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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Figwort family
Scrophularia nodosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Scrophulariaceae

See text.

Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family, is a family of flowering plants. The plants are annual or perennial herbs with flowers with bilateral (zygomorphic) or rarely radial (actinomorphic) symmetry. Members of the Scrophulariaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority found in temperate areas, including tropical mountains. The family name is based on the name of the included genus Scrophularia L..

In the past it was treated as including about 275 genera and over 5,000 species, but its circumscription has been radically altered since numerous molecular phylogenies have shown the traditional broad circumscription to be grossly polyphyletic. Many genera have recently been transferred to other families within the Lamiales, notably Plantaginaceae and Orobanchaceae but also several new families [1][2]. Several families of the Lamiales have had their circumscriptions enlarged to accommodate genera transferred from Scrophulariacae sensu lato.

The family includes some medicinal plants, among them:



Tribe Aptosimeae

  • Anticharis Endl.
  • Aptosimum Burch. ex Benth.
  • Peliostomum E. Mey. ex Benth.[3]

Tribe Buddlejeae

  • Buddleja L. - Butterfly-bush
  • Emorya Torr.
  • Gomphostigma Turcz.[4]

Tribe Hemimerideae

Tribe Leucophylleae

Tribe Limoselleae

  • Barthlottia Eb.Fisch.
  • Camptoloma Benth.
  • Chaenostoma Benth. (sometimes included in Sutera but separated by Kornhall and Bremer[7])
  • Chenopodiopsis Hilliard
  • Cromidon Compton
  • Dischisma Choisy
  • Glekia Hilliard
  • Globulariopsis Compton
  • Glumicalyx Hiern
  • Gosela Choisy
  • Hebenstretia L
  • Jamesbrittenia Kuntze[7]
  • Limosella L. -> Plantaginaceae -> Scrophulariaceae (according to Oxelman et al. 2005)[8]
  • Lyperia Benth.
  • Manuleopsis Thell. ex Schinz
  • Melanospermum Hilliard
  • Microdon Choisy
  • Phyllopodium Benth.
  • Polycarena Benth.
  • Reyemia Hilliard
  • Selago L.
  • Strobilopsis Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
  • Sutera Roth syn. Manulea Thun. - Dwarf Snapdragon, "Bacopa"
  • Tetraselago Junell
  • Trieenea Hilliard
  • Zaluzianskya F.W.Schmidt[9]

Tribe Myoporeae

Tribe Scrophularieae

Tribe Teedieae

  • Dermatobotrys Bolus
  • Freylinia Colla
  • Oftia Adans.
  • Ranopisoa J.F.Leroy
  • Teedia Rudolphi

Not placed in a tribe

  • Brachystigma Pennell - Desert foxglove
  • Dasistoma Raf.
  • Hemianthus Nutt.
  • Leucosalpa Scott-Elliot
  • Phygelius E.Mey. ex Benth. - Cape fuchsia[12]

Excluded genera

The following genera, traditionally included in the Scrophulariaceae, have been transferred to other families as indicated:


  1. ^ a b Olmstead, R. G., dePamphilis, C. W., Wolfe, A. D., Young, N. D., Elisons, W. J. & Reeves P. A. (2001). "Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae". American Journal of Botany 88: 348–361. doi:10.2307/2657024. PMID 11222255.  
  2. ^ Olmstead, R. G. (2003). "Whatever happened to the Scrophulariaceae?". Fremontia 30: 13–22.   - on line here
  3. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Aptosimeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29.  
  4. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Buddlejeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29.  
  5. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Hemimerideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29.  
  6. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Leucophylleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29.  
  7. ^ a b Kornhall, Per and Bremer, Birgitta (2004). "New circumscription of the tribe Limoselleae (Scrophulariaceae) that includes the taxa of the tribe Manuleeae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 146 (4): 453–467. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00341.x.  
  8. ^ Oxelman, B.; Kornhall, P.; Olmstead, R.G.; Bremer, B. (2005). "Further disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae". Taxon 54 (2): 411–425.  
  9. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Limoselleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29.  
  10. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Myoporeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29.  
  11. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Scrophularieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29.  
  12. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29.  
  13. ^ Besseya at GRIN Taxonomy for Plants
  14. ^ Albach, D. C. (2005). "Piecing together the "new" Plantaginaceae". American Journal of Botany 92: 297. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.2.297.  
  15. ^ "Lindernia All.". A Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Missouri Botanical Garden and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.  
  16. ^ Haston, E., Richardson, J. E., Stevens, P. F., Chase, M. W., Harris, D. J. (2007). "A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families". Taxon 56 (1): 7–12.  
  17. ^ Nelson D. Young, Kim E. Steiner, Claude W. dePamphilis (Autumn, 1999). "The Evolution of Parasitism in Scrophulariaceae/Orobanchaceae: Plastid Gene Sequences Refute an Evolutionary Transition Series". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86 (4): 876. doi:10.2307/2666173.  

External links

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SCROPHULARIACEAE, in botany, a natural order of seedplants belonging to the sympetalous section of Dicotyledons, and a member of the series Tubiflorae. It is a cosmopolitan order containing about 180 genera with about 2000 species; the majority occur in temperate regions, the numbers diminishing rapidly towards the tropics and colder regions. About 30% of the species are annual herbs, such as eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis), cow-wheat (Melampyrum), and species of Veronica; FIG. i - Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) a nat. size.

showing the thick axial placenta bearing numerous small seeds.

3, Ripe capsule split open.

more than 60% are biennial or generally perennial herbs and undershrubs, such as species of Veronica, mullein (Verbascum), foxglove (Digitalis; fig. 1), &c., while shrubs and trees are rare; Paulownia, a native of. the mountains of Japan, a tree with large leaves and handsome panicles of violet flowers, is grown in European gardens.

The stem is sometimes prostrate and creeping, as in ivy-leaved toad-flax (Linaria Cymbalaria) and some of the native British Veronicas, but generally erect as in foxglove, figwort, mullein, &c.; a few are climbers as Rhodochiton and Maurandia. The South African genera Hyobanche and Harveya are parasites almost devoid of chlorophyll with scale-like leaves; and many genera are semiparasitic, having green leaves, but attaching themselves by root-suckers to roots of grass, &c., from which they derive part of their nourishment; such are Euphrasia, Rhinanthus, Pedicularis, &c. A few 1, Corolla cut open showing the four stamens, rather more than 2 nat. size 2, Unripe fruit cut lengthwise, genera are aquatic, e.g. Ambulia (old world tropics), and have much divided submerged leaves and entire aerial leaves. The leaf-arrangement varies; the leaves are alternate as in Verbascum, or the lower leaves are opposite and the upper alternate as in Antirrhinum (snapdragon), or all are opposite (Mimulus), or whorled (some Veronicas). All varieties of leaf-arrangement are found in the one genus Veronica (q.v.), in some New Zealand species of which the leaves are small and appressed to the stem. The flowers are solitary in the leaf-axils, as in Mimulus, species of Linaria, &c., or form spikes or racemes which are terminal as in foxglove, species of Veronica, &c., or axillary as in Veronica (Chamaedrys section). Cymose inflorescences also occur, as in Verbascum, consisting of dichasia arranged in spikes, racemes or panicles. The flowers are hermaphrodite, hypogynous and zygomorphic in the median plane, being often more or less two-lipped, and having five sepals joined below and persisting in the fruiting stage, five petals uniting to form a corolla of very various shape, generally four stamens, the fifth (posterior) being suppressed or represented by a rudiment, while the anterior pair are longer than the posterior, and two generally equal carpels in the median plane forming a two-celled ovary containing numerous anatropous ovules on a thick axile placenta, and bearing a simple or bilobed style (fig. 2). 2).

FIG. 2a. FIG. 2b. FIG. 2C. FIG. 2. - Floral Diagrams of Scrophulariaceae. a, Linaria. b, Veronica. c, Verbascum.

When a terminal flower is present it becomes regular as in toadflax, where radial symmetry is produced by development of a spur to each petal - such flowers are termed peloric; all the flowers in a spike arc sometimes peloric. In Euphrasia and many species of Veronica the posterior sepal is suppressed, and in Calceolaria the anterior petals are completely united. The form of the corolla shows great variety, depending on the length and breadth of the tube - which in Veronica is almost obsolete, while in foxglove it is large and almost bell-shaped - and the development of the limbs, which are spreading in Veronica, small and almost erect in figwort, or form a pair of closed lips as in Linaria and Antirrhinum. In Linaria the anterior petal is spurred; in Calceolaria a very short tube is succeeded by a two-lipped limb, a smaller upper lip representing the two posterior petals and a larger, often very large, lower lip representing the three anterior petals. In Verbascum the five segments are almost equal, forming a nearly regular corolla; in Veronica the two posterior petals have united and the corolla is four-lobed. The approach to regularity in the corolla in Verbascum is associated with the presence of five fertile stamens, but the three posterior are generally larger than the two anterior. In Veronica, Calceolaria and other genera only two stamens are present. The anthers generally open introrsely by a longitudinal slit; their form shows great variety. These differences in the form of the corolla, the position and length of the stamens and the form of the anthers, are associated with their pollination by insects which probe the flower for honey, which is secreted by a disk surrounding the base of the ovary or by special nectaries below it. Verbascum and Veronica with a short-tubed corolla represent an open type of flower with more exposed nectar; in foxglove the honey is at the base of the long tube, and a bee crawling to reach it will rub with its back the anthers or stigmas which are placed on the upper side of the bell. The closed flowers of Linaria and Antirrhinums can be visited only by insects which are strong enough to separate the lips. In Euphrasia and others the pollen is loose and powdery, and the anthers have appendages which when touched by the head of the insect-visitor cause the pollen to be scattered.

The fruit is generally a capsule surrounded at the base, or sometimes as in yellow-rattle (Rhinanthus) enveloped in the persistent calyx; it opens by two or four valves, or, as in Antirrhinum, by pores. Occasionally it is a berry. The seeds are generally small and numerous, rarely few and large as in Veronica. In Linaria Cymbalaria the fruit becomes buried by the stalks bending downwards when ripe.

The order is divided into tribes by characters derived from the number of fertile stamens present and the form of the corolla. It is well represented in Britain by 13 genera, viz. Verbascum (mullein), Linaria (toad-flax), Antirrhinum (snapdragon), Scrophularia (figwort), Limosella - a small creeping annual found on edges of ponds, Sibthorpia, a small herb with creeping thread-like stems, Digitalis (foxglove), Veronica (speedwell), Bartsia, Euphrasia (eyebright), Rhinanthus (yellow-rattle), Pedicularis (louse-wort) and Melampyrum (cow-wheat). An American species of Mimulus (M. Langsdorfii) has become naturalized by river-sides in many places. Several genera are well known in gardens; such are Calceolaria, an important genus in temperate South America, Collinsia, Pentstemon and Mimulus (musk), also American genera.

xxIV. 17 a Scrophulariaceae are closely allied to Solanaceae, from which they are distinguished by the median position of the carpels, and generally by the zygomorphic flower; Verbascum and its allies, in which the flower approaches regularity, form a connecting link. An anatomical distinction is found in the arrangement of the wood and bast in the stem, which is collateral, not bicollateral as in Solanaceae.

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Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies


Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids I
Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Scrophulariaceae
Tribus: Aptosimeae - Buddlejeae - Freylinieae - Hemimerideae - Leucophylleae - Manuleae - Myoporeae - Scrophularieae - Teedieae -

List of Genera

Achetaria - Adenosma - Agalinis - Agathelpis - Alectra - Alonsoa - Amphianthus - Anastrabe - Ancistrostylis - Androya - Angelonia - Anisantherina - Antherothamnus - Anticharis - Aphyllon - Aptosimum - Aragoa - Artanema - Bacopa - Bampsia - Basistemon - Baumia - Bellardia - Benjaminia - Besseya - Bontia - Bowkeria - Brandisia - Braunblanquetia - Brookea - Bryodes - Buchnera - Buddleja - Bungea - Buttonia - Bythophyton - Calceolaria - Campbellia - Camptoloma - Campylanthus - Capraria - Castilleja - Centranthera - Charadrophila - Chelone - Chenopodiopsis - Chionohebe - Chionophila - Clevelandia - Cochlidiosperma - Collinsia - Colpias - Conobea - Cordylanthus - Craterostigma - Cromidon - Cycniopsis - Cycnium - Cymbaria - Cyrtandromoea - Dasistoma - Deinostema - Dermatobotrys - Detzneria - Diascia - Diclis - Dintera - Dischisma - Dizygostemon - Dodartia - Dopatrium - Elacholoma - Elatinoides - Ellisiophyllum - Emorya - Encopella - Eremogeton - Eremophila - Erinus - Escobedia - Esterhazya - Euphrasia - Faxonanthus - Freylinia - Gentrya - Geochorda - Gerardiina - Ghikaea - Gibsoniothamnus - Glekia - Globulariopsis - Glossostigma - Glumicalyx - Gomphostigma - Gosela - Graderia - Gratiola - Halleria - Harveya - Hebe - Hebenstretia - Hedbergia - Hemichaena - Hemimeris - Hemiphragma - Herpestis - Heteranthia - Hiernia - Hydranthelium - Hydrotriche - Hyobanche - Isoplexis - Ixianthes - Jamesbrittenia - Jerdonia - Kashmiria - Keckiella - Lagotis - Lamourouxia - Lancea - Lathraea - Leptorhabdos - Lesquereuxia - Leucocarpus - Leucophyllum - Leucosalpa - Limnophila - Limosella - Lindenbergia - Lindernia - Lyperia - Macranthera - Maeviella - Magdalenaea - Manulea - Manuleopsis - Mazus - Mecardonia - Melampyrum - Melanospermum - Melasma - Melosperma - Micranthemum - Micrargeria - Micrargeriella - Microcarpaea - Microdon - Mimetanthe - Mimulicalyx - Monocardia - Monochasma - Monopera - Monttea - Myoporum - Namation - Nathaliella - Nemesia - Neopicrorhiza - Nicodemia - Nothochelone - Nothochilus - Nuxia - Odicardis - Odontites - Oftia - Oftia - Omania - Omphalotrix - Ophiocephalus - Oreosolen - Orthocarpus - Otacanthus - Ourisia - Paederota - Parahebe - Parastriga - Parentucellia - Pedicularis - Peliostomum - Peltanthera - Penstemon - Peplidium - Petitmenginia - Pholidia - Phtheirospermum - Phygelius - Phyllopodium - Physocalyx - Picria - Picrorhiza - Pierranthus - Poarium - Polycarena - Psammetes - Pseudobartsia - Pseudolysimachion - Pseudorobanche - Pseudosopubia - Pseudostriga - Pterygiella - Radamaea - Ranopisoa - Ranopisoa - Rehmannia - Rhamphicarpa - Rhaphispermum - Rhinanthus - Rhynchocorys - Russelia - Sairocarpus - Schistophragma - Schizosepala - Schlegelia - Schwalbea - Scoparia - Scrofella - Scrophularia - Selago - Seymeria - Shiuyinghua - Sibthorpia - Silviella - Sinobacopa - Siphonostegia - Sopubia - Spielmannia - Spirostegia - Stemodia - Stemodiopsis - Stemotria - Striga - Strobilopsis - Sutera - Synthyris - Teedia - Tetranema - Tetraselago - Tetraspidium - Tetraulacium - Thunbergianthus - Tienmuia - Tonella - Torenia - Tozzia - Triaenophora - Trieenea - Triphysaria - Trungboa - Tuerckheimocharis - Uroskinnera - Vellosiella - Verbascum - Veronica - Veronicastrum - Walafrida - Wightia - Wulfenia - Wulfeniopsis - Xizangia - Xylocalyx - Zaluzianskya


Scrophulariaceae Juss.


Lohmueller, F.A. 2005. The Botanical System of the Plants[1][2][3]

Vernacular names

Magyar: Tátogatófélék
Nederlands: Leeuwebekachtigen
日本語: ゴマノハグサ科
Русский: Норичниковые
Türkçe: Sıraca otugiller
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Scrophulariaceae on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Figwort family
Scrophularia nodosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked) Eudicots
(unranked) Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Scrophulariaceae

Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family, is a family of flowering plants, with around 3000 species in around 200 genera, mainly found in the northern temperate regions of the world. The family name is based on the name of the included genus Scrophularia.

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