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Scotland  (English / Scots)
Alba  (Scottish Gaelic)
Flag Royal Standard
MottoIn My Defens God Me Defend (Scots)
(often shown abbreviated as IN DEFENS)
AnthemNone (de jure)
Flower of Scotland, Scotland the Brave (de facto)
Location of  Scotland  (inset — orange)
in the United Kingdom (camel)

in the European continent  (white)

Capital Edinburgh
55°57′N 3°12′W / 55.95°N 3.2°W / 55.95; -3.2
Largest city Glasgow
Official language(s) English (de facto)1
Recognised regional languages Scottish Gaelic, Scots
Ethnic groups  89% Scottish, 7% English, Irish, Welsh, 4% other[1]
Demonym Scots, Scottish2
Government Devolved Government in a Constitutional monarchy3
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Gordon Brown MP
 -  First Minister (Head of Scottish Government) Alex Salmond MP MSP
Legislature Scottish Parliament
Establishment Early Middle Ages; exact date of establishment unclear or disputed; traditional 843, by King Kenneth MacAlpin[2] 
Area
 -  Total 78,772 km2 
30,414 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.9
Population
 -  2008 estimate 5,168,500 
 -  2001 census 5,062,011 
 -  Density 65/km2 
168.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total US$194 billion[citation needed] 
 -  Per capita US$39,680[citation needed] 
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 -  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .uk4
Calling code 44
Patron saint St Andrew[3]
St Margaret
St Columba
1 Both Scots and Scottish Gaelic are officially recognised as autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages;[4] the Bòrd na Gàidhlig is tasked, under the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, with securing Gaelic as an official language of Scotland, commanding "equal respect" with English.[5]
2 Historically, the use of "Scotch" as an adjective comparable to "Scottish" was commonplace, particularly outwith Scotland. However, the modern use of the term describes only products of Scotland, usually food or drink related.
3 Scotland's head of state is the monarch of the United Kingdom, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952). Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom as well as representation in the UK Parliament. It is also a UK electoral region for the European Parliament. Executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh.
4 Also .eu, as part of the European Union. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.
Scotland (Gaelic: Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, Scotland consists of over 790 islands[9] including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
Edinburgh, the country's capital and second largest city, is one of Europe's largest financial centres.[10][11] Edinburgh was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. .Glasgow, Scotland's largest city, was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation.^ It is one of the best cities in the world!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And by the way, Yes NYC is one f the best cities in the world, You could do J.D. goes to New York, and shoot all the season there....
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In essence, journaling to no one in particular and the whole world all at once.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Scottish waters consist of a large sector[12] of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third largest city in Scotland, the title of Europe's oil capital.[13]
The Kingdom of Scotland was an independent sovereign state before 1 May 1707 when it entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain.[14][15] This union resulted from the Treaty of Union agreed in 1706 and enacted by the twin Acts of Union passed by the Parliaments of both countries, despite widespread protest across Scotland.[16][17] Scotland's legal system continues to be separate from those of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland and Scotland still constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and in private law.[18]
The continued existence of legal, educational and religious institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the Union.[19] .Although Scotland is no longer a separate sovereign state, issues surrounding devolution and independence continue to be debated.^ Glad that you aren't, and saddened that it is no longer going to continue after this final season.
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After the creation of the devolved Scottish Parliament in 1999, the first ever pro-independence Scottish Government was elected in 2007 when the Scottish National Party formed a minority administration.

Contents

Etymology

Scotland is from the Latin Scoti, the term applied to Gaels, people from what is now Scotland and Ireland, both pirates and the Dal Riada who had come from Ireland to reside in the Northwest of what is now Scotland, in contrast, for example, to the Picts.[20] Accordingly, the Late Latin word Scotia (land of the Gaels) was initially used to refer to Ireland.[21] However, by the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to (Gaelic-speaking) Scotland north of the river Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, both derived from the Gaelic Alba.[22] .The use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.^ Most of these middle aged mums with intense stories & lovely words...well.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

History

The founders of Scotland of late medieval legend, Scota with Goídel Glas, voyaging from Egypt, as depicted in a 15th century manuscript of the Scotichronicon of Walter Bower.

Early history

Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land-mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period. It is believed that the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.[23][24]
.Groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago.^ I seem to live my life in projected humor fantasies like it seems you might, so when I first saw scrubs like 2 years ago, you, sir tickled my fancy.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was so inspired I picked up a guitar for the first time in years 3 weeks ago...this is REAL music filling the void left empty for so long.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the Mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation, burial and ritual sites are particularly common and well-preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone.[25]
A four thousand year old tomb with burial treasures was discovered at Forteviot, near Perth, the capital of a Pictish Kingdom in the eighth/ninth century AD. Unrivalled anywhere in Britain, it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark, with possessions including a bronze and gold dagger, a wooden bowl, leather bag, and plant matter, later found to be flowers. This is the first evidence that Iron Age people placed flowers in their graves.[26][27]

Roman influence

Skara Brae, a neolithic settlement, located in the Bay of Skaill, Orkney.
The written protohistory of Scotland began with the arrival of the Roman Empire in southern and central Great Britain, when the Romans occupied what is now England and Wales, administering it as a province called Britannia. Roman invasions and occupations of southern Scotland were a series of brief interludes.
In AD 83–84 the general Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeated the Caledonians at the Battle of Mons Graupius, and Roman forts were briefly set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line (only Cawdor near Inverness is known to have been constructed beyond that line). Three years after the battle the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands.[28]
The Romans erected Hadrian's Wall to control tribes on both sides of the wall,[29] and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the empire, although the army held the Antonine Wall in the Central Lowlands for two short periods—the last of these during the time of Emperor Septimius Severus from 208 until 210.[30]
.The extent of Roman military occupation of any significant part of northern Scotland was limited to a total of about 40 years, although their influence on the southern section of the country occupied by Brythonic tribes such as the Votadini and Damnonii would still have been considerable between the first and the fifth century.^ My boyfriend of two years who I wanted (and still want) to marry broke up with me about a month ago.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That was about two years ago, and the wellcomposed mixture of good music still adds a little more happiness to my senses!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm a grad student in southern California, just finished my first year of clinical psychology PhD program, but would love love to meet him, as crazy as that sounds.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] In the 400s, Gaels from Ireland established the kingdom of Dál Riata.[31][32]
A replica of the Pictish Hilton of Cadboll Stone.

Medieval period

The Kingdom of the Picts (based in Fortriu by the 6th century) was the state which eventually became known as "Alba" or "Scotland". The development of "Pictland", according to the historical model developed by Peter Heather, was a natural response to Roman imperialism.[33] Another view places emphasis on the Battle of Dunnichen, and the reign of Bridei m. Beli (671–693), with another period of consolidation in the reign of Óengus mac Fergusa (732–761).[34]
The Kingdom of the Picts as it was in the early 8th century, when Bede was writing, was largely the same as the kingdom of the Scots in the reign of Alexander (1107–1124). However, by the tenth century, the Pictish kingdom was dominated by what we can recognise as Gaelic culture, and had developed a traditional story of an Irish conquest around the ancestor of the contemporary royal dynasty, Cináed mac Ailpín (Kenneth MacAlpin).[2][35][36]
From a base of territory in eastern Scotland north of the River Forth and south of the River Oykel, the kingdom acquired control of the lands lying to the north and south. By the 12th century, the kings of Alba had added to their territories the English-speaking land in the south-east and attained overlordship of Gaelic-speaking Galloway and Norse-speaking Caithness; by the end of the 13th century, the kingdom had assumed approximately its modern borders. .However, processes of cultural and economic change beginning in the 12th century ensured Scotland looked very different in the later Middle Ages.^ Noticed you hanging out backstage in the NY Magazine photos, however, and everyone looked very spiffy and dapper and loving the night.
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The impetus for this was the reign of King David I and the Davidian Revolution. Feudalism, government reorganisation and the first legally defined towns (called burghs) began in this period. These institutions and the immigration of French and Anglo-French knights and churchmen facilitated a process of cultural osmosis, whereby the culture and language of the low-lying and coastal parts of the kingdom's original territory in the east became, like the newly acquired south-east, English-speaking, while the rest of the country retained the Gaelic language, apart from the Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland, which remained under Norse rule until 1468.[37][38][39]
The Wallace Monument commemorates William Wallace, the 13th-century Scottish hero.
The death of Alexander III in March 1286, followed by the death of his granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, broke the succession line of Scotland's kings. This led to the intervention of Edward I of England, who manipulated this period of confusion to have himself recognised as feudal overlord of Scotland. Edward organised a process to identify the person with the best claim to the vacant crown, which became known as the Great Cause, and this resulted in the enthronement of John Balliol as king. The Scots were resentful of Edward's meddling in their affairs and this relationship quickly broke down. War ensued and King John was deposed by his overlord, who took personal control of Scotland. Andrew Moray and William Wallace initially emerged as the principal leaders of the resistance to English rule in what became known as the Wars of Scottish Independence.
The nature of the struggle changed dramatically when Robert de Brus, Earl of Carrick, killed rival John Comyn on 10th February 1306 at Greyfriars Kirk in Dumfries.[40] He was crowned king (as Robert I) less than seven weeks after the killing. Robert I battled to win Scottish Independence as King for over 20 years, beginning by winning Scotland back from the English invaders piece by piece. Victory at The Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 proved that the Scots had won their kingdom, but it took 14 more years and the production of the world's first documented declaration of independence the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320 to finally win legal recognition by the English.
However war with England was to continue for several decades after the death of Bruce, and a civil war between the Bruce dynasty and their long-term Comyn-Balliol rivals lasted until the middle of the 14th century. Although the Bruce dynasty was successful, David II's lack of an heir allowed his nephew Robert II to come to the throne and establish the Stewart Dynasty.[38][41] The Stewarts ruled Scotland for the remainder of the Middle Ages. The country they ruled experienced greater prosperity from the end of the 14th century through the Scottish Renaissance to the Reformation. This was despite continual warfare with England, the increasing division between Highlands and Lowlands, and a large number of royal minorities.[41][42]

Modern history

David Morier's depiction of the Battle of Culloden.
In 1603, James VI King of Scots inherited the throne of the Kingdom of England, and became King James I of England, and left Edinburgh for London.[43] With the exception of a short period under the Protectorate, Scotland remained a separate state, but there was considerable conflict between the crown and the Covenanters over the form of church government. After the Glorious Revolution, the abolition of episcopacy and the overthrow of the Roman Catholic James VII by William and Mary, Scotland briefly threatened to select a different Protestant monarch from England.[44] On 22 July 1706 the Treaty of Union was agreed between representatives of the Scots Parliament and the Parliament of England and the following year twin Acts of Union were passed by both parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain with effect from 1 May 1707.[15]
The deposed Jacobite Stuart claimants had remained popular in the Highlands and north-east, particularly amongst non-Presbyterians. However, two major Jacobite risings launched in 1715 and 1745 failed to remove the House of Hanover from the British throne. The threat of the Jacobite movement to the United Kingdom and its monarchs effectively ended at the Battle of Culloden, Great Britain's last pitched battle. This defeat paved the way for large-scale removals of the indigenous populations of the Highlands and Islands, known as the Highland Clearances.[15] Scotland had known many famines in the past. As late as the 1690s the country experienced famine which reduced the population of parts of Scotland by at least 15%.[45]
The Scottish Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution made Scotland into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse.[46] Almost 700,000 Scots served in the World War I,[47] mostly on the Western Front,[48] with at least 74,000 losing their lives.[49] In addition to this, between 1830 and 1930, 2 million Scots emigrated to seek better lives elsewhere.[50] After World War II, Scotland experienced an industrial decline which was particularly severe.[51] Only in recent decades has the country enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance. Economic factors which have contributed to this recovery include a resurgent financial services industry, electronics manufacturing, (see Silicon Glen),[52] and the North Sea oil and gas industry.[53]

Government and politics

Scotland

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Politics and government of
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Scotland's head of state is the monarch of the United Kingdom, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952). The title Elizabeth II caused controversy around the time of the queen's coronation, as there had never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland. A legal case, MacCormick v. Lord Advocate (1953 SC 396), was taken to contest the right of the Queen to title herself Elizabeth II within Scotland, arguing that to do so would be a breach of Article 1 of the Treaty of Union.
The case was lost and it was decided that future British monarchs would be numbered according to either their English or Scottish predecessors, whichever number is higher.[55] Hence, any future King James would be styled James VIII (since the last Scottish King James was James VII (also James II of England, etc.)) whilst the next .King Henry would be King Henry IX throughout the UK despite the fact that there have been no Scottish kings of the name.^ Hi Zach My name is Emma and i'm from Sheffield in the UK. As there is more chance of plaiting fog than meeting you, i thought i would take this opportunity to tell you what a huge fan i am and how great i think you are.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have no idea how happy you would make him just to be there.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There's no point of even putting makeup on cuz it would just melt off me.
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Scotland has partial self-government within the United Kingdom as well as representation in the UK Parliament. Executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh. The United Kingdom Parliament retains power over a set list of areas explicitly specified in the Scotland Act 1998 as reserved matters, including, for example, levels of UK taxes, social security, defence, international relations and broadcasting.[56]
The Scottish Parliament has legislative authority for all other areas relating to Scotland, as well as limited power to vary income tax, a power it has yet to exercise. The Prime Minister, in a BBC Scotland interview, has indicated that the Scottish Parliament could be given more tax-raising powers.[57]
The Scottish Parliament can give legislative consent over devolved matters back to Westminster by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered to be more appropriate for a certain issue. The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the United Kingdom. For instance, the costs of a university education, and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK. Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public places.[58]
The debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament Building
The Scottish Parliament is a unicameral legislature comprising 129 Members, 73 of whom represent individual constituencies and are elected on a first past the post system; 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system, serving for a four year period. The Queen appoints one Member of the Scottish Parliament, (MSP), on the nomination of the Parliament, to be First Minister. Other Ministers are also appointed by the Queen on the nomination of the Parliament and together with the First Minister they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of government.[59]
In the 2007 election, the Scottish National Party (SNP), which campaigns for Scottish independence, won the election by a one seat majority. The leader of the SNP, Alex Salmond, was elected First Minister on 16 May 2007 as head of a minority government. The Labour Party became the largest opposition party, with the Conservative Party, the Liberal Democrats, and the Green Party are also represented in the Parliament. Margo MacDonald is the only independent MSP sitting in Parliament.[60]
Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies. The Scotland Office represents the UK government in Scotland on reserved matters and represents Scottish interests within the UK government.[61] The Scotland office is led by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, the current incumbent being Jim Murphy.[56]

Administrative subdivisions

Glasgow City Chambers viewed from George Square
Historical types subdivisions of Scotland include the mormaerdom, stewartry, earldom, burgh, parish, county and regions and districts. The names of these areas are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors.
Modern Scotland is subdivided in various ways depending on the purpose. For local government, there have been 32 council areas since 1996,[62] whose councils are unitary authorities responsible for the provision of all local government services. Community councils are informal organisations that represent specific sub-divisions of a council area.
For the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. For the Parliament of the United Kingdom, there are 59 constituencies. .The Scottish fire brigades and police forces are still based on the system of regions introduced in 1975. For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for the purposes of administration.^ You were still gracious and charming after standing in the heat all day long.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

City status in the United Kingdom is determined by letters patent.[63] .There are six cities in Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, most recently Inverness, and Stirling.^ Most people who have never been there assume this wonderful city is filled with homeless people and hookers ( which it is but there really are some amazing people there).
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]

Scotland within the UK

A policy of devolution had been advocated by the three main UK parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history. The late Labour leader John Smith described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people".[65] The constitutional status of Scotland is nonetheless subject to ongoing debate. In 2007, the Scottish Government established a "National Conversation" on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism, or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. In rejecting the last option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament have proposed a separate Scottish Constitutional Commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies.[66] In August 2009 the SNP proposed a Referendum Bill in order to hold a referendum on independence planned for November 2010, although because of immediate opposition from all other major parties, it was expected to be defeated.[67][68]

Law and criminal justice

Parliament House, in Edinburgh, is the home of the Court of Session.
Scots law has a basis derived from Roman law,[69] combining features of both uncodified civil law, dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis, and common law with medieval sources. The terms of the Treaty of Union with England in 1707 guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales.[70] .Prior to 1611, there were several regional law systems in Scotland, most notably Udal law in Orkney and Shetland, based on old Norse law.^ There are tons of interesting things to do and see in Louisville, KY, some of the most notable are the bourbon industry and Churchill Downs.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the 1800s.[71]
Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: civil, criminal and heraldic. The supreme civil court is the Court of Session, although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom (or before 1 Oct 2009, the House of Lords). The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The Court of Session is housed at Parliament House, in Edinburgh, which was the home of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland with the High Court of Justiciary and the Supreme Court of Appeal currently located at Lawnmarket. The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most of the cases. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country.[72] District courts were introduced in 1975 for minor offences and small claims. The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry.
For many decades the Scots legal system was unique for a period in being the only legal system without a parliament. This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament which legislates for Scotland. Many features within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts: "guilty", "not guilty" and "not proven". Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal with no possibility of retrial.[73] Many laws differ between Scotland and the rest of Britain, whereas many terms differ. Manslaughter, in England and Wales, becomes culpable homicide in Scotland, and arson becomes wilful fireraising. Procedure also differs. .Scots juries consist of fifteen, not twelve jurors as is more common in English-speaking countries.^ I am chilean, is the first country in latin american call Chile, I speak spanish, I hope your understand my bad english.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The civil legal system has however attracted much recent criticism from a senior Scottish Judge who referred to it as being "Victorian" and antiquated.[74]
The Scottish Prison Service (SPS) manages the prisons in Scotland which contain between them over 8,500 prisoners.[75] The Cabinet Secretary for Justice is responsible for the Scottish Prison Service within the Scottish Government.

Geography and natural history

Map of Scotland
The main land of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the northwest coast of Continental Europe. .The total area is 78,772 km2 (30,414 sq mi),[76] comparable to the size of the Czech Republic, making Scotland the 117th largest country in the world.^ WOW what a difference being in a 3rd world country makes.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west.^ Z, My family is from the east coast also!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would also have to agree that East Coast is more like home than West Coast.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I only wish that I could live on the East Coast, the only Shakespeare performances we get here are teenagers in English class.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east.^ I would also have to agree that East Coast is more like home than West Coast.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But yes, East Coast (especially north east) rules!!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The island of Ireland lies only 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the southwestern peninsula of Kintyre;[77] Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroes, 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north.
The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and Kingdom of England[78] and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway.[15] Important exceptions include the Isle of Man, which having been lost to England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups Orkney and Shetland, which were acquired from Norway in 1472;[76] and Berwick-upon-Tweed, lost to England in 1482.
The geographical centre of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch.[79] Rising to 1,344 metres (4,409 ft) above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis, in Lochaber, while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay, flows for a distance of 190 kilometres (118 mi).[80][81]

Geology and geomorphology

Relief map of Scotland
The Quirang on the Island of Skye, part of the Scottish Highlands.
The whole of Scotland was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation. From a geological perspective the country has three main sub-divisions.

Highlands and islands

The Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stonehaven. This part of Scotland largely comprises ancient rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrian which were uplifted during the later Caledonian Orogeny. It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more recent age, the remnants of which have formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and Skye Cuillins.
A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray Firth coast. The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles are found here. Scotland has over 790 islands, divided into four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides. There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness. Some parts of the coastline consist of machair, a low lying dune pasture land.

Central lowlands

The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. .Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolution are to be found.^ Scrubs rocks, and will so missed by so many of us, even if we don't write on here that often, I'd think to read all of these would drive you crazy, so this is my own blog.
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This area has also experienced intense volcanism, Arthur’s Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once much larger volcano. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view.

Southern uplands

The Southern Uplands are a range of hills almost 200 kilometres (124 mi) long, interspersed with broad valleys. They lie south of a second fault line (the Southern Uplands fault) that runs from Girvan to Dunbar.[82][83][84][85] .The geological foundations largely comprise Silurian deposits laid down some 4–500 million years ago.^ I spent some time there a few years ago for a Pitchfest.
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The high point of the Southern Uplands is Merrick with an elevation of 843 m (2,766 ft).[14][86][87][88]
The Southern Uplands is home to the UK's highest village, Wanlockhead (430 m/1,411 ft above sea level).[85]

Climate

Tiree, one of the sunniest locations in Scotland.
The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic, and tends to be very changeable. It is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, and as such has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes, for example Labrador, Canada, Moscow, or the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the coldest ever UK temperature of −27.2 °C (−16.96 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on 11 February 1895.[89] Winter maximums average 6 °C (42.8 °F) in the lowlands, with summer maximums averaging 18 °C (64.4 °F). The highest temperature recorded was 32.9 °C (91.22 °F) at Greycrook, Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003.[90]
In general, the west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea. Tiree, in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had 300 days of sunshine in 1975. Rainfall varies widely across Scotland. The western highlands of Scotland are the wettest place, with annual rainfall exceeding 3,000 mm (118.1 in).[90] .In comparison, much of lowland Scotland receives less than 800 mm (31.5 in) annually.^ I live on the east coast as well, I like to think that its much less hectic here than in california.
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[90] Heavy snowfall is not common in the lowlands, but becomes more common with altitude. Braemar experiences an average of 59 snow days per year,[91] while coastal areas have an average of fewer than 10 days.[90]

Flora and fauna

.Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the Lynx, Brown Bear, Wolf, Elk and Walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times.^ NOW I know adorable isn't what you want to hear but every time I see you I want to give you a BIG 'OLE "BROWN BEAR" HUG lol.
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There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as Gannets.[92] The Golden Eagle is something of a national icon.
Twinflower (Linnaea borealis), a species of the Strathspey pinewoods
On the high mountain tops species including Ptarmigan, Mountain Hare and Stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months.[93] Remnants of the native Scots Pine forest exist[94] and within these areas the Scottish Crossbill, Britain's only endemic bird, can be found alongside Capercaillie, Wildcat, Red Squirrel and Pine Marten.[95][96] .In recent years various animals have been re-introduced, including the White-tailed Sea Eagle in 1975, the Red Kite in the 1980s,[97][98] and more recently there have been experimental projects involving the Beaver and Wild Boar.^ So while you're in NYC will you be starting any projects there like a basket weaving class, or mural painting, or rollerderby...
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[99][100]
The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland and moorland and tundra species. However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and commercial field sport activities impacts upon the distribution of indigenous plants and animals.[101] The UK's tallest tree is the Stronardron Douglas Fir located in Argyll, and the Fortingall Yew may be 5,000 years old and is probably the oldest living thing in Europe.[102][103][104] Although the number of native vascular plants is low by world standards, Scotland's substantial bryophyte flora is of global importance.[105][106]

Economy and infrastructure

A drilling rig located in the North Sea
Scotland has a western style open mixed economy which is closely linked with that of the rest of Europe and the wider world. Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by the shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries. .Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north east of Scotland.^ But yes, East Coast (especially north east) rules!!!
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De-industrialisation during the 1970s and 1980s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a more service-oriented economy. Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland and the sixth largest financial centre in Europe in terms of funds under management, behind London, Paris, Frankfurt, Zurich and Amsterdam,[107] with many large finance firms based there, including: Lloyds Banking Group (owners of the Halifax Bank of Scotland); the Government owned Royal Bank of Scotland and Standard Life.
Pacific Quay on the River Clyde, an example of the regeneration of Glasgow and the diversifying Scottish economy
In 2005, total Scottish exports (excluding intra-UK trade) were provisionally estimated to be £17.5 billion, of which 70% (£12.2 billion) were attributable to manufacturing.[108] Scotland's primary exports include whisky, electronics and financial services. The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France and Spain constitute the country's major export markets.[108] In 2006, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Scotland (excluding oil and gas production from 'Scottish' waters) was just over £86 billion, giving a per capita GDP of £16,900.[109][110]
Tourism is widely recognised as a key contributor to the Scottish economy. A briefing published in 2002 by the Scottish Parliament Information Centre, (SPICe), for the Scottish Parliament's Enterprise and Life Long Learning Committee, stated that tourism accounted for up to 5% of GDP and 7.5% of employment.[111]
As of May 2009 the unemployment rate in Scotland stood at 6.6%— slightly lower than the UK average and lower than that of the majority of EU countries.[112]
.The most recent government figures (for 2006/7) suggest that Scotland would be in budget surplus to the tune of more than £800m if it received its geographical share of North Sea revenues.^ I would also have to agree that East Coast is more like home than West Coast.
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^ Nothing would give me more pleasure than to have the chance to work on one of your productions.
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^ As only a small fishy in a big big sea I can do no more than thank you for the laughter and wish you the best of everything for the filming.
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[113] The net fiscal balance, which is the budget balance plus capital investment, reported a deficit of £2.7 billion (2.1% of GDP) including Scotland's full geographical share of North Sea revenue, or a £10.2bn deficit if the North Sea share is excluded.[114]

Currency

Although the Bank of England is the central bank for the UK, three Scottish clearing banks still issue their own Sterling banknotes: the Bank of Scotland; the Royal Bank of Scotland; and the Clydesdale Bank. The current value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation is £1.5 billion.[115]

Transport

A Loganair Twin Otter at Barra Airport, one of only two airports worldwide using a beach runway for scheduled services
Scotland has five main international airports (Glasgow International, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Glasgow Prestwick and Inverness) which together serve 150 international destinations with a wide variety of scheduled and chartered flights.[116] BAA operates three airports, (Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Glasgow International), and Highland and Islands Airports operates 11 regional airports, (including Inverness), which serve the more remote locations of Scotland.[117] Infratil operates Glasgow Prestwick.
The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland. The rest of the road network is managed by the Scottish local authorities in each of their areas.
Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and island communities. These services are mostly run by Caledonian MacBrayne, but some are operated by local councils. Other ferry routes, served by multiple companies, connect to Northern Ireland, Belgium, Norway, the Faroe Islands and also Iceland.
Network Rail Infrastructure Limited owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while the Scottish Government maintains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.[118] Scotland’s rail network has around 340 railway stations and 3,000 kilometres of track with over 62 million passenger journeys made each year.[119]
Scotland's rail network is managed by Transport Scotland.[120] .The East Coast and West Coast Main Railway lines and the Cross Country Line connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England.^ I would also have to agree that East Coast is more like home than West Coast.
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^ East Coast is the coolest place ever, I especially love New England.
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Domestic rail services within Scotland are operated by First ScotRail. Furthermore in Glasgow there is a small integrated subway system which has been in existence since 1896. .There are currently 15 stations and there is a daily ridership of just under 40,000. There are plans to extend the subway system in time for the 2014 Commonwealth Games.^ Just wanted to let you know that Scrubs makes me laugh every time I watch it - twice daily at 9pm in my time zone (mountain - the forgotten time zone).
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The East Coast Main Line includes that section of the network which crosses the Firth of Forth via the Forth Bridge. Completed in 1890, this cantilever bridge has been described as "the one internationally recognised Scottish landmark".[121]

Demography

Bi-lingual road signs are becoming increasingly common throughout the Scottish Highlands.
Edinburgh, Scotland's capital and second-largest city
The population of Scotland in the 2001 census was 5,062,011. This has risen to 5,168,500 according to June 2008 estimates.[122] .This would make Scotland the 112th largest country by population if it were a sovereign state.^ Everytime we stopped, your father would check to make sure that the people had seen Garden State.
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^ That would make SCRUBS the best Sitcom ever made (and finished within reasonable time) in the United States history.
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Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland it is not the largest city. With a population of just over 584,000 this honour falls to Glasgow. Indeed, the Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1.2 million, is home to nearly a quarter of Scotland's population.[123][124]
The Central Belt is where most of the main towns and cities are located. .Glasgow is to the west, while Edinburgh and Dundee lie on the east coast.^ I would also have to agree that East Coast is more like home than West Coast.
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.Scotland's only major city outside the Central Belt is Aberdeen, on the east coast to the north.^ I only wish that I could live on the East Coast, the only Shakespeare performances we get here are teenagers in English class.
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^ But yes, East Coast (especially north east) rules!!!
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The Highlands are sparsely populated, although the city of Inverness has experienced rapid growth in recent years.
.In general only the more accessible and larger islands retain human populations, and fewer than 90 are currently inhabited.^ You've more than proved your value as an actor, writer, director, and artist and I can only say that I will watch your career with great interest.
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^ As only a small fishy in a big big sea I can do no more than thank you for the laughter and wish you the best of everything for the filming.
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The Southern Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture and forestry.[125][126] Because of housing problems in Glasgow and Edinburgh, five new towns were created between 1947 and 1966. They are East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Livingston, Cumbernauld, and Irvine.[127]
Because of immigration since World War II, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee have small South Asian communities.[128] .Since the recent Enlargement of the European Union there has been an increased number of people from Central and Eastern Europe moving to Scotland, and it is estimated that between 40,000 and 50,000 Poles are now living in the country.^ And it makes me a little less terrified to be moving across the country to live there....
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^ NY to visit a friend so much to live there i watch scrubs in france new from 2006...so im now hypnotized by all characters..simply funny...
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^ I live in Hawaii now and am moving to Taiwan next year so I cannot check out the shows in New York.
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[129] As of 2001, there are 16,310 ethnic Chinese resident in Scotland.[130] The ethnic groups within Scotland are as follows: White, 97.99%; South Asian, 1.09%; Black, 0.16%; Mixed, 0.25%; Chinese, 0.32% and Other, 0.19%.
Scotland has three officially recognised languages: English, Scots and Scottish Gaelic. Almost all Scots speak Scottish Standard English, and in 1996 the General Register Office for Scotland estimated that 30% of the population are fluent in Scots.[131] Gaelic is mostly spoken in the Western Isles, where a large number of people still speak it; however, nationally its use is confined to just 1% of the population.[132] The number of Gaelic speakers in Scotland dropped from 250,000 – 7% of the population – in 1881 to 60,000 today.[133]
.There are many more people with Scottish ancestry living abroad than the total population of Scotland.^ I miss the Delacorte on a summer day, sitting in line and talking to people whose lives were far more interesting than mine.
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^ Dear Zach, Considering how many comments you get, I'd be more than surprised if you read this but what the hell.
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^ And there are many more kind things we want to say to you, but there isn't enough space.
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In the 2000 Census, 9.2 million Americans self-reported some kind of Scottish descent.[134] .Ulster's Protestant population is mainly of lowland Scottish descent,[135] and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million descendants of the Scots-Irish migration now living in the U.S.[136][137] In Canada, the Scottish-Canadian community accounts for 4.7 million people.^ I miss the Delacorte on a summer day, sitting in line and talking to people whose lives were far more interesting than mine.
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^ As an adult, I use way more stamps than I ever did in the 22 years before now.
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^ CRAZed fans in your eyes huh.but im not i assure you.hmmm..to tell you more, i live in sacramento CA,[[ever been there,,what am i saying.
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[138] About 20% of the original European settler population of New Zealand came from Scotland.[139]

Education

The Scottish education system has always remained distinct from education in the rest of United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education.[140] Scotland was the first country since Sparta in classical Greece to implement a system of general public education.[141] Schooling was made compulsory for the first time in Scotland with the Education Act of 1496, then, in 1561, the Church of Scotland set out a national programme for spiritual reform, including a school in every parish. Education continued to be a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education Act (1872).[142]
The "Curriculum for Excellence" provides the curricular framework for children and young people from age 3 to 18.[143] All 3- and 4-year-old children in Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place. .Formal primary education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years (P1–P7); Today, children in Scotland sit Standard Grade, or more recently Intermediate exams at approximately 15 or 16. The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Access, Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher exams.^ My fandom (don't think that's a word) was increased even more recently when The Last Kiss and Garden State were both on tv.
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^ I don't know if you are familiar with **MAKE A WISH FOUNDATION** but the age cut off is 18 years old.
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^ S: i know that probably not all of my words will be correct, cause i am from austria and 15 years old ^^ :) .
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A small number of students at certain private, independent schools may follow the English system and study towards GCSEs and A and AS-Levels instead.[144]
There are 14 Scottish universities, some of which are amongst the oldest in the world.[145][146] These include the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Edinburgh, the University of Aberdeen and the University of Dundee - many of which are ranked amongst the best in the UK.[147][148] The country produces 1% of the world's published research with less than 0.1% of the world's population, and higher education institutions account for nine per cent of Scotland's service sector exports.[149][150]

Religion

Iona Abbey an early centre of Scottish Christianity
Just over two-thirds (67%) of the Scottish population reported having a religion in 2001 with Christianity representing all but 2% of these.[151] 28% of the population reported having no religious adherence.
Since the Scottish Reformation of 1560, the national church (the Church of Scotland, also known as The Kirk) has been Protestant and Reformed in theology. Since 1689 it has had a Presbyterian system of church government, and enjoys independence from the state.[14] About 12% of the population are currently members of the Church of Scotland, with 40% claiming affinity. The Church operates a territorial parish structure, with every community in Scotland having a local congregation. Scotland also has a significant Roman Catholic population, 17% claiming that faith, particularly in the west.[152]
After the Reformation, Roman Catholicism continued in the Highlands and some western islands like Uist and Barra, and was strengthened, during the 19th century by immigration from Ireland. Other Christian denominations in Scotland include the Free Church of Scotland, various other Presbyterian offshoots, and the Scottish Episcopal Church.
Islam is the largest non-Christian religion (estimated at around 40,000, which is less than 0.9% of the population),[153] and there are also significant Jewish, Hindu and Sikh communities, especially in Glasgow.[153] The Samyé Ling monastery near Eskdalemuir, which celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007, includes the largest Buddhist temple in western Europe.[154]

Healthcare

Healthcare in Scotland is mainly provided by NHS Scotland, Scotland's public healthcare system. The service was founded by the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1947 (later repealed by the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1978) that took effect on 5 July 1948 to coincide with the launch of the NHS in England and Wales. However, even prior to 1948, half of Scotland's landmass was already covered by state funded healthcare, provided by the Highlands and Islands Medical Service.[155]
As at September 2009, NHS Scotland employed 168,976 staff including 68,681 nurses and midwives. In addition, there were also 16,256 medical staff (including GP's), 5,002 dental staff (including dental support) and 11,777 allied health profession staff. [156] The Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing is responsible to the Scottish Parliament for the work of NHS Scotland.

Military

Soldiers of the five regular battalions of the Royal Regiment of Scotland
.Although Scotland has a long military tradition that predates the Treaty of Union with England, its armed forces now form part of the British Armed Forces, with the notable exception of the Atholl Highlanders, Europe's only legal private army.^ But now, when people across the Heianzhimen, found that when the army had already defeated the devil Reunited forces, ready to start a horrendous burning expedition, you prepared ?
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In 2006, the infantry regiments of the Scottish Division were amalgamated to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland. Other distinctively Scottish regiments in the British Army include the Scots Guards, the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards and the Scottish Transport Regiment, a Territorial Army Regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps.
Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments, with mixed public feelings.[157][158][159] Between 1960 and 1991, the Holy Loch was a base for the U.S. fleet of Polaris ballistic missile submarines.[160] Today, Her Majesty's Naval Base Clyde, 25 miles (40 km) west of Glasgow, is the base for the four Trident-armed Vanguard class ballistic missile submarines that comprise the UK's nuclear deterrent. Scapa Flow was the major Fleet base for the Royal Navy until 1956.
Three frontline Royal Air Force bases are also located in Scotland. These are RAF Lossiemouth, RAF Kinloss and RAF Leuchars, the last of which is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom.
The only open-air live depleted uranium weapons test range in the British Isles is located near Dundrennan.[161] As a result, over 7,000 radioactive munitions lie on the seabed of the Solway Firth.[162]

Culture

A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe.
Scottish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland Bagpipe, a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. .Bagpipe bands, featuring bagpipes and various types of drums, and showcasing Scottish music styles while creating new ones, have spread throughout the world.^ One guy making music in New Orleans post-Katrina.
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^ And by the way, Yes NYC is one f the best cities in the world, You could do J.D. goes to New York, and shoot all the season there....
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^ I also feel a need to thank you for introducing me to a new style / attitude to music and tastes.
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The clàrsach (harp), fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish instruments, the latter two heavily featured in Scottish country dance bands. Today, there are many successful Scottish bands and individual artists in varying styles.[163]
Scottish literature includes text written in English, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, French, and Latin. The poet and songwriter Robert Burns wrote in the Scots language, although much of his writing is also in English and in a "light" Scots dialect which is more accessible to a wider audience. Similarly, the writings of Sir Walter Scott and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle were internationally successful during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries.[164]
J. M. Barrie introduced the movement known as the "Kailyard school" at the end of the 19th century, which brought elements of fantasy and folklore back into fashion.[165] This tradition has been viewed as a major stumbling block for Scottish literature, as it focused on an idealised, pastoral picture of Scottish culture.[165] .Some modern novelists, such as Irvine Welsh (of Trainspotting fame), write in a distinctly Scottish English that reflects the harsher realities of contemporary life.^ But maybe not, because those two are written with such skill and ease it's like watching real life.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I wish you%u2019re not like that in real life :p Continue your directing and writing%u2026 and of course, acting.
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^ Anyway, my whole life i've never really had 'favourites', like with surveys and such where it said 'favourite actor' or 'favourite show' i'd leave it blank.
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[166] More recently, author J.K. Rowling has become one of the most popular authors in the world (and one of the wealthiest) through her Harry Potter series, which she began writing from a coffee-shop in Edinburgh.
.Scottish theatre has for many years played an important role in Scottish society, from the music hall variety of Sir Harry Lauder and his contemporaries to the more serious plays put on at the Citizens Theatre in Glasgow and many other theatres throughout Scotland.^ I am in many musicals and plays and such.
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^ I have enjoyed acting for several years now, and I have been in many school, community, and some regional theatre shows.
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^ I would be so sad if it stopped playing but even if it doesnt im sure you will be in many more funny movies.
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The national broadcaster is BBC Scotland (BBC Alba in Gaelic), a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It runs two national television stations and the national radio stations, BBC Radio Scotland and BBC Radio nan Gaidheal, amongst others. The main Scottish commercial television station is STV. National newspapers such as the Daily Record, The Herald, and The Scotsman are all produced in Scotland.[167] Important regional dailies include the Evening News in Edinburgh 'The Courier in Dundee in the east, and The Press and Journal serving Aberdeen and the north.[167] Scotland is represented at the Celtic Media Festival, which showcases film and television from the Celtic countries. Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in 1980.[168]
As one of the Celtic nations, Scotland and Scottish culture is represented at interceltic events at home and over the world. Scotland hosts several music festivals including Celtic Connections (Glasgow), and the Hebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway). Festivals celebrating Celtic culture, such as Festival Interceltique de Lorient (Brittany), the Pan Celtic Festival (Ireland), and the National Celtic Festival (Portarlington, Australia), feature elements of Scottish culture such as language, music and dance.[169][170][171][172][173][174][175]

Sport

Sport is an important element in Scottish culture, with the country hosting many of its own national sporting competitions. It enjoys independent representation at many international sporting events including the FIFA World Cup, the Rugby Union World Cup, the Rugby League World Cup, the Cricket World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, but not at the Olympic Games where Scottish athletes are part of the Great Britain team. Scotland has its own national governing bodies, such as the Scottish Football Association (the second oldest national football association in the world)[176] and the Scottish Rugby Union. Variations of football have been played in Scotland for centuries with the earliest reference dating back to 1424.[177] Association football is now the national sport and the Scottish Cup is the world's oldest national trophy.[178]
Scotland (and England) fielded the first international football team. Scottish clubs have been successful in European competitions with Celtic winning the European Cup in 1967, Rangers and Aberdeen winning the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 and 1983 respectively, and Aberdeen also winning the UEFA Super Cup in 1983. The Fife town of St. Andrews is known internationally as the Home of Golf[179] and to many golfers the Old Course, an ancient links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage.[180] .There are many other famous golf courses in Scotland, including Carnoustie, Gleneagles, Muirfield and Royal Troon.^ So most of the women would like to buy the Wholesale Handbag.There are many famous brand handbags in the fashion world.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There aren't many "famous" or "infamous" people out there that I would want to really meet and pick their brains but you are on the top of my list.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games, curling and shinty. Scotland played host to the Commonwealth Games in 1970 and 1986, and will do so again in 2014.

National symbols

The thistle, Scotland's Floral emblem.
The national flag of Scotland, known as the Saltire or St. Andrew's Cross, dates (at least in legend) from the 9th century, and is thus the oldest national flag still in use. Since 1606 the Saltire has also formed part of the design of the Union Flag. There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the thistle, the nation's floral emblem, the 6 April 1320 statement of political independence the Declaration of Arbroath, the textile pattern tartan that often signifies a particular Scottish clan, and the Lion Rampant flag.[181][182][183]
Flower of Scotland is popularly held to be the National Anthem of Scotland, and is played at events such as football or rugby matches involving the Scotland national team. Scotland the Brave is used for the Scottish team at the Commonwealth Games. However, since devolution, more serious discussion of the issue has led to the use of Flower of Scotland being disputed. Other candidates include Highland Cathedral, Scots Wha Hae and A Man's A Man for A' That.[184]
St Andrew's Day, 30 November, is the national day, although Burns' Night tends to be more widely observed. Tartan Day is a recent innovation from Canada. In 2006, the Scottish Parliament passed the St. Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007, designating the day to be an official bank holiday.[185]

See also

References

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  159. ^ "Reprieve for RAF Lossiemouth base" BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 29 July 2007.
  160. ^ "Dunoon and the US Navy" Argyll online. Retrieved 29 July 2007.
  161. ^ "DU shell test-firing resumes" BBC Scotland News, 2001-02-21. Retrieved 2006-09-13.
  162. ^ Depleted Uranium (Shelling) Parliament of the United Kingdom: Science and Technology Committee—Debates 7 February 2001. Hansard. Retrieved on 26 September 2007
  163. ^ "Best Scottish Band of All Time". The List. http://www.list.co.uk/article/2658-belle-sebastian-revealed-as-best-scottish-band-of-all-time/. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  164. ^ Barbara Buchenau. "'Wizards of the West'? How Americans respond to Sir Walter Scott, the 'Wizard of the North'". Goettingen University. http://external.oneonta.edu/cooper/articles/suny/1997suny-buchenau.html. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  165. ^ a b "Scottish Literature". University of Glasgow Faculty of Arts. http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/sesll/ScotLit/bibliography/4thsection.html. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  166. ^ "Contemporary Writers". British Council. http://www.contemporarywriters.com/authors/?p=auth120. Retrieved 2006-12-12. 
  167. ^ a b "Newspapers and National Identity in Scotland" (PDF). IFLA University of Stirling. http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla68/papers/051-127e.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-12. 
  168. ^ "About Us::Celtic Media Festival". Celtic Media Festival website. Celtic Media Festival. 2009. http://www.celticmediafestival.co.uk/4/about_us/. Retrieved 2010-01-26. 
  169. ^ Celtic geographies: old culture, new times. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Routledge. 2002. p. 142. http://books.google.com/books?id=02kVSmK8EwMC&pg=PA142&dq=Scotland+Celtic+nation&cd=4#v=onepage&q=Scotland%20Celtic%20nation&f=false. 
  170. ^ Celtic identity and the British image. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 1999. p. 1–5. ISBN 0 7190 5826 0. http://books.google.com/books?id=Dv0yf-tgCocC&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:%22Murray+Pittock%22&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  171. ^ "Celtic connections:Scotland's premier winter music festival". Celtic connections website. Celtic Connections. 2010. http://www.celticconnections.com/. Retrieved 2010-01-23. 
  172. ^ "'Hebridean Celtic Festival 2010 - the biggest homecoming party of the year". Hebridean Celtic Festival website. Hebridean Celtic Festival. 2009. http://www.hebceltfest.com/. Retrieved 2010-01-23. 
  173. ^ "Site Officiel du Festival Interceltique de Lorient". Festival Interceltique de Lorient website. Festival Interceltique de Lorient. 2009. http://www.festival-interceltique.com/le-monde-des-celtes-et-de-la-celtie.php. Retrieved 2010-01-23. 
  174. ^ "Welcome to the Pan Celtic 2010 Home Page". Pan Celtic Festival 2010 website. Fáilte Ireland. 2010. http://www.panceltic.ie/. Retrieved 2010-01-26. 
  175. ^ "About the Festival". National Celtic Festival website. National Celtic Festival. 2009. http://www.nationalcelticfestival.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=24&Itemid=26. Retrieved 2010-01-23. 
  176. ^ Soccer in South Asia: Empire, Nation, Diaspora. By James Mills, Paul Dimeo: Page 18 - Oldest Football Association is England's FA, then Scotland and third oldest is the Indian FA.
  177. ^ Gerhardt, W.. "The colourful history of a fascinating game. More than 2000 Years of Football". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/en/history/history/0,1283,1,00.html. Retrieved 2006-08-11. 
  178. ^ "Official Site of the Tennents Scottish Cup". The Tennents Scottish Cup. http://www.scottishcup.org/museum.html. Retrieved 2006-12-10. 
  179. ^ Keay (1994) op cit page 839. "In 1834 the Royal and Ancient Golf Club declared St. Andrews 'the Alma Mater of golf'".
  180. ^ Cochrane, Alistair (ed) Science and Golf IV: proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Page 849. Routledge.
  181. ^ "National identity" in M. Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 437–444.
  182. ^ Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. Page 936.
  183. ^ "Symbols of Scotland—Index" Rampant Scotland. Retrieved on 20 September 2007.
  184. ^ "Anthem demand falls on deaf ears". BBC Scotland News. 2004-11-24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/4036123.stm. Retrieved 2006-09-13. 
  185. ^ "Explanatory Notes to St. Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007" Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 22 September 2007.

Further reading

  • Brown, Dauvit, (1999) Anglo-French acculturation and the Irish element in Scottish Identity in Smith, Brendan (ed.), Insular Responses to Medieval European Change, Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–53
  • Brown, Michael (2004) The Wars of Scotland, 1214–1371, Edinburgh University Press., pp. 157–254
  • Devine, T.M [1999] (2000). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000 (New Ed. edition). London:Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023004-1
  • Dumville, David N. (2001). "St Cathróe of Metz and the Hagiography of Exoticism". Irish Hagiography: Saints and Scholars. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 172–176. ISBN 978-1851824861. 
  • Flom, George Tobias. Scandinavian influence on Southern Lowland Scotch. A Contribution to the Study of the Linguistic Relations of English and Scandinavian (Columbia University Press, New York. 1900)
  • Herbert, Maire (2000). "Rí Érenn, Rí Alban, kingship and identity in the ninth and tenth centuries". in Simon Taylor (ed.). Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 63–72. ISBN 1851825169. 
  • MacLeod, Wilson (2004) Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland: c.1200–1650. Oxford University Press.
  • Pope, Robert (ed.), Religion and National Identity: Wales and Scotland, c.1700-2000 (University of Wales Press, 2001)
  • Sharp, L. W. The Expansion of the English Language in Scotland, (Cambridge University Ph.D. thesis, 1927), pp. 102–325;
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh, The Invention of Scotland: Myth and History, Yale, 2008, ISBN 0-300-13686-2

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Scotland is a country forming the northernmost third of Great Britain. An independent kingdom until 1707, it is now a constituent part of United Kingdom with limited powers of self-government.

Sourced

  • From the lone shieling of the misty island
    Mountains divide us, and the waste of seas –
    Yet still the blood is strong, the heart is Highland,
    And we in dreams behold the Hebrides!
    Fair these broad meads, these hoary woods are grand;
    But we are exiles from our fathers’ land.
    • "Canadian Boat Song", an anonymous poem first published in Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine, September 1829, and ostensibly translated from the Gaelic. There has been much debate as to the poem's authorship. [1]
  • From the time of the North Briton of the unprincipled Wilkes, a notion has been entertained that the moral spine in Scotland is more flexible than in England. The truth however is, that an elementary difference exists in the public feelings of the two nations quite as great as in the idioms of their respective dialects. The English are a justice-loving people, according to charter and statute; the Scotch are a wrong-resenting race, according to right and feeling: and the character of liberty among them takes its aspect from that peculiarity.
    • John Galt Ringan Gilhaize (Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1823) vol. 3, p. 313.
  • My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here;
    My heart's in the Highlands a-chasing the deer.
    • Robert Burns, "My Heart's in the Highlands", line 1 (1790)
  • O Caledonia! stern and wild,
    Meet nurse for a poetic child!
    Land of brown heath and shaggy wood,
    Land of the mountain and the flood,
    Land of my sires! what mortal hand
    Can e'er untie the filial band,
    That knits me to thy rugged strand.
  • The rose of all the world is not for me.
    .I want for my part
    Only the little white rose of Scotland
    That smells sharp and sweet - and breaks the heart.
    ^ I have a soft place in my heart for you and if all Jewish boys were like you, maybe I would have married a nice Jewish boy like my mom wanted.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I wanted, with all my heart to pummel you, but my friend claimed celebrities aren't into that kind of thing.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ PPPS my myspace is WWW.MYSPACE.COM/AGENTCMK incase you want to ADD ME BACK YOU LITTLE WENDY'S CUP. wendy's cup?
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Look up Scotland in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

noframe
Flag
noframe
Quick Facts
Capital Edinburgh
Government constitutional monarchy
Currency Pound Sterling (£)
Area 78,782 sq km
Population 5,062,011 (2001)
Language English, Scottish Gaelic, Scots
Religion Church of Scotland 42%, No Religion 28%, Roman Catholic 16%, Other Christian 7%, Islamic 0.8%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (UK plug)
Internet TLD .uk
Time Zone UTC; UTC+1 in summer
Map of Scotland
Map of Scotland
Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) [1] is a country in north-western Europe. Sharing a 60 mile (96 km) long land border with England to the south, and separated from Northern Ireland by the North Channel of the Irish Sea, Scotland is surrounded by the bracing waters of the North Sea to the east, and the North Atlantic Ocean to the west and north. The capital is Edinburgh; the largest city is Glasgow. It is the most politically independent of the four home nations of the United Kingdom, boasting its own legal and educational systems, and since 1999, has had its own separately elected devolved government which deals with exclusively Scottish affairs.
Apart from these and several other cities, the popular image of Scotland for most travellers, of course, centres on the "Highlands and Islands" - a wonderfully diverse land, Scotland has much to offer virtually any traveller.

Regions

Administratively, Scotland has been divided into a large number of traditional counties and (currently) 32 modern unitary authorities. These are of only limited use to the traveller, however, and an alternative regionalisation--based on culture and geography--is far more practical (from south to north):
The Borders - the eastern two-thirds of the districts north of the border with England, dotted with ruined abbeys and battlefields.
The South West - home of Rabbie Burns and the Solway Coast ("Scotland's Riviera")
The Central Belt - Scotland's most urbanised region around and between the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh
The Highlands - Scotland's spectacular, mountainous north-west, encompassing the Great Glen and Loch Ness and John o'Groats
North East Scotland - the centre of two of Scotland's most important industries, oil and whisky, with the Grampian mountains at its heart.
The Hebrides, - the many islands off the north-west Scottish coast
The Orkney Islands - immediately to the north of the Scottish mainland
The Shetland Islands - north of Orkney

Cities

Scotland has six cities. .Glasgow is the largest with a population of approximately 620,000 people (more than two million in the metro area) while the capital, Edinburgh, has around 450,000, with Aberdeen next at about 220,000 inhabitants.^ I miss the Delacorte on a summer day, sitting in line and talking to people whose lives were far more interesting than mine.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know absolutley nothing about acting but even I can see that you are more than talented...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That was about two years ago, and the wellcomposed mixture of good music still adds a little more happiness to my senses!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Edinburgh (Gaelic: Dùn Èideann) - the capital of Scotland, home to the World's largest Arts Festival every August and the First European City of Literature.^ My boss was supposed to get home in time for us to drive to Newark and take PATH into the city (it was my first live in nanny goat job).
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You should take August off and head over to Edinburgh for the Festival....
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Most of the city centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Aberdeen (Gaelic: Obar Dheathain) - Scotland's third largest city, the Oil & Gas Capital of Europe, home to two universities
  • Dumfries (Gaelic: Dùn Phris) - main town in the southern Scotland/Borders area
  • Dundee (Gaelic: Dùn Dè) - vibrant city with high population of students and one of the most distinct (incomprehensible) accents you'll hear
  • Glasgow (Gaelic: Glaschu) - Scotland's largest city and at one time the largest ship building industry in the world.
  • Inverness (Gaelic: Inbhir Nis) - fast growing capital of the Highlands
  • Stirling (Gaelic: Sruighlea) - a royal fortress city with a vibrant modern outlook.^ It is one of the best cities in the world!
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You'll learn that one day.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I'll leave you with my NY celebrity story.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It was granted city status in 2002

Other destinations

Scotland has extensive wilderness areas, some of which have been proclaimed as National Parks:
Many world-class scenic areas are not (yet) protected as National Parks, though some have other designations such as National Scenic Areas or Forest Parks. The Lochaber region contains the impressive Glencoe as well as Scotland's highest mountain, Ben Nevis. The Torridon and Wester Ross areas are also popular mountaineering destinations. .Most popular of all with climbers are the Black Cuillin of Skye - but there's plenty of scope for walkers here as well.^ You can tell everyone is having fun and all, I wish you guys keep doing that, so that we LOL here as well.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heyy- I've never commented on here before, but there is always a first for everything, well unless that first ends in a tie, but anyway...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has many historic Islands. .Islay is known as the Queen of Hebrides, has eight whisky distilleries, and you can still see today the parliament site of the Clan Donald from 1200 AD, when the Clan Donald ruled the western seaboard of Scotland.^ I signed in, i checked to see if you had updated your site seeing as you were due for a blog.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I still keep reading hoping to see a response from you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Isle of Arran is also a fantastic destination as well.
There are nice little villages such as Inverkip, John O' Groats, Bettyhill and Langbank, all which have nice beaches. There are good places to fish down at a couple of these villages as well.
Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
Another view of Scottish Highlands
Another view of Scottish Highlands
A person from Scotland is called a Scot, or described as Scottish. The word "Scotch" applies only to things - for example, whisky, Scotch eggs, Scotch beef and Scotch Corner (a road junction leading to Scotland). Try not to refer to Scotland as England, or to Scottish as English - it is very likely to cause offense.

History

Scotland has a rich cultural history much of which is preserved in historic buildings throughout the country. Prehistoric settlements can be traced back to 9600 BC, as well as the famous standing stones in Lewis and Orkney. The Romans, fronted by Julius Caesar in 55 BC, made initial incursions but finally invaded Britain in 43AD, moving into the southern half of Scotland, but not occupying the country due to the fierce resistance efforts of the native Caledonian tribes. .Today, Hadrian's Wall to the south of the Scottish-English border is perceived by some as one of the most famous Roman remains in the world, arguably on a par with the 8-foot-arch on Naxos.^ So most of the women would like to buy the Wholesale Handbag.There are many famous brand handbags in the fashion world.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when some one is famous, suddenly it seems like such a horrible thing to do.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After the withdrawal of the machinery of the Roman Empire around AD 411, the so-called Dark Ages followed. .However, since the Roman occupation affected mostly just the south of the island of Britain, Scotland was unaffected as it had been even at the great battle at Mons Graupius.^ What you need to get your hands on is the NYC Summer guide (Great things to do all over NYC) and the best yet, the NYC Happy Hours (Mon - Sun) since you're just relaxing and taking time for fun, friends and family.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because the grip of Roman hegemony had now loosened, all sorts of invaders now saw the island as open season.^ My next step is to buy all the seasons on DVD. There are literally no other quality comedies on the air right now.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now I'm hooked and just today, I ordered all the previous seasons from Netflix.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I saw all the Scrubs seasons, and you are fantastic!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

So the Angles arrived on the east coast around North Berwick. .It has to be said that the natives here fared rather better than their southern counterparts did at the hands of the Saxons, who, for example, sacked the Isle of Wight, such that not a native male Briton was left alive.^ I'm a native of Brooklyn, and I agree with you that there is no place better than the city.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well, enjoy and when you get time off at Christmas, rather than be cold, come south to Australia and date yourself silly here.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Me last year = girl in blue dress who said hello and shook your hand while the Band from TV was playing.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The early history of the new nation is marked with many conflicts with the English, and also the Vikings who invaded the north of Scotland. Today the Shetland Islands retain a strong Viking cultural identity. Wars with the English would dominate Scottish history for hundreds of years until the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when the Scottish King, James VI, inherited the English throne after the death of Queen Elizabeth I. In 1707, the Parliaments of Scotland and England were united, creating Great Britain.
From the 18th century, the Scottish enlightenment saw vast industrial expansion, and the rise of the city of Glasgow as a major trading port and eventually "Second City" of the British Empire. Universities flourished, and many of the great inventions of the world including television, the telephone and penicillin were invented by Scots. 20th century Scotland saw increasing calls for autonomy from London, and a Scottish Parliament was again established in Edinburgh.
Scotland's history and geography is reflected in the wide range of visitor attractions available, from castles and cathedrals, to stunning countryside, and more modern attractions showcasing Scottish cultural achievements.

Culture

Scotland has rich and strong culture, one of which its people are fiercely proud. Scotland has a great tradition of festivals, art and literature. It has produced some of the greatest literary personalities, actors and writers of the world. Irvine Welsh has made a heavy impact on the international literary scene and the prestigious Edinburgh Festival is a hotspot on international arts calendars.
Scotland has also produced some of the greatest scientists of the world including the inventors of the television, telephone and penicillin. It was Scottish scientists who created Dolly, the cloned sheep. Scotland is known the world over for some of its seafood, vegetables and more specifically its beef - Aberdeen Angus.
.Glasgow, the largest city in Scotland, is home to a fantastic music scene; must-visits include King Tut's Wah Wah Hut (where Oasis were spotted and signed for their first record deal) and the Barrowlands Ballroom, a Glasgow institution.^ My boss was supposed to get home in time for us to drive to Newark and take PATH into the city (it was my first live in nanny goat job).
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My first major music obsession was Billy Joel....I remember my brother giving me the first record I ever owned and it was 52nd Street.
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Get in

Immigration and visa requirements

There are no border controls when travelling within the United Kingdom including the land border with England. Scotland has the same immigration and visa requirements as the rest of the United Kingdom.
  • Non-EU graduates from a Scottish [2] university may apply to remain in Scotland to live and work under the Scottish Government Fresh Talent Scheme for up to two years.

By plane

.Until recently, there were few direct international services to Scotland, meaning many travellers would have to fly into London or Manchester and then transfer to a Scottish airport on a UK domestic flight.^ So most of the women would like to buy the Wholesale Handbag.There are many famous brand handbags in the fashion world.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it would mean the world to me if you could give me and any other young person hoping to act/direct some tips on how to start a career off..
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MANY fans out there, so much to do and such, there would be a small chance for that.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, there are now a growing number of European and long haul destinations served by the five international airports in Scotland:
.
  • Aberdeen Airport, 8 miles north west of the city, has direct flights from Alicante, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Bergen, Copenhagen, Dublin, Esbjerg, Faro, Groningen, Kristiansand, Malaga, Murcia, Oslo, Palma, Paphos, Paris, Stavanger and Tenerife.
  • Edinburgh Airport, 10 miles west of the city, has direct flights from Alicante, Amsterdam, Avignon, Barcelona, Bergen, Bergerac, Bratislava, Bremen, Brussels, Cologne, Copenhagen, Cork, Dortmund, Dublin, Faro, Frankfurt, Galway, Gdansk, Geneva, Hamburg, Helsinki, Ibiza, Katowice, Krakow, Madrid, Mahon, Malaga, Marseille, Milan, Munich, Murcia, New York, Nice, Oslo, Palma de Mallorca, Paris, Pisa, Poznan, Prague, Pula, Rennes, Rome, Shannon, Sharm el Sheikh, Stockholm, Szczecin, Tenerife, Toronto, Toulouse, Warsaw and Zurich.
  • Glasgow International Airport, 8 miles west of the city, has direct flights from Alicante, Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Belfast, Berlin, Bourgas, Calgary, Copenhagen, Dominican Republic, Dubai, Dublin, Faro, Geneva, Gran Canaria, Halifax, Heraklion, Las Vegas, Madeira, Malta, New York (Newark), Nice, Orlando, Ottawa, Palma de Mallorca, Paris, Philadelphia, Prague, Pula, Reykjavík, Sharm el Sheikh, Tenerife, Toronto and Vancouver.
  • Glasgow Prestwick International Airport, situated 30 miles south west of Glasgow, is a hub of budget airline Ryanair [3] with domestic flights to London Stansted and Bournemouth; and international flights to Brussels, Bergamo, Budapest, Cork, Dublin, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Girona, Gothenburg, Hamburg, Kaunas, Krakow, Milan, Murcia, Oslo (Torp), Paris, Pisa, Reus, Riga, Rome, Shannon, Stockholm, Warsaw and Wroclaw.^ New York is definitely a PARTY CITY and there's always something going on!!
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And by the way, Yes NYC is one f the best cities in the world, You could do J.D. goes to New York, and shoot all the season there....
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Born in New York, raised in South Florida, so I'm lovin' your praise for my home coast.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Be aware that there is an additional train journey of up to an hour from this airport into Glasgow city centre.^ I miss sitting on the Path train, with an hour of reading time planned into every day.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Aer Arann [4] flys twice weekly from Donegal International Airport into Prestwick.
  • Inverness Airport, situated 7 miles north east of the city.
There are many UK domestic flights operating to Scotland including:
  • BMI [5] flights from London Heathrow, Manchester, Leeds-Bradford, and Norwich
  • BMIbaby [6] flights from Birmingham, Cardiff and Nottingham East Midlands.
  • British Airways [7] flights from London (Heathrow, Gatwick and City)
  • Eastern Airways [8] flights from Birmingham, Durham Tees Valley, Humberside, Leeds-Bradford, Manchester, Newcastle, Norwich, Nottingham East Midlands, and Southampton.
  • Easyjet [9] flights from London Gatwick, London Luton, London Stansted, Bristol, and Belfast.
  • Flybe [10] flights from Belfast, Birmingham, Exeter, Jersey, Manchester, Newquay, Norwich and Southmapton.
  • Ryanair [11] flights from Bournemouth, Liverpool, and London Stansted.
  • Scotairways [12] flights from London City.
.No airport in Scotland, except Glasgow Prestwick, is connected to the rail network, meaning travellers have to use a dedicated bus service to the city centre, or take a taxi.^ I was psycho about you adding me on a stupid webpage I hardly use except for my two friends in Jersey, a few in Scotland.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, a tram line is currently under construction between Edinburgh Airport and Edinburgh city centre, and is expected to be operational by 2011. Passengers arriving at and departing from Prestwick may use their boarding pass to claim a 50% discount on single train tickets between the airport and any station in Scotland.[13]

By train

For those unused to the vagaries of the UK rail network, Wikitravel has a useful guide to Rail travel in the UK.
There are five train operators linking Scotland with England:
.
For further information regarding UK rail travel consult National Rail [19].
For international travellers, Scottish Rail passes [20] are available, as are BritRail passes [21].

By car

The main road linking Scotland and England is the M74 motorway which runs from south of Glasgow to Carlisle. The A1 road links Edinburgh and the North East of England; this road is single carriageway in some areas, however, and not considered to be the best route into Scotland. Hence the placename Scotch Corner on the A1 where traffic heading for most Scottish destinations turn to cross the Pennine hills to enter Scotland via the M74.

By bus

Bus and coach services are the cheapest way to get to Scotland, but are probably also the longest and the least comfortable. National Express [22] is the main operator, with services from Glasgow's Buchanan Street Station, for example, to most other major UK cities.

Get around

"PlanaJourney" [27] is a free integrated public transport journey planner that covers much of the internal Scottish public transport network. It includes bus, rail, Glasgow underground, Scottish ferries and flights. It can assist with planning journeys throughout Scotland.

By plane

Scotland is a small country, making air travel uneconomical on most short routes. Air travel is, however, the fastest way to reach many Scottish West Coast islands. Be warned, as the planes used are small Saab 340s & Twin Otters, flights are often very turbulent, as Scotland is notorious for rain, wind and storms.
.Loganair[28] operates the majority of Scotland's internal flights, under a franchise to FlyBe[29] through whose website you can book flights (note that until July 2008 Loganair had been a franchisee of British Airways).^ And urgh, i envy you, i'm only getting vacation on august, i have college exams until end of july.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through Jump, Little Children's website, i recently found out that you too are a JLC fan.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

FlyBe offer a number of connections to UK and European airports from Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Inverness and Glasgow.
The Scottish Government own Highlands and Islands Airports which operates the remote Scottish airports. Flights are available from Glasgow International Airport to Campbeltown, Islay, Stornoway, Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands. Flights from Edinburgh Airport also operate to Inverness, Wick, Stornoway, and the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Barra's tiny airport is unique in Britain in that the runway is a beach.
The Orkneys also have the Airports Westray and Papa Westray which hold the world record for the shortest Scheduled Commercial Flight, taking a whole 2 minutes!
Westray Airport is on Aikerness, at the north of the Orkney island of Westray. Papa Westray Airport lies to the north of Holland on the west side of the Orkney island of Papa Westray.
It should be noted that flights can be disrupted or cancelled due to weather conditions.
Flights can be expensive, although Loganair operated flights to the islands are sometimes included in FlyBe sales. Flight time from Glasgow to Barra is 1hr, and From Glasgow To the Shetland Islands lasts 2hrs & 30 Mins.
Loch Lomond Seaplanes also operate from Glasgow Science Centre with flghts to Loch Lomond, Tobermory and Oban. Flights however are expensive. A return flight to Oban for example costs £129. The plane can also be chartered, but to do so generally costs in excess of £1000.

By train

First ScotRail [30] operates the majority of the Scottish rail network, which covers most of the country. .A few Inter-City services operate within Scotland (however these may start or terminate in England are provided by East Coast, Virgin Trains, TransPennine Express and CrossCountry Trains.^ East Coast is the coolest place ever, I especially love New England.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The main rail terminals are:
  • Aberdeen Station- with trains to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Inverness. Also connections for the East Coast and London
  • Edinburgh Waverley Station- with trains to Aberdeen, Fife, Glasgow Queen Street Station, Inverness, Perth and Stirling. Also connections for the East Coast and London
  • Glasgow Queen Street Station with trains to Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Cumbernauld, Fort William, Mallaig, Perth and Stirling. For trains to Inverness, change at Perth.
  • Glasgow Central Station for trains to South West Scotland including Ayr, Kilmarnock and Stranraer; West Scotland including Dumbarton and Greenock; and Lanarkshire including Hamilton and Lanark. Also connections for the West Coast and London
  • Inverness Station for trains to Wick and Kyle of Lochalsh. Also connections for the East Coast and London
The train services to Fort William and Mallaig from Glasgow Queen Street take in some wonderful views of the Scottish landscape, and footage from the line was used in the Harry Potter movies.
Note there are no train services to the Scottish Borders, although there are plans to re-open a former railway line to the area, running from Edinburgh.
Generally train fares in Scotland are comparable to the rest of the UK, and are more expensive than most European countries. Typical off-peak fare between Glasgow and Edinburgh is £10 return, and between Edinburgh and Aberdeen £40 return. However, for longer journeys advance purchase tickets offer competitive fares. The First ScotRail [31] website has details of the Central Scotland Rover and Highland Rover tickets, which offer good value for extensive travel within the areas covered by the pass. It is best to avoid peak time services between Glasgow and Edinburgh, as they are often overcrowded. .Do take care also on some of the rural lines, the far north line (Inverness to Wick) and the Kyle of Lochalsh line (Inverness to Kyle of Lochalsh) have only around 3 to 4 return journeys Monday to Saturday and 1 on a Sunday.^ A very scary war, or taking care of people...including the vets who return from that God-awful war.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Take care man, maybe some day I'll be lucky enough to cross paths with you or anyone like you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only do you take care to do quality work for your own fans but you turn them on to other artist's work as well.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So take due care when travelling along these lines, it could be a while to wait for the next one.^ So, thanks for the cool blog and I can't wait to read the next one!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would be so wonderful if you could include one of Jay's songs in your next movie/project!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sadly enough, scrubs is one of the only sources of humor for me these days --cant wait for the new season!!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By road

.Although Scotland is not a big country, travel can take significantly longer than you may expect depending on where you're from.^ You're a big influence y'see.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is not a drunken request from you, and we don't expect you to take any clothes off.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm so glad to hear that you're taking the bike route!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With the exception of motorways and dual carriageways where travel is fast and easy, road conditions in Scotland are generally below Western European standards. Beware of defects such as potholes, ruts, cracks and patches in both urban and rural roads. Many rural roads follow old horse trails and have an overabundance of bends and twists. In remote areas many roads are single track. Passing places are provided at intervals. These are marked by diamond shaped white signs labeled "Passing Place". Sometimes these are incorrectly installed as a square sign. On older less used single track roads black and white striped poles may still be used as markers. .If faster traffic comes up behind you it is the rule that you should pull into a passing place and allow the other vehicle to pass.^ Anyway, I was just up in NYC ( I love it just as much if not more than you) not too long ago, I wish I could've run into you...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Come on in Zach make yourself nice and comfortable, relax have a seat this will be an easy intrview, Zach besides being a gifted actor what other hobbies do you have?
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zack, If you've taken the summer off, come on up to Toronto to hang out.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When two vehicles approach each other on a single track road, experienced drivers will both adjust their speed so as to reach the passing place at the same time and pass each other slowly, avoiding the need for either vehicle to come to a stop.^ This is the first time in a long time that I have been single in the summer, and I likewise have been greatly enjoying delving into the arts and many other summertime delights.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thanks for taking the time to come out to your cousins place for such a great cause.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You should pull in to the passing place on your left or if the passing place is on the right hand side, stop opposite it so that the oncoming car can pull into it.^ You should talk to your people.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You should update on ur cute doggie, and your Sims character.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I find that if you stop looking so hard, you'll realize that the right person just kind of, finds you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many of these roads are poorly maintained and lack crash barriers, so drive carefully and never assume that it is clear around the the next bend or over the next hill. You may also find cattle grids (also known as cattle guards or Texas gates). These are used if livestock is loose in the area and should be negotiated very slowly as they can have an adverse effect on your vehicle's steering. .In these areas keep your speed down and watch out for livestock such as horses, sheep, cattle and deer.^ Keep up with the funniez :) Hope you get your cute little butt down to South Africa soon - maybe for your next holiday!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I keep my eye out for your new movies and what not, and will continue to, and maybe one day I will be able to meet you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm not kidding when I say that your show makes me laugh out loud sometimes when I'm not even watching the show just remembering some joke.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Visitors from outside Scotland should take special care when driving if they are not used to driving on the left. It is easiest to slip into previous habits on unmarked rural roads. Well marked city streets should give the driver enough information to select the correct lanes. Many by-passes have been built to allow faster travel, but the visitor will miss out on some of the beautiful scenery of Scotland. .In some areas road signs will indicate that the road on the next exit will re-join the main route by showing a semi-circular exit and entrance with the destination name in the middle.^ Why don't you see if some other american station will sign the show.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This allows the driver confidence to take more scenic diversions into small towns or to find a place to stop and have lunch.

By bus

The bus is the cheapest way of getting around in Scotland. You can get almost everywhere with the Citylink bus, but it is more expensive than Megabus. .Megabus is a very cheap way to travel, as ticket prices start at £1 if booked weeks in advance, and rising to over £10 for peak-rate or last-minute fares.^ I was actually on my way to see R&J a few weeks ago in central park when it started pouring....
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A 50p booking charge is applied to every ticket.
Megabus departs from Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness and Perth, going between these Scottish cities as well as to English destinations. .Note that with Megabus you can book only online (from 45 days to 30 minutes before departure).^ That makes me want to meet you one day because if a man I've never met before can change my life then that's a man I need to meet and have a talk with.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I stayed their only for one day but I immediately fall in love with the city though I did not make it to do all the things you talked about.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As talented as you, I can't believe you can't juggle 10 minutes out of your day to give your fans an update into your fantastic world of celebrity hood.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Citylink runs a quarter-hourly bus service between Edinburgh and Glasgow which costs £4--you pay the driver. .This service runs out of the main bus stations (Buchanan Street in Glasgow and Saint Andrew Square in Edinburgh), and the journey takes about an hour and ten minutes--some twenty minutes slower than the train but half the price of a peak-rate train ticket.^ Indeed, it can take a strong dog well over an hour to eat one, and thus is an enjoyable, safe way to keep an energetic breed occupied and out of trouble.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you can't fold it in half and have the grease run out then why bother?
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Citylink [32] - journey information and ticket sales
  • Megabus [33] - journey information and ticket sales

By ferry

A regular and extensive ferry service operates between most large islands, and across the Clyde estuary.
  • Caledonian MacBrayne [34] (usually known colloquially as CalMac) is the largest ferry operator and provides services on the west coast and Clyde. Discounts are available in the form of "Island Rover" tickets which allow unlimited travel on the entire network for 8 or 15 days and "Island Hopscotch" tickets which often give discounts on various itineraries.
  • NorthLink Ferries [35] is the state-sponsored ferry operator running services to Orkney and Shetland, from Scrabster (near Thurso) and Aberdeen.
  • Pentland Ferries [36] and John O'Groats Ferries [37] provide alternative routes to Orkney from the Scottish mainland.
  • Orkney Ferries [38] and Shetland Islands Council [39] operate ferry services within Orkney and Shetland respectively.

Hitching

Hitch-hiking is surprisingly easy in Scotland, but better to do outside the big cities. .In the Highlands you might need to wait for a long time until a car comes by.^ If you find the time, come to Berlin!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I hope those guys keep making movies together for a good long while (you need to get in on that action!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I haven't really seen much of you in the media for a long time (probably nice for you though!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

General caution must be taken.

Talk

English and Scots Gaelic are the languages of Scotland. English (sometimes spoken with a varying degree of Scottish dialect) is the everyday language spoken by all. Dialects vary enormously from region to region, and even between towns! Don't let this frighten you, however, as all Scots can speak standard English.
Scots Gaelic (Gàidhlig, pron. Gah-lig), meanwhile, is spoken by only around 60,000 people, mainly in the Highlands (a' Ghàidhealtachd, pron. a Gale-tach)) and the Western Islands (Na h-Eileanan Siar, pron. Na hyale-inan shar) (e.g Barra, where 80% speak Gaelic). .Almost all Gaelic speakers also speak English with the exception of a possible tiny fraction of rather isolated elderly people ; the chances of meeting such a person are infinitesimally small.^ Only in NYC can a person feel so isolated and alone with so many people around them at the same time.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of a sudden, about 75% of the new people I meet make conversation by saying: Any relation to Zach Braff?
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MANY fans out there, so much to do and such, there would be a small chance for that.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You will more than likely hear locals speaking in Gaelic in the Western Isles and on ferries to and from them.^ I'm more than enormously addicted to you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyway, I was just up in NYC ( I love it just as much if not more than you) not too long ago, I wish I could've run into you...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know absolutley nothing about acting but even I can see that you are more than talented...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Signs on board some CalMac ferries to the Western Islands are in Gaelic first and English second and have an announcement in Gaelic after the safety announcement upon departure.
Scots ('Oor ain leid' lit. .'Our own language') although not an official language of Scotland, is spoken by around 1.5 million people in Scotland, throughout the whole country.^ But celebrities are so money conscious that our school gives up on asking fun, entertaining people and bring in speakers that put most people to sleep at their own graduation....
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As with modern English, the language evolved from Anglo-saxon. Scots is more or less intelligible to native speakers of English, especially in written form. .There are debates over whether Scots is in fact a language or a dialect - in some ways it resembles Old English - and rather than actually being spoken purely, it is often found influencing informal English spoken by people in Scotland.^ Being from South Jersey myself, I'm rather found of it.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I wonder if there might be some way for you to get the writers to get Earl, Randy, Joy and Crabman into Scared Heart, whether it%u2019s an episode of Scrubs or Earl or an hour special of both.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm from the windy city -well........when I travel I actually tell people I'm from Chicago rather than saying I'm in a town called Schaumburg cuz then people would be like "where's Schaumburg" then I have to give a whole schpeel about it and it's just much easier to say Chicago.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Scots generally have rather poor foreign language skills, although those in tourism-related industries generally have better language skills. French, German and Spanish are the most commonly known foreign languages.
Here are some useful English words derived from Gaelic, Pictish or Old Norse:
Here are some Gaelic phrases often found in the Highlands and the Western Isles:
  • Failte gu ...... = Welcome to ......
  • Deas = South
  • Tuath = North
  • Aiseag = Ferry
  • Port Athar = Airport

Buy

Scotland offers a range of products, souvenirs and memorabilia unavailable authentically anywhere else in the world. A few examples:
  • 'Scotch' Whiskies
  • Scottish Tartans (colourful check-woven woolen fabric) and tartan products (such as kilts). If you have a Scottish family name like McDonald or Clark, it may be worth trying to find your own family's tartan.
Visitors from outside northern Europe may find Scotland a relatively expensive country.

Currency

As in the rest of the United Kingdom, Scottish currency is the Pound Sterling (£). Scotland's three national clearing banks continue to issue their own sterling banknotes (including £1 notes, not produced south of the border). These are The Bank of Scotland, The Royal Bank of Scotland and The Clydesdale Bank. These notes are very common in Scotland, but are sometimes (wrongly) not accepted in shops in England (English banks, however, will exchange them for Bank of England notes). ATMs operated by Scottish banks will usually dispense the Scottish notes, but bank tellers will cash travelers cheques into Bank of England notes on request. Scottish banknotes may be difficult to exchange outside the UK, where foreign banks are generally unfamiliar with the notes. .If in doubt, exchange your Scottish notes for Bank of England notes before you leave the country.^ Hello , just a quick note to tell you how much i appreciate your work on scrubs and in all the movies you've made.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I came to your website to leave a comment asking if you were the voice of wendy's but i got my answer.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the way, I just made a self note to leave a comment every single time you post something.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A guaranteed way of getting Bank of England notes is simply to make a withdrawal from an ATM run by an English bank (e.g. NatWest, Barclays or HSBC)--although they tend to be found only in major cities.
.As Bank of England notes are more commonly forged than their (lower-circulation) Scottish equivalents, smaller shops are sometimes wary of larger-denomination Bank of England banknotes, particularly when the note is in an uncirculated condition (as is common with sterling notes sold abroad).^ Sometimes, I like to see more than one, but I always pay for all of them.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Euros are accepted at a small number of High Street stores and tourist shops, but this should not be relied upon so change your money into sterling.
Scotland is relatively expensive when compared to some other European countries. .As a basic rule, the further north you venture, the more expensive it likely gets, mostly because of the difficulty and expense of supply.^ (Since I am from Sweden I can say that you neighbour is more likely Norweigan or Swedish than Danish.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I feel like a stranger because I'm from germany^^ I want you to know that i love the movies you made and first of all scrubs!I work at a hospital ..
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'd really like to know more about how you managed to put that all together.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Currency conversion table (April 2009)
Foreign currency Either one Pound Sterling
€1.11 Euro 1 £0.90
$1.47 US Dollar 1 £0.68
$2.08 Australian Dollar 1 £0.48
$1.82 Canadian Dollar 1 £0.55

Souvenirs

The classic tourist souvenir is a kilt and everything else involving the tartan. .Note that a real kilt costs about £300-£400 and is made of heavy wool (so it will not reveal what you are wearing underneath even in strong winds), but most souvenir stores offer only unauthentic thin ones.^ You really are one of the most down to earth celebrities I have read about.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I watch you every night on scrubs and WISH i was Elliot when you 2 would go at it, I had a dream about you only one time,2 weeks ago, I don't want to freak your freak but we were going at it and you were an amazing kisser and lover in the dream and I know you would be that good!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finding study partners for pilot studies is impossible %u2013 I thought I was the only one out there%u2026 but nice to know you are going for it.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you really want a genuine kilt or full traditional outfit (kilt, sporran, jacket, shirt, and shoes) the best place to look is a clothing hire shop.^ You really have that soulful look down.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You make me really wish I was in NYC, i always wanted to see that beautiful city, that never sleeps!!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I just wanted to tell you that Garden State made me realize what i wanted to do with my life.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These specialise in hiring suits and kilts for weddings and often sell stock at reduced prices. The traditional highland kilt is a section of cloth about 6 feet wide and 14 feet long. This is wrapped about the body then then brought up over the shoulder and pinned in place, a little like a toga. The modern short kilt was introduced during the industrial revolution to give more freedom of movement.
Whisky is also a common buy. There are huge differences in price and taste.

Cost of living

Most visitors are disappointed by the high cost of living in Scotland. Although prices in Scotland are not as bad as in the south of England, compared to the USA or most other parts of Europe basic living expenses are still high. Most goods have an additional 15% Value Added Tax (VAT) applied although this is always included in the marked price for general consumer purchases. Petrol (gasoline) has a massive 70% excise tax and 15% VAT on top of that. Costs are highest in Edinburgh and in very remote places such as Stornoway.
Haggis
Haggis
While Scotland has suffered from the stereotype for dreary food, things have changed now with numerous quality Indian, French, Italian and Modern Scottish options on offer. .In fact, in parts of the country such as Edinburgh, it has become quite difficult to get a really bad meal.^ Can't wait until I'm out, because then I can get back to the part of the country I really love.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Cullen Skink - A hearty and delicious fish soup made from smoked haddock, potatoes, cream, and shellfish.
  • Seafood-Scotland produces some of the best seafood in the world. Its langoustines, oysters, scallops, crabs, salmon and lobsters are prized by the finest chefs all over the world...and hence are mostly exported. Try half-a-dozen fresh oysters followed by langoustines in garlic butter mopped up with a chunk of organic bread at the Three Chimneys in Skye. Heaven on a plate. .If youre lucky enough to be near the coast you can buy freshly caught seafood at very good prices just go to the docks and wait, its worth it.
  • Sizzling Sirloin of Scotch Beef- The five best beef breeds in the world are Scottish, the best-known being Aberdeen Angus.^ Just go on enjoying your summer.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Very good indeed, Thank you!
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You are grate as you are and you are going very very good!!!
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The others are Highland, Longhorn, Shorthorn and Galloway. There is a vast difference between how beef cattle are raised for the lower-cost end of the market and the top end of the market. Slap a sirloin of Aberdeen Angus on a hot grill and find out why.
  • Game- Scotland has game aplenty, from pheasants to venison. .An inexpensive Highland autumn favourite is pheasant layered with a few strips of bacon and baked with seasonal vegetables.
  • Haggis - Scotland's national dish does sound quite disgusting to foreigners because of its ingredients, but doesn't really taste as bad as one might think.^ Hi Zach :) I suppose that after 880 comments one more doesn't really excite you, but I am here to try.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And speaking of scrubs i didnt quite get what u said about it being over soon with NBC. So does that mean that the this season is the final one?
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Just dropping a line to let 'ya know that I think that you are one of only a handful of actors that is truly talented (and real) out there!!
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Haggis is made up of chopped heart, liver and lungs of a sheep and then cooked in a sheep's stomach bag. Nowadays, you can buy and cook Haggis in plastic bags. It is served with turnips and mashed potatoes (often referred to as "neeps and tatties").
  • Porridge is an oat meal the Scottish eat at breakfast, usually with salt as topping, although it is not the everyday breakfast anymore.
  • The square sausage another common breakfast favourite -- it is a flavoured thin square of beef (steak sausage) or pork (lorne sausage), fried or grilled, often served in a roll.
  • Scotch Pie is a much-loved local delicacy. Originally containing mutton, but now usually made with an undefinable meat. .Good ones really are good - slightly spiced and not greasy.^ Your one of my idols and I really look up to you, so keep up the good work!
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Try one from a branch of the ubiquitous Greggs bakery shops.
  • Scotch tablet is another local delicacy. It is, very similar to fudge - but is slightly brittle due to its being beaten for a time while it sets! .Great for any cold hikes you may be planning.
  • the Deep Fried Mars Bar, regarded by many as an urban myth, does exist in Scotland.^ I think you are a very talented actor and although I was sad about Scrubs ending...I know you will have many roles in some more great movies!
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In so many ways it must be great to be you...but then again, anonymity can be a beautiful thing.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Australia, and although u may be too busy to actually read this, just thought i'd let you know that u are one of the great modern actors of this day and age.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .An NHS survey reported that roughly 22% of fast food joints and fish and chips shops in Scotland sell the item, at roughly 60 pence a go, mainly to school children and young adults.^ You seem a decent guy- go read "Fast Food Nation" by Eric Schlosser.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .You will have to ask them to put one in the fryer, though.^ I%u2019d like to put an idea, or three, out there%u2026 You are one of my 2 favorite writer/directors at the moment.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I stayed their only for one day but I immediately fall in love with the city though I did not make it to do all the things you talked about.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Though you guys just may, guess it is T.B.D.) I am one of your biggest fans!!!!
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    A chippy in Stonehaven claims to be the birthplace of this, er, "delicacy." Another equally improbable artery-clogging treat is deep-fried pizza.
.Vegetarian food isn't as hard to find as you would think, with virtually all restaurants and cafés offering more than one vegetarian option.^ I think it would be killer to meet you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because you were the one to show us that life isn't what you think it is.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm more than enormously addicted to you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vegan food is harder to find, but not impossible. Edinburgh especially has a good number of exceptional vegetarian restaurants.

Drink

Scotland (especially the highlands) is famous for the hundreds of brands of Scotch whisky it produces. It seems to the visitor that every village makes its own particular brand, so much so that somebody compared a tour of the highlands as being similar to "driving through a drinks cabinet"! There are around 100 whisky distilleries in Scotland and nearly half of them welcome visitors. .Opening days and times can be up to seven days a week in Summer and sometimes they close in the Winter.^ Going up to NYC in another week or so, to see the relatives, (cousin, upper East side, the Aunt upper west, though you cross broadway and they are so close.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those two thing just popped up Big Time for me in the last few days.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you look up Bully Stick on wikipedia it says they are sometimes called a "Pizzle" fo shizzle!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bars are the places you meet people and where you have a good time. More than in other countries, bars are very lively and it is easy to get to know people when you're travelling alone. .The Scottish are very welcoming, so it's not unusual that they will buy you a beer even though you just met them.^ Massive movie even though you arent in it.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And just want to wish you and your family friends all the very best for the future and your many endeavours.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hi Mr. Braff, I'm a 18 years old boy from Switzerland, perhaps you even don't know where this very little country is, so google it ;-).
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The legal drinking age is 18 years old, and many pubs and clubs will ask for ID of anyone who looks younger than mid-twenties, penalties for those caught buying drink for those under 18 can include a large fine.^ Hi Mr. Braff, I'm a 18 years old boy from Switzerland, perhaps you even don't know where this very little country is, so google it ;-).
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't know if you are familiar with **MAKE A WISH FOUNDATION** but the age cut off is 18 years old.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Am I feeling my age, does anyone else get grossed out by the chicklets (assuming) who write stuff like "I want to have ur babies"....c'mon kids!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The penalties for drinking and driving are severe. .Drinking laws are complicated slightly by the fact that a single glass of wine may be served to a 16-year old, provided it is with a meal.^ I'm currently 15 years old, nearing 16 and nearing the end of my high school years, well..
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had to download its entire first and second season and of course being a 16 year old girl, I'm a teeny weeny bit obsessed with Wentworth Miller.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Met you tonight at the Glass Lounge in good old Harrisburg PA. (the highlight of my year).
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Beer - beer, especially the ales, is measured in pints. One pint equals just over half a litre (568ml). Scottish micro-breweries are doing quite well, possibly thanks to the "Campaign for Real Ale" in recent years.
  • Irn Bru [40] - a highly popular, fizzy, bright orange-coloured soft drink that is supposed to be the best cure for a hangover (be aware that it is loaded with caffeine and is acidic enough to clean coins!). Supposedly it is made from Iron Girders (!) (To provide a balanced view however, it should also be noted that Coca Cola will clean coins as well.)
  • Whisky - Scotland's most famous export (note the lack of an 'e' that makes Scotch whisky unique!). A good way to instantly endear yourself to the locals is when ordering Scotch in a pub, always ask for a "whisky" or simply "a half" - and the bartender will know exactly what you mean (in much the same way as asking for a "pint of beer" in Ireland will mean you are automatically served Guinness). Asking for a "Scotch" will immediately identify you as a foreigner!

Sleep

Self Cater

.Self catering holidays, in cottages or wooden lodges, in Scotland have become very popular over recent years.^ I have recently become a stay at home mom after teaching kindergarten for almost 10 years....
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many cottages are now furnished to a very high standard.

Budget

Scotland has plenty of Hostels, both the Scottish Youth Hostel Association (SYHA) [41] and a large and developing network of Independent Hostels. .Some of the buildings are very impressive, like the one on Loch Lomond and the Carbisdale Castle Hostel.^ One reason being that you're a good on screen kisser just like shia lebouf and some others.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when some one is famous, suddenly it seems like such a horrible thing to do.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would like to get a new one xP Well, anyway, even if this is or not the last season of scrubs, I hope here in Chile we get some new movies of you!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The SYHA traditionally involved guests performing chores and a ban on alcohol. .The new breed of independent hostels have eschewed these concepts, causing the SYHA to loosen up its attitudes too.^ I dunno, maybe its just cause I grew up here, but I absolutely love New England.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Was thinking of my fav movies cause have new bf and was hoping we had similiar interests, Garden State and Scrubs; 2 thumbs up from both of us Zachy!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Camping is another inexpensive way of touring Scotland, though the unpredictable weather makes it less appealing than in some other countries. In remote areas camp sites can be a significant distance apart so buy an up to date guide and plan your route. Booking is not usually necessary except in peak season. Generally, the rule is the more remote the camp site, the better the scenery and the lower the cost. Some camp sites may provide only basic amenities. Camping rough is possible in remote areas, but observe local signs, and never camp next to a stream that could rapidly become swollen by overnight rain. Midges (tiny biting insects) can be a particular nuisance during August and September: the insects are harmless but incredibly irritating.
Bed and Breakfast accommodation is widely available, even in remote areas and some very good deals can be found. Many people consider these to be more friendly and welcoming than a hotel. .Local tourist information centres will help you find a room for the same night, and you may expect to pay in the region of £25 per person per night for room and full Scottish breakfast.^ I find that if you stop looking so hard, you'll realize that the right person just kind of, finds you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being Jewish and from Jersey, you helped portray an image of a person that I only hope I can become.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was really hesitant to say anything to you, because I don't like being that person who interupts someone's night out, and you were with some woman..
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Scottish Guest House and Bed & Breakfast Association (GHABBA) [42] have a range of Bed and Breakfasts and Guest Houses across Scotland.
If visiting the major cities, try staying in Falkirk or Polmont. Both are far cheaper than the hotels in Glasgow and Edinburgh, and only 1/2 hour away from both on regular train services.
.The Premier Travel Inn chain of motels are widespread, with double rooms priced at around £55. In cities these are likely to prove cheaper than a hotel.^ We need more like you around these parts.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm from the windy city -well........when I travel I actually tell people I'm from Chicago rather than saying I'm in a town called Schaumburg cuz then people would be like "where's Schaumburg" then I have to give a whole schpeel about it and it's just much easier to say Chicago.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See

Most historic sites are maintained either by the National Trust of Scotland or by Historic Scotland. Both offer memberships (with free priority access and other discounts) for a year or a lifetime - and have reciprocal arrangements with their English and Welsh equivalents. .Depending on how much you get around and how long you are staying, they may well be worth buying...^ How the hec do you act so well!!??
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How long did it take you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, I may very well be in love with you..
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Membership also contributes to the sites' preservation and new acquisitions.
  • Historic Scotland [43] - sites and prices, yearly membership starts at £34 adult, £65 family (properties include Edinburgh and Stirling Castles). Historic Scotland also offers a 3-day Explorer Pass
  • the National Trust of Scotland [44] -sites and prices, yearly membership starts at £33 adult, £54 family (properties include Craigievar and Crathes Castles, numerous wilderness areas)
  • Football is easily the most popular spectator sport. .If you are in Scotland between mid-August and mid-May you should be able to obtain tickets for a match.
  • Motorcycling - Scotland has some of the best motorcycle touring roads in the world, although you'll need good weather to get the most out of them.^ You should real check it out.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Its good you are taking a vacation this summer.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You should be out there dating.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    With good surfaces, little traffic outside of the main conurbations and welcoming cafes touring is a real pleasure. It is also possible to hire a motorcycle [45]
  • Cycling - Even though there are only a few cycle trails compared to England, Scotland makes a great cycling country as there are many roads with little traffic. .See Cycling in Scotland.
  • Rail Travel - Scotland is home to the most scenic railway line in the world - the West Highland Line, and travelling the area by train is very much recommended.^ I only found out it ended not to long ago, and that was when I loved it the most.It brought me down real hard and it hurts very much .
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Fares can be high, but the scenery can be priceless. [46]
  • Hillwalking - Scotland is famous for hillwalking. .You can try to climb all 284 Munros of Scotland [47] (which are mountains higher than 3000 feet / 914.4 m) and become a Munroist, or you could hike the popular West Highland Way, which stretches for 153km (95 miles).^ I had all of that, I could do all you are doing too.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Happy dating, Mr. Braff...you are braver than I. For today, I am all about hiding behind this keyboard and journaling to a complete and total stranger.
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And by the way, Yes NYC is one f the best cities in the world, You could do J.D. goes to New York, and shoot all the season there....
    • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Scotland’s official National Tourist Board publishes a free Scotland Walks guide, available from their Walking site [48]. There is also an independent site giving lots of details on over 420 routes - Walk Highlands of Scotland [49]
  • Whisky Tour - Many of Scotland's distilleries welcome visitors and many have guided tours. Map of Scotch Whisky distilleries open to the public: [50].
  • Golf - Scotland is the birthplace of the game of golf and home to the oldest course in the world, St. Andrews. Scotland’s National Tourist Board publishes a free guide to golfing in Scotland [51]
  • Edinburgh Festival occurs during late July to Mid September. The Festival is an umbrella term for several festivals, including the International Jazz and Blues Festival, the Fringe Festival, and the Literary Festival. VisitScotland, the official Scottish Tourist Board, maintain a calendar of events and festivals taking place throughout Scotland [52]

Learn

In the bigger cities you can learn highland dancing. If you're interested in learning how to play the Scottish bagpipe, you should know that it takes about one year to play on an actual bagpipe for the first time. .It is really more difficult than it looks like and needs daily practice!^ (Since I am from Sweden I can say that you neighbour is more likely Norweigan or Swedish than Danish.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think you and Sarah should be real life lovers, it looks like you have real chemistry...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would also have to agree that East Coast is more like home than West Coast.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you are interested in learning more about Scotland you can visit www.scotland.org [53].^ I was psycho about you adding me on a stupid webpage I hardly use except for my two friends in Jersey, a few in Scotland.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think you are a very talented actor and although I was sad about Scrubs ending...I know you will have many roles in some more great movies!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know absolutley nothing about acting but even I can see that you are more than talented...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Work

The regulations governing who can work in Scotland is the same as for the rest of the UK.
A general shortage of skilled labour in the health sector means the British health service actively recruits abroad, making it easier for those with specialist health care skills to work in the UK. The Scottish Government is also keen to attract immigrants to Scotland to plug a perceived declining population.

Stay safe

Visitors to Scotland are unlikely to experience any crime. Petty crimes such as thefts and pickpocketing are lower than in many other European countries. Violent crime is a problem in inner city urban areas. However most violent crime occurs amongst gangs, thus, violent crime against tourists is rare in Scotland.
Today Glasgow's former reputation as a violent city is unfair. It is near impossible to accidentally wander into one of the "less desirable" parts of town.
.However it is wise to avoid the subway in Glasgow on any football match day, especially if you get travel sick easily, as many football fans like to partake in an activity known as "The Bouncy Bouncy" where up to 100 football fans bounce up and down at the same time, causing the tiny carriages to rock and rise to the peak of their suspension.^ Do you like being approached by fans?
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well, in case you took your time to read this, I dig all I've seen with/by you so just keep up the good work Greetings from Sweden!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I thought you might like to know how much influence your music choices for the soundtrack of Garden State had on many people.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.English visitors will find a warm welcome despite traditional rivalries, thus proving the myth that it's not safe to have an English accent in Scotland is indeed just that.^ Indeed, it can take a strong dog well over an hour to eat one, and thus is an enjoyable, safe way to keep an energetic breed occupied and out of trouble.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First of all I apologize for my poor english if you find many mistakes in my sentences because I'm just a french fan trying to write in english.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They should of course expect a bit of - generally good-natured - teasing whenever either Scotland or England are playing football.

Stay healthy

.When hillwalking, you should always take along a compass, detailed maps, waterproof clothing, a torch (flashlight), and a good pair of boots.^ Its good you are taking a vacation this summer.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is not a drunken request from you, and we don't expect you to take any clothes off.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have a good final season and please do some queer ending like Family Ties where you all take a bow, etc.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A charged mobile phone can be a lifesaver as some mountain areas have cell coverage, but networks like T-Mobile and Orange don't cover the Highlands very well - however, ANY phone is capable of making a 999 or 112 call if there is a signal available on any network, so an Orange phone with no Orange signal is most definitely better than no phone. The weather on the hills can change suddenly, with visibility falling to just a few metres. .If hillwalking alone tell someone where you are going and when you expect to be back.^ And let me tell you, when I write something I just don't go throwng it from the rooftops so that everybody could have a chance to read.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selfish ZAAAAAAAACH *I am going to sing this until you add me back on myspace by the way.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Time now to flick back to PBS and listen to Wayne Dyer tell me how to let go of my ego...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More advice is available from the Mountaineering Council of Scotland [54]
Beware of midges! These small biting insects are prevalent in damp areas, particularly Western Scotland, from around May to September. The bites can be itchy but they don't carry disease. Midges don't tend to fly in direct sunshine or if it's windy, the worst times are dawn and dusk.
Tap water in Scotland is safe to drink everywhere.

Respect

.Like in any part of the world, Scottish stereotypes are usually just that.^ I feel like you they usually have a featured guest and I just know you would be terribly wonderful up there.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The majority of Scots do not wear kilts all the time, do not have ginger hair, do not eat porridge for breakfast and haggis for tea, do not say "och aye the noo" and do not hate the English.^ I know what you mean whne you say you love it in NYC(born in jersey and spent time in NYC) all i can say is have a great vacation and think about writing me back.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clumsy, and says the wrong things all the time.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an actor myself and long time fan of your work, in Scrubs and particularly 'Garden State' which I loved, I just wanted to say thanks for it all.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The word Scotch is for products not people - but Scottish or Scots is fine.
.Scotland has been a part of the United Kingdom for just over 300 years, although in recent times it has had some autonomy.^ Because I recently got accepted to college for a BA in Theatre Arts, and I just wanted some tips or anything!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just don't get any drunken tatoos because it'll be such a nuisance to have to cover them up every time you show some ass in a movie.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just wanted to thank you for some of your recent contributions.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The issue of nationalism and independence is certainly much debated, and whilst it is nowhere near as sensitive or divisive as in other parts of the world where such movements exist, it is still a good idea not to make any remarks which could be seen as extreme on either side of the argument (pro-independence or pro-unionist).^ Even though I've seen every episode at least 5 times, it still makes me laugh everytime.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You've got to be one of the funniest actors I've ever seen, and when you have to play all serious you still manage to make the impact.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well, I just read that Scrubs has only 18 episodes left, which makes me sad as could be, but you will have had seven seasons, which is pretty good.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whilst it must be said there are a number of Scots who favour separatism, there are just as many for whom it is possible to be both British and Scottish.^ It has to be said, I've never seen so many comments regarding an animals penis, must be a new record, kudos!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many of us out here who REALLY understand that aspect of it.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sectarianism is a rather more sensitive issue, enforced by the rivalry between various football clubs. It's a bad idea to wear the colours and shirts of football clubs on match days as this may cause offence or in some cases provoke a violent reaction if worn in the wrong place, this is a problem mainly confined to Glasgow (Celtic wear green and white, Glasgow Rangers wear blue and white however, orange is also often associated with them).

Contact

See the UK contact entry for national information on telephone, internet and postal services. See Contact entries under individual cities for local information.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

Scot +‎ land

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Scotland
Plural
-
Scotland
  1. A country in northwest Europe to the north of England and forming part of the United Kingdom.

Derived terms

Translations


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

.Scotland is part of the United Kingdom occupying the northern portion (not quite half) of Britain, the largest of the British Isles, and including many of the smaller islands such as Orkney, Shetland, Mull, and the Hebrides (Skye, Lewis, Tiree, Harris, and dozens of others).^ Map of Scotland SCOTLAND, the name given in modern times to that portion of Great Britain which lies north of the English boundary; it also comprises the Outer and Inner Hebrides and other islands off the west coast, and the Orkney and Shetland islands off the north coast.

^ It is impossible will' here to analyse the disputes as to whether, in Freeman's words, " from this time to the 14th century " (he means, to Bannockburn) " the vassalage of Scotland was an essential part of the public law of the Isle of Britain."

^ The oldest rocks of Scotland and of the British Isles are known, from their antiquity, as Archean, and consist chiefly -of gneiss (called Fundamental, as lying at the foundation of the geological structure of the country, and Lewisian and Hebridean, because it is well developed in the island of Harris and the Outer Hebrides), which varies from a coarsely crystalline granitoid mass -to fine schist.

.The four largest cities/conurbations are Glasgow, Edinburgh (the capital), Aberdeen, and Dundee.^ The counties are thirty-three in number, Ross and Cromarty constituting one, while Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Dundee are each a county of a city.

^ Only Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee, Greenock, Aberdeen and Paisley have private and local acts, conferring powers exceeding the general law, to deal with, e.g.

^ The making of preserves and confectionery flourishes in Dundee, Aberdeen, Paisley and Edinburgh.

Aberdeen was fourth until offshore oil exploration and harvesting became really important.
The genealogical records have separate systems from those of England.

See also

External links

Facts about ScotlandRDF feed

This article uses material from the "Scotland" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Scotland
File:Flag of File:Royal Arms of the Kingdom of
Official flag Coat of Arms
National information
National motto: In my Defens God Me Defens
National anthem: Flower of Scotland
About the people
Official languages: English, Gaelic
Population: (# of people)
  - Total: 5,116,900
  - Density: 168.2 per mi² / 65 per km²
Geography / Places
Here is the country on a map.
Capital city: Edinburgh
Largest city: Glasgow
Area
  - Total: 30,414 mi² / 78,772 km²
Politics / Government
Established: Early Middle Ages; exact date unclear, but traditionally 843, by King Kenneth MacAlpin
Leaders: First Minister: Alex Salmond
Prime Minster: David Cameron
Economy / Money
Currency:
(Name of money)
British Pound (£) (GBP)
International information
Time zone: GMT
Telephone dialing code: +44
Internet domain: .uk
File:Scotland
Map of Scotland

Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country which is part of the United Kingdom.

It is the northern half of the island of Great Britain, with a population of about five million. Scotland shares a border with England. Scotland has coasts on the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and also the Irish Sea to the southwest.

Scotland was once an independent country with its own monarch, but is now one of the four parts that form United Kingdom. In 1603, the King of Scotland James VI of Scotland became King of England too, because Queen Elizabeth I of England had no children and James was her nearest relative.

In 1707, the parliament of Scotland joined with the parliament of England to become the parliament of Great Britain, and in 1801 Great Britain joined with Ireland to become United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Even though Scotland is not independent, throughout history it had a separate legal system and a unique culture. Since 1999, Scotland has had its own parliament. However, many things are still controlled by the Westminster parliament in London, England. Some people in Scotland want to have independence again.

The Scottish flag is blue with a white diagonal cross (called a saltire). This is the cross of Saint Andrew, who is the patron saint of Scotland. Some other symbols used for Scotland are a thistle, and a lion.

The north of Scotland has many mountains, and few people live there. Most people live in the lowlands (Edinburgh and Glasgow), or around the coast. South of the central belt are the Southern Uplands, another hilly place. On the west coast and in the north are a lot of islands.

The capital city of Scotland is the city of Edinburgh, on the east coast. The biggest city is Glasgow. Other cities in Scotland are Aberdeen, Dundee, Inverness and Stirling.

Contents

Geography

The main part of Scotland makes up one-third of the size of the British Isles, and is located to the northwest of Europe.

The size of the land of Scotland is 78,772km² (30,414 sq mi). Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi). The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland is only 30 kilometres (20 mi) from the southern part of Kintyre; Norway is 305 kilometers (190 mi) to the east and the Faroes, 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north.

History

[[File:|thumb|right|Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. The fortification underwent numerous sieges.]]

The history of Scotland begins around 10,000 years ago, when humans first began to inhabit Scotland after the end of the last ice age. Of the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age civilization that existed in the country, many artifacts remain, but no written records were left behind. These people did not have writing.

The written history of Scotland begins when the Roman Empire came to Britain, and the Romans occupied what is now England and Wales, calling it Britannia. To the north was Caledonia, land not owned by the Romans. Its people were the Picts. This meant the Scots were not influenced by the Romans in the same way the English were. The sea was very important to Scottish history.

Because of the geographical location of Scotland and its strong reliance on trade routes by sea, the nation held close links in the south and east with the Baltic countries, and through Ireland with France and Europe. Following the Acts of Union and Industrial Revolution, Scotland grew to be one of the largest commercial, intellectual and industrial states in Europe.

Independence

File:William
Sir William Wallace

The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.

The First War (1296–1328) began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328. The Second War (1332–1357) began with the English-supported invasion of Edward Balliol and the 'Disinherited' in 1332, and ended around 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick.

The wars were part of a great national crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most important moments in the nation's history. At the end of both wars, Scotland still was a free and independent country, which was her main aim throughout the conflict. The wars were also important for other reasons, such as the emergence of the longbow as a key weapon in medieval warfare.

A series of deaths in the line of succession in the 1280s, followed by King Alexander III's death in 1286 left the Scottish crown in disarray. His granddaughter Margaret, the "Maid of Norway", a four-year old girl, was the heir.

Edward I of England, as Margaret's great-uncle, suggested that his son (also a child) and Margaret should marry, stabilising the Scottish line of succession. In 1290 Margaret's guardians agreed to this, but Margaret herself died in Orkney on her voyage from Norway to Scotland before she was made Queen or her marriage could take place.

John Balliol, the man with the strongest claim to the throne, became king (30 November 1292). Robert Bruce of Annandale, the next strongest claimant, accepted this outcome (his grandson and namesake later took the throne as Robert I).

[[File:|thumb|right|Stirling Bridge in 2006]] Over the next few years Edward I attempted to undermine both the authority of King John and the independence of Scotland. In 1295 John, on the recommendation of his chief councillors, entered into an alliance with France. This was the beginning of the Auld Alliance.

In 1296 Edward invaded Scotland, removing King John. The following year William Wallace and Andrew de Moray raised an army from the southern and northern parts of the country to resist the occupation. Under their joint leadership an English army was defeated at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. For a short time Wallace ruled Scotland in the name of John Balliol as Guardian of the realm.

Edward came north in person and defeated Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk, 1298. Wallace escaped but resigned as Guardian of Scotland. John Comyn and Robert the Bruce were put in his place. In 1305 Wallace was captured by the English, who executed him for treason. Wallace claimed he did not commit treason as he owed no allegiance to England.

In February 1306 Robert Bruce murdered John Comyn, a leading rival. Bruce went on to take the crown, but Edward's army overran the country after defeating Bruce's small army at the Battle of Methven. Despite the excommunication of Bruce and his followers by Pope Clement V his support slowly strengthened; and by 1314 with the help of leading nobles such as Sir James Douglas and the Earl of Moray only the castles at Bothwell and Stirling were still under English control.

Edward I had died in 1307. His heir Edward II moved an army north to break the siege of Stirling Castle and again take control. Robert defeated that army at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, securing temporary independence. In 1320 a letter to the Pope from the nobles of Scotland (the Declaration of Arbroath) went part of the way towards convincing Pope John XXII to overturn the earlier excommunication and cancel the various acts of submission by Scottish kings to English ones so that Scotland's independence could be recognised by other European countries.

In 1326, the first full Parliament of Scotland met. The parliament had evolved from an earlier council of nobility and clergy around 1235, but in 1326 representatives of the burghs — the burgh commissioners — joined them to form the Three Estates.

In 1328, Edward III signed the Treaty of Northampton declaring Scottish independence under the rule of Robert the Bruce. Four years after Robert's death in 1329, however, England once more invaded, looking to put the "Rightful King" — Edward Balliol, son of John Balliol — to the Scottish throne, starting the Second War of Independence. In the face of tough Scottish resistance, led by Sir Andrew Murray, attempts to secure Balliol on the throne failed. Edward III lost interest in Balliol after the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War with France. In 1341 David II, King Robert's son and heir, was able to return from temporary exile in France. Balliol finally resigned his vacant claim to the throne to Edward in 1356, before retiring to Yorkshire, where he died in 1364.

The Norse

Most of the Scottish islands were ruled by the Norse (and then by Norwegians and Danes) for over four hundred years. This includes the Hebrides to the west and Orkney and Shetland to the north. The islands still have a culture of their own. St Kilda, Scotland, Heart of Neolithic Orkney and Skara Brae are all World Heritage Sites, as are the Antonine Wall and New Lanark on the mainland.

Language

The official languages of Scotland are English, Scots, and Gaelic. English is spoken by most people in Scotland, with only a small number, mostly in the Western Isles, speaking Gaelic. [1]

Sports

Football

[[File:|thumb|right|200px|Both sets of fans at an Old Firm match at Celtic Park.]] Football is the most popular sport in Scotland. The big cities, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee, all have two or three big football teams, and most towns have at least one team. The two most famous teams in Scotland are known as the "Old Firm", Celtic and Rangers. These two Glasgow clubs have a lot of history, and are fierce rivals, often causing fights and even riots between the fans. Rangers are world record holders, having won the most amount of league titles of any football team, currently 51.

Other football clubs

The other main clubs in Scotland are Aberdeen FC, Heart of Midlothian FC, Hibernian FC and Dundee United FC. These teams are normally in the Premier League and usually take the most places in the top six of the league.

Some other Scottish clubs include Gretna FC, who won three titles in a row, moving from the Third Division, to the SPL in only three seasons, and also Raith Rovers FC, who famously played UEFA Cup Winners, Bayern Munich. Raith Rovers were knocked out by Bayern, but managed to lead them 1-0 at half time.

Scottish Premier League

The top division of Scottish Football is called the "Scottish Premier League" (or SPL), and is currently sponsored by the Clydesdale Bank, a large Scottish Bank.

Golf

Golf is a popular sport in Scotland. It is unique: Scotland is the birthplace of golf, and there are many public golf courses where people can play for modest fees. Everywhere else in the world golf is a game for the wealthy.

Sandy Lyle was the first Scottish golfer to win a major title in modern times. Colin Montgomery is one of the best players never to have won a major championship after finishing second five times.

Motorsports

File:Jackie Stewart
Sir Jackie Stewart speaking at the USA Grand Prix in 2005

Scotland is also involved with motorsports. Former F1 driver David Coulthard is a thirteen time Grand Prix winner. Jackie Stewart is a 3-time F1 World Champion and regarded as one of the best drivers ever. Jim Clark was a 2-time F1 World Champion and regarded as one of the best ever with Fangio, Schumacher and Senna. Colin McRae was also 1995 World Rally Champion.

Elephant Polo

Scotland was the world champions of the unusual sport of Elephant Polo in 2004. Elephant Polo, registered as an Olympic sport with the Nepal Olympic Committee, was invented by Scotsman James Manclark in 1983.[2]

References

Other websites

Find more information on Scotland by searching one of Wikipedia's sister projects:

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krc:Шотландия



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 05, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Scotland, which are similar to those in the above article.








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