition of the gene, before them.^ His cautionary example was the gene; the gene was much more poorly understood before Watson and Crick's pioneering discovery of the structure of DNA; it would have been counterproductive to spend much time on the definition of the gene, before them.

^ Example of steps 1 through 4: the discovery of the structure of DNA .
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^ DNA/experiments Before proposing their model Watson and Crick had previously seen x-ray diffraction images by Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, and Raymond Gosling.

Example of characterizations

DNA-characterizations
DNA icon (25x25).png
.The history of the discovery of the structure of DNA is a classic example of the elements of scientific method: in 1950 it was known that genetic inheritance had a mathematical description, starting with the studies of Gregor Mendel.^ Freud should have known better than to join the ranks of those who so easily deserted the service of the scientific method.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Scientific discoveries seem to confirm more to me the existence of a Creator (not just these wacky examples)—the discoveries of the Hubble Telescope have confirmed to me beyond a doubt that there is a God.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

.But the mechanism of the gene was unclear.^ But the mechanism of the gene was unclear.
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Researchers in Bragg's laboratory at Cambridge University made X-ray diffraction pictures of various molecules, starting with crystals of salt, and proceeding to more complicated substances. .Using clues which were painstakingly assembled over the course of decades, beginning with its chemical composition, it was determined that it should be possible to characterize the physical structure of DNA, and the X-ray images would be the vehicle.^ Using clues which were painstakingly assembled over the course of decades, beginning with its chemical composition, it was determined that it should be possible to characterize the physical structure of DNA, and the X-ray images would be the vehicle.
  • Scientific method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Academic]
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^ The X-shape in X-ray images helped confirm the helical structure of DNA. .

^ DNA/experiments Before proposing their model Watson and Crick had previously seen x-ray diffraction images by Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, and Raymond Gosling.

..2. DNA-hypotheses
Precession of Mercury
Precession of the perihelion (exaggerated)
.The characterization element can require extended and extensive study, even centuries.^ Precession (P) The characterization phase can require extended and extensive study, even centuries.
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^ Francis Crick (1994), The Astonishing Hypothesis ISBN 0-684-19431-7 p.20 Precession of Mercury The characterization element can require extended and extensive study, even centuries.

.It took thousands of years of measurements, from the Chaldean, Indian, Persian, Greek, Arabic and European astronomers, to record the motion of planet Earth.^ The earliest written historical records of human beings go as far as six thousands years ago.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

Newton was able to condense these measurements into consequences of his laws of motion. .But the perihelion of the planet Mercury's orbit exhibits a precession that is not fully explained by Newton's laws of motion.^ We can observe the gravitational wobble (or spectra change) in a star with orbiting planets – and calculate the need for an electron to explain atomic structure from properties of electro-magnetic phenomenon.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

.The observed difference for Mercury's precession between Newtonian theory and relativistic theory (approximately 43 arc-seconds per century), was one of the things that occurred to Einstein as a possible early test of his theory of General Relativity.^ Early in his career he developed the theory of sexual toxins, produced in the body when the individual chose some sexual pathway different from conventional heterosexual intercourse.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the classic problems in physics is that general relativity and quantum mechanics are imcompatible – with all attempts to merge them in the standard model resulting in infinities (string and M theory avoid this and may be the TOE).
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

Hypothesis development

.A hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon, or alternately a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between or among a set of phenomena.^ A hypothesis is a proposed explanation of a phenomenon.
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^ An hypothesis is a possible explanation for the phenomenon you observed.
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^ A hypothesis includes a suggested explanation of the subject.
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Normally hypotheses have the form of a mathematical model. .Sometimes, but not always, they can also be formulated as existential statements, stating that some particular instance of the phenomenon being studied has some characteristic and causal explanations, which have the general form of universal statements, stating that every instance of the phenomenon has a particular characteristic.^ They know that it is entirely possible that tomorrow someone will present evidence indicating that what they state as the truth today is wrong to some degree.
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^ When men form emotional ties to each other under the umbrella of a shared protection by the physical power of the state, they inevitably fall victim to the domain mechanism.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Simple warmth can become an intense form of liking which sometimes is called love, as when people say they love a kind of food or a trip to their favorite vacation spot.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.Scientists are free to use whatever resources they have — their own creativity, ideas from other fields, induction, Bayesian inference, and so on — to imagine possible explanations for a phenomenon under study.^ Further, some scientists make arrogant statements using evolution to ridicule religion because of their own prejudices; just as some non-scientists similarly denigrate science and scientists.
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^ What I meant to say is that if scientists never use the energy to explore the Universe for life, even though they are not sure it even exists, we would never know.
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^ Scientists are like children, entranced by the colors, sounds and motions they see on the TV, but having little idea how a TV works.
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Charles Sanders Peirce, borrowing a page from Aristotle (Prior Analytics, 2.25) described the incipient stages of inquiry, instigated by the "irritation of doubt" to venture a plausible guess, as abductive reasoning. .The history of science is filled with stories of scientists claiming a "flash of inspiration", or a hunch, which then motivated them to look for evidence to support or refute their idea.^ The history of science is full of stories of scientists claiming a "flash of inspiration" which motivated them.
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^ The history of science is filled with stories of scientists claiming a "flash of inspiration", or a hunch, which then motivated them to look for evidence to support or refute their idea.
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^ (His research was probably funded by Pfizer—we have no evidence to support that claim, of course, but “evidence” is, as we have mentioned, a nefarious capitalist trick).
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Michael Polanyi made such creativity the centerpiece of his discussion of methodology.
William Glen observes that
the success of a hypothesis, or its service to science, lies not simply in its perceived "truth", or power to displace, subsume or reduce a predecessor idea, but perhaps more in its ability to stimulate the research that will illuminate … bald suppositions and areas of vagueness.[40]
.In general scientists tend to look for theories that are "elegant" or "beautiful". In contrast to the usual English use of these terms, they here refer to a theory in accordance with the known facts, which is nevertheless relatively simple and easy to handle.^ Click here to look at articles in the Skeptical Enquirer debunking common myths; try not to get too angry if they hit on one of your favor myths.
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^ Thus they tend to use phases like: " it appears that a possible explanation for this is ....
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^ For example, they note that male giraffes fight it out to see who gets to breed the females and in these fights they use their necks extensively; the one with the stronger neck usually winning; i.e., maybe the guys with the longer necks got the females (hey, it happens).
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Occam's Razor serves as a rule of thumb for making these determinations.
DNA-hypotheses
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Linus Pauling proposed that DNA might be a triple helix.[41] This hypothesis was also considered by Francis Crick and James D. Watson but discarded. When Watson and Crick learned of Pauling's hypothesis, they understood from existing data that Pauling was wrong[42] and that Pauling would soon admit his difficulties with that structure. So, the race was on to figure out the correct structure (except that Pauling did not realize at the time that he was in a race—see section on "DNA-predictions" below)

Predictions from the hypothesis

.Any useful hypothesis will enable predictions, by reasoning including deductive reasoning.^ Prediction: Next, the experimenter uses deductive reasoning to test the hypothesis.

^ Predictions from the hypotheses Any useful hypothesis will enable predictions, by reasoning including deductive reasoning.

^ A useful hypothesis will enable predictions , by deductive reasoning , that can be experimentally assessed.
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.It might predict the outcome of an experiment in a laboratory setting or the observation of a phenomenon in nature.^ It might predict the outcome of an experiment in a laboratory setting or the observation of a phenomenon in nature.

^ An experiment is a set of manipulations or specific observations of nature.
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^ A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment.
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.The prediction can also be statistical and only talk about probabilities.^ The prediction can also be statistical and only talk about probabilities.

^ Statistical tests should be used only as aids in resolving an uncertainty about whether a difference between one condition and another is important.
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^ Statistical tests have only one purpose in science: to relieve our anxiety about whether what we have discovered means anything.
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.It is essential that the outcome be currently unknown.^ It is essential that the outcome be currently unknown.

^ Predictions refer to experiment designs with a currently unknown outcome ; the classic example was Edmund Halley's prediction of the year of return of Halley's comet which returned after his death.
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.Only in this case does the eventuation increase the probability that the hypothesis be true.^ Only in this case does the eventuation increase the probability that the hypothesis be true.

^ A statistic is a mathematical tool or formula used to test the probability of being right or wrong when we say a hypothesis is true or false.
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^ However sometimes at advance of a hypothesis the scientist includes in a circle of the explained facts only those, in his opinion, are the center of a problem In this case he abstracts from any details, does not take them into consideration.
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If the outcome is already known, it's called a consequence and should have already been considered while formulating the hypothesis.
.If the predictions are not accessible by observation or experience, the hypothesis is not yet useful for the method, and must wait for others who might come afterward, and perhaps rekindle its line of reasoning.^ Prediction: Next, the experimenter uses deductive reasoning to test the hypothesis.

^ Predictions from the hypotheses Any useful hypothesis will enable predictions, by reasoning including deductive reasoning.

^ The IF section is the hypothesis, the AND section is the basic experiment, and the THEN section is the prediction.
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.For example, a new technology or theory might make the necessary experiments feasible.^ Experiments led to new theories, which led to new experiments ...
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^ For example, a new technology or theory might make the necessary experiments feasible.

^ For example, Benjamin Franklin correctly characterized St. Elmo's fire as electrical in nature, but it has taken a long series of experiments and theory to establish this.

DNA-predictions
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James D. Watson, Francis Crick, and others hypothesized that DNA had a helical structure. This implied that DNA's X-ray diffraction pattern would be 'x shaped'.[43][44] This prediction followed from the work of Cochran, Crick and Vand[15] (and independently by Stokes). The Cochran-Crick-Vand-Stokes theorem provided a mathematical explanation for the empirical observation that diffraction from helical structures produces x shaped patterns.
Also in their first paper, Watson and Crick predicted that the double helix structure provided a simple mechanism for DNA replication, writing "It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material". ..4. DNA-experiments
General relativity
.Einstein's theory of General Relativity makes several specific predictions about the observable structure of space-time, such as a prediction that light bends in a gravitational field and that the amount of bending depends in a precise way on the strength of that gravitational field.^ Such an experiment might consist of following several 100 students over a period time, asking them to record the time spent studying and comparing this data with their ultimate grades.
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^ It can be a general commentary about pseudosciences, or a story you personally heard, or an experience you had relative to any of these pseudoscience issues.
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^ Likewise, the whole idea of the evolution theory is based upon unproven observations about similarities in body structures of humans and apes.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

Arthur Eddington's observations made during a 1919 solar eclipse supported General Relativity rather than Newtonian gravitation.

Experiments

.Once predictions are made, they can be tested by experiments.^ Then they perform experiments to test their hypotheses.
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^ Experiments Once predictions are made, they can be tested by experiments.

^ Experiment - to test the prediction.
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.If test results contradict predictions, then the hypotheses are called into question and explanations may be sought.^ If test results contradict predictions, then the hypotheses are called into question and explanations may be sought.

^ Elements of scientific method The essential elements of a scientific method are iterations, recursions, interleavings and orderings of the following: • Characterizations (Quantifications, observations and measurements) • Hypotheses (theoretical, hypothetical explanations of observations and measurements) • Predictions (reasoning including logical deduction from hypotheses and theories) • Experiments (tests of all of the above) The element of observation includes both unconditioned observations (prior to any theory) as well as the observation of the experiment and its results.

^ Testing: Then, the scientist performs the experiment to see if the predicted results are obtained.

.Sometimes experiments are conducted incorrectly and are at fault.^ Sometimes experiments are conducted incorrectly and are at fault.

.If the results confirm the predictions, then the hypotheses are considered likely to be correct but might still be wrong and are subject to further testing. The experimental control is a technique for dealing with observational error.^ The observations & experimental results must be REPEATED with the proper CONTROLS over time and in different places and the results OBJECTIVELY and SKEPTICALLY assessed.
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^ Sometimes dozens of hypotheses are tested before the correct one is discovered.
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^ STEP 2 : The hypothesis is TESTED by the gathering of additional "facts" through further observation and by experimentation.
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.This technique uses the contrast between multiple samples (or observations) under differing conditions, to see what varies or what remains the same.^ The three cultures are then incubated under EXACTLY THE SAME CONDITIONS and the bacteria's relative survival over time determined.
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We vary the conditions for each measurement, to help isolate what has changed. Mill's canons can then help us figure out what the important factor is. Factor analysis is one technique for discovering the important factor in an effect.
.Depending on the predictions, the experiments can have different shapes.^ Depending on the predictions, the experiments can have different shapes.

^ This reversed question inspires a search in which we do mental experiments over and over, each time "trying out" a different theory in an attempt to produce predictions that match the known observations.
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^ B) Design experiments that should turn out different ways, depending on whether your theory is correct.
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It could be a classical experiment in a laboratory setting, a double-blind study or an archaeological excavation. Even taking a plane from New York to Paris is an experiment which tests the aerodynamical hypotheses used for constructing the plane.
.Scientists assume an attitude of openness and accountability on the part of those conducting an experiment.^ Scientists assume an attitude of openness and accountability on the part of those conducting an experiment.
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^ Scientists regularly use multiple hypotheses when conducting experiments.

^ If a scientist had only one plant in each group, and one of the plants died, there probably would be no way of determining if the cause of death was related to the experiment being conducted.

Detailed record keeping is essential, to aid in recording and reporting on the experimental results, and providing evidence of the effectiveness and integrity of the procedure. .They will also assist in reproducing the experimental results.^ They will also assist in reproducing the experimental results.
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^ Crucially, experimental and theoretical results must be reproduced by others within the science community.
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^ As a result, experimenters are expected to maintain detailed records of their experimental procedures, in order to provide evidence of the effectiveness and integrity of the procedure and assist in reproduction.

.Traces of this tradition can be seen in the work of Hipparchus (190-120 BCE), when determining a value for the precession of the Earth, while controlled experiments can be seen in the works of Muslim scientists such as Geber (721-815 CE), al-Battani (853–929) and Alhacen (965-1039).^ In the laboratory scientists are more able to control ONE VARIABLE at a time in an experiment.
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^ Scientists today are like a child who has learned to control the TV knobs/buttons and thus has gained a measure of control and understanding of its workings.
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DNA-experiments
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Watson and Crick showed an initial (and incorrect) proposal for the structure of DNA to a team from Kings College - Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, and Raymond Gosling. Franklin immediately spotted the flaws which concerned the water content. Later Watson saw Franklin's detailed X-ray diffraction images which showed an X-shape and confirmed that the structure was helical.[16][45] This rekindled Watson and Crick's model building and led to the correct structure. ..1. DNA-characterizations

Evaluation and improvement

.The scientific process is iterative.^ The scientific process is iterative.
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^ The Scientific Method is an iterative process that repeats, stops and starts in different phases depending on the application .
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^ Evaluations and iterations Testing and improvements The scientific process is iterative.

.At any stage it is possible that some consideration will lead the scientist to repeat an earlier part of the process.^ At any stage it is possible that some consideration will lead the scientist to repeat an earlier part of the process.

^ The degree of complexity of a scientist's observations may be considerably higher than that which a student is capable of, but the process is fundamentally the same.
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^ Here are some possible hypotheses for this next stage: Plants grow more when given water because: (1) plants use the water to make glucose, and (2) water is used in photosynthesis.
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.Failure to develop an interesting hypothesis may lead a scientist to re-define the subject they are considering.^ Failure of the experiment to produce interesting results may lead the scientist to reconsidering the experimental method, the hypothesis or the definition of the subject.
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^ Failure of a hypothesis to produce interesting and testable predictions may lead to reconsideration of the hypothesis or of the definition of the subject.
  • Scientific method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Academic]
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^ Failure to develop an interesting hypothesis may lead a scientist to re-define the subject they are considering.
  • Scientific method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Academic]
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.Failure of a hypothesis to produce interesting and testable predictions may lead to reconsideration of the hypothesis or of the definition of the subject.^ Failure of the experiment to produce interesting results may lead the scientist to reconsidering the experimental method, the hypothesis or the definition of the subject.
  • Scientific method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Academic]
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^ Failure of a hypothesis to produce interesting and testable predictions may lead to reconsideration of the hypothesis or of the definition of the subject.
  • Scientific method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Academic]
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^ The process of hypothesis formation is designed to produce testable predictions.
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.Failure of the experiment to produce interesting results may lead the scientist to reconsidering the experimental method, the hypothesis or the definition of the subject.^ Failure of the experiment to produce interesting results may lead the scientist to reconsidering the experimental method, the hypothesis or the definition of the subject.
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^ Failure of a hypothesis to produce interesting and testable predictions may lead to reconsideration of the hypothesis or of the definition of the subject.
  • Scientific method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Academic]
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^ Failure to develop an interesting hypothesis may lead a scientist to re-define the subject they are considering.
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.Other scientists may start their own research and enter the process at any stage.^ Other scientists may start their own research and enter the process at any stage.

^ Scientists are free to use whatever they can — their own creativity, ideas from other fields, induction, systematic guessing, Bayesian inference, etc.

^ Using animals, taste researchers have discovered some facts about chemical senses that, while they may not apply to humans, are interesting and possibly useful because they illuminate the basic processes of taste that seem to be shared by humans and other animals.
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.They might adopt the characterization and formulate their own hypothesis, or they might adopt the hypothesis and deduce their own predictions.^ They might adopt the characterization and formulate their own hypothesis, or they might adopt the hypothesis and deduce their own predictions.

^ Thus they were led to adopt as a working hypothesis the idea of "orgone power" as a possible explanation and a framework for further testing.
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^ On this formulation the constraints are actually constitutive of the problem itself; they characterize the problem and give it structure.
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.Often the experiment is not done by the person who made the prediction and the characterization is based on experiments done by someone else.^ Often the experiment is not done by the person who made the prediction and the characterization is based on experiments done by someone else.

^ For example, Einstein's theory of Relativity made predictions about the results of experiments.
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^ Experiments Once predictions are made, they can be tested by experiments.

.Published results of experiments can also serve as a hypothesis predicting their own reproducibility.^ The IF section is the hypothesis, the AND section is the basic experiment, and the THEN section is the prediction.
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^ Published results of experiments can also serve as a hypothesis predicting their own reproducibility.

^ Testing: Then, the scientist performs the experiment to see if the predicted results are obtained.

DNA-iterations
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After considerable fruitless experimentation, being discouraged by their superior from continuing, and numerous false starts, Watson and Crick were able to infer the essential structure of DNA by concrete modeling of the physical shapes of the nucleotides which comprise it.[17][46] They were guided by the bond lengths which had been deduced by Linus Pauling and by Rosalind Franklin's X-ray diffraction images. ..DNA Example

Confirmation

.Science is a social enterprise, and scientific work tends to be accepted by the community when it has been confirmed.^ Confirmations Science is a social enterprise, and scientific work tends to be accepted by the community when it has been confirmed.

^ Science is a social enterprise, and scientific work will become accepted by the community only if they can be verified.
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^ The question of how science operates has importance well beyond scientific circles or the academic community.
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.Crucially, experimental and theoretical results must be reproduced by others within the science community.^ They will also assist in reproducing the experimental results.
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^ Crucially, experimental and theoretical results must be reproduced by others within the science community.
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^ Whether it is research in physics, chemistry or psychology, the results of any experiment must be reproduced independently in another location.
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Researchers have given their lives for this vision; Georg Wilhelm Richmann was killed by ball lightning (1753) when attempting to replicate the 1752 kite-flying experiment of Benjamin Franklin.[47]
.To protect against bad science and fraudulent data, government research granting agencies like NSF and science journals like Nature and Science have a policy that researchers must archive their data and methods so other researchers can access it, test the data and methods and build on the research that has gone before.^ It is necessary for the critic to be firmly oriented toward the search for truth about human nature in his own life if his analysis of Freudian error is to be a contribution to the building of a science of human nature.
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^ But with the typical energy he always had available to protect himself from inferiority feelings, he mounts an assault on the very nature of science itself.
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^ It is a challenge which Freud refused to face, thus steering his interest in a conventional medical direction, away from the broader access to human motivation which a science of human nature requires.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Scientific data archiving can be done at a number of national archives in the U.S. or in the World Data Center.

Models of scientific inquiry

Classical model

.The classical model of scientific inquiry derives from Aristotle,[48] who distinguished the forms of approximate and exact reasoning, set out the threefold scheme of abductive, deductive, and inductive inference, and also treated the compound forms such as reasoning by analogy.^ There is no reason to quarrel with any therapist who produces such benevolent changes.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Pragmatic model

Charles Sanders Peirce (pronounced /ˈpɜrs/ purse) (1839-1914) considered scientific inquiry to be a species of the genus inquiry, which he defined as any means of fixing belief, that is, any means of arriving at a settled opinion on a matter in genuine question. In 1877[49] he observed, that inquiry in general begins in irritation by uncertainty and struggles toward contentment by certainty sufficient to terminate the inquiry at least for the time being. He outlined four methods for the settlement of doubt, graded by their success in achieving a secure fixation of belief:
  1. The method of tenacity (persistence in that which one is inclined to think) — which leads to irreconcilable disagreements.
  2. The method of authority — which overcomes disagreements but sometimes brutally.
  3. The method of congruity or the a priori or the dilettante or "what is agreeable to reason" — which promotes conformity less brutally but leads to sterile argumentation and, like the others, gets finally nowhere.
  4. The scientific method — the method wherein inquiry regards itself as fallible and actually tests itself and criticizes, corrects, and improves itself.
.Peirce held that slow and stumbling ratiocination can be dangerously inferior to instinct, sentiment, and tradition in practical matters, and that the scientific method is best suited to theoretical research,[50] which in turn should not be trammeled by the other methods and practical ends; reason's "first rule" is that, in order to learn, one must desire to learn and, as a corollary, must not block the way of inquiry.^ I put my trust in the scientific method as the best way to understand the universe and our place in it , however, I do like to keep abreast of the current theories in the areas of science I am most interested in, i.e.
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^ Your first usage would seem to mean the scientific method – the process by which we figure out how things work.
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^ Superiority-inferiority relationships, which should not be confused with submission and dominance, destroy the fabric of civilized man's greatest asset, his ability to share growth with others.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[51] .What recommends the scientific method of inquiry above all others is that it is deliberately designed to arrive, eventually, at the most secure beliefs, upon which the most successful actions can eventually be based.^ Others will disagree, and they always will… but we all are entitled to our beliefs and opinions.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

[52] .Starting from the idea that people seek not truth per se but instead to subdue doubt's irritation, Peirce showed how this can lead some to submit to truth.^ Instead of the survival of the species per se, their goal becomes the improvement of the quality of life for themselves and other people.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He never saw that this kind of structuring of ideas impedes truth seeking.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[49]
In Peirce's view, the conception of inquiry depends on, but also informs, the conceptions of truth and the real; to reason is to presuppose (and at least to hope), as a principle of the reasoner's self-regulation, that the truth is discoverable and independent of our vagaries of opinion. .He defined truth as the correspondence of a sign (in particular, a proposition) to its object and, pragmatically, not as any actual consensus of any definite, finite community (such that to inquire would be to poll the experts), but instead as that ideal final opinion which all reasonable scientific intelligences would reach sooner or later but still inevitably, if they were to push investigation far enough, even when they start from different points.^ Yes, they survive and still exist but they do not evolve into different kinds of animals.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It expresses the highest ideals of human community, as does the statement that all men are created equal as found in the Declaration of Independence.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Others will disagree, and they always will… but we all are entitled to our beliefs and opinions.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

[53] .In tandem he defined the real as a true sign's object (be that object a possibility or quality, or an actuality or brute fact, or a necessity or norm or law), which is what it is independently of any finite community's opinion and, pragmatically, depends only on the ideal final opinion.^ It expresses the highest ideals of human community, as does the statement that all men are created equal as found in the Declaration of Independence.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it not plausible to suppose that this sadism is in fact a death instinct which, under the influence of the narcissistic libido, has been forced away from the ego and has consequently only emerged in relation to the object? . . . .
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The fact that it is possible to find meaning in neurotic symptoms by means of analytic interpretations is an irrefutable proof of the existence - or, if you prefer it, of the necessity for assuming the existence - of unconscious mental processes."
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

That ideal opinion or ideal consensus is as far or near as the truth itself to you or me or any finite community of minds. Thus his theory of inquiry boils down to "do the science." .At the same time those conceptions of truth and the real involve the idea of a community, both without definite limits and capable of definite increase of knowledge.^ He says of himself, “I am”, meaning he is ever present, existing outside the concept of time… entirely beyond it, yet capable of and glad to work within it.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The individual can see both the assets and the limitations which his parents, acting as the agents of society, passed on to him in the time of his rearing.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[54] As inference, "logic is rooted in the social principle".[55]
Paying special attention to the generation of explanations, Peirce outlined scientific method as a collaboration of kinds of inference in a purposeful cycle aimed at settling doubts, as follows:[56]
1. Abduction (or retroduction). Guessing, inference to the best explanation, generation of explanatory hypothesis. From abduction, Peirce distinguishes induction as inferring, on the basis of tests, the proportion of truth in the hypothesis. Every inquiry, whether into ideas, brute facts, or norms and laws, arises as a result of surprising observations in the given realm or realms (for example at any stage of an inquiry already underway) and the pondering of the phenomenon in all its aspects in the attempt to resolve the wonder. All explanatory content of theories is reached by way of abduction, the most insecure among modes of inference. .One can hope to discover only that which time would reveal sooner or later anyway, so the point is to expedite it, for which the economics of research demands and even governs the inferential "leap" of abduction,[57] whose modicum of success depends on one's being somehow attuned to nature by instincts developed and likely inborn.^ It would explain how things are “evolving spontaneously”—but I guess scientists would have a hard time saying anything may have “spontaneously evolved” because a Creator is the one doing it.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Indeed, if all human beings were healthy and would only dream, we could gather almost all the knowledge from their dreams which we have gained from studying the neuroses."
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the artificial architecture of the transference, the obedient patient is sometimes able to develop high hopes that the oppressive stress that exists in his life outside the analyst's office will somehow be erased by his success inside it, success being defined as the recovery of forgotten material.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Abduction has general justification inductively in that it works often enough and that nothing else works,[58] at least not quickly enough when science is already properly rather slow, the work of indefinitely many generations. Peirce calls his pragmatism "the logic of abduction".[59] His Pragmatic Maxim is: "Consider what effects that might conceivably have practical bearings you conceive the objects of your conception to have. .Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object".[53] His pragmatism is a method of sorting out conceptual confusions by equating the meaning of any conception with the conceivable practical consequences of whatever it is which the concept portrays.^ Your first usage would seem to mean the scientific method – the process by which we figure out how things work.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

It is a method of experimentational mental reflection arriving at conceptions in terms of conceivable confirmatory and disconfirmatory circumstances — a method hospitable to the generation of explanatory hypotheses, and conducive to the employment and improvement of verification to test the truth of putative knowledge. Given abduction's dependence on instinctive attunement to nature and its aim to economize inquiry, its explanatory hypotheses should have a simplicity optimal in terms of the "facile and natural" (for which Peirce cites Galileo and which Peirce distinguishes from "logical simplicity"). Given abduction's insecurity, it should imply consequences with conceivable practical bearing leading at least to mental tests, and, in science, lending themselves to scientific testing.
2. Deduction. Analysis of hypothesis and deduction of its consequences in order to test the hypothesis. Two stages:
i. Explication. Logical analysis of the hypothesis in order to render it as distinct as possible.
ii. Demonstration (or deductive argumentation). Deduction of hypothesis's consequence. Corollarial or, if needed, Theorematic.
3. Induction. .The long-run validity of the rule of induction is deducible from the principle (presuppositional to reasoning in general[53]) that the real is only the object of the final opinion to which adequate investigation would lead[60] In other words, if there were something to which an inductive process involving ongoing tests or observations would never lead, then that thing would not be real.^ This is an entirely internal psychological experience, and only becomes antisocial if the individual lacks the resources to keep his untrammeled willfulness out of his real relationships with others.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "It is always possible to bind together a considerable number of people in love, so long as there are other people left over to receive the manifestations of their aggressiveness . . . .
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If his enemies were really to be hanged for Heine's benefit, he would not only be horrified but he would do everything he could to oppose it.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Three stages:
i. Classification. Classing objects of experience under general ideas.
ii. Probation (or direct Inductive Argumentation): Crude (the enumeration of instances) or Gradual (new estimate of proportion of truth in the hypothesis after each test). Gradual Induction is Qualitative or Quantitative; if Quantitative, then dependent on measurements, or on statistics, or on countings.
iii. Sentential Induction. "...which, by Inductive reasonings, appraises the different Probations singly, then their combinations, then makes self-appraisal of these very appraisals themselves, and passes final judgment on the whole result".[56]

Computational approaches

.Many subspecialties of applied logic and computer science, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, computational learning theory, inferential statistics, and knowledge representation, are concerned with setting out computational, logical, and statistical frameworks for the various types of inference involved in scientific inquiry.^ Everything is theory.” Science is deaf to the voice of knowledge.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m concerned, obviously, for the sake of knowledge and science and humanity, when creationists can use “constitutional” rights to allow religion to pose as science in the classroom.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under such conditions science, engineering, and the arts can flourish, and the pursuit of the goodness and beauty of life becomes man's primary concern.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

In particular, they contribute hypothesis formation, logical deduction, and empirical testing. Some of these applications draw on measures of complexity from algorithmic information theory to guide the making of predictions from prior distributions of experience, for example, see the complexity measure called the speed prior from which a computable strategy for optimal inductive reasoning can be derived.

Communication, community, culture

Frequently a scientific method is employed not only by a single person, but also by several people cooperating directly or indirectly. .Such cooperation can be regarded as one of the defining elements of a scientific community.^ Such cooperation can be regarded as one of the defining elements of a scientific community.

^ Now one may still retain such a view despite this fact, but he must do so with a clear understanding of its lack of scientific validation.
  • Scientific Method and Archaeology - Robert Drake 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.dabar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence, any idea which had been validated through the channel of experienced fact must be regarded as having fulfilled one of the main conditions of scientific knowledge.
  • Scientific Method and Archaeology - Robert Drake 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.dabar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Various techniques have been developed to ensure the integrity of that scientific method within such an environment.

Peer review evaluation

.Scientific journals use a process of peer review, in which scientists' manuscripts are submitted by editors of scientific journals to (usually one to three) fellow (usually anonymous) scientists familiar with the field for evaluation.^ Peer review evaluation .
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientific journals use a process of peer review , in which scientists' manuscripts are submitted by editors of scientific journals to (usually one to three) fellow (usually anonymous) scientists familiar with the field for evaluation.
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manuscripts submitted for publication in scientific journals are normally sent by the editor to (usually one to three) other scientists for evaluation.
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The referees may or may not recommend publication, publication with suggested modifications, or, sometimes, publication in another journal.^ The referees may or may not recommend publication, publication with suggested modifications, or, sometimes, publication in another journal.
  • Scientific method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Academic]
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Journal editors may sometimes be biased, but this was the worst case I know of.
  • Alternative "Scientific Methods" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.bio.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ H) To get jobs in science, especially to be a professor, publication of important research papers in refereed journals is the main criterion by which people are chosen and get promoted.
  • Alternative "Scientific Methods" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.bio.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This serves to keep the scientific literature free of unscientific or crackpot work, helps to cut down on obvious errors, and generally otherwise improve the quality of the scientific literature.^ This serves to keep the scientific literature free of unscientific or crackpot work, helps to cut down on obvious errors, and generally otherwise improve the quality of the scientific literature.
  • Scientific method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Academic]
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A good theory helps, but a bad theory, prematurely scraped together in the mistaken belief that a theory is required before scientific work can proceed, can stifle interesting scientific work.
  • The Myth of the Magical Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC dharma-haven.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the gibberish is neutral – it neither hurts nor helps the individual, and is passed down through the generations.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

Documentation and replication

.Sometimes experimenters may make systematic errors during their experiments, unconsciously veer from a scientific method (Pathological science) for various reasons, or, in rare cases, deliberately falsify their results.^ But I kind of feel that at the very end of things, right before Christ returns, that science may be rocked to it’s very foundations by some discovery that makes absolutely no scientific sense, and yet it is reality.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

.Consequently, it is a common practice for other scientists to attempt to repeat the experiments in order to duplicate the results, thus further validating the hypothesis.^ Consequently, it is a common practice for other scientists to attempt to repeat the experiments in order to duplicate the results, thus further validating the hypothesis.

^ Other scientists are allowed to test and to attempt to falsify the hypothesis.
  • Heartland Forensic Pathology: Forensic Science and the Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.heartlandforensic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another basic expectation is to document, archive and share all data and methodology so they are available for careful scrutiny by other scientists, thereby allowing other researchers the opportunity to verify results by attempting to reproduce them.
  • Global Warming “Science” v. The Scientific Method (update) | QandO 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.qando.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Archiving

As a result, researchers are expected to practice scientific data archiving in compliance with the policies of government funding agencies and scientific journals. Detailed records of their experimental procedures, raw data, statistical analyses and source code are preserved in order to provide evidence of the effectiveness and integrity of the procedure and assist in reproduction. .These procedural records may also assist in the conception of new experiments to test the hypothesis, and may prove useful to engineers who might examine the potential practical applications of a discovery.^ But, some new experiment in the future may show the hypothesis to be wrong.
  • SCENE: Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC scene.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We did the following experiments to test the hypothesis.
  • The Myth of the Magical Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC dharma-haven.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Predictions from these theories are tested by experiment .
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Data sharing

When additional information is needed before a study can be reproduced, the author of the study is expected to provide it promptly - although a small charge may apply. If the author refuses to share data, appeals can be made to the journal editors who published the study or to the institution which funded the research.

Limitations

.Note that it is not possible for a scientist to record everything that took place in an experiment.^ Everything about the experiment should be recorded accurately.
  • Scientific Process | Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.ferris.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Accordingly, scientists keep detailed records of their experiments, to provide evidence of their effectiveness and integrity and assist in reproduction.
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a scientist cannot record everything about an experiment; he (or she) reports what he believes to be relevant.
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He must select the facts he believes to be relevant to the experiment and report them.^ Facts must remain amenable to experience for all and must be accessible at all times.
  • Scientific Method and Archaeology - Robert Drake 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.dabar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Objectivity     By Objectivity it is meant that the facts of experience appealed to on behalf of the truth claims or a particular hypothesis must be of such a nature as to afford a number of individual experiences.
  • Scientific Method and Archaeology - Robert Drake 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.dabar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a scientist cannot record everything about an experiment; he (or she) reports what he believes to be relevant.
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may lead, unavoidably, to problems later if some supposedly irrelevant feature is questioned.^ This can cause problems if some supposedly irrelevant feature is questioned.
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leads the reader through all the stages of the research process, from developing a question into a problem that can be addressed, to planning and drafting, to revising for clarity and comprehension.
  • Scientific Reports 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our explanations identify some things as important and other things as irrelevant; they lead us to pay attention to some things and not others, and they lead us to expect some things to happen and not others — they lead, in other words, to predictions.
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, Heinrich Hertz did not report the size of the room used to test Maxwell's equations, which later turned out to account for a small deviation in the results. .The problem is that parts of the theory itself need to be assumed in order to select and report the experimental conditions.^ Brunswik criticized the Fisherian experimenter for his ad hoc selection of treatments and recommended that he apply the sampling principles of differential psychology in choosing stimuli and conditions.
  • Scientific Method vs. Correlation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.mnforsustain.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Here we briefly explain Laudan's "research tradition" concept, which attempts to restore rationality to theory selection by expanding the concept of rationality itself.
  • On Science, Scientific Method And Evolution Of Scientific Thought: A Philosophy Of Science Perspective Of Quasi-Experimentation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.brint.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The experimental method where the scientist changes conditions in order to observe their consequences is much the more coherent of our two disciplines.
  • Scientific Method vs. Correlation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.mnforsustain.org [Source type: Academic]

The observations are hence sometimes described as being 'theory-laden'.

Dimensions of practice

The primary constraints on contemporary western science are:
  • Publication, i.e. Peer review
  • Resources (mostly funding)
It has not always been like this: in the old days of the "gentleman scientist" funding (and to a lesser extent publication) were far weaker constraints.
.Both of these constraints indirectly bring in a scientific method — work that too obviously violates the constraints will be difficult to publish and difficult to get funded.^ Both of these constraints indirectly bring in a scientific method — work that too obviously violates the constraints will be difficult to publish and difficult to get funded.
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In both applied work and general scientific work, psychology requires combined, not parallel, labors from our two historic disciplines.
  • Scientific Method vs. Correlation 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.mnforsustain.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Generally, in publishing their work, it is considered essential that scientists describe their methods in enough detail to allow them to be repeated by others.
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Journals do not require submitted papers to conform to anything more specific than "good scientific practice" and this is mostly enforced by peer review.^ Journals do not require submitted papers to conform to anything more specific than "good scientific practice" and this is mostly enforced by peer review.
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peer review Resources (mostly, funding) It has not always been like this: in the old days of the "gentleman scientist" funding (and to a lesser extent publication) were far weaker constraints.
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientific journals use a process of peer review , in which scientists' manuscripts are submitted by editors of scientific journals to (usually one to three) fellow (usually anonymous) scientists familiar with the field for evaluation.
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Originality, importance and interest are more important - see for example the author guidelines for Nature.
.Criticisms (see Critical theory) of these restraints are that they are so nebulous in definition (e.g.^ Criticisms (see Critical theory ) of these restraints are that they are so nebulous in definition (e.g.
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first person to see microorganisms moving around in a drop of pond water had no theory stating that they should be there, or that they shouldn't be there.
  • The Myth of the Magical Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC dharma-haven.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A common criticism of theories of evolution and of the big bang is that "they are only theories".
  • Science: Its Character and History 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.humantruth.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."good scientific practice") and open to ideological, or even political, manipulation apart from a rigorous practice of a scientific method, that they often serve to censor rather than promote scientific discovery.^ That's why THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD is a good thing to teach and to practice.
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientific method and the practice of science .
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'd rather they understand the how and why aspects of bones and muscles working together across a broad range of organisms than to be able to name the bones of the human body).
  • xkcd • View topic - Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] .Apparent censorship through refusal to publish ideas unpopular with mainstream scientists (unpopular because of ideological reasons and/or because they seem to contradict long held scientific theories) has soured the popular perception of scientists as being neutral or seekers of truth and often denigrated popular perception of science as a whole.^ Apparent censorship through refusal to publish ideas unpopular with mainstream scientists (unpopular because of ideological reasons and/or because they seem to contradict long held scientific theories) has soured the popular perception of scientists as being neutral or seekers of truth and often denigrated popular perception of science as a whole.
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ideas often must be popular or controversial before they are studied.
  • Astronomy Reading -- "Philosophy and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC personal.tcu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who choose to deny what their senses witness will not bow to that truth if it contradicts what they believe to be true, which was told to them by the authorities.
  • Dissident Voice : Belief in the Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

Philosophy and sociology of science

Philosophy of science looks at the underpinning logic of the scientific method, at what separates science from non-science, and the ethic that is implicit in science. .There are basic assumptions derived from philosophy that form the base of the scientific method - namely, that reality is objective and consistent, that humans have the capacity to perceive reality accurately, and that rational explanations exist for elements of the real world.^ Without this sense of purpose within each personality, there is no way to evaluate either the human accomplishments of each or the problems generated by shortcomings in their psychological capacities.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He thus dealt with the dream, not as it really existed in the form of a hallucinatory fragment, but as a stimulus to a waking associative process which provided fertile ground for intuitive speculation.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the basic instinct is seen as a need to expand the world of experience, there is no need for the concept of sublimation.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.These assumptions from methodological naturalism form the basis on which science is grounded.^ Symptom manipulation can never provide an adequate basis for a science of human nature.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Logical Positivist, empiricist, falsificationist, and other theories have claimed to give a definitive account of the logic of science, but each has in turn been criticized.
.Thomas Samuel Kuhn examined the history of science in his The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, and found that the actual method used by scientists differed dramatically from the then-espoused method.^ Scientists use a scientific method to investigate phenomena and acquire knowledge .
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientific method and the practice of science .
  • Scientific method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Academic]
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is using the scientific method.
  • Jones' Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC drjudywood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His observations of science practice are essentially sociological and do not speak to how science is or can be practiced in other times and other cultures.
Imre Lakatos and Thomas Kuhn have done extensive work on the "theory laden" character of observation. .Kuhn (1961) said the scientist generally has a theory in mind before designing and undertaking experiments so as to make empirical observations, and that the "route from theory to measurement can almost never be traveled backward". This implies that the way in which theory is tested is dictated by the nature of the theory itself, which led Kuhn (1961, p. 166) to argue that "once it has been adopted by a profession ...^ He never saw his right to make enemies in his head and destroy them at will, entirely separate and apart from real experience.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

no theory is recognized to be testable by any quantitative tests that it has not already passed".
.Paul Feyerabend similarly examined the history of science, and was led to deny that science is genuinely a methodological process.^ Considerations such as these led Feyerabend to deny that science is an entirely rational process.

^ However, not all philosophers accept this conclusion; for example, Paul Feyerabend (1924-1994) denied that science is genuinely a methodological process.
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steven S. Zumdahl The success of science, as measured by the technological achievements that have changed our world, have led many to conclude that this success is because of the methodological rules that scientists follow.
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In his book Against Method he argues that scientific progress is not the result of applying any particular method. .In essence, he says that "anything goes", by which he meant that for any specific methodology or norm of science, successful science has been done in violation of it.^ In essence, he says that anything goes .
  • Scientific method - Slider 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC enc.slider.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In essence, he says that "anything goes", by which he meant that for any specific methodology or norm of science, successful science has been done in violation of it.

^ You mis-understand the nature of science and what orDover is saying here – science by it’s very nature cannot prove anything that is not testable.
  • Scientific Method vs. Creationist Method « de-conversion 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC de-conversion.com [Source type: Original source]

Criticisms such as his led to the strong programme, a radical approach to the sociology of science.
.In his 1958 book, Personal Knowledge, chemist and philosopher Michael Polanyi (1891-1976) criticized the common view that the scientific method is purely objective and generates objective knowledge.^ This abandonment of self-knowledge and self-control leaves the personality without any self-generated goals.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Polanyi cast this view as a misunderstanding of the scientific method and of the nature of scientific inquiry, generally. He argued that scientists do and must follow personal passions in appraising facts and in determining which scientific questions to investigate. He concluded that a structure of liberty is essential for the advancement of science - that the freedom to pursue science for its own sake is a prerequisite for the production of knowledge through peer review and the scientific method.
.The postmodernist critiques of science have themselves been the subject of intense controversy.^ He remained intensely aware, however, of the conventional opinions of mankind on every subject that touched his interests, and he formed his rhetoric on a framework which was always controversial.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

This ongoing debate, known as the science wars, is the result of conflicting values and assumptions between the postmodernist and realist camps. .Whereas postmodernists assert that scientific knowledge is simply another discourse (note that this term has special meaning in this context) and not representative of any form of fundamental truth, realists in the scientific community maintain that scientific knowledge does reveal real and fundamental truths about reality.^ The truth is that such communities cut off the mass of people from access to self-knowledge and self-control and in the end breed corruption and violence.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Truth cannot be found by identifying error, but this style of procedure does greatly facilitate communication.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Many books have been written by scientists which take on this problem and challenge the assertions of the postmodernists while defending science as a legitimate method of deriving truth.[61]

History

The development of the scientific method is inseparable from the history of science itself. Ancient Egyptian documents describe empirical methods in astronomy,[62] mathematics,[63] and medicine.[64] The ancient Greek philosopher Thales in the 6th century BC refused to accept supernatural, religious or mythological explanations for natural phenomena, proclaiming that every event had a natural cause. The development of deductive reasoning by Plato was an important step towards the scientific method. .Empiricism seems to have been formalized by Aristotle, who believed that universal truths could be reached via induction.^ His naive belief that he could measure truth by his subjective sense of discovery is like saying that those who find meaning through astrology are in the presence of truth.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After a lifetime of paying testimony to the value of science, he behaves like the fox in the fable who could not reach the grapes, announcing they were probably sour anyway.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are hints of experimental methods from the Classical world (eg, those reported by Archimedes in a report recovered early in the 20th century CE from an overwritten manuscript), but the first clear instances of an experimental scientific method seem to have been developed in the Arabic world, by by Muslim scientists, who introduced the use of experimentation and quantification to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation, perhaps by Alhazen in his optical experiments reported in his Book of Optics (1021).^ Without this sense of purpose within each personality, there is no way to evaluate either the human accomplishments of each or the problems generated by shortcomings in their psychological capacities.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Freud should have known better than to join the ranks of those who so easily deserted the service of the scientific method.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The child who is exposed to excessive hate and anger reactions in his world lacks the warmth and pride levels he needs for his development.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[65][66] .The modern scientific method crystallized no later than in the 17th and 18th centuries.^ Freud should have known better than to join the ranks of those who so easily deserted the service of the scientific method.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

In his work Novum Organum (1620) — a reference to Aristotle's OrganonFrancis Bacon outlined a new system of logic to improve upon the old philosophical process of syllogism. Then, in 1637, René Descartes established the framework for a scientific method's guiding principles in his treatise, Discourse on Method. .The writings of Alhazen, Bacon and Descartes are considered critical in the historical development of the modern scientific method, as are those of John Stuart Mill.^ Freud should have known better than to join the ranks of those who so easily deserted the service of the scientific method.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[67]
In the late 19th century, Charles Sanders Peirce proposed a schema that would turn out to have considerable influence in the development of current scientific method generally. Peirce accelerated the progress on several fronts. .Firstly, speaking in broader context in "How to Make Our Ideas Clear" (1878), Peirce outlined an objectively verifiable method to test the truth of putative knowledge on a way that goes beyond mere foundational alternatives, focusing upon both deduction and induction.^ The truth is that there is no way for the individual to understand his early relationship with his parents without having grown sufficiently in his adult psychological life to put himself beyond the world of their human limitations.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.He thus placed induction and deduction in a complementary rather than competitive context (the latter of which had been the primary trend at least since David Hume, who wrote in the mid-to-late 18th century).^ Sherlock Holmes’ “Elementary, my dear Watson!” has made deduction common knowledge a more familiar feature than induction in problem solving.
  • SSR - Induction, Deduction and the Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.ssr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are much clearer, in part because they place these trends in the context of global climate history.
  • Global Warming “Science” v. The Scientific Method (update) | QandO 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.qando.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Induction and deduction are thus valuable, often complementary, tools that facilitate problem solving.
  • SSR - Induction, Deduction and the Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.ssr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Secondly, and of more direct importance to modern method, Peirce put forth the basic schema for hypothesis/testing that continues to prevail today.^ If the predictions prove wrong, the hypothesis is discarded, otherwise it is put to further test.
  • Scientific method - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scientific method is “a method of research in which a problem is identified, relevant data are gathered, a hypothesis is formulated from these data, and the hypothesis is empirically tested 1 “ ( Table 1 ).
  • Heartland Forensic Pathology: Forensic Science and the Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.heartlandforensic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an extreme form of this mistake, people who have not done any research, nor even seen it done, sometimes equate “the scientific method” with a step-by-step hypothesis-testing approach.
  • “The” Scientific Method versus Real Science 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.av8n.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Extracting the theory of inquiry from its raw materials in classical logic, he refined it in parallel with the early development of symbolic logic to address the then-current problems in scientific reasoning.^ To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.
  • Global Warming “Science” v. The Scientific Method (update) | QandO 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.qando.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The people who originally developed the H-D logic did so as a way to explain how theories gain support from evidence, and they were naturally focusing on the testing of principles.
  • The Myth of the Magical Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC dharma-haven.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leads the reader through all the stages of the research process, from developing a question into a problem that can be addressed, to planning and drafting, to revising for clarity and comprehension.
  • Scientific Reports 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Peirce examined and articulated the three fundamental modes of reasoning that, as discussed above in this article, play a role in inquiry today, the processes that are currently known as abductive, deductive, and inductive inference.^ Strong inference, and the logical tree it generates, are to inductive reasoning what the syllogism is to deductive reasoning in that it offers a regular method for reaching firm inductive conclusions one after the other as rapidly as possible.
  • Science, Strong Inference -- ProperScientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC 256.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On any new problem, of course, inductive inference is not as simple and certain as deduction, because it involves reaching out into the unknown.
  • Science, Strong Inference -- ProperScientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC 256.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this article I'm going to focus on what's wrong with the hypothetico- deductive account of scientific reasoning as an explanation of what scientists do, in the sections titled What's Wrong With This Picture and What Keeps the Myth Alive?
  • The Myth of the Magical Scientific Method 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC dharma-haven.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thirdly, he played a major role in the progress of symbolic logic itself — indeed this was his primary specialty.
Karl Popper denied the existence of evidence[68] and of scientific method.[69] .Popper holds that there is only one universal method, the negative method of trial and error.^ "When there are two people of whom one can say what life is, the other (almost) what the soul is, it is only right that they should see each other and talk together often . . . .
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.It covers not only all products of the human mind, including science, mathematics, philosophy, art and so on, but also the evolution of life.^ "Do you not know how uncontrolled and unreliable the average human being is in all that concerns sexual life?
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Freudian vocabulary has entered common parlance in many aspects of the human scene, including art, literature, philosophy, politics, and psychotherapy.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is necessary for the critic to be firmly oriented toward the search for truth about human nature in his own life if his analysis of Freudian error is to be a contribution to the building of a science of human nature.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.Beginning in the 1930s and with increased vigor after World War II, he argued that a hypothesis must be falsifiable and, following Peirce and others, that science would best progress using deductive reasoning as its primary emphasis, known as critical rationalism.^ The gathering storm of World War II exploded the myths of the pacifism of the thirties.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[70] His formulations of logical procedure helped to rein in excessive use of inductive speculation upon inductive speculation, and also strengthened the conceptual foundation for today's peer review procedures.

Relationship with mathematics

Science is the process of gathering, comparing, and evaluating proposed models against observables. A model can be a simulation, mathematical or chemical formula, or set of proposed steps. Science is like mathematics in that researchers in both disciplines can clearly distinguish what is known from what is unknown at each stage of discovery. Models, in both science and mathematics, need to be internally consistent and also ought to be falsifiable (capable of disproof). In mathematics, a statement need not yet be proven; at such a stage, that statement would be called a conjecture. But when a statement has attained mathematical proof, that statement gains a kind of immortality which is highly prized by mathematicians, and for which some mathematicians devote their lives.[71]
Mathematical work and scientific work can inspire each other.[72] For example, the technical concept of time arose in science, and timelessness was a hallmark of a mathematical topic. But today, the Poincaré conjecture has been proven using time as a mathematical concept in which objects can flow (see Ricci flow).
Nevertheless, the connection between mathematics and reality (and so science to the extent it describes reality) remains obscure. .Eugene Wigner's paper, The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences, is a very well-known account of the issue from a Nobel Prize physicist.^ But with the typical energy he always had available to protect himself from inferiority feelings, he mounts an assault on the very nature of science itself.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.In fact, some observers (including some well known mathematicians such as Gregory Chaitin, and others such as Lakoff and Nunez) have suggested that mathematics is the result of practitioner bias and human limitation (including cultural ones), somewhat like the post-modernist view of science.^ This kind of mastery is well known in non-human fields where engineering skills have produced bridges which do not fall down, airplanes that fly, and trains that run.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everything psychological does have some level of meaning, even the chatter of schizophrenics and the delirium of the physically ill, but a science of human nature cannot breathe in such an atmosphere.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

George Pólya's work on problem solving,[73] the construction of mathematical proofs, and heuristic[74][75] show that mathematical method and scientific method differ in detail, while nevertheless resembling each other in using iterative or recursive steps.
Mathematical method Scientific method
1 Understanding Characterization from experience and observation
2 Analysis Hypothesis: a proposed explanation
3 Synthesis Deduction: prediction from the hypothesis
4 Review/Extend Test and experiment
.In Pólya's view, understanding involves restating unfamiliar definitions in your own words, resorting to geometrical figures, and questioning what we know and do not know already; analysis, which Pólya takes from Pappus,[76] involves free and heuristic construction of plausible arguments, working backward from the goal, and devising a plan for constructing the proof; synthesis is the strict Euclidean exposition of step-by-step details[77] of the proof; review involves reconsidering and re-examining the result and the path taken to it.^ This astigmatic view is the inevitable consequence of a psychology which is unable to understand the constructive uses of power.
  • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Gauss, when asked how he came about his theorems, once replied

See also

Problems and issues

History, philosophy, sociology

Notes and references

  1. ^ "[4] Rules for the study of natural philosophy", Newton 1999, pp. 794–6, from Book 3, The System of the World.
  2. ^ scientific method, Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  3. ^ Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham) Critique of Ptolemy, translated by S. Pines, Actes X Congrès internationale d'histoire des sciences, Vol I Ithaca 1962, as quoted in Sambursky 1974, p. 139
  4. ^ Alhazen, translated into English from German by M. Schwarz, from "Abhandlung über das Licht", J. Baarmann (ed. 1882) Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft Vol 36 as quoted in Sambursky 1974, p. 136
  5. ^ as quoted in Sambursky 1974, p. 136
  6. ^ "...the statement of a law—A depends on B—always transcends experience." —Born 1949, p. 6
  7. ^ Taleb 2007 e.g., p. 58, devotes his chapter 5 to the error of confirmation.
  8. ^ "I believe that we do not know anything for certain, but everything probably." —Christiaan Huygens, Letter to Pierre Perrault, 'Sur la préface de M. Perrault de son traité del'Origine des fontaines' [1763], Oeuvres Complétes de Christiaan Huygens (1897), Vol. 7, 298. Quoted in Jacques Roger, The Life Sciences in Eighteenth-Century French Thought, ed. Keith R. Benson and trans. Robert Ellrich (1997), 163. Quotation selected by Bynum & Porter 2005, p. 317 Huygens 317#4.
  9. ^ As noted by Alice Calaprice (ed. 2005) The New Quotable Einstein Princeton University Press and Hebrew University of Jerusalem, ISBN 0-691-12074-9 p. 291. Calaprice denotes this not as an exact quotation, but as a paraphrase of a translation of A. Einstein's "Induction and Deduction". Collected Papers of Albert Einstein 7 Document 28. Volume 7 is The Berlin Years: Writings, 1918-1921. A. Einstein; M. Janssen, R. Schulmann, et al., eds.
  10. ^ Hempel, Carl [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
  11. ^ Fleck 1975, pp. xxvii-xxviii
  12. ^ SCOPE - Salzberg, et al
  13. ^ October, 1951. as noted in McElheny 2004, p. 40:"That's what a helix should look like!" Crick exclaimed in delight (This is the Cochran-Crick-Vand&Stokes theory of the transform of a helix).
  14. ^ June, 1952. as noted in McElheny 2004, p. 43: Watson had succeeded in getting X-ray pictures of TMV showing a helical pattern.
  15. ^ a b Cochran W, Crick FHC and Vand V. (1952) "The Structure of Synthetic Polypeptides. I. The Transform of Atoms on a Helix", Acta Cryst., 5, 581-586.
  16. ^ a b Friday, January 30, 1953. Tea time. as noted in McElheny 2004, p. 52: Franklin confronts Watson and his paper - "Of course it [Pauling's pre-print] is wrong. DNA is not a helix." Watson runs away from Franklin and runs into Wilkins; they retreat to Wilkins' office, where Wilkins shows Watson photo 51. Watson immediately recognizes the diffraction pattern of a helix.
  17. ^ a b Saturday, February 28, 1953, as noted in McElheny 2004, pp. 57–59: Watson finds the base pairing which explains Chargaff's rules using his cardboard models.
  18. ^ "Observation and experiment are subject to a very popular myth. ... The knower is seen as a ... Julius Caesar winning his battles according to ... formula. Even research workers will admit that the first observation may have been a little imprecise, whereas the second and third were 'adjusted to the facts' ... until tradition, education, and familiarity have produced a readiness for stylized (that is directed and restricted) perception and action; until an answer becomes largely pre-formed in the question, and a decision confined merely to 'yes' or 'no' or perhaps to a numerical determination; until methods and apparatus automatically carry out the greatest part of the mental work for us." Ludwik Fleck labels this thought style(Denkstil). Fleck 1975, p. 84.
  19. ^ Needham & Wang 1954 p.166
  20. ^ See the hypothethico-deductive method, for example, Godfrey-Smith 2003, p. 236.
  21. ^ Jevons 1874, pp. 265–6.
  22. ^ pp.65,73,92,398 —Andrew J. Galambos, Sic Itur ad Astra ISBN 0-88078-004-5(AJG learned scientific method from Felix Ehrenhaft
  23. ^ Galilei 1638, pp. v-xii,1-300
  24. ^ Brody 1993, pp. 10–24 calls this the "epistemic cycle": "The epistemic cycle starts from an initial model; iterations of the cycle then improve the model until an adequate fit is achieved."
  25. ^ Iteration example: Chaldean astronomers such as Kidinnu compiled astronomical data. Hipparchus was to use this data to calculate the precession of the Earth's axis. Fifteen hundred years after Kidinnu, Al-Batani, born in what is now Turkey, would use the collected data and improve Hipparchus' value for the precession of the Earth's axis. Al-Batani's value, 54.5 arc-seconds per year, compares well to the current value of 49.8 arc-seconds per year (26,000 years for Earth's axis to round the circle of nutation).
  26. ^ Recursion example: the Earth is itself a magnet, with its own North and South PolesWilliam Gilbert (in Latin 1600) De Magnete, or On Magnetism and Magnetic Bodies. Translated from Latin to English, selection by Moulton & Schifferes 1960, pp. 113–117
  27. ^ "The foundation of general physics ... is experience. These ... everyday experiences we do not discover without deliberately directing our attention to them. Collecting information about these is observation." —Hans Christian Ørsted("First Introduction to General Physics" ¶13, part of a series of public lectures at the University of Copenhagen. Copenhagen 1811, in Danish, printed by Johan Frederik Schulz. In Kirstine Meyer's 1920 edition of Ørsted's works, vol.III pp. 151-190. ) "First Introduction to Physics: the Spirit, Meaning, and Goal of Natural Science". Reprinted in German in 1822, Schweigger's Journal für Chemie und Physik 36, pp.458-488, as translated in Ørsted 1997, p. 292
  28. ^ "When it is not clear under which law of nature an effect or class of effect belongs, we try to fill this gap by means of a guess. Such guesses have been given the name conjectures or hypotheses." —Hans Christian Ørsted(1811) "First Introduction to General Physics" as translated in Ørsted 1997, p. 297.
  29. ^ "In general we look for a new law by the following process. First we guess it. ...", —Feynman 1965, p. 156
  30. ^ "... the statement of a law - A depends on B - always transcends experience."—Born 1949, p. 6
  31. ^ "The student of nature ... regards as his property the experiences which the mathematician can only borrow. This is why he deduces theorems directly from the nature of an effect while the mathematician only arrives at them circuitously." —Hans Christian Ørsted(1811) "First Introduction to General Physics" ¶17. as translated in Ørsted 1997, p. 297.
  32. ^ Salviati speaks: "I greatly doubt that Aristotle ever tested by experiment whether it be true that two stones, one weighing ten times as much as the other, if allowed to fall, at the same instant, from a height of, say, 100 cubits, would so differ in speed that when the heavier had reached the ground, the other would not have fallen more than 10 cubits." Two New Sciences (1638)Galilei 1638, pp. 61–62. A more extended quotation is referenced by Moulton & Schifferes 1960, pp. 80–81.
  33. ^ In the inquiry-based education paradigm, the stage of "characterization, observation, definition, …" is more briefly summed up under the rubric of a Question
  34. ^ "To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science." —Einstein & Infeld 1938, p. 92.
  35. ^ Crawford S, Stucki L (1990), "Peer review and the changing research record", "J Am Soc Info Science", vol. 41, pp 223-228
  36. ^ See, e.g., Gauch 2003, esp. chapters 5-8
  37. ^ Cartwright, Nancy (1983), How the Laws of Physics Lie. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-824704-4
  38. ^ Andreas Vesalius, Epistola, Rationem, Modumque Propinandi Radicis Chynae Decocti (1546), 141. Quoted and translated in C.D. O'Malley, Andreas Vesalius of Brussels, (1964), 116. As quoted by Bynum & Porter 2005, p. 597: Andreas Vesalius,597#1.
  39. ^ Crick, Francis (1994), The Astonishing Hypothesis ISBN 0-684-19431-7 p.20
  40. ^ Glen 1994, pp. 37–38.
  41. ^ "The structure that we propose is a three-chain structure, each chain being a helix" — Linus Pauling, as quoted on p. 157 by Horace Freeland Judson (1979), The Eighth Day of Creation ISBN 0-671-22540-5
  42. ^ McElheny 2004, pp. 49–50: January 28, 1953 - Watson read Pauling's pre-print, and realized that in Pauling's model, DNA's phosphate groups had to be un-ionized. But DNA is an acid, which contradicts Pauling's model.
  43. ^ June, 1952. as noted in McElheny 2004, p. 43: Watson had succeeded in getting X-ray pictures of TMV showing a diffraction pattern consistent with the transform of a helix.
  44. ^ Watson did enough work on Tobacco mosaic virus to produce the diffraction pattern for a helix, per Crick's work on the transform of a helix. pp. 137-138, Horace Freeland Judson (1979) The Eighth Day of Creation ISBN 0-671-22540-5
  45. ^ "The instant I saw the picture my mouth fell open and my pulse began to race." —Watson 1968, p. 167 Page 168 shows the X-shaped pattern of the B-form of DNA, clearly indicating crucial details of its helical structure to Watson and Crick.
  46. ^ "Suddenly I became aware that an adenine-thymine pair held together by two hydrogen bonds was identical in shape to a guanine-cytosine pair held together by at least two hydrogen bonds. ..." —Watson 1968, pp. 194–197.
  47. ^ See, e.g., Physics Today, 59(1), p42. Richmann electrocuted in St. Petersburg (1753)
  48. ^ Aristotle, "Prior Analytics", Hugh Tredennick (trans.), pp. 181-531 in Aristotle, Volume 1, Loeb Classical Library, William Heinemann, London, UK, 1938.
  49. ^ a b Peirce, C.S. (1877), "The Fixation of Belief", Popular Science Monthly, v. 12, pp. 1–15. Reprinted often, including (Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce v. 5, paragraphs 358–87), (The Essential Peirce, v. 1, pp. 109–23). Peirce.org Eprint. Wikisource Eprint.
  50. ^ Peirce, C.S. (1898), "Philosophy and the Conduct of Life", Lecture 1 of the Cambridge (MA) Conferences Lectures, published in Collected Papers v. 1, paragraphs 616-48 in part and in Reasoning and the Logic of Things, Ketner (ed., intro.) and Putnam (intro., comm.), pp. 105-22, reprinted in The Essential Peirce v. 2, pp. 27-41.
  51. ^ Peirce (1899), "F.R.L." [First Rule of Logic], Collected Papers v. 1, paragraphs 135-40, Eprint
  52. ^ Peirce, C.S. (1903), "Lectures on Pragmatism", published in part (Collected Papers v. 5, paragraphs 14–212), Eprint. Fully published (Patricia Ann Turisi (ed.), Pragmatism as a Principle and Method of Right Thinking: The 1903 Harvard "Lectures on Pragmatism", SUNY Press, Albany, NY, 1997), (The Essential Peirce, v. 2, pp. 133–241).
  53. ^ a b c Peirce, C.S. (1877), "How to Make Our Ideas Clear", Popular Science Monthly, v. 12, pp. 286–302. Reprinted often, including (Collected Papers v. 5, paragraphs 388–410), (The Essential Peirce v. 1, pp. 124–41). Arisbe Eprint, Wikisource Eprint.
  54. ^ Peirce, C.S. (1868), "Some Consequences of Four Incapacities", Journal of Speculative Philosophy v. 2, n. 3, pp. 140–57. Reprinted often, including (Collected Papers v. 5, paragraphs 264–317), (The Essential Peirce v. 1, pp. 28–55). Arisbe Eprint
  55. ^ Peirce, C.S. (1878), "The Doctrine of Chances", Popular Science Monthly v. 12, pp. 604-15, see pp. 610-11 via Internet Archive. Reprinted (Collected Papers v. 2, paragraphs 645-68), (The Essential Peirce v. 1, pp. 142-54). "...death makes the number of our risks, the number of our inferences, finite, and so makes their mean result uncertain. The very idea of probability and of reasoning rests on the assumption that this number is indefinitely great. .... ...logicality inexorably requires that our interests shall not be limited. .... Logic is rooted in the social principle."
  56. ^ a b Peirce, C.S. (1908), "A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God", Hibbert Journal v. 7, pp. 90-112. Wikisource Eprint with added notes. Reprinted often, with previously unpublished part, including (Collected Papers v. 6, paragraphs 452-85), (The Essential Peirce v. 2, pp. 434-50).
  57. ^ Peirce, C.S. (1902), application to the Carnegie Institution, see MS L75.329-330, from Draft D of Memoir 27:
    Consequently, to discover is simply to expedite an event that would occur sooner or later, if we had not troubled ourselves to make the discovery. Consequently, the art of discovery is purely a question of economics. The economics of research is, so far as logic is concerned, the leading doctrine with reference to the art of discovery. Consequently, the conduct of abduction, which is chiefly a question of heuretic and is the first question of heuretic, is to be governed by economical considerations.
  58. ^ Peirce (c. 1906), "PAP (Prolegomena for an Apology to Pragmatism)" (MS 293, not to be confused with article "...Pragmaticism"), The New Elements of Mathematics (NEM) 4:319-320, see first quote under "Abduction" at Commens Dictionary of Peirce's Terms.
  59. ^ Peirce, C.S. (1903), "Pragmatism — The Logic of Abduction", Collected Papers v. 5, paragraphs 195-205, especially paragraph 196. Eprint.
  60. ^ Peirce, C.S., (1878) "The Probability of Induction", Popular Science Monthly, vol. 12, pp. 705-18, Google Books Eprint, Internet Archive Eprint. Reprinted often, including (Collected Papers v. 2, paragraphs 669-93), (The Essential Peirce v. 1, pp. 155-69).
  61. ^
    • Higher Superstition: The Academic Left and Its Quarrels with Science, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997
    • Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science, Picador; 1st Picador USA Pbk. Ed edition, 1999
    • The Sokal Hoax: The Sham That Shook the Academy, University of Nebraska Press, 2000 ISBN 0-8032-7995-7
    • A House Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths About Science, Oxford University Press, 2000
    • Intellectual Impostures, Economist Books, 2003
  62. ^ The ancient Egyptians observed that heliacal rising of a certain star, Sothis (Greek for Sopdet (Egyptian), known to the West as Sirius), marked the annual flooding of the Nile river. —Otto Neugebauer, The exact sciences in antiquity, p.82. See also the 1911 Britannica, "Egypt".
  63. ^ The Rhind papyrus lists practical examples in arithmetic and geometry —1911 Britannica, "Egypt".
  64. ^ The Ebers papyrus lists some of the 'mysteries of the physician', as cited in the 1911 Britannica, "Egypt"
  65. ^ Rosanna Gorini (2003), "Al-Haytham the Man of Experience, First Steps in the Science of Vision", International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, Laboratory of Psychobiology and Psychopharmacology, Rome, Italy:
    "According to the majority of the historians al-Haytham was the pioneer of the modern scientific method. With his book he changed the meaning of the term optics and established experiments as the norm of proof in the field. His investigations are based not on abstract theories, but on experimental evidences and his experiments were systematic and repeatable."
  66. ^ David Agar (2001). Arabic Studies in Physics and Astronomy During 800 - 1400 AD. University of Jyväskylä.
  67. ^ "John Stuart Mill (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". plato.stanford.edu. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mill/#SciMet. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  68. ^ Logik der Forschung, new appendix *XIX (not yet available in the English edition Logic of scientific discovery)
  69. ^ Karl Popper: On the non-existence of scientific method. Realism and the Aim of Science (1983)
  70. ^ Karl Popper (1972) Objective Knowledge, Clarendon Press
  71. ^ "When we are working intensively, we feel keenly the progress of our work; we are elated when our progress is rapid, we are depressed when it is slow." — the mathematician Pólya 1957, p. 131 in the section on 'Modern heuristic'.
  72. ^ "Philosophy [i.e., physics] is written in this grand book--I mean the universe--which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering around in a dark labyrinth." —Galileo Galilei, Il Saggiatore (The Assayer, 1623), as translated by Stillman Drake (1957), Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo pp. 237-8, as quoted by di Francia 1981, p. 10.
  73. ^ Pólya 1957 2nd ed.
  74. ^ George Pólya (1954), Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning Volume I: Induction and Analogy in Mathematics,
  75. ^ George Pólya (1954), Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning Volume II: Patterns of Plausible Reasoning.
  76. ^ Pólya 1957, p. 142
  77. ^ Pólya 1957, p. 144
  78. ^ Mackay 1991 p.100

Further reading

.
  • Bacon, Francis Novum Organum (The New Organon), 1620. Bacon's work described many of the accepted principles, underscoring the importance of theory, empirical results, data gathering, experiment, and independent corroboration.
  • Bauer, Henry H., Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method, University of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL, 1992
  • Beveridge, William I. B., The Art of Scientific Investigation, Vintage/Alfred A. Knopf, 1957.
  • Bernstein, Richard J., Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, 1983.
  • Born, Max (1949), Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance, Peter Smith , also published by Dover, 1964. From the Waynflete Lectures, 1948. On the web.^ No one has a right to conviction on these matters who has not worked at this subject for many years, as I have, and has not himself experienced the same new and astonishing discoveries."
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The mere gathering of data gives no guaranteed access to either a therapeutic function or to scientific insight.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Freud oscillated between being therapist and investigator, accepting the easy misconception that a favorable therapeutic result was evidence of scientific validity.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    N.B.: the web version does not have the 3 addenda by Born, 1950, 1964, in which he notes that all knowledge is subjective. Born then proposes a solution in Appendix 3 (1964)
  • Bozinovski, Stevo, Consequence Driven Systems: Teaching, Learning, and Self-Learning Agents, GOCMAR Publishers, Bitola, Macedonia, 1991.
  • Brody, Baruch A. and Capaldi, Nicholas, Science: Men, Methods, Goals: A Reader: Methods of Physical Science, W. A. Benjamin, 1968
  • Brody, Baruch A., and Grandy, Richard E., Readings in the Philosophy of Science, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989.
  • Brody, Thomas A. (1993), The Philosophy Behind Physics, Springer Verlag, ISBN 0-387-55914-0 . (Luis De La Peña and Peter E. Hodgson, eds.)
  • .
  • Burks, Arthur W., Chance, Cause, Reason — An Inquiry into the Nature of Scientific Evidence, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1977.
  • Bynum, W.F.; Porter, Roy (2005), Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-858409-1 .
  • Chomsky, Noam, Reflections on Language, Pantheon Books, New York, NY, 1975.
  • Dewey, John, How We Think, D.C. Heath, Lexington, MA, 1910. Reprinted, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1991.
  • di Francia, G. Toraldo (1981), The Investigation of the Physical World, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29925-X .
  • Earman, John (ed.^ New York: Viking Press, 1950.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Collier Books, 1963.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Basic Books, 1977.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ), .Inference, Explanation, and Other Frustrations: Essays in the Philosophy of Science, University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA, 1992.
  • Einstein, Albert; Infeld, Leopold (1938), The Evolution of Physics: from early concepts to relativity and quanta, New York: Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-671-20156-5 
  • Fraassen, Bas C. van, The Scientific Image, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1980.
  • Feyerabend, Paul K., Against Method, Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge, 1st published, 1975. Reprinted, Verso, London, UK, 1978.
  • Feynman, Richard (1965), The Character of Physical Law, Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, ISBN 0-262-56003-8 .
  • Fleck, Ludwik (1975), Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact, Univ.^ New York: Viking Press, 1950.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Actually his approach to human nature was welcome, because it gave people an apparently scientific explanation for the fact that their socially exemplary lives were clouded by a sense of emptiness and frustration.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Simon and Schuster, 1954.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    of Chicago, ISBN 0-226-25325-2 . .(written in German, 1935, Entstehung und Entwickelung einer wissenschaftlichen Tatsache: Einführung in die Lehre vom Denkstil und Denkkollectiv)
  • Franklin, James (2009), What Science Knows: And How It Knows It, New York: Encounter Books, ISBN 1594032076 .
  • Gadamer, Hans-Georg, Reason in the Age of Science, Frederick G. Lawrence (trans.^ New York: Collier Books, 1963.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Basic Books, 1977.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Bantam Books, 1960.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1981.
  • Galilei, Galileo (M.D.C.XXXVIII), Discorsi e Dimonstrazioni Matematiche, intorno a due nuoue scienze, Leida: Apresso gli Elsevirri, ISBN 0-486-60099-8 , Dover reprint of the 1914 Macmillan translation by Henry Crew and Alfonso de Salvio of Two New Sciences, Galileo Galilei Linceo (1638). Additional publication information is from the collection of first editions of the Library of Congress by Leonard C. Bruno (1988), The Landmarks of Science ISBN 0-8160-2137-6
  • Gauch, Hugh G., Jr. (2003), Scientific Method in Practice, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-01708-4, http://books.google.com/books?id=iVkugqNG9dAC  435 pages
  • Giere, Ronald N. (ed.), Cognitive Models of Science, vol. 15 in 'Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science', University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1992.
  • Glen, William (ed.) (1994), The Mass-Extinction Debates: How Science Works in a Crisis, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-2285-4 .
  • Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2003), Theory and Reality: An introduction to the philosophy of science, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-30063-3 .
  • Hacking, Ian, Representing and Intervening, Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983.
  • Heisenberg, Werner, Physics and Beyond, Encounters and Conversations, A.J. Pomerans (trans.), .Harper and Row, New York, NY 1971, pp. 63–64.
  • Holton, Gerald, Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought, Kepler to Einstein, 1st edition 1973, revised edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988.
  • Jevons, William Stanley (1874), The Principles of Science: A Treatise on Logic and Scientific Method, Dover Publications, ISBN 1430487755 .^ New York: Viking Press, 1950.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Permabook Edition, 1953.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    .1877, 1879. Reprinted with a foreword by Ernst Nagel, New York, NY, 1958.
  • Kuhn, Thomas S., "The Function of Measurement in Modern Physical Science", ISIS 52(2), 161–193, 1961.
  • Kuhn, Thomas S., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1962. 2nd edition 1970. 3rd edition 1996.
  • Kuhn, Thomas S., The Essential Tension, Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1977.
  • Latour, Bruno, Science in Action, How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987.
  • Losee, John, A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1972. 2nd edition, 1980.
  • Mackay, Alan L. (ed.^ New York: Viking Press, 1950.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Basic Books, 1977.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Permabook Edition, 1953.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ) (1991), Dictionary of Scientific Quotations, London: IOP Publishing Ltd, ISBN 0-7503-0106-6 
  • Maxwell, Nicholas, The Comprehensibility of the Universe: A New Conception of Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998. Paperback 2003.
  • McComas, William F., ed. .The Principal Elements of the Nature of Science: Dispelling the MythsPDF (189 KB), from The Nature of Science in Science Education, pp53–70, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands 1998.
  • McElheny, Victor K. (2004), Watson & DNA: Making a scientific revolution, Basic Books, ISBN 0-7382-0866-3 .
  • Mill, John Stuart, "A System of Logic", University Press of the Pacific, Honolulu, 2002, ISBN 1-4102-0252-6.
  • Misak, Cheryl J., Truth and the End of Inquiry, A Peircean Account of Truth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1991.
  • Moulton, Forest Ray; Schifferes, Justus J. (eds., Second Edition) (1960), The Autobiography of Science, Doubleday .
  • Needham, Joseph; Wang, Ling (王玲) (1954), Science and Civilisation in China, 1 Introductory Orientations, Cambridge University Press 
  • Newell, Allen, Unified Theories of Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990.
  • Newton, Isaac (1687, 1713, 1726), Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-08817-4 , Third edition.^ It is necessary for the critic to be firmly oriented toward the search for truth about human nature in his own life if his analysis of Freudian error is to be a contribution to the building of a science of human nature.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no area of scientific inquiry where truth is as unacceptable as in the human field.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    From I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation, 974 pages.
  • Ørsted, Hans Christian (1997), Selected Scientific Works of Hans Christian Ørsted, Princeton, ISBN 0-691-04334-5 . Translated to English by Karen Jelved, Andrew D. Jackson, and Ole Knudsen, (translators 1997).
  • Peirce, C.S. (1957), Essays in the Philosophy of Science, New York, NY: Bobbs–Merrill , Vincent Tomas (ed.).
  • Peirce, C.S. (1931-1935, 1958), Collected Papers, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press , Cited as CP vol.para. vols. 1-6, Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss (eds.), vols. 7-8, Arthur W. Burks (ed.).
  • Peirce, C.S. (1981), Writings of Charles S. Peirce, A Chronological Edition, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press , Cited as W vol.para., Peirce Edition Project (eds.), Vol 1.(1857-66), Vol. 2(1867-71), Vol. 3(1872-78), Vol 4.(1879-85), Vol. 5(1884-85), Vol. 6(1886-90).
  • Peirce, C.S. (1998), The Essential Peirce, Selected Philosophical Writings, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press , Peirce Edition Project (eds.), Volume 1 (1867–1893) is ISBN 0-253-32849-7, Volume 2 (1893–1913) is ISBN 0-253-33397-0
  • Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo (ed.), Language and Learning, The Debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1980.
  • Poincaré, Henri, Science and Hypothesis, 1905, Eprint
  • Pólya, George (1957), How to Solve It, Princeton University Press, ISBN -691-08097-6 
  • Popper, Karl R., The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1934, 1959.
  • Popper, Karl R., Unended Quest, An Intellectual Autobiography, Open Court, La Salle, IL, 1982.
  • Putnam, Hilary, Renewing Philosophy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.
  • Rorty, Richard, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1979.
  • Salmon, Wesley C., Four Decades of Scientific Explanation, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1990.
  • Sambursky, Shmuel (ed.) (1974), Physical Thought from the Presocratics to the Quantum Physicists, Pica Press, ISBN 0-87663-712-8 .
  • Shimony, Abner, Search for a Naturalistic World View: Vol. 1, Scientific Method and Epistemology, Vol. .2, Natural Science and Metaphysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1993.
  • Taleb, Nassim Nicholas (2007), The Black Swan, Random House, ISBN 978-1-4000-6351-2 
  • Thagard, Paul, Conceptual Revolutions, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1992.
  • Watson, James D. (1968), The Double Helix, New York: Atheneum, Library of Congress card number 68-16217 .
  • Ziman, John (2000).^ New York: Viking Press, 1950.
    • Paul Rosenfels: "Freud and the Scientific Method" 28 January 2010 0:48 UTC gender.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

    Real Science: what it is, and what it means. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

External links


Simple English

(Alhazen), 965–1039, Basra.]]

(1021).]] Since Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen, 965–1039), one of the key figures in developing scientific method, the emphasis has been on seeking truth:

Truth is sought for its own sake. And those who are engaged upon the quest for anything for its own sake are not interested in other things. Finding the truth is difficult, and the road to it is rough.[1]

Science and things that are not science (such as pseudoscience) are often distinguished by whether they use the scientific method. One of the first people to create an outline of the steps in the scientific method was John Stuart Mill.[2][3]


There is no one scientific method, but in general it is usually written as a number of steps:

  1. Come up with a question about the world. All scientific work begins with having a question to ask. Sometimes just coming up with the right question is the hardest part for a scientist. The question should be answerable by means of an experiment.
  2. Create a hypothesis — one possible answer to the question. A hypothesis is a word meaning "An educated statement about how something works", and it should be able to be proven right or wrong. For example, a statement like "Blue is a better color than green" is not a scientific hypothesis. It cannot be proven right or wrong. "More people like the color blue than green" could be a scientific hypothesis, though, because one could ask many people whether they like blue more than green and come up with an answer one way or the other.
  3. Design an experiment. If the hypothesis is truly scientific, it should be possible to design an experiment to test it. An experiment should be able to tell the scientist if the hypothesis is wrong; it may not tell him or her if the hypothesis is right. In the example above, an experiment might involve asking many people what their favorite colors are. Making an experiment can be very difficult though. What if the key question to ask people is not what colors they like, but what colors they hate? How many people need to be asked? Are there ways of asking the question that could change the result in ways that were not expected? These are all the types of questions that scientists have to ask, before they make an experiment and do it. Usually scientists want to test only one thing at a time. To do this, they try to make every part of an experiment the same for everything, except for the thing they want to test.
  4. Experiment and collect the data. Here the scientist tries to run the experiment they have designed before. Sometimes the scientist gets new ideas as the experiment is going on. Sometimes it is difficult to know when an experiment is finally over. Sometimes experimenting will be very difficult. Some scientists spend most of their lives learning how to do good experiments.
  5. Draw conclusions from the experiment. Sometimes results are not easy to understand. Sometimes the experiments themselves open up new questions. Sometimes results from an experiment can mean many different things. All of these need to be thought about carefully.
  6. Communicate them to others. A key element of science is sharing the results of experiments, so that other scientists can then use the knowledge themselves and all of science can benefit. Usually scientists do not trust a new claim unless other scientists have looked it over first to make sure it sounds like real science. This is called peer review ("peer" here means "other scientists").

Not all scientists use the above "scientific method" in their day to day work. Sometimes the actual work of science looks nothing like the above. But on the whole it is thought to be a good method for finding out things about the world which are reliable, and is the model for thinking about scientific knowledge usually used by scientists.

Example: Dissolving sugar in water

Let's say we are going to do an experiment to find out what things might change how sugar dissolves in a glass of water. Below is one way to do this, following the scientific method step by step.

Aim

Does sugar dissolve faster in hot water or cold water? Does the temperature affect how fast the sugar dissolves? This is a question we might want to ask.

Planning the experiment

One simple way to create an experiment would be to dissolve sugar in water of different temperatures and to keep track of how much time it takes for the sugar to dissolve.

We will want to make sure that we use the exact same amount of water in each trial, and the exact same amount of sugar. If we did not have the same number of either, we might influence the experiment in a way that would make it impossible to tell if the change in temperature was what was changing the speed of dissolving. To be extra careful, we would also run the experiment in a way that the water temperature does not change during the experiment.

This is called "isolating one variable" — which means making sure that only one thing is being changed each time.

Running the experiment

We will do the experiment in three trials, which are exactly the same, except for the temperature of the water.

  1. We put exactly 25 grams of sugar into exactly 1 liter of water almost as cold as ice. We do not stir. We notice that it takes 30 minutes before all the sugar is dissolved.
  2. We put exactly 25 grams of sugar into exactly 1 liter of room temperature water (20 °C). We do not stir. We notice that it takes 15 minutes before all the sugar is dissolved.
  3. We put exactly 25 grams of sugar into exactly 1 liter of warm water (50 °C). We do not stir. We notice that it takes 4 minutes before all the sugar is dissolved.

Drawing conclusions

One way that makes it easy to see results is to make a table of them, listing all of the things that changed each time we ran the experiment. Ours might look like this:

Temperature Dissolving time
1 °C 30 min
20 °C 15 min
50 °C 4 min

If every other part of the experiment was the same (we did not use more sugar one time than the other, we did not stir one time or the other, etc.), then this would be very good evidence that heat affects how fast sugar is dissolved.

We cannot know for sure, though, that there is not something else affecting it. An example of a hidden cause might be that sugar dissolves faster each time more sugar is dissolved into the same pot. This is probably not true, but if it were, it could make the results exactly the same: three trials, and the last one would be fastest. We have no reason to think that this is true at this time, but we might want to note it as another possible answer.

References

  1. Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham) Critique of Ptolemy, translated by S. Pines, Actes X Congrès internationale d'histoire des sciences, Vol I Ithaca 1962, as quoted in Sambursky 1974, p. 139
  2. "John Stuart Mill (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". plato.stanford.edu. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mill/#SciMet. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  3. "BAAM Science Lessons--Mill's Methods". www.baam.emich.edu. http://www.baam.emich.edu/baamsciencelessons/baammillsrules.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 07, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Scientific method, which are similar to those in the above article.








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