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Since the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC) by the Communist Party in 1949, Scouting has officially been banned[citation needed], while the Young Pioneers of China and the Communist Youth League have become the dominant youth organization in mainland China for younger and older youth, respectively. Currently in mainland China, Scouting is found only in some international schools. The People's Republic of China is listed as one of 6 countries without Scouting by WOSM.[1]

Scouting is active in both Hong Kong and Macau, special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, whose legal systems are separate from that of the rest of the PRC.

Scouting existed in mainland China before 1949 under the Republic of China (ROC). In 1949, the ROC government withdrew to Taiwan, where it remains today, and Scouting has continued in Taiwan under the name Scouts of China.

In 2004, the Scout Club of Hainan (海南童子军俱乐部), borrowing heavily from Scouting in terms of emblems, uniforms and activities, was founded in Hainan Province; it is, however, not affiliated with worldwide Scouting. An attempt to organize a nationwide Scouting organization in Wuhan was ended by the government in 2004.[2]

Contents

History

The historic membership badge of the General Association of the Scouts of China incorporated the Blue Sky with a White Sun.

Following the birth of the Republic of China, the first Scout troop was organized by Reverend Yen Chia-lin in Wuchang on February 25, 1912 and the Scouting movement spread rapidly all over the country.[3]

Russian Scouts fleeing bolshevism followed White Russian émigrés from 1917 to 1922 through Vladivostok to the east into Manchuria and south into central China, where very large groups of Russian Scouts came into being in cities such as Harbin, Tientsin and Shanghai.[4][5]

The General Association of the Scouts of China was formally established in Nanking in 1934, and became a member of the International Scout Bureau in 1937.[6][7] Many Scouts actively participated in the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945.

In 1939 the United Rovers were founded by the Austrian Scouter Fredy Mittler in Shanghai. This group consisted of Austrian and German émigrés. It was affiliated to the The Boy Scout Association. At the end of World War II there were 120 members.[8] Among the British Scout Groups in Shanghai was also the 13th Shanghai (United) Group, whose members mainly were Austrian and German Jews. This group continued its service also after World War II.[9]

There were 570,000 registered members in 1941.[3] However, all Scouting activities were interrupted in 1949, when the Chinese communists took over mainland China.[3] The Chinese Scout Association was reorganized in 1950 after the ROC government was relocated to Taipei, and resumed membership in the International Scout Bureau as Scouts of China.[3][7][10]

Recent developments

Since the transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong to PRC in 1997, The Scout Association of Hong Kong (SAHK) has been being actively organising exchange programmes in mainland China.[11] In 2004, the SAHK, the Shenzhen Youth Federation and the Working Committee of Young Pioneers in Shenzhen organized the first joint camp with 490 Hong Kong and 360 Shenzhen participants. The SAHK held five regional camps in mainland China in 2005: in Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Jilin and Inner Mongolia.[12] All mainland China activities of the SAHK are coordinated via its "International and Liaison Branch".

The Hong Kong Girl Guides Association has also established partnerships with youth and women organizations in mainland China.[13]

A first local Scout organization emerged in the Tianjin municipality in 1997 mainly aimed at disadvantaged children. It was still active in January 2004 with 40 local groups and more than 4,000 members of both genders, but its actual status is unknown.[14]

An attempt to start a nationwide Scouting organization in Wuhan was curtailed by the government in mid-2004.[2] The website of the incipient organization continues to exist[15] as an active community of people interested in the subject, but the organization has not been restarted.

Emblem of the Scout Club of Hainan

Also in mid-2004, the Scout Club of Hainan was started in Hainan province. It borrows heavily from international Scouting in terms of its emblem, ideals, uniforms, and activities, and has organized frequent outdoor camps since its founding.[16] It is not aligned to an international Scouting movement.

Emblem of The Scout Association of The People's Republic of China

The Shanghai Scout Club founded in Shanghai in December 2006[17] participated in JOTI 2007[18] and JOTI 2008.[19][20][21] It also borrows heavily from international Scouting in terms of its emblem, ideals, uniforms, and activities. This group was mentioned as a Radio Scout group in the Austrian Scout magazine Telescout-News in December 2007.[22] The Shanghai Scout Club joined the newly founded Scout Association of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国,童军总会) and is registered as Shanghai "A" Group.[23][24] Further units of this Scout association are the Rover "B" Shanghai Crew, Rover "A" Fujian Crew, Rover "A" Guangdong Crew, Rover "A" Jiangsu Crew.[23] The Scout Association of The People's Republic of China serves Rover Scouts and Venture Scouts.[25] Scouts of these associations took part in JOTA and JOTI 2009[26][27][28] and the association issued several memorabilia for these events.[29] In close connection to Scout Association of The People's Republic of China is the Team Delta Rovers.[23][30]

Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, i.e. with legal systems separate from that of mainland China (i.e. the rest of the country). The two territories were European possessions until 1997 and 1999 respectively. Scouting has continued after the transfers of sovereignty. In Hong Kong, The Scout Association of Hong Kong has 96,682 Scouts[31], and The Hong Kong Girl Guides Association has 55,145 Guides[32]. In Macau Scouting is organised by the Associação de Escoteiros de Macau, a WOSM associate member.[33]

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International Scouting units in Hong Kong and Macau

International Scouting units in mainland China

The Scout Association, Nanking unit

In addition, British Scouts have units of The Scout Association in various cities including Nanjing. There are two units of Girlguiding UK, served by British Guides in Foreign Countries in Shanghai.[39][40] USA Girl Scouts Overseas in the People's Republic of China are serviced by way of USAGSO headquarters in New York[37], with troops in Beijing, Guangzhou, Kunming, Nanjing, Shanghai[41], Shekou, Tianjin and Zhuhai. Also, there are both American Cub Scout packs and Boy Scout troops in Beijing[42] and Shanghai[43][44][45] , as well as American Cub packs in Wuxi and Tianjin[36] and an American Boy Scout troop in Dali[36]. Further more there are a Varsity Scout Team in Beijing[36] and Lone Scouts in Xiamen (Amoy) and possibly other locations, linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world.

Chinese Scouting ideals

The Scout Motto in Chinese is 準備, translating as Be Prepared (pronunciation may vary by spoken variant). The Scout Motto in Uyghur is Tayyar Bol, translating as Be Prepared.

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ "Scouting Elsewhere" (html). World Organization of the Scout Movement. http://www.scout.org/en/about_scouting/facts_figures/census/elsewhere. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  2. ^ a b 武汉童子军被取缔 创办者坚持再申请(04年8月3日) - 2004-08-03
  3. ^ a b c d "SCOUTING IN CHINA-SCOUTS OF CHINA" (html). N2ZGU. http://n2zgu.50megs.com/CHIN.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  4. ^ "NATIONAL ORGANISATION OF RUSSIAN SCOUTS NORS in China, 1922-1947" (html). PineTree.web.. http://www.pinetreeweb.com/norsold3.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  5. ^ Kroonenberg, Piet J. (1998). The Undaunted- The Survival and Revival of Scouting in Central and Eastern Europe. Geneva: Oriole International Publications. p. 83. ISBN 2880520037. 
  6. ^ WOSM (1990). Scouting ´Round the World. Geneva: Public Relations and Communications Department, World Scout Bureau. p. 150. ISBN 2-88052-001-0. 
  7. ^ a b Michel, Rudi; Reinhard Schmoeckel;Hans Gerhard Rumpf (1963) (in German). Der Kornett Heft 5 Pfadfinderbewegung. Minden: Bund Deutscher Pfadfinder Landesmark Westfalen. p. 51. 
  8. ^ Kurt Pribich (2004) (in German). Logbuch der Pfadfinderverbände in Österreich. Vienna: Pfadfinder-Gilde Österreichs. p. 143. 
  9. ^ Ralph Harpuder. "Shanghai Boy Scouts-The 13th United Group". The Rickshaw Express Web. http://www.rickshaw.org/shanghai_boy_scouts.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  10. ^ WOSM (1990). Scouting ´Round the World. Geneva: Public Relations and Communications Department, World Scout Bureau. p. 27. ISBN 2-88052-001-0. 
  11. ^ http://www.apr.scout.or.jp/publications/inbox%20Dec%2002.htm accessed on June 12, 2006
  12. ^ http://www.scout.org.hk/en/history/hohks/00002513.html accessed on June 12, 2006
  13. ^ http://www.wagggsworld.org/en/about/chiefexecutive accessed on June 12, 2006
  14. ^ http://www.china.org.cn/english/China/85680.htm accessed on June 12, 2006
  15. ^ (Chinese) 搜游网 - -中国童军公益网、中国探险旅游户外休闲拓展童军运动网络家园!
  16. ^ http://www.cnscout.com/default.asp accessed on October 30, 2009
  17. ^ http://shanghaiscoutclub.clubspaces.com/Default_css.aspx accessed on April 6, 2008
  18. ^ http://shanghaiscoutclub.clubspaces.com/PageCustom.aspx?id=4&o=18422 accessed on October 18, 2008
  19. ^ http://shanghaiscoutclub.clubspaces.com/PageCustom.aspx?id=7&o=18422 accessed on October 21, 2008
  20. ^ Philipp Lehar (December 2008). "Bericht JOTA-JOTI der Station "phips", Pfadfindergruppe Wattens" (in German). Telescout-News (Vienna: Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs) 19: 1. http://www.telescout.org/cms/pdf/Telescout_News_19.pdf. 
  21. ^ Philipp Lehar (2008). "JOTA und JOTI" (in German). Pfeifzeichen-Das Magazin von Pfadfindern, für Pfadfinder (Wattens: Pfadfindergruppe Wattens) 24: 20. http://www.fun-quadrat.net/pfadfinder/index.php?section=media1&act=download&path=/pfadfinder/media/archive1/&file=Pfeifzeichen_Nr24.pdf. 
  22. ^ Ernst Tomaschek (December 2007). Telescout-News 15 "Die Pfadfinderfunker in Shanghai" (in German). Telescout-News (Vienna: Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs) 15: 1. http://www.telescout.org/cms/pdf/Telescout_News_15.pdf Telescout-News 15. 
  23. ^ a b c http://sac.clubspaces.com/PageCustom.aspx?id=25&o=269194 accessed on October 1, 2009
  24. ^ http://shanghaiscoutclub.clubspaces.com/Default_css.aspx accessed on October 1, 2009
  25. ^ http://sac.clubspaces.com/PageCustom.aspx?id=24&o=269194 accessed on October 1, 2009
  26. ^ http://sac.clubspaces.com/PageCustom.aspx?id=36&o=269194 accessed on October 21, 2009
  27. ^ Philipp Lehár (December 2009). "Was war sonst noch los?" (in German). Der Gildenweg 4/2009: 23. 
  28. ^ Philipp Lehár (December 2009). "phips-Joti der zweite Versuch" (in German). Telescout-News (Vienna: Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs) 22: 2-3. http://www.telescout.org/cms/pdf/Telescout_News_22.pdf. 
  29. ^ http://sac.clubspaces.com/PageCustom.aspx?id=37&o=269194 accessed on October 21, 2009
  30. ^ http://deltarovers.clubspaces.com/Default_css.aspx accessed on October 1, 2009
  31. ^ "Triennial Report 2005-2008" (PDF). World Organization of the Scout Movement. http://scout.org/en/content/download/11615/94838/file/Triennial_Report_EN.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-13. 
  32. ^ "The Hong Kong Girl Guides Association". WAGGGS Asia Pacific Region. http://asia.wagggsworld.org/en/organisations/62. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  33. ^ "National Scout Organisations" (html). World Organization of the Scout Movement. http://www.scout.org/en/around_the_world/countries/national_scout_organisations. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  34. ^ "Agrupamento 341 - Grupo de Escuteiros Lusófonos de Macau (GELMAC)" (in Portuguese). Corpo Nacional de Escutas. http://www.cne-escutismo.pt/CNE/Contactos/Locais/tabid/474/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  35. ^ "BSA Hong Kong Troop 1 Website". BSA Hong Kong Troop 1. http://dragonnet.hkis.edu.hk/community/scouts/. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  36. ^ a b c d "Direct Service Units". Direct Service. http://www.directservicebsa.org/units.html. Retrieved 2008-10-24 and 2009-10-01. 
  37. ^ a b "Facts about USA Girl Scouts Overseas" (pdf). Girl Scouts of the USA. p. 2). http://www.girlscouts.org/who_we_are/global/overseas/forms_doc/usagso_factsheet.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 
  38. ^ "Council offices". Scouts Canada. http://www.scouts.ca/dnn/MediaCentre/ContactUs/Counciloffices/tabid/161/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2009-08-24. 
  39. ^ "British Guides in Foreign Countries". British Guides in Foreign Countries. http://www.bgifc.org.uk/index.html. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  40. ^ "Girlguiding BGIFC Units (Birthday List)". British Guides in Foreign Countries. http://www.bgifc.org.uk/birthdays.html. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  41. ^ "Girl Scouts". ShanghaiScouts.org. http://shanghaiscouts.org/gs.html. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  42. ^ "BSA Troop 943 Website". BSA Troop 943 Beijing. http://www.troop943.com/Troop_943/Welcome.html. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  43. ^ "BSA". ShanghaiScouts.org. http://shanghaiscouts.org/bs.html. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  44. ^ "BSA Troop 969 Shanghai". BSA Troop 969 Shanghai. http://969.shanghaiscouts.org/index.html. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 
  45. ^ "BSA Troop 12 Shanghai". BSA Troop 12 Shanghai. http://12.shanghaiscouts.org/. Retrieved 2010-03-10. 

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