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Scientology is defined as a set of beliefs written by science fiction author L. Ron Hubbard. Scientology describes itself as the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself, others, and all of life. One purpose of Scientology, as stated by the Church of Scientology, is to become certain of one's spiritual existence and one's relationship to God, or the "Supreme Being."[1] One belief of Scientology is that a human is an immortal alien spiritual being, termed a thetan, that is trapped on planet Earth in a physical body. Hubbard described these "thetans" in " Space Opera" cosmogony. The thetan has had innumerable past lives and it is accepted in Scientology that lives preceding the thetan's arrival on Earth lived in extraterrestrial cultures. Descriptions of space opera incidents are seen as true events by Scientologists.[2]

Scientologists believe that an individual should discover for himself/herself that Scientology works by personally applying its principles and observing or experiencing desirable results.[citation needed] Scientology claims that its practices provide methods by which a person can achieve greater spiritual awareness.[3] Two primary methods of increasing spiritual awareness are referred to in Scientology as "Auditing" and "Training".[citation needed] Within Scientology, progression from level to level is often called The Bridge to Total Freedom. Scientologists progress from "Preclear", to "Clear", and ultimately "Operating Thetan".

Scientologists are taught that a series of events, or incidents, occurred before life on earth.[4] Scientologists also believe that humans have hidden abilities which can be unlocked.[5][6]

Although today associated almost exclusively with Hubbard's philosophy, the word "scientology" predates his usage by several decades. An early use of the word was as a neologism in an 1871 book by the American anarchist Stephen Pearl Andrews presenting "the newly discovered Science of the Universe".[7] Philologist Allen Upward used the word "scientology" in his 1901 book The New Word as a synonym for "pseudoscience,"[8] and this is sometimes cited as the first coining of the word.[9]

Contents

Beliefs

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Spirit, body and mind

In common with most religions, Scientology is basically concerned with the origin and nature of the universe and has an associated mythology that its believers hold to reflect religious truth, even when such myths may not be historically accurate or scientifically verifiable.[10] In Scientology, the cosmic source or life force is represented by the Greek letter theta (Θ).[10][11] Theta is meant to represent life or the life source, it is not part of the physical universe but it can control the universe.[12] The individual expression of theta is called the thetan.[12] This is held to be the true identity of every human being – intrinsically good, all-knowing, non-material, and capable of unlimited creativity.[10] As thetans, people are pure spirit, immortal and godlike, outside of space and time.[10][11] Thus, the thetan concept is similar to the Western concept of the soul, with the distinction that the latter does not usually go so far as to assert a godlike true nature for human beings.[10]

According to Scientologist mythology, thetans brought the material world into being largely for their own pleasure.[12] The material universe – composed of matter, energy, space and time (MEST) – was created by thetans in a primordial past, a "time before time".[10] It has no independent reality, but derives its apparent reality because most thetans agree it exists.[11] It is believed that thetans became victims of their own involvement with the material universe by becoming entrapped by it.[12] They began to identify with their creation, rather than their original state of spiritual purity.[10] Eventually, this reached a point where thetans lost their memory of their true nature as thetans, along with the associated spiritual and creative powers.[10][11][13] Instead, they came to think of themselves as nothing but embodied beings.[10][13]

Thetans are believed to have occupied innumerable bodies over time.[14] This aspect of Scientology theology bears similarities to the Hindu and Buddhist concept of reincarnation.[14] Reincarnation in Scientology happens through a process called "assumption".[10] The Scientology emphasis on the importance of present (or future) consequence of past actions also resembles the concept of karma.[14]

With each rebirth, the effects of the MEST universe on the thetan become stronger, unless a special intervention, or salvation, occurs.[10] Scientologists believe that this is because human MEST experiences are stored in what they term the "reactive mind" (a concept akin to Freud's "unconscious mind"), which responds irrationally and emotionally to any memory of painful or traumatic past experience.[10][12] The images of MEST experiences collected over many lifetimes are referred to as "engrams" in Scientologist terminology.[10] Engrams are believed to be painful and debilitating; as they accumulate, people move further away from their true identity as thetans.[10] To be saved from this fate and restore the thetan is the Scientologist's basic goal.[10] The thetan thus shares features with the atman of Hindu mythology.[10] Dianetic training is the tool through which the Scientologist progresses towards the "Clear" state, winning gradual freedom from the reactive mind, and acquiring certainty of his or her reality as a spiritual being, or thetan.[13]

The Bridge to Total Freedom

The Bridge to Total Freedom is the means by which Scientologists undertake personal spiritual development. The bridge has two sides: "training" and "processing". Training is education in the religious principles of "auditing." Processing is the actual practice of "auditing."[15]

Survival and the Dynamics

Scientology states that the basic principle of existence is "survive".[10][16] Survival is considered as the single and sole purpose and it is subdivided into eight dynamics:[17] [18]

  • Dynamic one is the urge towards survival as an individual.
  • Dynamic two is the urge towards survival through procreation; it includes both the act of sex and the raising and care of children.
  • Dynamic three is the urge towards survival for the group.
  • Dynamic four is the urge of the individual toward survival for Mankind.
  • Dynamic five is the urge to survive as a life organism and embraces all life forms.
  • Dynamic six is the urge to survive as part of the physical universe and includes the survival of the physical universe.
  • Dynamic seven is the urge toward survival as a spirit.
  • Dynamic eight is the urge toward survival as a part of the Supreme Being.

The optimum solution to any problem is that solution which brings the greatest benefit to the greatest number of dynamics.[17] Actions are considered "good" if they promote survival across all eight dynamics or realms of action.[19] When the dynamics are in conflict, Scientology encourages followers to prefer action that helps Scientology (and therefore the group, Mankind and most of the other higher dynamics) over action that helps the individual Scientologist or his/her family; in this way, it can appear justifiable to "disconnect" from a spouse or other family member who is not supportive of Scientology. A spouse is just "your 2D" (the second dynamic), while Scientology itself represents several higher dynamics. Given the Eight Dynamics theology, it is almost inevitable that a Scientologist will have to jettison an unsupportive spouse, as the math will always favor Scientology. Goodness is conceived in terms of "constructive survival action", as construction may also require a degree of destruction for new construction to take place, construction must outweigh destruction in order for something to be considered good.[1]

Morals and ethics

Scientology teaches that progress on The Bridge requires and enables the attainment of high moral and ethical standards.[15] The main Scientology text on ethics is the book Introduction to Scientology Ethics[1]

Scientology uses the term "morals" to refer to a collectively agreed code of good conduct and defines ethics as "the actions an individual takes on himself in order to accomplish optimum survival for himself and others on all [eight] dynamics". Scientology stresses the rationality of ethics over morals: "Ethics actually consists of rationality toward the highest level of survival."; "If a moral code were thoroughly reasonable, it could, at the same time, be considered thoroughly ethical. But only at this highest level could the two be called the same".[1]

Scientologists also follow a series of behaviour codes, these are: Auditor's Code, Supervisor's Code, Code of Honour and the Code of a Scientologist.[1]

Professor Stephen A. Kent quotes Hubbard as pronouncing that "the purpose of ethics is to remove counter-intentions from the environment. Having accomplished that, the purpose becomes to remove other intentionedness from the environment." Kent interprets this as "a peculiar brand of morality that uniquely benefited [the Church of Scientology]... In plain English, the purpose of Scientology ethics is to eliminate opponents, then eliminate people's interests in things other than Scientology."[20] Professor Kent's statement has been accused of being deliberately deceptive, as the 'ethics' in the quote above, taken in context, is referring to the "Ethics Section"; a Church department "which handles (internal) ethics matters", and not the philosophic or individual treatment of the subject whose purpose is "rationality towards the highest level of survival for the individual... Ethics are reason."[21] Nonetheless, it is common for one Scientologist to say to another, "You need to get your ethics in," referring to behavior that is not useful to Scientology. Because of the inviolate Eight Dynamics theology, it is always "rational" (and therefore "ethical") to support Scientology above literally all other concerns.

ARC and KRC triangles

The ARC and KRC triangles are concept maps which show a relationship between three concepts to form another concept. These two triangles are present in the Scientology logo.

The ARC triangle is a summary representation of the knowledge the Scientologist strives for.[10] It combines three components: "Affinity" is the degree of affection, love or liking, i.e. an emotional state.[10] "Reality" reflects consensual reality, that is agreements on what is real.[10] "Communication", believed to be the most important element of the triangle, is the exchange of ideas.[10] Scientologists believe that improving one of the three aspects of the ARC triangle "increases the level" of the other two but the most important aspect of this triangle is "communication" mainly because communication drives the other two aspects: "affinity" and "reality".[22] Scientologists believe that ineffective communication is a chief cause of human survival problems, and this is reflected by efforts at all levels within the movement to ensure clear communication, the presence of unabridged standard dictionaries for example being an established feature of Scientology centers.[10]

The Tone scale

The tone scale is a chart that claims to plot "emotions in an exact ascending and descending sequence.” The tone scale starts with “Body Death” in its lower end and ascends to “Serenity of Beingness” in its highest end. Scientologists use the tone scale to identify the emotional tone during auditing.[23]

The tone scale is also said to be used to predict human behavior.[23]

Confidential materials and reincarnation

The Church of Scientology holds that at the higher levels of initiation[24] (OT levels), teachings are imparted which may be considered mystical and potentially harmful to unprepared readers. These teachings are kept secret from members who have not reached these levels. The Church states that the secrecy is warranted to keep its materials' use in context, to protect its members from being exposed to materials they are not yet prepared for.[25] They do not condone the use of their materials for personal entertainment, or critical review.

These are the OT levels, the levels above "Clear", whose contents are guarded within Scientology. The OT level teachings include accounts of various cosmic catastrophes that befell the thetans.[26] The highest level, OT VIII, is only disclosed at sea, on the Scientology cruise ship Freewinds. It was released in the late 1980s. Since being entered into evidence in several court cases beginning in the early 1980s, synopses and excerpts of these secret teachings have appeared in numerous publications.[24]

The material contained in the OT levels have been characterized as bad science fiction by critics. But, author and Professor of Communication at Hope College, James A. Herrick, believes they bear similarities to gnostic thought and ancient Hindu myths of creation and cosmic struggle.[26][27] J. Gordon Melton suggests that like Biblical mythology, these elements of the OT levels may never have been intended as descriptions of historical events, and adds that on whatever level Scientologists might have received this mythology, they seem to have found it useful in their quest to become spiritual beings.[26]

Creed

Scientology has a defined creed, which was composed in 1954, the year Scientology was established as a religion.[28] This creed states that all church members believe that people "of whatever race, color, or creed were created with equal rights."[10][29] It holds that all people "have inalienable rights to their own religious practices and their performance," as well as their "lives," "sanity" and "defense", and that they have inalienable rights to "choose, assist or support their own organizations, churches and governments," and "to think freely, to talk freely, to write freely their own opinions and to counter or utter or write upon the opinions of others."[10][28][29]

The creed specifies that all people have "inalienable rights to the creation of their own kind," that "the souls of men have the rights of men," that "the study of the mind and the healing of mentally caused ills should not be alienated from religion or condoned in non-religious fields" and "that no agency less than God has the power to suspend or set aside these rights, overtly or covertly."[10][28][29] Furthermore, the creed states that the Church of Scientology believes people are "basically good", seek "to survive", and that this survival depends on the self and upon one's fellows, as well as the attainment of "brotherhood with the universe."[10][28][29]

According to the creed, God forbids people to destroy each other, to destroy another's sanity or to "destroy or enslave another's soul," and "to destroy or reduce the survival of one's companions or one's group."[10][28][29] Lastly, it states the belief "that the spirit can be saved and that the spirit alone may save or heal the body."[10][28][29]

Scriptures and practices

The American science fiction author L. Ron Hubbard is considered the sole source of Dianetics and Scientology. His work, recorded in 500,000 pages of writings, 6,500 reels of tape and 42 films, is carefully protected and guarded for posterity.[30] These materials include auditing procedures, and also training procedure for the administration of Scientology facilities.[citation needed] Scientology studies are achieved by the systematic study and application of its axioms and principles.[1]

It is believed in Scientology that it will only truly work when it is applied in its pure form as Hubbard intended.[citation needed] Any alteration to these techniques is thought to hinder Scientology's effectiveness.[citation needed] Restating or interpreting the source text in one's own words is frowned upon and strongly advised against, within the Church.[citation needed] Individuals applying Hubbard's techniques who are not officially connected to the Church of Scientology are considered part of the "Freezone". Some of these individuals were litigated against for using and modifying the practices for their own use.[31]

The Church of Scientology has issued versions of some of Hubbard's texts and recordings that contain alterations or omissions with respect to their original versions.[citation needed] These variant texts have been a subject of controversy, especially among Free Zone practitioners.

In July 2007, a re-release of all of Hubbard's basic books and tape recordings on Dianetics and Scientology was announced. The announcement was made in a speech given by David Miscavige and the Flag Land Base. In an almost three hour briefing he claimed that many errors had been found in previous versions of the books, and that a large-scale project was undertaken to locate the original dictaphone recordings and annotated transcriptions of the books and restore each work to its original form.[citation needed]

Terminology

On November 12, 1952, Hubbard explained in lecture "Precision Knowledge: Necessity to know terminology and law” the need to have precise terminology that cannot be confused with other words or definitions. He gave emphasis on avoidance of words that have many definitions and compared the language of Scientology with the language of Math and other precise doctrines.

Scientology and Dianetics place a heavy emphasis on understanding word definitions. Hubbard wrote a book entitled How to Use a Dictionary, in which he defined the methods of correcting "misunderstoods" (a Scientology term referring to a "misunderstood word or symbol"). It is believed in Scientology that complete understanding of a subject matter requires first complete understanding of the words of that subject matter. Hubbard also assembled the Technical Dictionary (ISBN 0-686-30803-4, ISBN 0-88404-037-2), a lexicon of hundreds of words, terms, and definitions that are used by Scientologists. Hubbard modified definitions for many existing English words, such as "clear" and "static." "Clear" was borrowed from early computer science during his 1948 research. He likened the human mind to a perfect computer that needed to be "cleared" of erroneous data enforced upon it from engrams or painful memories. Soon after the word "clear" as a noun meant a person who had attained such a state. He also coined many terms that are variants on standard English words, such as "enturbulate" and "havingness."

Critics of Scientology have accused Hubbard of "loading the language" and using Scientology jargon to keep Scientologists from interacting with information sources outside of Scientology (see cult for additional information).[32][33]

Interpretation and context

Scientology has a rigid doctrine which discourages secondary interpretation of its writings.[34] Students of Scientology are taught to direct others to those original sources, rather than to convey any interpretation of the concepts in their own words. Verbally discussing Scientology processes is referred to as "verbal tech," and is believed by Scientologists to ultimately interfere with the proper understanding (and consequently, the effectiveness) of the teachings.[citation needed] Scientology contends that the policy of forbidding secondary interpretation exists in order to keep its teachings unmodified, and to prevent students from passing on their misunderstandings to others.[citation needed] Emphasis is placed on keeping the writings in context.

Gradual learning

Scientologists believe that material must be learned in a definite order, never skipping to material which is overly complex before it is called for. The Church of Scientology published a particular sequence of study which must be followed in progression of Scientology.[citation needed] A Scientologist must receive the newer and higher levels only upon completion of the previous level. Scientology calls this concept a "gradient": breaking down a complicated idea into smaller pieces so that someone who could not grasp the whole idea at once can learn it piece by piece. One aspect which is taught in the gradient system is that if a person skips a gradient and is given material which is too high, they will endure physical harm. Scientologists say that approaching information on a gradient keeps people from becoming confused.[citation needed]

Auditing

One central practice of Scientology is an activity known as auditing (listening) which seeks to elevate an adherent to a State of Clear, one of freedom from the influences of the reactive mind. The practice is one wherein a counselor called an auditor addresses a series of questions to a preclear, observes and records the preclear's responses, and acknowledges them. An important element in all forms of auditing is to not suggest answers to the preclear or invalidate or degrade what the preclear says in response. It is of utmost importance the auditor create a truly safe and distraction free environment for the session.

"Auditing" is seen by some as controversial, because auditing sessions are permanently recorded and stored within what are called Preclear Folders.

"Auditors" are required to become proficient with the use of their E-meters. A typical exercise in auditor training is to be able to determine the number a silent person is thinking of. A training simulator able to recreate all manner of E-meter reactions is used to assist in Auditor training.[citation needed] E-meters include circuitry for course training supervisors to communicate with an auditor who is in session. Auditors do not receive final certification until they have successfully completed an internship, and have demonstrated and proven ability in the skills they have been trained in. Auditors often practice their auditing with each other, as well as friends, or family. Church members pair up often to get their training, doing the same course at the same time, so that they can audit each other up through the various Scientology levels.

Marriage and sex

In the book The Science of Survival, in the Chart of Human Evaluation Hubbard said that a man high in the chart has a strong interest in sex and the rearing of children. But Hubbard also compared sex to a numb emotion in comparison with the joy of creation. Hubbard described the sex emotion as a strong attention unit similar to a strong applause. Also he warned about the aberrative qualities of sex being mostly composed of the desire to savagely take advantage of another thetan and be an effect instead of cause.[citation needed]

In 1982 Hubbard authored Pain and Sex, an official Scientology bulletin in which the biological act of sex and the body's ability to feel pain were announced to be "the invented tools of degradation" created by psychiatrists millions of years ago. According to Hubbard, "When sex enters the scene, a being fixates and loses power," and "Lovers are very seldom happy."[35]

The Church of Scientology describes marriage as "an essential component of a stable family life."[36] In 2005, a spokeswoman for the Church told the New York Daily News that the Church had "not taken an official position on gay marriage, and that members prefer not to talk about it."

Women are encouraged to be as silent as possible and avoid taking drugs during birth. They can only make sounds but must not utter any words, and neither must the birthing staff, unless absolutely necessary. Newborns are deemed especially vulnerable to induced engrams and trauma transmitted from their mother or acquired from their environment.

The body

Scientology has a series of techniques called "assists" which are believed to alleviate injury, trauma or discomfort. These techniques used are based on the belief that the spirit can solve the body’s difficulties by putting the spirit in communication with the body.[citation needed]

Scientology oversees a program referred to as the "Purification Rundown", which is promoted as a method of "detoxification" developed by L. Ron Hubbard. It involves the use of saunas, exercise, vitamins, the drinking of oils, as well as light jogging. The Purification Rundown is usually the first step taken by a Scientologist attempting to attain a state of "Clear" and is promoted as a health regimen within Scientology and in Scientology's drug rehabilitation program Narconon.[citation needed]

Holidays

There are several holidays celebrated by Scientologists, notably L. Ron Hubbard's birthday in March, the Anniversary of the first publication of Dianetics in May, and Auditor's Day in September. Most official celebrations are scheduled on weekends as a convenience to members. Scientologists also celebrate secular holidays such as New Year's Eve, and other local celebrations.[37] Scientologists also celebrate religious holidays depending on other religious beliefs, as Scientologists very often retain their original affiliations with faiths in which they were raised.[38]

Controversy

Squirreling

The Church of Scientology has argued that unauthorized distribution of information about Scientology practices will create a risk of improper application. The Religious Technology Center has prosecuted and harassed individual breakaway groups that have practiced Scientology outside the official Church without authorization.[citation needed] The act of using Scientology techniques in a form different than originally described by Hubbard is referred to within Scientology as "squirreling", and is said by Scientologists to be a "high crime".[39]

Legal waivers

The Church of Scientology requires that every member sign a legal waiver which covers their relationship with the Church of Scientology before engaging in Scientology services.[40][41]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Black, Alan W. (24 January 1996). "Is Scientology A Religion?". Church of Scientology. http://www.neuereligion.de/ENG/Black/index.htm. 
  2. ^ http://en.allexperts.com/q/Scientology-1751/L-Ron-Hubbard-space.htm?zIr=1
  3. ^ "Scientology.org - Introduction to Scientology". Church of Scientology. http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/index.html. 
  4. ^ "en.allexperts.com/q/Scientology-1751/L-Ron-Hubbard-space.htm?zIr=1". http://en.allexperts.com/q/Scientology-1751/L-Ron-Hubbard-space.htm?zIr=1. 
  5. ^ "Road To Total Freedom". Panorama. 27 April 1987.
  6. ^ Farley, Robert (6 May 2006). "Scientology nearly ready to unveil Super Power". St. Petersburg Times. http://www.sptimes.com/2006/05/06/Tampabay/Scientology_nearly_re.shtml/. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  7. ^ Andrews, Stephen Pearl (1871). The Primary Synopsis of Universology and Alwato: The New Scientific Universal Language. New York: Dion Thomas. OCLC 3591669. http://books.google.com/books?id=WpwsVIfv5CcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22The+Primary+Synopsis+of+Universology+and+Alwato%22&lr=&as_brr=0.  At p. xiii, "Scientology" is defined as "the Science of the Scientismus, or of that Secondary Department of Being, or Stage of Evolution, in which Scientism, the Spirit or Principle of Science (or of that which is analogous with Science) preponderates". (Google Books link)
  8. ^ Allen Upward: The New Word, pp 139, 149 & 156
  9. ^ Atack, Jon (1990). A Piece of Blue Sky. New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group. pp. 128. ISBN 0-8184-0499-X. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/atack/index.html. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Neusner, Jacob (2003). World Religions in America. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 221–236. ISBN 0-664-22475-X. 
  11. ^ a b c d Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring New Religions. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 283. ISBN 0826459595. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Scientology An Analysis and Comparison of its Religious Systems and Doctrines, by Bryan Wilson, Ph.D., Emeritus Fellow, Oxford University
  13. ^ a b c Melton, J. Gordon (2000). The Church of Scientology. Salt Lake City: Signature Press. pp. 32. ISBN 1-56085-139-2. 
  14. ^ a b c Part 2 of Scientology An Analysis and Comparison of its Religious Systems and Doctrines, by Bryan Wilson, Ph.D., Emeritus Fellow, Oxford University
  15. ^ a b Book: World Religions in America by Jacob Neusner | page 228
  16. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (2000). The Church of Scientology. Salt Lake City: Signature Press. pp. 25. ISBN 1-56085-139-2. 
  17. ^ a b web page 1 | The Road to Total Freedom A Sociological analysis of Scientology by ROY WALLIS
  18. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (2000). The Church of Scientology. Salt Lake City: Signature Press. pp. 31. ISBN 1-56085-139-2. 
  19. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (2000). The Church of Scientology. Salt Lake City: Signature Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 1-56085-139-2. 
  20. ^ Stephen A. Kent (September 2003). "Scientology and the European Human Rights Debate: A Reply to Leisa Goodman, J. Gordon Melton, and the European Rehabilitation Project Force Study". Marburg Journal of Religion 8 (1). http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/mjr/kent3.html. Retrieved 2006-07-06. 
  21. ^ Science of Survival, p.128 L. Ron Hubbard 1951
  22. ^ Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America by Eugene V. Gallagher, W. Michael Ashcraft | page 176
  23. ^ a b The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Emotion| page 132 | By John Corrigan
  24. ^ a b "file.sunshinepress.org:54445/scientology-ot-levels.pdf" (PDF). http://file.sunshinepress.org:54445/scientology-ot-levels.pdf. 
  25. ^ Reitman, Janet (23 February 2006). "Inside Scientology". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/story/9363363/inside_scientology/print. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  26. ^ a b c Melton, J. Gordon (2000). The Church of Scientology. Salt Lake City: Signature Press. pp. 33. ISBN 1-56085-139-2. 
  27. ^ Herrick, James A. (2004). The Making of the New Spirituality. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. p. 199. ISBN 0830832793. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f Benjamin J. Hubbard, John T. Hatfield, James A. Santucci: An Educator's Classroom Guide to America's Religious Beliefs and Practices, pp. 91–92, ISBN 1591584094
  29. ^ a b c d e f U. S. Department of the Army: Religious Requirements and Practices, VII 25 Page 3, ISBN 0898756073
  30. ^ Welkos, Robert W.; Sappell, Joel (24 June 1990). "Church Scriptures Get High-Tech Protection". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientologysided062490,0,7493097.story. Retrieved 2008-10-26. 
  31. ^ Playing Dirty:The Secret War Against Beliefs, Omar V. Garrison, 1980
  32. ^ Branch, Craig (1997). "Applied Scientology In Public Schools?". The Watchman Expositor. http://www.watchman.org/sci/appliedscientology.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-11. 
  33. ^ Wakefield, Margery (1991). Understanding Scientology. Coalition of Concerned Citizens. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/wakefield/us.html. 
  34. ^ Book: World Religions in America By Jacob Neusner, page 230
  35. ^ Hubbard, Pain and Sex, HCOB, 26 August 1982
  36. ^ "Scientology Weddings: Frequently Asked Questions". http://www.beliefnet.com/story/204/story_20431_1.html. 
  37. ^ http://www.scientology.org/wis/wiseng/39/39-idx.htm
  38. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/10/31/christian.scientology/index.html
  39. ^ Welkos, Robert W.; Sappell, Joel (29 June 1990). "When the Doctrine Leaves the Church". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientology062990b,0,4204659.story. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  40. ^ Friedman, Roger (3 September 2003). "Will Scientology Celebs Sign 'Spiritual' Contract?". FOX News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,96299,00.html#1. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  41. ^ Touretzky, David S. (1 December 2003). "A Church's Lethal Contract". Razor Magazine. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Scientology/ReleaseForms/archive/razor-article-2003.html. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 

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