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Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions.

A screenplay or script is a written work that is made especially for a film or television program. Screenplays can be original works or adaptations from existing pieces of writing. A play for television is known as a teleplay.

Contents

Format and style

The format is structured in a way that one page usually equates to one minute of screen time. In a "shooting script", each scene is numbered, and technical direction may be given. In a "spec" or a "draft" in various stages of development, the scenes are not numbered, and technical direction is at a minimum. The standard font for a screenplay is 12-point Courier.

The major components are action and dialogue. The "action" is written in the present tense. The "dialogue" are the lines the characters speak. Unique to the screenplay (as opposed to a stage play) is the use of slug lines.

The format consists of two aspects:

  1. The interplay between typeface/font, line spacing and type area, from which the standard of one page of text per one minute of screen time is derived. Unlike in the United States where US letter size and Courier 12 point are mandatory, Europe uniformly uses A4 as the standard paper size format (but without a uniform font requirement).
  2. The tab settings of the scene elements (dialogue, scenes headings, transitions, parentheticals, etc.), which constitute the screenplay’s layout.

The style consists of a grammar that is specific to screenplays. This grammar also consists of two aspects:

  1. A prose that is manifestation-oriented, i.e. focuses largely on what is audible and what is visible on screen. This prose may only supply interpretations and explanation (deviate from the manifestation-oriented prose) if clarity would otherwise be adversely affected.
  2. Codified notation of certain technical or dramatic elements, such as scene transitions, changes in narrative perspective, sound effects, emphasis of dramatically relevant objects and characters speaking from outside a scene.

Types of screenplays

Screenplays can generally be divided into two kinds; a 'spec' screenplay, and a commissioned screenplay.

A speculative screenplay is a script written with no upfront payment, or a promise of payment. The content is usually invented solely by the screenwriter, though spec screenplays can also be based on established works, or real people and events.

A commissioned screenplay is written by a hired writer. The concept is usually developed long before the screenwriter is brought on, and usually has many writers work on it before the script is green lit.

Screenwriting software

Detailed computer programs are designed specifically to format screenplays, teleplays and stage plays. Celtx, DreamaScript, Movie Magic Screenwriter, Final Draft, Movie Outline 3.0,hi FiveSprockets, and Montage are several such programs. Software is also available as web applications, accessible from any computer, and on mobile devices.

See also

References

  • David Trottier (1998). The Screenwriter's Bible: A Complete Guide to Writing, Formatting, and Selling Your Script. Silman-James Press. ISBN 1-879505-44-4.  - Paperback
  • Yves Lavandier (2005). Writing Drama, A Comprehensive Guide for Playwrights and Scritpwriters. Le Clown & l'Enfant. ISBN 2-910606-04-X.  - Paperback
  • Judith H. Haag, Hillis R. Cole (1980). The Complete Guide to Standard Script Formats: The Screenplay. CMC Publishing. ISBN 0-929583-00-0.  - Paperback
  • Jami Bernard (1995). Quentin Tarantino: The Man and His Movies. HarperCollins publishers. ISBN 0-002556-44-8.  - Paperback
  • Riley, C. (2005) The Hollywood Standard: the complete and authoriative guide to script format and style. Michael Weise Productions. Sheridan Press. ISBN 0941188949.

External links


Simple English

A screenplay or script is the written instruction about what happens in a movie or television program. The screenplay for a movie has everything that happens in the movie. It includes the plot, the dialogue of the characters, and all the actions of the characters. The person who writes the screenplay is called a screenwriter. A screenplay for television is called a teleplay.scripts usually is going to be slightly changed or things will be added to it as the directors want or need to do that.








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