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Henry Moore Large Arch, 1963-1969, sandcast in bronze, Oslo, Norway
"The Dying Gaul", a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late third century BCE Capitoline Museums, Rome.
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard, plastic material, wire, sound, text, light, commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, glass, or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by finding or carving; others are assembled, built together and fired, welded, molded, or cast. Sculptures are often painted.[1]
Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts. The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden.

Contents

Types of sculpture

Some common forms of sculpture are:

Materials of sculpture through history

Sculptors have generally sought to produce works of art that are as permanent as possible, working in durable and frequently expensive materials such as bronze and stone: marble, limestone, porphyry, and granite. More rarely, precious materials such as gold, silver, jade, and ivory were used for chryselephantine works. More common and less expensive materials were used for sculpture for wider consumption, including glass, hardwoods (such as oak, box/boxwood, and lime/linden); terracotta and other ceramics, and cast metals such as pewter and zinc (spelter).
Sculptures are often painted, but commonly lose their paint to time, or restorers. Many different painting techniques have been used in making sculpture, including tempera, [oil painting], gilding, house paint, aerosol, enamel and sandblasting.[2][3][4]
Many sculptors seek new ways and materials to make art. Jim Gary used stained glass and automobile parts, tools, machine parts, and hardware. One of Pablo Picasso's most famous sculptures included bicycle parts. Alexander Calder and other modernists made spectacular use of painted steel. Since the 1960s, acrylics and other plastics have been used as well. Andy Goldsworthy makes his unusually ephemeral sculptures from almost entirely natural materials in natural settings. Some sculpture, such as ice sculpture, sand sculpture, and gas sculpture, is deliberately short-lived.
Sculptors often build small preliminary works called maquettes of ephemeral materials such as plaster of Paris, wax, clay, or plasticine, as Alfred Gilbert did for 'Eros' at Piccadilly Circus, London. In Retroarchaeology, these materials are generally the end product.
Sculptors sometimes use found objects.

Asian

Sumerian male worshiper, 2750-2600 B.C.
Many different forms of sculpture were used in Asia, with many pieces being religious art based around Hinduism and Buddhism (Buddhist art) and greco-Buddhist art. A great deal of Cambodian Hindu sculpture is preserved at Angkor, however organized looting has had a heavy impact on many sites around the country. In Thailand, sculpture was almost exclusively of Buddha images. Many Thai sculptures or temples are gilded, and on occasion enriched with inlays. See also Thai art

India

A Nepalese polychrome wooden statue of the Malla Kingdom, 14th century.
The first known sculptures are from the Indus Valley civilization (3300–1700 BC), found in sites at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa in modern-day Pakistan. These are among the earliest known instances of sculpture in the world. Later, as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism developed further, India produced bronzes and stone carvings of great intricacy, such as the famous temple carvings which adorn various Hindu, Jain and Buddhist shrines. Some of these, such as the cave temples of Ellora and Ajanta, are examples of Indian rock-cut architecture, perhaps the largest and most ambitious sculptural schemes in the world.
During the 2nd to 1st century BC in northern India, in what is now southern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, sculptures became more anatomically realistic, often representing episodes of the life and teachings of Gautama Buddha. Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form before this time, but only through symbols such as the stupa. This alteration in style may have occurred because Gandharan Buddhist sculpture in ancient Afghanistan acquired Greek and Persian influence. Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is characterized by wavy hair, drapery covering both shoulders, shoes and sandals, and acanthus leaf decorations, among other things.
The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved during the Gupta Empire period (4th-6th century AD) to reach a very high fineness of execution and delicacy in the modeling. Gupta period art would later influence Chinese styles during the Sui dynasty, and the artistic styles across the rest of east Asia. Newer sculptures in Afghanistan, in stucco, schist or clay, display very strong blending of Indian post-Gupta mannerism and Classical influence. The celebrated bronzes of the Chola dynasty (c. 850-1250) from south India are of particular note; the iconic figure of Nataraja being the classic example. The traditions of Indian sculpture continue into the 20th and 21st centuries with for instance, the granite carving of Mahabalipuram derived from the Pallava dynasty. Contemporary Indian sculpture is typically polymorphous but includes celebrated figures such as Dhruva Mistry.

China

A Liao Dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue of Guan Yin, Shanxi Province, China, (907-1125 AD)
Artifacts from China date back as early as 10,000 BC and skilled Chinese artisans had been active very early in history, but the bulk of what is displayed as sculpture comes from a few select historical periods. The first period of interest has been the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050-771 BC), from which come a variety of intricate cast bronze vessels. The next period of interest was the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), beginning with the spectacular Terracotta Army assembled for the tomb of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the important but short-lived Qin Dynasty that preceded the Han. Tombs excavated from the Han period have revealed many figures found to be vigorous, direct, and appealing 2000 years later.
The first Buddhist sculpture is found dating from the Three Kingdoms period (3rd century), while the sculpture of the Longmen Grottoes near Luoyang, Henan Province (Northern Wei, 5th and 6th century) has been widely recognized for its special elegant qualities.
A wooden Bodhisattva from the Song Dynasty (960-1279)
The period now considered to be China's golden age is the Tang Dynasty, coinciding with what in Europe is sometimes called the Dark Ages). Decorative figures like those shown below became very popular in 20th century Euro-American culture, and were made available in bulk, as warlords in the Chinese civil wars exported them to raise cash. Considered especially desirable, and even profound, was the Buddhist sculpture, often monumental, begun in the Sui Dynasty, inspired by the Indian art of the Gupta period, and many are considered treasures of world art.
Following the Tang, Western interest in Chinese artifacts drops off dramatically, except for what might be considered as ornamental furnishings, and especially objects in jade. Pottery from many periods has been collected, and again the Tang period stands out apart for its free, easy feeling. Chinese sculpture has no nudes—other perhaps than figures made for medical training or practice—and very little portraiture compared with the European tradition. One place where sculptural portraiture was pursued, however, was in the monasteries.
Almost nothing, other than jewelry, jade, or pottery is collected by art museums after the Ming Dynasty ended in the late 17th century—and absolutely nothing has yet been recognized as sculpture from the tumultuous 20th century, although there was a school of Soviet-influenced social realist sculpture in the early decades of the Communist regime, and as the century turned, Chinese craftsmen began to dominate commercial sculpture genres (the collector plates, figurines, toys, etc) and avant garde Chinese artists began to participate in the Euro-American enterprise of contemporary art.

Japan

A frog and lizard battle in this contemporary sculpture in Matsumoto, Japan.
Countless paints and sculpture were made, often under governmental sponsorship. Most Japanese sculpture is associated with religion, and the medium' use declined with the lessening importance of traditional Buddhism. During the Kofun period of the third century, clay sculptures called haniwa were erected outside tombs. Inside the Kondo at Hōryū-ji is a Shaka Trinity (623), the historical Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas and also the Guardian Kings of the Four Directions. The wooden image ( 9th c.) of Shakyamuni, the "historic" Buddha, enshrined in a secondary building at the Murō-ji, is typical of the early Heian sculpture, with its ponderous body, covered by thick drapery folds carved in the hompa-shiki (rolling-wave) style, and its austere, withdrawn facial expression. The Kei school of sculptors, particularly Unkei, created a new, more realistic style of sculpture.

Africa

Ife head, terracotta, probably 12-14th centuries
African art has an emphasis on Sculpture - African artists tend to favor three-dimensional artworks over two-dimensional works.

African sculptures

The style, key aesthetic characteristics, materials, and techniques used in the creation of a piece of sculpture reflects the region from which it originates. Sculptures often have unique functions that vary widely from one geographical region to the next.
In West Africa, the earliest known sculptures are from the Nok culture of Nigeria, which dates around 500 BC. The figures of West African sculptures typically have elongated bodies, angular shapes, and facial features that represent an ideal rather than an individual. These figures are used in religious rituals. They are made to have surfaces that are often coated with materials placed on them for ceremonial offerings. In contrast to these sculptures of West Africa are the ones of Mande-speaking peoples of the same region. The Mande pieces are made of wood and have broad, flat surfaces. Their arms and legs are shaped like cylinders.
In Central Africa, however, the main distinguishing characteristics include heart-shaped faces that are curved inward and display patterns of circles and dots. Although some groups prefer more geometric and angular facial forms, not all pieces are exactly the same, nor are they made of the same material. The primary material is wood, though ivory, bone, stone, clay, and metal are also used. The Central African region has very striking styles that are very easy to identify, making regional identification very easy.
"Green Head", Egypt, 500BC Altes Museum
Eastern Africans are not known for their sculpture, but, one type that is created in this area is pole sculptures, which are poles carved in human shapes, decorated with geometric forms, while the tops are carved with figures of animals, people, and various objects. These poles are, then, placed next to graves and are associated with death and the ancestral world.
Southern Africa’s oldest known clay figures date from 400 to 600 A.D. and have cylindrical heads. These clay figures have a mixture of human and animal features. Other than clay figures, there are also wooden headrests that were buried with their owners. The headrests had styles ranging from geometric shapes to animal figures. Each region had a unique style and meaning to their sculptures. The type of material and purpose for creating sculpture in Africa reflect the region from which the pieces are created.

Egypt

The monumental sculpture of Ancient Egypt is world-famous, but refined and delicate small works are also a feature. The ancient art of Egyptian sculpture evolved to represent the ancient Egyptian gods, and Pharaohs, the divine kings and queens, in physical form. Very strict conventions were followed while crafting statues: male statues were darker than the female ones; in seated statues, hands were required to be placed on knees and specific rules governed appearance of every Egyptian god. Artistic works were ranked according to exact compliance with all the conventions, and the conventions were followed so strictly that over three thousand years, very little changed in the appearance of statues except during a brief period during the rule of Akhenaten and Nefertiti when naturalistic portrayal was encouraged.

The Americas

The K'alyaan Totem Pole of the Tlingit Kiks.ádi Clan, erected at Sitka National Historical Park to commemorate the lives lost in the 1804 Battle of Sitka.
Sculpture in what is now Latin America developed in two separate and distinct areas, Mesoamerica in the north and Peru in the south. In both areas, sculpture was initially of stone, and later of terracotta and metal as the civilizations in these areas became more technologically proficient.[5] The Mesoamerican region produced more monumental sculpture, from the massive block-like works of the Olmec and Toltec cultures, to the superb low reliefs that characterize the Mayan and Aztec cultures. In the Andean region, sculptures were typically small, but often show superb skill.
In North America, wood was sculpted for totem poles, masks, utensils, War canoes and a variety of other uses, with distinct variation between different cultures and regions. The most developed styles are those of the Pacific Northwest Coast, where a group of elaborate and highly-stylized formal styles developed forming the basis of a vibrant tradition that is in a renaissance today (see Bill Reid) and has moved into other mediums such as silver, gold and modern materials. The introduction of metal tools introduced new carving techniques, including the use of a black type of argillite, also called black slate, which is exclusive for use by artists of the Haida people.
Miniature totem pole in black argillite, carver unknown, UBC Museum of Anthropology collection
In addition to the famous totem poles, painted and carved house fronts were complemented by carved posts inside and out, as well as mortuary figures and other items. Among the Inuit of the far north, traditional carving styles in ivory and soapstone have been expanded through the use of modern power tools into new directions for Inuit culture which, like the art of the Northwest Coast, is highly prized by art collectors for its plastic forms and innovative interpretation of figure and story.
The habitant-carved altar of Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal)
The arrival of European Catholic culture readily adapted local skills to the prevailing Baroque style, producing enormously elaborate retablos and other mostly church sculptures in a variety of hybrid styles.[6] The most famous of such examples in Canada is the altar area of the Notre Dame Basilica in Montreal, Quebec, which was carved by peasant habitant labourers. Later, artists trained in the Western academic tradition followed European styles until in the late nineteenth century they began to draw again on indigenous influences, notably in the Mexican baroque grotesque style known as Churrigueresque. Aboriginal peoples also adapted church sculpture in variations on Carpenter Gothic; one famous example is the Church of the Holy Cross in Skookumchuck Hot Springs, British Columbia.
Frederic Remington, The Bronco Buster, limited edition #17 of 20, 1909.
The history of sculpture in the United States after Europeans' arrival reflects the country's 18th-century foundation in Roman republican civic values and Protestant Christianity. Compared to areas colonized by the Spanish, sculpture got off to an extremely slow start in the British colonies, with next to no place in churches, and was only given impetus by the need to assert nationality after independence. American sculpture of the mid- to late-19th century was often classical, often romantic, but showed a bent for a dramatic, narrative, almost journalistic realism. Public buildings during the last quarter of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century often provided an architectural setting for sculpture, especially in relief. By the 1950s, traditional sculpture education would almost be completely replaced by a Bauhaus-influenced concern for abstract design. Minimalist sculpture replaced the figure in public settings and architects almost completely stopped using sculpture in or on their designs. Modern sculptors (21st century) use both classical and abstract inspired designs. Beginning in the 1980s, there was a swing back toward figurative public sculpture; by 2000, many of the new public pieces in the United States were figurative in design.

Europe

The earliest European sculpture to date portrays a female form, and has been estimated at dating from 35,000 years ago. The discovery in 2008 has caused experts to revise the history of the development of art.

Greek-Roman-classical

Features unique to the European Classical tradition:
  1. full figures: using the young, athletic male or full-bodied female nude
  2. portraits: showing signs of age and strong character
  3. use of classical costume and attributes of classical deities
  4. Concern for naturalism based on observation, often from live models.
Features that the European Classical tradition shares with many others:
  1. characters present an attitude of distance and inner contentment
  2. details do not disrupt a sense of rhythm between solid volumes and the spaces that surround them
  3. pieces feel solid and larger than they really are
  4. ambient space feels sacred or timeless
The topic of Nudity
An unadorned figure in Greek classical sculpture was a reference to the status or role of the depicted person, deity or other being. Athletes, priestesses and gods could be identified by their adornment or lack of it.
The Renaissance preoccupation with Greek classical imagery, such as the 5th century B.C. Doryphoros of Polykleitos, led to nude figurative statues being seen as the 'perfect form' of representation for the human body. Subsequently, nudity in sculpture and painting has often represented a form of ideal, be it innocence, openness or purity. Nude sculptures are still common. As in painting, they are often made as exercises in efforts to understand the anatomical structure of the human body and develop skills that will provide a foundation for making clothed figurative work.
Nude statues are usually widely accepted by many societies, largely due to the length of tradition that supports this form. Occasionally, the nude form draws objections, often by moral or religious groups. Classic examples of this are the removal of the parts of Greek sculpture corresponding to male genitals (in the Vatican collection), and the addition of a fig leaf to a plaster cast of Michelangelo's sculpture of David for Queen Victoria's visit to the British Museum.
Ancient Greek sculpture. A portion of the Parthenon Pediment, displayed in the British Museum.

Gothic

Gothic sculpture, late 15th century.
Gothic sculpture evolved from the early stiff and elongated style, still partly Romanesque, into a spatial and naturalistic feel in the late 12th and early 13th century. The architectural statues at the Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral (c. 1145) are the earliest Gothic sculptures and were a revolution in style and the model for a generation of sculptors. Prior to this there had been no sculpture tradition in Ile-de-France—so sculptors were brought in from Burgundy. Bamberg Cathedral had the largest assemblage of 13th century sculpture. In England sculpture was more confined to tombs and non-figurine decorations. In Italy there was still a Classical influence, but Gothic made inroads in the sculptures of pulpits such as the Pisa Baptistery pulpit (1260) and the Siena pulpit (1268). Dutch-Burgundian sculptor Claus Sluter and the taste for naturalism signaled the beginning of the end of Gothic sculpture, evolving into the classicistic Renaissance style by the end of the 15th century.

Renaissance

Michelangelo, "Pietà", 1499.
Although the Renaissance began at different times in various parts of Europe (some areas created art longer in the Gothic style than other areas) the transition from Gothic to Renaissance in Italy was signalled by a trend toward naturalism with a nod to classical sculpture. One of the most important sculptors in the classical revival was Donatello. The greatest achievement of what art historians refer to as his classic period is the bronze statue entitled David (not to be confused with Michelangelo's David), which is currently located at the Bargello in Florence. At the time of its creation, it was the first free-standing nude statue since ancient times. Conceived fully in the round and independent of any architectural surroundings, it is generally considered to be the first major work of Renaissance sculpture. The movement affected all aspects of art, in all parts of Italy; as represented by the conscious revival from archaeological sources of the Antique dining table, by the great sculptor Tullio Lombardo, for the Castello di Roncade in the Veneto (the house with the first free-standing pediment since antiquity.)

During the main Renaissance, the time from about 1500 to 1520, Michelangelo was an active sculptor with works such as David and the Pietà, as well as the Doni Virgin, Bacchus, Moses, Rachel, Orgetorix, and members of the Medici family. Michelangelo's David is possibly the most famous sculpture in the world, which was unveiled on September 8, 1504. It is an example of the contrapposto style of posing the human figure, which again borrows from classical sculpture. Michelangelo's statue of David differs from previous representations of the subject in that David is depicted before his battle with Goliath and not after the giant's defeat. Instead of being shown victorious over a foe much larger than he, David looks tense and battle ready.

Mannerist

Giambologna, Rape of the Sabine Women, 1583, Florence, Italy, 13' 6" high, Marble
During the Mannerist period, more abstract representations were praised, (such as the "figura serpentinata" or "twisted figure") giving more thought to color and composition rather than realistic portrayal of the subjects in the piece. This is exemplified in Giambologna's Abduction/Rape of the Sabine Women, where the figures are not positioned in a way which is at all comfortable, or even humanly possible, but the position and emotion still come across. Another exemplar of the form is Benvenuto Cellini's 1540 salt cellar of gold and ebony, featuring Neptune and Amphitrite (earth and water) in elongated form and uncomfortable positions (implausible poses).

Baroque

In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms— they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. Often, Baroque artists fused sculpture and architecture seeking to create a transformative experience for the viewer. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. His works were inspired by Hellenistic sculpture of Ancient Greece and Imperial Rome. One of his most famous works is The Ecstasy of St Theresa (1647-1652).

Neo-Classical

Falconet's statue of Tsar Peter I has become one of the symbols of St. Petersburg
The Neoclassical period (c.1750-1850) was one of the great ages of public sculpture, though its "classical" prototypes were more likely to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures. In sculpture, the most familiar representatives are the Italian Antonio Canova, the Englishman John Flaxman and the Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen. The European neoclassical manner also took hold in the United States, where its pinnacle occurred somewhat later and is exemplified in the sculptures of Hiram Powers.

Modern Classicism

Modern Classicism contrasted in many ways with the classical sculpture of the 19th century which was characterized by commitments to naturalism (Antoine-Louis Barye) -- the melodramatic (François Rude) sentimentality (Jean Baptiste Carpeaux)-- or a kind of stately grandiosity (Lord Leighton) Several different directions in the classical tradition were taken as the century turned, but the study of the live model and the post-Renaissance tradition was still fundamental to them.
Auguste Rodin was the most renowned European sculptor of the early 20th century. He is often considered a sculptural Impressionist, as are his students Camille Claudel, Medardo Rosso, Paolo Troubetzkoy, Rik Wouters, and Hugo Rheinhold, attempting to model of a fleeting moment of ordinary life.
Fragment of the grave of Cyprian Kamil Norwid in the Bards' crypt in Wawel Cathedral, Kraków by sculptor Czesław Dźwigaj
Modern Classicism showed a lesser interest in naturalism and a greater interest in formal stylization. Greater attention was paid to the rhythms of volumes and spaces - as well as greater attention to the contrasting qualities of surface (open, closed, planar, broken etc) while less attention was paid to story-telling and convincing details of anatomy or costume. Greater attention was given to psychological effect than to physical realism. Greater attention was given to showing what was eternal and public, rather than what was momentary and private. Greater attention was given to examples of ancient and Medieval sacred arts:Egyptian, Middle Eastern, Asian, African, and Meso-American. Grandiosity was still a concern, but in a broader, more worldwide context.
Sculpture on the Discoveries Age and Portuguese navigators in Lisbon, Portugal
As the century progressed, modern classicism was adopted as the national style of the two great European totalitarian empires: Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, who co-opted the work of earlier artists such as Kolbe and Wilhelm Lehmbruck in Germany [7] and Matveyev in Russia. Nazi Germany had a 12-year run; but over the 70 years of the USSR, new generations of sculptors were trained and chosen within their system, and a distinct style, socialist realism, developed, that returned to the 19th century's emphasis on melodrama and naturalism.
Classical training was rooted out of art education in Western Europe (and the Americas) by 1970 and the classical variants of the 20th century were marginalized in the history of modernism. But classicism continued as the foundation of art education in the Soviet academies until 1990, providing a foundation for expressive figurative art throughout eastern Europe and parts of the Middle East. By the year 2000, the European classical tradition maintains a wide appeal to viewers - especially tourists - and especially for the ancient, Renaissance, Baroque, and 19th century periods—but awaits an educational tradition to revive its contemporary development.
In the rest of Europe, and the United States the modern classical became either more decorative/art deco (Paul Manship, Jose de Creeft, Carl Milles) or more abstractly stylized or more expressive (and Gothic) (Anton Hanak, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Ernst Barlach, Arturo Martini) -- or turned more to the Renaissance (Giacomo Manzù, Venanzo Crocetti) or stayed the same (Charles Despiau, Marcel Gimond).

Modernism

David Smith, CUBI VI, (1963), Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
In the early days of the 20th century Pablo Picasso revolutionized the art of sculpture when he began creating his constructions fashioned by combining disparate objects and materials into one constructed piece of sculpture, - by addition. Picasso reinvented the art of sculpture with his innovative use of constructing a work in three dimensions with disparate material. Just as collage was a radical development in two dimensional art; so was construction a radical development in three dimensional sculpture. The advent of Surrealism lead to things occasionally being described as "sculpture" that would not have been so previously, such as "involuntary sculpture" in several senses, including coulage. In later years Pablo Picasso became a prolific ceramicist, revolutionizing the way Ceramic art is perceived. George E. Ohr and more contemporary sculptors like Peter Voulkos, Kenneth Price and others have effectively used ceramics as an important integral medium for their work.
Similarly, the work of Constantin Brâncuşi at the beginning of the century paved the way for later abstract sculpture. In revolt against the naturalism of Rodin and his late 19th century contemporaries, Brancusi distilled subjects down to their essences as illustrated by his Bird in Space (1924) series. These elegantly refined forms became synonymous with 20th century sculpture.[8] In 1927, Brancusi won a lawsuit against the U.S. customs authorities who attempted to value his sculpture as raw metal. The suit led to legal changes permitting the importation of abstract art free of duty.[9]
Brancusi's impact, with his vocabulary of reduction and abstraction, is seen throughout the 1930's and 1940's, and exemplified by artists such as Gaston Lachaise, Sir Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró, Julio González, Jacques Lipchitz [10] and later in the century by Carl Andre and John Safer who added motion and monumentality to the theme of purity of line.[11]
Henry Moore, Reclining Figure, 1951, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Eventually artists like Isamu Noguchi, David Smith, Alexander Calder, Jean Tinguely, Richard Lippold, George Rickey Louise Bourgeois and Louise Nevelson came to characterize the look of modern sculpture. By the 1960s Abstract expressionism, Geometric abstraction and Minimalism as exemplified by the Cubi's of David Smith, and the welded steel work of Sir Anthony Caro, the large scale work of John Chamberlain, and Mark di Suvero, and the Minimalist works by Tony Smith, Robert Morris, Donald Judd, Larry Bell, Anne Truitt, Richard Serra, Dan Flavin and others led contemporary abstract sculpture in new directions.
Since the 1950s Modernist trends in sculpture both abstract and figurative have dominated the public imagination and the popularity of Modernist sculpture has all but eliminated the traditional approach. During the 1960s and 1970s figurative sculpture by modernist artists as stylized as Leonard Baskin, Ernest Trova, Marisol Escobar, Paul Thek and Manuel Neri became popular, and by the 1980s the painter Fernando Botero emerged with monumental figures reminiscent of the fat characters in his paintings. Picasso was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50-foot (15 m)-high public sculpture to be built in Chicago, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and somewhat controversial. What the figure represents is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks in downtown Chicago, was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of the city.
During the late 1950s and the 1960s abstract sculptors began experimenting with a wide array of new materials and different approaches to creating their work. Surrealist imagery, anthropomorphic abstraction, new materials and combinations of new energy sources and varied surfaces and objects became characteristic of much new modernist sculpture.

Gallery of Modernist sculpture

Postminimalism

Bill Bollinger, Eva Hesse, Sol LeWitt, Jackie Winsor, Keith Sonnier, Bruce Nauman, Lucas Samaras, and Robert Smithson among others were pioneers of Postminimalist sculpture.
Also during the 1960s and 1970s artists as diverse as Stephen Antonakis, Chryssa, Walter De Maria, Dan Flavin, Robert Smithson, Robert Irwin, Claes Oldenburg, George Segal, Edward Kienholz, Duane Hanson, and John DeAndrea explored abstraction, imagery and figuration through Light sculpture, and installation art in new ways.

Readymade

The term found art — more commonly found object (French: objet trouvé) or readymade — describes art created from the undisguised, but often modified, use of objects that are not normally considered art, often because they already have a mundane, utilitarian function. Marcel Duchamp was the originator of this in the early 20th-century with pieces such as Fountain.

Conceptual Art

Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. Works include One and Three Chairs, 1965, is by Joseph Kosuth, and An Oak Tree by Michael Craig-Martin.

Post-modernism

Post-modern sculpture occupies a broader field of activities than Modernist sculpture, as Rosalind Krauss has observed. Her idea of sculpture in the expanded field identified a series of oppositions that describe the various sculpture-like activities that are post-modern sculpture:
Site-Construction is the intersection of landscape and architecture
Axiomatic Structures is the combination of architecture and not-architecture
Marked sites is the combination of landscape and not-landscape
Sculpture is the intersection of not-landscape and not-architecture
Krauss' concern was creating a theoretical explanation that could adequately fit the developments of Land art, Minimalist sculpture, and Site-specific art into the category of sculpture. To do this, her explanation created a series of oppositions around the work's relationship to its environment.

Contemporary genres

Some modern sculpture forms are now practiced outdoors, and often in full view of spectators, thus giving them kinship to performance art in the eyes of some. Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material. It's popular in China, Japan, Canada, Sweden, and Russia. Ice sculptures feature decoratively in some cuisines, especially in Asia. Kinetic sculptures are sculptures that are designed to move, which include Mobiles. Snow sculptures are usually carved out of a single block of snow about 6 to 15 feet (4.6 m) on each side and weighing about 20 - 30 tons. The snow is densely packed into a form after having been produced by artificial means or collected from the ground after a snowfall. Sound sculptures take the form of indoor sound installations, outdoor installations such as aeolian harps, automatons, or be more or less near conventional musical instruments. Sound sculpture is often site-specific. A Sand castle can be regarded as a sand sculpture. Weightless Sculpture (in outer space) as a concept is created in 1985 by the Dutch artist Martin Sjardijn. Lego brick sculpting involves the use of common Lego bricks to build realistic or artistic sculptures sometimes using hundreds of thousands of bricks. Art toys have become an important format for contemporary artists since the late 1990s, such as those produced by Kid Robot, designed by Michael Lau, or hand-made by Michael Leavitt (artist).[12]

Social status

Nuremberg sculptor Adam Kraft, self-portrait from St Lorenz Church, 1490s.
Worldwide, sculptors have usually been tradesmen whose work is unsigned. But in the Classical world, many Ancient Greek sculptors like Phidias began to receive individual recognition in Periclean Athens, and became famous and presumably wealthy. In the Middle Ages, artists like the 12th century Gislebertus sometimes signed their work, and were sought after by different cities, especially from the Trecento onwards in Italy, with figures like Arnolfo di Cambio, Nicola Pisano and his son Giovanni. Many sculptors also practised in other arts, sometimes painting, like Andrea del Verrocchio, or architecture, like Giovanni Pisano, Michelangelo, or Jacopo Sansovino, and maintained large workshops.
From the High Renaissance artists like Michelangelo, Leone Leoni and Giambologna could become wealthy, and ennobled, and enter the circle of princes. Much decorative sculpture on buildings remained a trade, but sculptors producing individual pieces were recognised on a level with painters. From at least the 18th century, sculpture also attracted middle-class students, although it was slower to do so than painting. Equally women sculptors took longer to appear than women painters, and have generally been less prominent until the 20th century at least.

Techniques

Stone carving

Stone carving is an ancient activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone. Owing to the permanence of the material, evidence can be found that even the earliest societies indulged in some form of stone work. Petroglyphs (also called rock engravings) are perhaps the earliest form: images created by removing part of a rock surface which remains in situ, by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading. Monumental sculpture covers large works, and architectural sculpture, which is attached to buildings. Hardstone carving is the carving for artistic purposes of semi-precious stones such as jade, agate, onyx, rock crystal, sard or carnelian, and a general term for an object made in this way. Engraved gems are small carved gems, including cameos, originally used as seal rings.

Bronze sculpture

Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze". Common bronze alloys have the unusual and desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling the finest details of a mold. Their strength and lack of brittleness (ductility) is an advantage when figures in action are to be created, especially when compared to various ceramic or stone materials (see marble sculpture for several examples).

Wood carving

Arnold Henry Savage Landor, Making sculpture in Tibet, 1905
Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract in nature) or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object.

Casting

Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is (usually) poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solid casting is then ejected or broken out to complete the process.[13] Casting may be used to form hot liquid metals or various materials that cold set after mixing of components (such as epoxies, concrete, plaster and clay). Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.
Casting is a 6,000-year-old process.[14] The oldest surviving casting is a copper frog from 3200 BC.[14] The casting process is subdivided into two distinct subgroups: expendable and non-expendable mold casting.

Conservation

Effect of acid rain on sculptures
Sculptures are sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and exposure to light and ultraviolet light. Acid rain can also cause damage to certain building materials and historical monuments. This results when the sulfuric acid in the rain chemically reacts with the calcium compounds in the stones (limestone, sandstone, marble and granite) to create gypsum, which then flakes off.

Similar arts

Other arts which are related to sculpture:

See also

References

  1. ^ Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity September 22, 2007 Through January 20, 2008, The Arthur M. Sackler Museum
  2. ^ Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity September 22, 2007 Through January 20, 2008, The Arthur M. Sackler Museum
  3. ^ http://www.sculpturepainted.com/philosophy.html
  4. ^ http://www.flashpointmag.com/sculptur.htm
  5. ^ Castedo, Leopoldo, A History of Latin American Art and architecture, Frederick A. Praeger, Publisher, New York, 1969
  6. ^ Neumeyer, Alfred, The Indian Contribution to Architectural Decoration in Spanish Colonial America. The Art Bulletin, June 1948, Volume XXX, Number two
  7. ^ Curtis, Penelpoe, Taking Positions: Figurative Sculpture and the Third Reich, Henry Moore Institute, London, 2002
  8. ^ Visual arts in the 20th century, Author Edward Lucie-Smith, Edition illustrated, Publisher Harry N. Abrams, 1997,Original from the University of Michigan,ISBN 0810939347, 9780810939349
  9. ^ Constantin Brancusi , Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008 http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Constantin_Brancusi.aspx
  10. ^ The Oxford dictionary of American art and artists, Author Ann Lee Morgan, Publisher Oxford University Press, 2007,Original from the University of Michigan,ISBN 0195128788, 9780195128789
  11. ^ National Air and Space Museum Receives "Ascent" Sculpture for display at Udvar-Hazy Center http://www.nasm.si.edu/events/pressroom/releaseDetail.cfm?releaseID=49
  12. ^ "Art Army by Michael Leavitt", hypediss.com[1], December 13, 2006.
  13. ^ "Flash animation of the lost-wax casting process". James Peniston Sculpture. http://www.jepsculpture.com/bronze.shtml. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  14. ^ a b Ravi, B. (2004), Metal Casting - Overview, IIT Bombay, http://www.energymanagertraining.com/foundries/pdf/CDA1.pdf .

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Contents

Sculpture as an art-form is extrordinary, moving, special and a wonderful hands on experience for all who try it. Sculpture has been created by human beings for thousands of year and is still being created today. A work of sculpture can be created with any number of tools and materials. Sculpture is a great way to create works of art and every student can become a [sculptor]
Unlike with painting that is flat, sculpture interacts with the view directly because the artwork and the audience share the same space. It allows students and artist to create a work of art that exists in reality as it exists in real space.
I think the article should start off as a history of sculpture and then go into technique.

History

Our sister site, Wikipedia, offers an abundance of information about the history of sculpture. Click Here to see that information. You may also want to check out the many Subcategories on Wikipedia - where you can find information on anything from glassblowing to sculpture gardens to wax figures.

Material

Every piece of sculpture, and every object manufactured, depends upon its material and process for it's appearance and aesthetic. Sculptors often have a love / hate relationship with their material, but (without too much romance slipping into this) if you are interested in sculpture, the important notion to bear in mind is this- The material is a fundamental part of the development of the idea, the process (or tools if you like) is in there with its contribution, and the artists ideas have to be negotiated through the process of making, not developed and set first then 'illustrated in the material'. Good Examples- Mayan sculpture and Easter Island heads - made with hard stone, and no metal tools, have a powerful, compact, broad aesthetic, made by banging one stone with a harder one - in all the right places of course. They have as much spirit and quality as -at the opposite extreme- Giovanni Bernini's 'Ecstacy of Saint Teresa' the theatrical Baroque masterwork, because it's made of marble (subtle, easy to cut with superbly forged steel tools, takes a high polish, etc.) and is able to imitate flesh or drapery and to appear almost weightless. Different stuff, different cultures, different stories, however, same human spirit and thus same efforts to understand.
The next important consideration is GRAVITY. We are hard wired to understand a world where gravity is always in place, and we understand objects in relation to it, we also read two dimensional images in relation to our gravity field existence.

Technique

Carving

Carving Techniques

Casting

Type of casting.

Found Object

Mixed Media

Elements

Contributors

  • Hart County High School, Hartwell Georgia

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SCULPTURE (Lat. sculptura, from sculpere, to carve, cognate with Gr. -yX14 av), a general term for the plastic art of .carving, especially in stone and marble, but also in such materials as wood (see Wood-Carving), ivory (see Ivory), metal (see Metalwork) and gems (see GEM).^ X14 av), a general term for the plastic art of carving , especially in stone and marble , but also in such materials as wood (see Wood-Carving ), ivory (see Ivory ), metal (see Metalwork ) and gems (see GEM ).

^ The Egyptian sculptor used clay, wood, metal, ivory, and stone.
  • Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC 42explore.com [Source type: General]

^ A sculptor is a person who creates three dimensional works of art from different kinds of materials like stone, wood, metal as well as plastic.

.The production of bronze statues by the cire perdue (anglice, " lost wax ") process is described in the article Metal-Work; until (since its revival) recent times but little practised in Europe outside of Paris, it has now invaded most countries where fine casting is appreciated, and where naturalistic rendering is desired.^ Cast Bronze via the "Lost Wax Tradition" 2 metres high.
  • Sculpture Australia - Terrance Plowright Sculpture Gallery 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.sculpture.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allows for easier production of the wax and easier casting of the bronze.
  • Bronze Dreams - About Sculpting In Bronze 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.bronzedreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cast Bronze via the "Lost Wax Tradition" 2 metres high."> .
  • Sculpture Australia - Terrance Plowright Sculpture Gallery 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.sculpture.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are signs, however, of its being ousted for a certain class of handling by the " galvanoplastic " method - a system of copper deposit by an electrical process - whereby " going over " the work after it has been reproduced in metal is avoided.^ There are signs, however, of its being ousted for a certain class of handling by the " galvanoplastic " method - a system of copper deposit by an electrical process - whereby " going over " the work after it has been reproduced in metal is avoided.

^ After dropping off the clay figure (and a fat check) at the foundry, the rest of process is largely in the hands of the highly skilled artisans that work there.
  • Bronze Dreams - About Sculpting In Bronze 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.bronzedreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was followed by " Mysteriarch," heralding a class of work with which the artist has since identified himself; for being in open rebellion against " white sculpture," he thenceforward devoted himself to colour.

.' For the execution of a marble statue the sculptor first models a finished preliminary sketch on a small scale in clay or wax.^ For the execution of a marble statue the sculptor first models a finished preliminary sketch on a small scale in clay or wax.

^ When the clay model is finished it is cast in plaster .

^ Hand modeling in wax, papier-mch, or clay remains unaltered, although the firing of the clay from simple terra-cotta to elaborately glazed ceramics has varied greatly.
  • Wood Sculpture Art Gallery Fine Carving Wooden Masterworks 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC woodroyal.com [Source type: General]

.He then, in the case of a life-size or colossal statue, has a sort of iron skeleton set up, with stout bars for the arms and legs, fixed in the pose of the future figure.^ He then, in the case of a life-size or colossal statue, has a sort of iron skeleton set up, with stout bars for the arms and legs, fixed in the pose of the future figure.

^ His life-size recumbent statue " Awakening " is among the best of his figures.

^ Spring is a 2-figure, life-size bronze piece of two college-age students situated in poses as if between classes studying.
  • Hamilton, Ohio, City of Sculpture - SCULPTURE 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.cityofsculpture.org [Source type: General]

This is called the " armature." It is placed on a stand, called a chassis, with a revolving top, so that the sculptor can easily turn the whole model round and thus work with the light on any side of it. .Over this iron skeleton well-tempered modelling-clay is laid and is modelled into shape by the help of wood and bone tools; without the sustaining assistance of the ironwork a soft clay figure, if more than a few inches high, would collapse with its own weight and squeeze the lower part out of shape.^ Then sculpt in modeling clay (such as Plastine or Sculpey) or carve/rasp in wood or soft stone a small-scale model of an animal or person.
  • Sculpture - MeritBadgeDotOrg 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC meritbadge.org [Source type: General]
  • Sculpture Merit Badge 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC usscouts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I spend additional time alone with the clay figure, smoothing it with silicon tipped modeling tools and small artist's paint brushes loaded with a gentle solvent (Avon's Skin So Soft).
  • Bronze Dreams - About Sculpting In Bronze 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.bronzedreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the wax hardened into a shell between a quarter and a half inch thick, the excess wax was poured out leaving a hollow wax model whose exterior replicated the forms and surface textures of the original clay model.
  • Ella Sharp Museum - About Us - Outdoor Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.ellasharp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the modelling is in progress it is necessary to keep the clay moist and plastic by squirting water on to it with a sort of garden syringe capped with a finely perforated rose.^ While the modelling is in progress it is necessary to keep the clay moist and plastic by squirting water on to it with a sort of garden syringe capped with a finely perforated rose .

^ A modern improvement is to mix the modelling-clay, not with water, but with stearin and glycerin ; this, while keeping the clay soft and plastic, has the great advantage of not being wet, and so the sculptor avoids the chill and consequent risk of rheumatism which follow from a constant manipulation of wet clay.

^ Sculpey Modeling Tool Set Easy to hold plastic tools for working with epoxy and polymer (Sculpey) clay.
  • Sculpting Figures Products 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.michtoy.com [Source type: General]

.When the sculptor is not at work the whole figure is kept wrapped up in damp cloths.^ When the sculptor is not at work the whole figure is kept wrapped up in damp cloths.

^ Among his most charming works are "Death and the Sculptor" (Art Institute, Chicago ) and the O'Reilly memorial in Boston , with a beautiful figure of Erin mourning.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is placed on a stand, called a chassis , with a revolving top, so that the sculptor can easily turn the whole model round and thus work with the light on any side of it.

.A modern improvement is to mix the modelling-clay, not with water, but with stearin and glycerin; this, while keeping the clay soft and plastic, has the great advantage of not being wet, and so the sculptor avoids the chill and consequent risk of rheumatism which follow from a constant manipulation of wet clay.^ Then sculpt in modeling clay (such as Plastine or Sculpey) or carve/rasp in wood or soft stone a small-scale model of an animal or person.
  • Sculpture Merit Badge 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC usscouts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will use low fire water base clay so the students can have their sculptures fired in a kiln, thus avoiding the expense of molds and bronze casting costs.
  • Sculpture Workshops and Classes for Learning Sculpting Techniques 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.artshow.com [Source type: General]

^ Figurative Sculpture February 1-5, 2010 (9 AM - 4 PM) — This workshop will consist of day-to-day instruction in modeling with water-based clay.
  • Sculpture Workshops and Classes for Learning Sculpting Techniques 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.artshow.com [Source type: General]

.This method, however, has not been very extensively adopted.^ This method, however, has not been very extensively adopted.

.When the clay model is finished it is cast in plaster.^ Plaster can be carved, modeled, and casted.
  • Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.trueart.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the clay model is finished it is cast in plaster .

^ For the execution of a marble statue the sculptor first models a finished preliminary sketch on a small scale in clay or wax.

.A " piece-mould " 1 is formed by applying patches of wet plaster of Paris all over the clay statue in such a way that they can be removed piecemeal from the model, and then be fitted together again, forming a complete hollow mould.^ When the clay model is finished it is cast in plaster .

^ A " piece- mould " 1 is formed by applying patches of wet plaster of Paris all over the clay statue in such a way that they can be removed piecemeal from the model, and then be fitted together again, forming a complete hollow mould.

^ The over 9-foot stainless steel piece is polished in such a way that, according to the artist, "on a dull day, they take on a dull blue, or the color of the sky in the late afternoon sun."
  • Princeton Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.princetonol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The inside is then rinsed out with plaster and water mixed to the consistency of cream till a skin of plaster is formed all over the inner surface of the mould, and thus a hollow cast is made of the whole figure.^ The inside is then rinsed out with plaster and water mixed to the consistency of cream till a skin of plaster is formed all over the inner surface of the mould, and thus a hollow cast is made of the whole figure.

^ Once the wax hardened into a shell between a quarter and a half inch thick, the excess wax was poured out leaving a hollow wax model whose exterior replicated the forms and surface textures of the original clay model.
  • Ella Sharp Museum - About Us - Outdoor Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.ellasharp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After he has blocked out the main masses and planes that define the outer limits of the forms, he works progressively over the whole sculpture, first carving the larger containing forms and planes and then the smaller ones until eventually the surface details are reached.
  • Wood Sculpture Art Gallery Fine Carving Wooden Masterworks 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC woodroyal.com [Source type: General]

.The " piece-mould " is then taken to pieces and the casting set free.^ The " piece-mould " is then taken to pieces and the casting set free.

^ A large number of casts can be made from a " piece-mould," but only one from a " spoil-mould."

^ The model is set on a large block called a " scale stone," while the 1 Moulds made in one or few pieces, from which the cast can only be extracted by destroying the mould, are called " spoil-moulds."

.If skilfully done by a good formatore or moulder the plaster cast is a perfect facsimile of the original clay, very slightly disfigured by a series of lines showing the joints in the piece-mould, the sections of which cannot be made to fit together with absolute precision.^ If skilfully done by a good formatore or moulder the plaster cast is a perfect facsimile of the original clay, very slightly disfigured by a series of lines showing the joints in the piece-mould, the sections of which cannot be made to fit together with absolute precision.

^ When the clay model is finished it is cast in plaster .

^ Then the pulp is cast into molds which were made from original clay sculptures.
  • sculpture – Neatorama 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

.Many sculptors have their clay model cast in plaster before the modelling is quite finished, as they prefer to put the finishing touches on the plaster cast - good plaster being a very easy and pleasant substance to work on.^ Plaster can be carved, modeled, and casted.
  • Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.trueart.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have lots of good modeling tools.
  • Hirst Arts Sculpting Page 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.hirstarts.com [Source type: General]

^ Plaster can be finished in many ways.
  • Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.trueart.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The next stage is to copy the plaster model in marble.^ The next stage is to copy the plaster model in marble.

.The model is set on a large block called a " scale stone," while the 1 Moulds made in one or few pieces, from which the cast can only be extracted by destroying the mould, are called " spoil-moulds."^ A large number of casts can be made from a " piece-mould," but only one from a " spoil-mould."

^ The model is set on a large block called a " scale stone," while the 1 Moulds made in one or few pieces, from which the cast can only be extracted by destroying the mould, are called " spoil-moulds."

^ The " piece-mould " is then taken to pieces and the casting set free.

.A large number of casts can be made from a " piece-mould," but only one from a " spoil-mould."^ A large number of casts can be made from a " piece-mould," but only one from a " spoil-mould."

^ The model is set on a large block called a " scale stone," while the 1 Moulds made in one or few pieces, from which the cast can only be extracted by destroying the mould, are called " spoil-moulds."

^ It is genuine and the only one made by WoodRoyal Studio.
  • Wood Sculpture Art Gallery Fine Carving Wooden Masterworks 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC woodroyal.com [Source type: General]

marble for the future statue is set upon another similar block. .The plaster model is then covered with a series of marks, placed on all the most salient parts of the body, and the front of each " scale stone " is covered with another series of points, exactly the same on both stones.^ Do not use plaster for body part casts.
  • Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.trueart.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plaster model is then covered with a series of marks, placed on all the most salient parts of the body, and the front of each " scale stone " is covered with another series of points, exactly the same on both stones.

^ Looking through the windows though, I saw a courtyard with another walkway, some more landscaped areas, and, right where I thought "x marks the spot" might be, I saw an area with a tree and, of most interest, a manhole cover.
  • Elonka's Kryptos Page 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.elonka.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An ingenious instrument called a pointing machine, which has arms ending in metal points or " needles " that move in ball-socket joints, is placed between the model and the marble block.^ An ingenious instrument called a pointing machine, which has arms ending in metal points or " needles " that move in ball -socket joints, is placed between the model and the marble block.

^ Pointing is the traditional method of enlarging models using an elaborate measuring system (and sometimes a specialized measuring tool called a pointing machine) to shape the enlargement at hundreds of measuring points on the sculptural surface.
  • Ella Sharp Museum - About Us - Outdoor Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.ellasharp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I cut the joints of this nylon fiber and moved the arm toward its head, but as I bend it, the arm keeps wanting to spring back,” he says, describing the delicate process.
  • sculpture – Neatorama 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

.Two of its arms are then applied to the model, one touching a point on the scale stone while the other touches a mark on the figure.^ Two of its arms are then applied to the model, one touching a point on the scale stone while the other touches a mark on the figure.

^ The earliest inscribed and dated stone sculptures were the pair of Trivikrama (Vis*n*uvikra-nta) figures of A.D. 467, one in the National Museum and the other at Tilganga, Pashupati (5) .
  • A Kushan Period Sculpture on Asianart.com 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.asianart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One end of each column retains the block shape and rough natural surfaces of the original stone, while the other end has been shaped into a smooth, elegantly tapered conical form.
  • Minneapolis Sculpture Garden | Artwork 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC garden.walkerart.org [Source type: General]

.The arms are fixed by screws in this position, and the machine is then revolved to the marble block, and set with its lower needle touching the corresponding point on the scale stone.^ The arms are fixed by screws in this position, and the machine is then revolved to the marble block, and set with its lower needle touching the corresponding point on the scale stone.

^ He then, in the case of a life-size or colossal statue, has a sort of iron skeleton set up, with stout bars for the arms and legs, fixed in the pose of the future figure.

^ An ingenious instrument called a pointing machine, which has arms ending in metal points or " needles " that move in ball -socket joints, is placed between the model and the marble block.

.The upper needle, which is arranged to slide back on its own axis, cannot reach the corresponding point on the statue because the marble block is in the way; a hole is then drilled into the block at the place and in the direction indicated by the needle, till the latter can slide forward so as to reach a point sunk in the marble block exactly corresponding to the point it touched on the plaster mould.^ Pencil points are transformed into beads by drilling holes into each.
  • Fantastic Pencil Sculptures Of Jennifer Maestre 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ The upper needle, which is arranged to slide back on its own axis, cannot reach the corresponding point on the statue because the marble block is in the way; a hole is then drilled into the block at the place and in the direction indicated by the needle, till the latter can slide forward so as to reach a point sunk in the marble block exactly corresponding to the point it touched on the plaster mould.

^ Marble animal statues placed next to the trees or bushes, near the water ponds and pools or even in the lawn will enhance the natural themes to the outdoor environments.
  • Marble Animal Sculpture Stone Animal Statue Figurines 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.amlinkmarble.com [Source type: General]

.This process is repeated both on the model and on the marble block till the latter is drilled with a number of holes, the bottoms of which correspond in position to the number of marks made on the surface of the model.^ This process is repeated both on the model and on the marble block till the latter is drilled with a number of holes, the bottoms of which correspond in position to the number of marks made on the surface of the model.

^ The upper needle, which is arranged to slide back on its own axis, cannot reach the corresponding point on the statue because the marble block is in the way; a hole is then drilled into the block at the place and in the direction indicated by the needle, till the latter can slide forward so as to reach a point sunk in the marble block exactly corresponding to the point it touched on the plaster mould.

^ An ingenious instrument called a pointing machine, which has arms ending in metal points or " needles " that move in ball -socket joints, is placed between the model and the marble block.

.A comparatively unskilled scarpellino or " chisel-man " then sets to work and cuts away the marble till he has reached the bottoms of all the holes, beyond which he must not cut.^ A comparatively unskilled scarpellino or " chisel -man " then sets to work and cuts away the marble till he has reached the bottoms of all the holes, beyond which he must not cut.

^ Ozma To make the pencil sculptures , she takes hundreds of pencils, cut them into 1-inch sections, drill a hole in each section, sharpen them all and sew them together.
  • Fantastic Pencil Sculptures Of Jennifer Maestre 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ But it must always suggest the man with the anvil , shears , and pincers, rather than the man with the clay and the chisel.

.The statue is thus roughly blocked out, and a more skilled scarpellino begins to work.^ The statue is thus roughly blocked out, and a more skilled scarpellino begins to work.

^ Working out for only a short period I became stronger and had much more endurance than ever before.
  • Eddie Baran - Body Sculpting Bodyweight Exercises for Women 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.eddiebaran.com [Source type: General]

^ About the beginning of the 19th century the sculptor Kamenski inaugurated a more realistic tendency by his work which was inspired by contemporary life.

.Partly by eye and partly with the constant help of the pointing machine, which is used to give any required measurements, the workman almost completes the marble statue, leaving only the finishing touches to be done by the sculptor.^ Partly by eye and partly with the constant help of the pointing machine, which is used to give any required measurements, the workman almost completes the marble statue, leaving only the finishing touches to be done by the sculptor.

^ Then he gives the surface whatever finish is required.
  • Wood Sculpture Art Gallery Fine Carving Wooden Masterworks 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC woodroyal.com [Source type: General]

^ Starting with a solid block, the carver or sculptor removes material using chisels, hammers and other tools to reveal the finished form.

.In the opinion of many artists the use of the mechanical pointing-machine is responsible in a great measure for the loss of life and fire in much of modern sculpture.^ In the opinion of many artists the use of the mechanical pointing-machine is responsible in a great measure for the loss of life and fire in much of modern sculpture.

^ Pointing is the traditional method of enlarging models using an elaborate measuring system (and sometimes a specialized measuring tool called a pointing machine) to shape the enlargement at hundreds of measuring points on the sculptural surface.
  • Ella Sharp Museum - About Us - Outdoor Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.ellasharp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ V. Caramagno is one of our most talented contemporary artists and sculptors who is crafting his modern bronze sculptures.
  • Online Art Gallery of Limited Editions Bronze Sculptures by various artists - unique gift ideas for corporate, business and personalized gifts - modern and contemporary art by european sculptors and artists. 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC buysculpture.com [Source type: General]

.Among the ancient Greeks and Romans and in the medieval period it was the custom to give the nude parts of a marble statue a considerable degree of polish, which really suggests the somewhat glossy surface of the human skin very much better than the full loaf-sugar-like surface which is left on the marble by most modern sculptors.^ Among the ancient Greeks and Romans and in the medieval period it was the custom to give the nude parts of a marble statue a considerable degree of polish, which really suggests the somewhat glossy surface of the human skin very much better than the full loaf - sugar -like surface which is left on the marble by most modern sculptors.

^ It really doesn't get better than this!
  • Glorious Garden Gifts - Garden Statues,Garden Sculptures,Angel Sculptures,Bird feeders,Bird baths,St Francis Statue,Garden Angels,Solar Power Garden Decor,Lion Statues,Religious Garden decor,Fairie lanterns,Hammocks,Hammock chair,Garden Gifts,fountains,accessories 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC reigninggifts.com [Source type: General]

^ Until a few decades ago scholars generally were of the opinion that the ancient sculptors used no other tints than the original colour of the marble; but closer investigation of the antique monuments as well as of the accounts in ancient literature prove beyond doubt that the Greeks slightly tinted their statues, as was necessary when they placed them in richly decorated interiors.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This high polish still remains in parts of the pedimental figures from the Parthenon, where, at the back, they have been specially protected from the weather.^ This high polish still remains in parts of the pedimental figures from the Parthenon , where, at the back, they have been specially protected from the weather.

^ The special form of the tetragons in the pT of Figure 11 is that they are tri-equiangular kites, meaning that three of each kite's angles are equal.
  • Sculpture Based on Propellorized Polyhedra 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.georgehart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ravenna; while the figures below the Christ are survivals of a still older time, dating back from the best eras of classic art.

.The Hermes of the Vatican Belvidere is a remarkable instance of the preservation of this polish.^ The Hermes of the Vatican Belvidere is a remarkable instance of the preservation of this polish.

.Michelangelo carried the practice further still, and gave certain parts of some of his statues, such as the Moses, the highest possible polish in order to produce high lights just where he wanted them; the artistic legitimacy of this may perhaps be doubted, and in weak hands it might degenerate into mere trickery.^ Michelangelo carried the practice further still, and gave certain parts of some of his statues, such as the Moses , the highest possible polish in order to produce high lights just where he wanted them; the artistic legitimacy of this may perhaps be doubted, and in weak hands it might degenerate into mere trickery.

^ Here, he carved numerous hatchings and striations into the original plaster before casting it in bronze and gave further detail to the surface in the carefully applied patina.
  • Minneapolis Sculpture Garden | Artwork 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC garden.walkerart.org [Source type: General]

^ Some polishing materials such as tripoli are highly toxic if inhaled in powder form.
  • Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.trueart.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is, however, much to be desired that modern sculptors should to some extent at least adopt the classical practice, and by a slight but uniform polish remove the disagreeable crystalline grain from all the nude parts of the marble.^ It is, however, much to be desired that modern sculptors should to some extent at least adopt the classical practice, and by a slight but uniform polish remove the disagreeable crystalline grain from all the nude parts of the marble.

^ Among the ancient Greeks and Romans and in the medieval period it was the custom to give the nude parts of a marble statue a considerable degree of polish, which really suggests the somewhat glossy surface of the human skin very much better than the full loaf - sugar -like surface which is left on the marble by most modern sculptors.

^ Unhappily some modern sculptors not only leave all manipulation of the marble to their workmen, but they also employ men to do their modelling, colloquially termed " ghosts," the supposed sculptor supplying little or nothing but his sketch and his name to the work.

.A rougher method of obtaining fixed points to measure from was occasionally employed by Michelangelo and earlier sculptors.^ A rougher method of obtaining fixed points to measure from was occasionally employed by Michelangelo and earlier sculptors.

.They immersed the model in a tank of water, the water being gradually allowed to run out, and thus by its sinking level it gave a series of contour lines on any required number of planes.^ They immersed the model in a tank of water, the water being gradually allowed to run out, and thus by its sinking level it gave a series of contour lines on any required number of planes.

.In some cases Michelangelo appears to have cut his statue out of the marble without previously making a model - a marvellous feat of skill.^ In some cases Michelangelo appears to have cut his statue out of the marble without previously making a model - a marvellous feat of skill.

^ Sharp cutting edges and knurled gripping surfaces give you the control necessary for precision pattern and model making.
  • Sculpting Figures Products 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.michtoy.com [Source type: General]

^ For the execution of a marble statue the sculptor first models a finished preliminary sketch on a small scale in clay or wax.

.In modelling bas-reliefs the modern sculptor usually applies the clay to a slab of slate on which the design is sketched; the slate forms the background of the figures, and thus keeps the relief absolutely true to one plane.^ Relief sculpture - - Modern forms of sculpture .
  • sculpture -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ In modelling bas-reliefs the modern sculptor usually applies the clay to a slab of slate on which the design is sketched; the slate forms the background of the figures, and thus keeps the relief absolutely true to one plane.

^ A modern improvement is to mix the modelling-clay, not with water, but with stearin and glycerin ; this, while keeping the clay soft and plastic, has the great advantage of not being wet, and so the sculptor avoids the chill and consequent risk of rheumatism which follow from a constant manipulation of wet clay.

.This method is one of the causes of the dulness and want of spirit so conspicuous in most modern sculptured reliefs.^ This method is one of the causes of the dulness and want of spirit so conspicuous in most modern sculptured reliefs.

^ Relief sculpture - - Modern forms of sculpture .
  • sculpture -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ V. Caramagno is one of our most talented contemporary artists and sculptors who is crafting his modern bronze sculptures.
  • Online Art Gallery of Limited Editions Bronze Sculptures by various artists - unique gift ideas for corporate, business and personalized gifts - modern and contemporary art by european sculptors and artists. 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC buysculpture.com [Source type: General]

.In the best Greek examples there is no absolutely fixed plane surface for the backgrounds.^ In the best Greek examples there is no absolutely fixed plane surface for the backgrounds.

^ There is no sculptor who has come nearer to obtaining the grandeur of form which is so wonderful in the Greek masterpieces.

^ Although the polychromatic work of the Renaissance, for example, may keep its place, it is held to clash with the idea of sculptural art; for though there is no absolute approach to imitation, there is a very strong suggestion of it.

.In one place, to gain an effective shadow, the Greek sculptor would cut below the average surface; in another he would leave the ground at a higher plane, ] exactly as happened to suit each portion of his design.^ In one place, to gain an effective shadow , the Greek sculptor would cut below the average surface; in another he would leave the ground at a higher plane, ] exactly as happened to suit each portion of his design.

^ One not altogether legitimate method of gaining effect was practised by some medieval sculptors: the relief itself was kept very low, but was " stilted " or projected from the ground, and then undercut all round the outline.

^ This is not an uncommon design for this date, but it is an especially effective one.
  • Ella Sharp Museum - About Us - Outdoor Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.ellasharp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other differences from the modern mechanical rules can easily be seen by a careful examination of the Parthenon frieze and other Greek reliefs.^ Other differences from the modern mechanical rules can easily be seen by a careful examination of the Parthenon frieze and other Greek reliefs.

^ In his wide use of coloured decoration, as in other respects, the medieval sculptor came far nearer to the ancient Greek than do any modern artists.

^ This is seen in the bronze pillar reliefs and other works, notably the bronze gates of Hildesheim Cathedral, produced by Bishop Bernward (d.

.Though the word " bas-relief " is now often applied to reliefs of all degrees of projection from the ground, it should, of course, only be used for those in which the projection is slight; " basso," " mezzo " and " alto rilievo " express three different degrees of salience.^ Though the word " bas-relief " is now often applied to reliefs of all degrees of projection from the ground, it should, of course, only be used for those in which the projection is slight; " basso," " mezzo " and " alto rilievo " express three different degrees of salience.

^ There are two principal kinds of relief: Low Relief (bas-relief, basso-rilievo ), the figures of which have only a limited thickness, and in which the appearance of solidity is achieved by the effect of light and shade; and High Relief (grand-relief, alto-rilievo ), in which the figures sometimes appear entirely in the round.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is divided into three tiers of statuettes and reliefs, richly framed in canopied niches, all of silver, partly cast and partly hammered.

.Very low relief is but little used by modern sculptors, mainly because it is much easier to obtain striking effects with the help of more projection.^ Very low relief is but little used by modern sculptors, mainly because it is much easier to obtain striking effects with the help of more projection.

^ Each section is arranged according to difficulty, beginning with the easier exercises and ending with the more advanced ones, as progression will help ensure you are continually improving.
  • Body Sculpting Bodyweight Exercises For Women by Eddie Baran 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.bodyweightbasics.com [Source type: General]

^ Very beautiful sepulchral effigies in low relief were produced in many parts of Italy, especially at Florence.

.Donatello and other 15th-century Italian artists showed the most wonderful skill in their treatment of very low relief.^ Donatello and other 15th-century Italian artists showed the most wonderful skill in their treatment of very low relief.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

^ In Spain, in the early part of the ,6th century, a strong Italian influence superseded that of France and Germany, partly owing to the presence there of the Florentine Torrigiano S and other Italian artists.

.One not altogether legitimate method of gaining effect was practised by some medieval sculptors: the relief itself was kept very low, but was " stilted " or projected from the ground, and then undercut all round the outline.^ One not altogether legitimate method of gaining effect was practised by some medieval sculptors: the relief itself was kept very low, but was " stilted " or projected from the ground, and then undercut all round the outline.

^ Though the word " bas-relief " is now often applied to reliefs of all degrees of projection from the ground, it should, of course, only be used for those in which the projection is slight; " basso," " mezzo " and " alto rilievo " express three different degrees of salience.

^ This method is one of the causes of the dulness and want of spirit so conspicuous in most modern sculptured reliefs.

.A 15th-century tabernacle for the host in the Brera at Milan is a very beautiful example of this method, which as a rule is not pleasing in effect, since it looks rather as if the figures were cut out in cardboard and then stuck on (see Relief) .^ I got lucky on this one… it was a piece of steel that was left over from some other cut out pieces I was working on, and I could kind of see the design struggling to get out.
  • John T Unger Artist's Portfolio: sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.johntunger.com [Source type: General]

^ This one took me a while just to figure out what I was looking at!
  • sculpture – Neatorama 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ You see, artist Ron van der Ende creates works like this out of found wood – and makes bas relief sculptures.
  • sculpture – Neatorama 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

.The practice of most modern sculptors is to do very little to the marble with their own hands; some, in fact, have never really learnt how to carve, and thus the finished statue is often very dull and lifeless in comparison assistants. S' p with the clay model.^ V. Caramagno is one of our most talented contemporary artists and sculptors who is crafting his modern bronze sculptures.
  • Online Art Gallery of Limited Editions Bronze Sculptures by various artists - unique gift ideas for corporate, business and personalized gifts - modern and contemporary art by european sculptors and artists. 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC buysculpture.com [Source type: General]

^ Learning hands-on processes with wire, clay, cardboard and plaster help you understand visual and structural relationships defined by additive and subtractive methods: modeling, carving and fabricated construction.
  • Sculpture Workshops and Classes for Learning Sculpting Techniques 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.artshow.com [Source type: General]

^ Close-up of a person s hands carving a statue of Buddha on wood ...
  • Sculptor Stock Photo Images. 490 Sculptor royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 19 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.Most of the great sculptors of the middle ages left little or nothing to be done by an assistant; Michelangelo especially did the whole of the carving with his own hands, and when beginning on a block of marble attacked it with such vigorous strokes of the hammer that large pieces of marble flew about in every direction.^ Most of the great sculptors of the middle ages left little or nothing to be done by an assistant; Michelangelo especially did the whole of the carving with his own hands, and when beginning on a block of marble attacked it with such vigorous strokes of the hammer that large pieces of marble flew about in every direction.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

^ Rodin made his home in the midst of Greek statues, a museum of the antique which he collected at Meudon ; and some of his own late work, such as the male torsos which he exhibited at the Salon, has a direct relationship to the marbles of the Parthenon - the Ilyssus and the Theseus.

.But skill as a carver, though very desirable, is not absolutely necessary for a sculptor.^ But skill as a carver, though very desirable, is not absolutely necessary for a sculptor.

^ As a rule, however, the sculptor's scarpellino, though he may and often does attain the highest skill as a carver and can copy almost anything with wonderful fidelity, seldom develops into an original artist.

^ Nollekens (1737-1823), a pupil of Scheemakers, though one of the most popular sculptors of the 18th century, was a man of very little real ability.

.If he casts in bronze by the cire perdue process he may produce the most perfect plastic works without touching anything harder than the modelling-wax., The sculptor in marble, however, must be able to carve a hard substance if he is to be master of his art.^ The casting of these figures, which was effected by the cire perdue process, is technically very perfect.

^ Many different types of waxes are used for modeling, carving, and casting.
  • Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.trueart.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If he casts in bronze by the cire perdue process he may produce the most perfect plastic works without touching anything harder than the modelling-wax., The sculptor in marble, however, must be able to carve a hard substance if he is to be master of his art.

.Unhappily some modern sculptors not only leave all manipulation of the marble to their workmen, but they also employ men to do their modelling, colloquially termed " ghosts," the supposed sculptor supplying little or nothing but his sketch and his name to the work.^ Unhappily some modern sculptors not only leave all manipulation of the marble to their workmen, but they also employ men to do their modelling, colloquially termed " ghosts," the supposed sculptor supplying little or nothing but his sketch and his name to the work.

^ A modern improvement is to mix the modelling-clay, not with water, but with stearin and glycerin ; this, while keeping the clay soft and plastic, has the great advantage of not being wet, and so the sculptor avoids the chill and consequent risk of rheumatism which follow from a constant manipulation of wet clay.

^ It is, however, much to be desired that modern sculptors should to some extent at least adopt the classical practice, and by a slight but uniform polish remove the disagreeable crystalline grain from all the nude parts of the marble.

.The practice, however, is less common nowadays than formerly,owing mainly to one or two exposures which brought the matter sharply before the public.^ The practice, however, is less common nowadays than formerly,owing mainly to one or two exposures which brought the matter sharply before the public.

.In some cases sculptors of ability who suffer under an excess of popularity are induced to employ aid of this kind on account of their undertaking more work than any one man could possibly accomplish - a state of things which is necessarily very hostile to the interests of true art.^ In some cases sculptors of ability who suffer under an excess of popularity are induced to employ aid of this kind on account of their undertaking more work than any one man could possibly accomplish - a state of things which is necessarily very hostile to the interests of true art.

^ This nationally and internationally celebrated Japanese stone sculptor has spent more than two decades devoted to his art and now sees his works prominently displayed in numerous public places across Japan.
  • Sculptor.org - Commission A Sculptor 19 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.sculptor.org [Source type: General]

^ The work of these sculptors, notwithstanding great formal beauty and technical ability, reveals a certain coldness and smoothness; and since 1560 secular subjects are preferred.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a rule, however, the sculptor's scarpellino, though he may and often does attain the highest skill as a carver and can copy almost anything with wonderful fidelity, seldom develops into an original artist.^ As a rule, however, the sculptor's scarpellino, though he may and often does attain the highest skill as a carver and can copy almost anything with wonderful fidelity, seldom develops into an original artist.

^ But skill as a carver, though very desirable, is not absolutely necessary for a sculptor.

^ J. D. Boehm devoted himself almost entirely to goldsmith-work and medals, but with the aid of his great collections he taught the new generation and helped to develop original talent.

.The popular admiration for pieces of clever trickery in sculpture, such as the carving of the open meshes of a fisherman's net, or a chain with each link free and movable, or a veil over and half revealing the features of the face, would perhaps be diminished if it were known that such work as this is invariably done, not by the sculptor, but by the scarpellino. Unhappily at the present day there is, especially in England, little appreciation of what is valuable in plastic art; there is probably no other civilized country where the State does so little to give practical support to the advancement of monumental and decorative sculpture on a large scale - the most important branch of the art - which is hardly in the power of private persons to further.^ Unhappily at the present day there is, especially in England , little appreciation of what is valuable in plastic art; there is probably no other civilized country where the State does so little to give practical support to the advancement of monumental and decorative sculpture on a large scale - the most important branch of the art - which is hardly in the power of private persons to further.

^ The popular admiration for pieces of clever trickery in sculpture, such as the carving of the open meshes of a fisherman's net , or a chain with each link free and movable, or a veil over and half revealing the features of the face, would perhaps be diminished if it were known that such work as this is invariably done, not by the sculptor, but by the scarpellino.

^ It is difficult indeed in the present state of our knowledge to account for its presence in Nepal, especially because of the existence of...a yawning gap in style and chronological affiliation between it and the earliest dated sculptural pieces known".
  • A Kushan Period Sculpture on Asianart.com 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.asianart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may here be well to say a few words on the technical methods employed in the execution of medieval sculpture, which in the main were very similar in England, France and Germany.^ It may here be well to say a few words on the technical methods employed in the execution of medieval sculpture, which in the main were very similar in England, France and Germany .

^ We can only devote a few words to them here.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The conditions for sculpture were especially favourable in Italy , where the chief attention was centred, not as in Germany or in France in the decoration of the portals and façade , but in pulpits , altars, and sepulchral monuments.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When bronze was used - in England as a rule only for the effigies of royal persons or the richer nobles - the metal l was cast by the delicate cire perdue process, and the whole m surface of the figure was then thickly gilded.^ The casting of these figures, which was effected by the cire perdue process, is technically very perfect.

^ When bronze was used - in England as a rule only for the effigies of royal persons or the richer nobles - the metal l was cast by the delicate cire perdue process, and the whole m surface of the figure was then thickly gilded.

^ In the late 1970s and early 1980s, by contrast, when figurative sculpture was hardly the norm, Flanagan began making representational images (hares, helmets, and horses) using surprisingly traditional materials and processes: lost-wax bronze casting, gilding, stone carving.
  • Minneapolis Sculpture Garden | Artwork 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC garden.walkerart.org [Source type: General]

.At Limoges in France a large number of sepulchral effigies were produced, especially between 1300 and 3400, and exported to distant places.^ At Limoges in France a large number of sepulchral effigies were produced, especially between 1300 and 3400, and exported to distant places.

^ The conditions for sculpture were especially favourable in Italy , where the chief attention was centred, not as in Germany or in France in the decoration of the portals and façade , but in pulpits , altars, and sepulchral monuments.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Francis Chantrey (1782-1841) produced a great quantity of sculpture, especially sepulchral g q Y P ?

.These were not cast, but were made of hammered (repousse - q.v.) plates of copper, nailed on a wooden core and richly decorated with champleve xxiv.^ It is divided into three tiers of statuettes and reliefs, richly framed in canopied niches, all of silver, partly cast and partly hammered.

^ These were not cast, but were made of hammered ( repousse - q.v.

16 a enamels in various bright colours. .Westminster Abbey possesses a fine example, executed about 1300, in the effigy of William of Valence (d.^ Westminster Abbey possesses a fine example, executed about 1300, in the effigy of William of Valence (d.

^ Another very fine portrait effigy of about 1570, a recumbent figure in full armour of the duke of Montmorency , preserved in the Louvre, is the work of Barthelemy Prieur.

^ Other fine reliefs of angels, executed about 1260, exist in the transepts of Westminster Abbey; being high from the ground, they are broadly treated without any high finish in the details.'

1296). .1 The ground on which the figure lies, the shield, the border of the tunic, the pillow, and other parts are decorated with these enamels very minutely treated.^ The ground on which the figure lies, the shield , the border of the tunic , the pillow , and other parts are decorated with these enamels very minutely treated.

^ The casting of these figures, which was effected by the cire perdue process, is technically very perfect.

^ These very profuse decorations are excellent from the modern point of view, but too little subordinated to the architecture to be monumental.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rest of the copper was gilt, and the helmet was surrounded with a coronet set with jewels, which are now missing.^ The rest of the copper was gilt, and the helmet was surrounded with a coronet set with jewels, which are now missing.

.One royal effigy of later date at Westminster, that of Henry V.^ One royal effigy of later date at Westminster, that of Henry V .

(d. .1422), was formed of beaten silver fixed to an oak core, with the exception of the head, which appears to have been cast.^ The effigy of King John in Worcester cathedral of about 1216 is an exception to this rule; though rudely executed, the head appears to be a portrait.

.The whole of the silver disappeared in the time of Henry VIII., and nothing now remains but the rough wooden core; hence it is doubtful whether the silver was decorated with enamel or not; it was probably of English workmanship.^ The whole of the silver disappeared in the time of Henry VIII ., and nothing now remains but the rough wooden core; hence it is doubtful whether the silver was decorated with enamel or not; it was probably of English workmanship.

^ Everywhere in this wonderful building the fault is the same; and the growing love of luxury and display, which was the curse of the time, is reflected in the plastic decorations of the whole church.

.In most cases stone was used for all sorts of sculpture, being decorated in a very minute and elaborate way with gold, silver and colours applied over the whole surface.^ In most cases stone was used for all sorts of sculpture, being decorated in a very minute and elaborate way with gold , silver and colours applied over the whole surface.

^ This was decorated with gesso reliefs, gilt and coloured in the same way as the stone.

^ I love the contrast between this sculpture's sensuous curves and the large surface "scars" of the pre-existing welds… This is the sort of sculpture that you should really touch.

.In order to give additional richness to this colouring the surface of the stone, often even in the case of external sculpture, was covered with a thin skin of gesso or fine plaster mixed with size; on this, while still soft, and over the drapery and other accessories, very delicate and minute patterns were stamped with wooden dies, and upon this the gold and colours were applied; thus the gaudiness and monotony of flat smooth surfaces covered with gilding or bright colours were avoided.'^ In most cases stone was used for all sorts of sculpture, being decorated in a very minute and elaborate way with gold , silver and colours applied over the whole surface.

^ In order to give additional richness to this colouring the surface of the stone, often even in the case of external sculpture, was covered with a thin skin of gesso or fine plaster mixed with size; on this, while still soft, and over the drapery and other accessories, very delicate and minute patterns were stamped with wooden dies, and upon this the gold and colours were applied; thus the gaudiness and monotony of flat smooth surfaces covered with gilding or bright colours were avoided.'

^ Sculpture therefore depicts the beauty of the corporeal world, not as does painting by means of an illusory representation upon a fiat coloured surface, but by imitating in a solid substance these bodies in their entirety, and achieving the effect by means of form alone.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to this the borders of drapery and other parts of stone statues]were frequently ornamented with crystals and false jewels, or, in a more laborious way, with holes and sinkings filled with polished metallic foil, on which very minute patterns were painted in transparent varnish colours; the whole was then protected from the air by small pieces of transparent glass, carefully shaped to the right size and fixed over the foil in the cavity cut in the stone.^ In addition to this the borders of drapery and other parts of stone statues]were frequently ornamented with crystals and false jewels, or, in a more laborious way, with holes and sinkings filled with polished metallic foil , on which very minute patterns were painted in transparent varnish colours; the whole was then protected from the air by small pieces of transparent glass , carefully shaped to the right size and fixed over the foil in the cavity cut in the stone.

^ The piece is a simple blown glass vessel that allows the plasma light to define its own dynamic geometric patterns that are mesmerizing and interactive with the viewer.

^ Mosaics are made of tiny colored pieces of stone, pottery, glass or other materials, arranged together and set in plaster or cement to make patterns and images.
  • Sculpture and Collage Lessons for Kids: Clay, Pottery, Paper: KinderArt ® 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.kinderart.com [Source type: General]

.It is difficult now to realize the extreme splendour of this gilt, painted and jewelled sculpture, as no perfect example exists, though in many cases traces remain of all these processes, and show that they were once very widely applied.^ It is difficult now to realize the extreme splendour of this gilt, painted and jewelled sculpture, as no perfect example exists, though in many cases traces remain of all these processes, and show that they were once very widely applied.

^ The artists have the ability, both sculptors and painters, to indicate in the future their visions and thoughts, showing them in the paintings and sculptures.
  • Online Art Gallery of Limited Editions Bronze Sculptures by various artists - unique gift ideas for corporate, business and personalized gifts - modern and contemporary art by european sculptors and artists. 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC buysculpture.com [Source type: General]

^ Almost all the shapes look cool by themselves, and they look really interesting when they're just piled up on the ground… but the minute you start trying to get them to work together in small numbers it becomes difficult.

.3 The architectural surroundings of the figures were treated in the same elaborate way.^ The architectural surroundings of the figures were treated in the same elaborate way.

^ At this time portrait effigies had not come into general use, and both figures are treated in an ideal way.

.In the 14th century in England alabaster came into frequent use for monumental sculpture; it too was decorated with gold and colour, though in some cases the whole surface does not appear to have been so treated.^ In the 14th century in England alabaster came into frequent use for monumental sculpture; it too was decorated with gold and colour, though in some cases the whole surface does not appear to have been so treated.

^ Even the use of inlay of coloured glass was common at Athens during the 5th century B.C. - as, for example, in the plait -band of some of the marble bases of the Erechtheum - and five or six centuries earlier at Tiryns and Mycenae .

^ Deserving of a special mention is the School of the "Alabasters", which for several centuries made use of the rich English quarries of alabaster to carve small and large sculptures, rather in a mechanical than an artistic fashion.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his wide use of coloured decoration, as in other respects, the medieval sculptor came far nearer to the ancient Greek than do any modern artists.^ In his wide use of coloured decoration, as in other respects, the medieval sculptor came far nearer to the ancient Greek than do any modern artists.

^ Irresistible in the hands of a great artist like Alfred Gilbert, such work, at all times attractive, is the goldsmith's and ironsmith's business rather than the sculptor's; and although it has coloured the work of some of the younger sculptors of the day, it is not likely to obtain any very wide hold, or to exercise permanent influence for evil.

^ Starting with a solid block, the carver or sculptor removes material using chisels, hammers and other tools to reveal the finished form.

.Even the use of inlay of coloured glass was common at Athens during the 5th century B.C. - as, for example, in the plait-band of some of the marble bases of the Erechtheum - and five or six centuries earlier at Tiryns and Mycenae.^ Even the use of inlay of coloured glass was common at Athens during the 5th century B.C. - as, for example, in the plait -band of some of the marble bases of the Erechtheum - and five or six centuries earlier at Tiryns and Mycenae .

^ Some oil based clays like plastina contain sulfur and can't be used with silicone molding compounds.
  • Sculpting Clay 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.fxsupply.com [Source type: General]

^ Examples include the five "propello-Platonics," based on the Platonic solids but with each face surrounded by a "propellor" of tetragons.
  • Sculpture Based on Propellorized Polyhedra 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.georgehart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another material much used by medieval sculptors was wood, though, from its perishable nature, comparatively few early examples survive; 4 the best specimen is the figure of George de Cantelupe (d.^ Another material much used by medieval sculptors was wood, though, from its perishable nature, comparatively few early examples survive; 4 the best specimen is the figure of George de Cantelupe (d.

^ Harder - Sculptors use many different materials in their work such as stone, bronze, clay, iron, steel, paper, metal, marble, wood, soap, chocolate, butter, balloons, ice, snow, and sand.
  • Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC 42explore.com [Source type: General]

^ Ravenna; while the figures below the Christ are survivals of a still older time, dating back from the best eras of classic art.

1273) in Abergavenny church. .This was decorated with gesso reliefs, gilt and coloured in the same way as the stone.^ This was decorated with gesso reliefs, gilt and coloured in the same way as the stone.

^ To the end of the same century belong the celebrated reliefs of angels in the spandrels of the choir arches at Lincoln , carved in a large massive way with great strength of decorative effect.

^ The whole of the western portal with its three doorways is covered with statues and reliefs, all richly decorated with colour, part of which still remains.

.The tomb of Prince John of Eltham (d.^ The tomb of Prince John of Eltham (d.

3334) at Westminster is a. very fine example of the early use of alabaster, both for the recumbent effigy and also for a number of small figures of mourners all round the arcading of the tomb. .These little figures, well preserved on the side which is protected by the screen, are of very great beauty and are executed with the most delicate minuteness; some of the heads are equal to the best contemporary work of the son and pupils of Niccola Pisano.^ These little figures, well preserved on the side which is protected by the screen , are of very great beauty and are executed with the most delicate minuteness; some of the heads are equal to the best contemporary work of the son and pupils of Niccola Pisano .

^ Jdrg Syrlin, one of the most able of these sculptors in wood, executed the gorgeous choir-stalls in Ulm cathedral, richly decorated with statuettes and canopied work, between 1469 and 1474; his son and namesake sculptured the elaborate stalls in Blaubeuren church of 1496 and the great pulpit in Ulm cathedral.

^ The work of these sculptors, notwithstanding great formal beauty and technical ability, reveals a certain coldness and smoothness; and since 1560 secular subjects are preferred.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tomb once had a high stone canopy of open work - arches, canopies and pinnacles - a class of architectural sculpture of which many extremely rich examples exist, as, for instance, the tomb of Edward II. at Gloucester, the de Spencer tomb at Tewkesbury, and, of rather later style, the tomb of Lady Eleanor Fitzalan de Percy at Beverley.^ Among his works are the tomb of Leopold II .

^ The tomb once had a high stone canopy of open work - arches, canopies and pinnacles - a class of architectural sculpture of which many extremely rich examples exist, as, for instance, the tomb of Edward II. at Gloucester , the de Spencer tomb at Tewkesbury , and, of rather later style , the tomb of Lady Eleanor Fitzalan de Percy at Beverley .

^ Missing image Sculpture-17.jpg Missing image Sculpture-18.jpg Missing image Sculpture-19.jpg Missing image Sculpture-20.jpg Missing image Sculpture-21.jpg Missing image Sculpture-22.jpg 41k R. DE Saint-Marceaux - Genius guarding the Secret of the Tomb.

.This last is remarkable for the great richness and beauty of its sculptured foliage, which is of the finest Decorated period and stands unrivalled by any Continental example.^ This last is remarkable for the great richness and beauty of its sculptured foliage, which is of the finest Decorated period and stands unrivalled by any Continental example.

^ During the Renaissance period Spanish sculpture was chiefly of a decorative character, and was displayed especially on the façades of the churches and palaces and in the towering gilded wooden pulpits ( retablos ).
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^ Although the common people gladly contributed to the decoration of the churches, they avoided the great expense of stone sculptures and confined themselves to presenting sculptures in wood.
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.The condition of this shrine (erected about 1335 to 1340) is almost perfect.^ The condition of this shrine (erected about 1335 to 1340) is almost perfect.

.On technical methods, see (specially for the explanation of modellin &c.^ On technical methods, see (specially for the explanation of modellin &c.

) .Edward Lanteri, Modelling (London, vol.^ Edward Lanteri, Modelling (London, vol.

I, 3903, vol. 2, 1904, vol. .3, 1910), and Albert Toft, Modelling and Sculpture (London, 1910).^ Albert Toft, Modelling and Sculpture (London, 1910).

.These volumes give in detail every process and method of the sculptor's craft with a fulness to be found in no other works of their class in the English language.^ These volumes give in detail every process and method of the sculptor's craft with a fulness to be found in no other works of their class in the English language .

^ United States.  These fine replicas focus on authenticity, detail, and quality characteristics that every collector values.
  • Lighthouse Ornament, Christmas Cards, Lighthouse Miniatures and more! Lefton Lighthouse Ornaments, Lighthouse Miniatures, Lighthouse Sculptures, Lighthouse Finials, Lighthouse Pull Chains by Scassis Lighthouses on usalights.com 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.usalights.com [Source type: General]

^ There are signs, however, of its being ousted for a certain class of handling by the " galvanoplastic " method - a system of copper deposit by an electrical process - whereby " going over " the work after it has been reproduced in metal is avoided.

.1 Other effigies from Limoges were imported into England, but no other example now exists in the country.^ Other effigies from Limoges were imported into England, but no other example now exists in the country.

^ Many rich and elaborate works of his exist at Trinity College, Oxford, at Cambridge, Chatsworth , and several other places in England.

^ In no other country, however, were there so many artists who felt it necessary to immortalize their names by inscribing them upon their works.
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.2 In the modern attempts to reproduce the medieval polychromy these delicate surface reliefs have been omitted; hence the painful results of such colouring as that in Notre-Dame and the Sainte Chapelle in Paris and many other " restored " churches, especially in France and Germany.^ In the modern attempts to reproduce the medieval polychromy these delicate surface reliefs have been omitted; hence the painful results of such colouring as that in Notre- Dame and the Sainte Chapelle in Paris and many other " restored " churches, especially in France and Germany.

^ The conditions for sculpture were especially favourable in Italy , where the chief attention was centred, not as in Germany or in France in the decoration of the portals and façade , but in pulpits , altars, and sepulchral monuments.
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^ It may here be well to say a few words on the technical methods employed in the execution of medieval sculpture, which in the main were very similar in England, France and Germany .

.On the tomb of Aymer de Valence (d.^ On the tomb of Aymer de Valence (d.

.1326) at Westminster a good deal of the stamped gesso and coloured decoration is visible on close inspection.^ Westminster a good deal of the stamped gesso and coloured decoration is visible on close inspection.

^ This was decorated with gesso reliefs, gilt and coloured in the same way as the stone.

.One of the cavities of the base retains a fragment of glass covering the painted foil, still brilliant and jewel-like in effect.^ One of the cavities of the base retains a fragment of glass covering the painted foil, still brilliant and jewel-like in effect.

^ Solar Power Garden lantern Solar Powered Floral Lantern Solar power lantern with stained glass panels and jewel-like colors that come alive when lit from within.
  • Glorious Garden Gifts - Garden Statues,Garden Sculptures,Angel Sculptures,Bird feeders,Bird baths,St Francis Statue,Garden Angels,Solar Power Garden Decor,Lion Statues,Religious Garden decor,Fairie lanterns,Hammocks,Hammock chair,Garden Gifts,fountains,accessories 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC reigninggifts.com [Source type: General]

^ Once set, it hardens to a smooth, almost glass-like finish that can be sanded and painted, accepting a coat of primer without fear of rejection.
  • Sculpting Figures Products 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.michtoy.com [Source type: General]

.4 The Victoria and Albert Museum possesses a magnificent colossal wood figure of an angel, not English, but Italian work of the 14th century.^ The Victoria and Albert Museum possesses a magnificent colossal wood figure of an angel , not English, but Italian work of the 14th century.

^ A magnificent marble tympanum relief by Bon can be seen at the Victoria and Albert Museum; it has a noble colossal figure of the Madonna, who shelters under her mantle a number of kneeling worshippers; the background is enriched with foliage and heads, forming a" Jesse tree ," designed with great decorative skill.

^ Whatever work of importance was produced by Netherlandish sculptors in the 17th and 18th centuries, was due entirely to Italian training and influence.

.A large stone statue of about the same date, of French workmanship, in the same museum is a most valuable example of the.^ A large stone statue of about the same date, of French workmanship, in the same museum is a most valuable example of the.

^ About the same time (1400) able work was done by the Schools of Burgundy and the Netherlands , the most important monument of which is the tomb of Duke Philip the Bold at Dijon by Claus Slüter.
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^ It's all the same thing in the end— I wake up most days thinking about how I want to change, fix or improve some aspect of the world.
  • John T Unger Artist's Portfolio: sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.johntunger.com [Source type: General]
  • ArtBuzz: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC art.johntunger.com [Source type: General]

use of stamped .gesso and inlay of painted and glazed .foil.: History The following general sketch of the history of sculpture is confined mainly to that of the middle ages and modern times.^ History The following general sketch of the history of sculpture is confined mainly to that of the middle ages and modern times.

^ Quick “warm-up” sketches will be followed by longer poses, with the time frame, poses, and clothed or nude option decided by the group.
  • Sculpture Workshops and Classes for Learning Sculpting Techniques 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.artshow.com [Source type: General]

^ At the beginning of the 19th century the art of sculpture was practically dead in Spain - or at least was mainly confined to the mechanical production of images of saints.

.The philosophy and aesthetics of the subject - the relation of sculpture to the other arts and the nature of its appeal to the emotions - are treated in the article Fine Arts.^ The philosophy and aesthetics of the subject - the relation of sculpture to the other arts and the nature of its appeal to the emotions - are treated in the article Fine Arts .

^ Other subjects - - Nonrepresentational sculpture .
  • sculpture -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Therein rests the strength of a sculpture that can communicate with the viewer aesthetically and emotionally without pretense or artifice."
  • Hamilton, Ohio, City of Sculpture - SCULPTURE 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.cityofsculpture.org [Source type: General]

.What is known as " classical " sculpture is dealt with 'under Greek Art and Roman Art; see also, for other allied aspects, China, Art;' Japan, Art; Egypt, Art; Byzantine Art; and articles On Metal-Work, Ivory, Wood-Carving, &C.; the article Architecture and allied articles (e.g.^ What is known as " classical " sculpture is dealt with 'under Greek Art and Roman Art ; see also, for other allied aspects, China , Art;' Japan , Art; Egypt , Art; Byzantine Art ; and articles On Metal-Work, Ivory, Wood-Carving, &C .; the article Architecture and allied articles (e.g.

^ In Asia Minor the influence of Hellenistic art was still so strong that many early Christian works present an almost classical character, but in the West, where this beneficent influence was lacking, sculpture fell earlier into decline.
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^ Dancers " in Sevres china ), Laporte Blairsy, Ferrary, Levasseur, Belloc, E. Lafont, &c., utilized every process and every kind of material - marble and metal, wood and ivory, enchanced by the most costly goldsmiths' work and gems.

.Capital); and the articles on the several individual artists.^ Capital); and the articles on the several individual artists.

.In the 4th century A.D., under the rule of Constantine's successors, the plastic arts in the Roman world reached the lowest point of degradation to which they ever fell.^ In the 4th century A.D., under the rule of Constantine's successors, the plastic arts in the Roman world reached the lowest point of degradation to which they ever fell.

^ Italian plastic art in the 5th century continued to create in the spirit of the 4th century, especially reliefs in ivory (to a certain extent imitations of the later consular diptychs), which were used to decorate episcopal thrones or the bindings of MSS. of the Gospels.

^ Wood-carving , on the other hand, reached its artistic climax a full century later under the influence of the fully developed Perpendicular style.

.Coarse in workmanship, intensely feeble in design, and utterly without expression or life, the pagan sculpture of that time is merely a dull and ignorant imitation of the work of previous centuries.^ Coarse in workmanship, intensely feeble in design, and utterly without expression or life, the pagan sculpture of that time is merely a dull and ignorant imitation of the work of previous centuries.

^ Until the 20th century, sculpture was considered a representational art, but, beginning in the early 1900, nonrepresentational works were increasingly produced.
  • sculpture -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ About the beginning of the 19th century the sculptor Kamenski inaugurated a more realistic tendency by his work which was inspired by contemporary life.

.The old faith was dead, and the art which had sprung from it died with it.^ The old faith was dead, and the art which had sprung from it died with it.

.In the same century a large amount of sculpture was produced by Christian workmen, which, though it reached no very high standard of merit, was at least far superior to the pagan work.^ Until the 20th century, sculpture was considered a representational art, but, beginning in the early 1900, nonrepresentational works were increasingly produced.
  • sculpture -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Not until the middle of the sixteenth century did the Italian influence become so powerful that French sculpture may be said to have reached its zenith.
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^ But what the latest modern research has shown us is this: that it was not Rome which produced the best and most ancient works of Christian sculpture, but the East, which is certainly the cradle of Christian art .
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.Although it shows no increase of technical skill or knowledge of the human form, yet the mere fact that it was inspired and its subjects supplied by a real living faith was quite sufficient to give it a vigour and a dramatic force, which raise it aesthetically far above the expiring efforts of paganism.^ Although it shows no increase of technical skill or knowledge of the human form, yet the mere fact that it was inspired and its subjects supplied by a real living faith was quite sufficient to give it a vigour and a dramatic force, which raise it aesthetically far above the expiring efforts of paganism.

^ The north transept at Rheims is no less rich: the central statue of Christ is a work of much grace and nobility of form; and some nude figures - for example, that of St Sebastian - show a knowledge of the human body which was very unusual at that early date.

^ Technical skill and intimate knowledge of the human form are possessed by French artists to a degree which has probably never been surpassed.

.Apart from ivories (see IvoRY), a number of large marble sarcophagi are the chief existing specimens of this early Christian sculpture.^ Apart from ivories (see IvoRY), a number of large marble sarcophagi are the chief existing specimens of this early Christian sculpture.

^ On the other hand, numerous reliefs survive, because, after the ancient custom, the sarcophagi, of which a large number survive, were richly decorated with sculptural representations.
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^ X14 av), a general term for the plastic art of carving , especially in stone and marble , but also in such materials as wood (see Wood-Carving ), ivory (see Ivory ), metal (see Metalwork ) and gems (see GEM ).

.In general design they are close copies of pagan tombs, and are richly decorated outside with reliefs.^ In general design they are close copies of pagan tombs, and are richly decorated outside with reliefs.

^ On the other hand, numerous reliefs survive, because, after the ancient custom, the sarcophagi, of which a large number survive, were richly decorated with sculptural representations.
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^ The whole of the western portal with its three doorways is covered with statues and reliefs, all richly decorated with colour, part of which still remains.

.The subjects of these are usually scenes from the Old and New Testaments.^ The subjects of these are usually scenes from the Old and New Testaments.

^ Among the New Testament scenes no representations occur of Christ's sufferings; 1 the subjects chosen illustrate his power and beneficence: the Sermon on the Mount, the Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem , and many of his miracles are frequently repeated.

.From the former those subjects were selected which were supposed to have some typical reference to the life of Christ: the Meeting of Abraham and Melchisedec, the Sacrifice of Isaac, Daniel among the Lions, Jonah and the Whale, are those which most frequently occur.^ From the former those subjects were selected which were supposed to have some typical reference to the life of Christ : the Meeting of Abraham and Melchisedec, the Sacrifice of Isaac , Daniel among the Lions, Jonah and the Whale , are those which most frequently occur.

^ Most of the mean people I've met in life were hurt themselves at some point (I mean, true enough to be trite, right?
  • John T Unger Artist's Portfolio: sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.johntunger.com [Source type: General]

^ Christ in Majesty, the Harrowing of Hell and St George and the Dragon occur very frequently.

.Among the New Testament scenes no representations occur of Christ's sufferings; 1 the subjects chosen illustrate his power and beneficence: the Sermon on the Mount, the Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem, and many of his miracles are frequently repeated.^ Among the New Testament scenes no representations occur of Christ's sufferings; 1 the subjects chosen illustrate his power and beneficence: the Sermon on the Mount, the Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem , and many of his miracles are frequently repeated.

^ The subjects of these are usually scenes from the Old and New Testaments.

^ From the former those subjects were selected which were supposed to have some typical reference to the life of Christ : the Meeting of Abraham and Melchisedec, the Sacrifice of Isaac , Daniel among the Lions, Jonah and the Whale , are those which most frequently occur.

.The Vatican and Lateran museums are rich in examples of this sort.^ The Vatican and Lateran museums are rich in examples of this sort.

^ Few examples of the statuary of this period have been preserved; but among these are a "Pastor Bonus" in the Museum of the Lateran, and a "Christ" in Berlin , both probably Oriental works.
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.One of the finest in the former collection was taken from the crypt of the old basilica of St Peter; it contained the body of a certain Junius Bassus, and dates from the year 359.2 Many other similar sarcophagi were made in the provinces of Rome, especially Gaul; and fine specimens exist in the museums of Arles, Marseilles and Aix; those found in Britain are of very inferior workmanship.^ One of the finest in the former collection was taken from the crypt of the old basilica of St Peter ; it contained the body of a certain Junius Bassus, and dates from the year 359.2 Many other similar sarcophagi were made in the provinces of Rome , especially Gaul ; and fine specimens exist in the museums of Arles , Marseilles and Aix ; those found in Britain are of very inferior workmanship.

^ Many other fine pieces of the Pisan school exist in Milan.

^ In 1881 it was sold for old lead by the principal and fellows of the college, and was immediately melted down by the plumber who bought it - an irreparable loss, as the only other existing copy is very inferior; the destruction was an utterly inexcusable act of vandalism.

.Sculpture in the round, with its suggestion of idol worship which was offensive to the Christian spirit, was practically non-existent during this and the succeeding centuries, although there are a few notable exceptions, like the large bronze statue of St Peter s in the nave of St Peter's in Rome, which is probably of 5th-century workmanship and has much of the repose, dignity and force of antique sculpture.^ Sculpture in the round, with its suggestion of idol worship which was offensive to the Christian spirit, was practically non-existent during this and the succeeding centuries, although there are a few notable exceptions, like the large bronze statue of St Peter s in the nave of St Peter's in Rome, which is probably of 5th-century workmanship and has much of the repose, dignity and force of antique sculpture.

^ During the 18th century English sculpture was mostly in the hands of Flemish and other foreign artists, of whom Roubiliac (1695-1762), Peter Scheemakers (1691-1773), and J M. Rysbrack (1694-1770) were the chief.

^ I'm guessing that many women out there are like me: a few stubborn extra pounds hanging around that just won't go away.
  • Eddie Baran's Body Sculpting Blog: December 2006 Archives 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.eddiebaran.com [Source type: Original source]

.Italian plastic art in the 5th century continued to create in the spirit of the 4th century, especially reliefs in ivory (to a certain extent imitations of the later consular diptychs), which were used to decorate episcopal thrones or the bindings of MSS. of the Gospels.^ Italian plastic art in the 5th century continued to create in the spirit of the 4th century, especially reliefs in ivory (to a certain extent imitations of the later consular diptychs), which were used to decorate episcopal thrones or the bindings of MSS. of the Gospels.

^ The first sculptor who was again able to create a living art was Nicholas Stone (1586-1647); the first to labour in the spirit of the Renaissance was Grinling Gibbons, whose finest decorative works are in St. Paul's, London, and in Trinity College, Oxford .
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^ In the 4th century A.D., under the rule of Constantine's successors, the plastic arts in the Roman world reached the lowest point of degradation to which they ever fell.

.The so-called chair of St Peter, still preserved (though hidden from sight) in his great basilica, is the finest example of the former class; of less purely classical style, dating from about 550, is the ivory throne of Bishop Maximianus in Ravenna cathedral.^ The so-called chair of St Peter, still preserved (though hidden from sight) in his great basilica, is the finest example of the former class; of less purely classical style, dating from about 550, is the ivory throne of Bishop Maximianus in Ravenna cathedral .

^ The chief examples of the latter class are the magnificent shrine of St Augustine in the cathedral of Pavia, dated 1362, and the somewhat similar shrine of Peter the Martyr (1339), by Balduccio of Pisa, in the church of S. Eustorgio at Milan, both of white marble, decorated in the most lavish way with statuettes and subject reliefs.

^ Ravenna; while the figures below the Christ are survivals of a still older time, dating back from the best eras of classic art.

.Another very remarkable work of the A partial exception to this rule is the scene of Christ before Pilate, which sometimes occurs.^ Another very remarkable work of the A partial exception to this rule is the scene of Christ before Pilate, which sometimes occurs.

^ Another very fine portrait effigy of about 1570, a recumbent figure in full armour of the duke of Montmorency , preserved in the Louvre, is the work of Barthelemy Prieur.

^ Another exceptionally important work of this type is the magnificent altar at St Wolfgang in Upper Austria , carved by the Tirolese, Michael Pacher, in 1481.

.2 See Dionysius, Sac.^ See Dionysius , Sac.

Vat. Bas. .Cryp.,
and Bunsen, Besch.^ Cryp., and Bunsen, Besch.

d. .Stadt Rom (1840).
There is no ground for the popular impression that this is an antique statue of Jupiter transformed into that of St Peter by the addition of the keys.^ There is no ground for the popular impression that this is an antique statue of Jupiter transformed into that of St Peter by the addition of the keys.

^ Emilio Gallori, who studied at the Florence academy, is the author of the colossal statue of St Peter on the façade of the cathedral at Florence.

^ Lemoyne and his pupil Falconet, who executed the equestrian statue of Peter the Great at St Petersburg ; of the other, Clodion, whose real name was Claude Michel ( c.

.5th century is the series of small panel reliefs on the doors of S. Sabina on the Aventine Hill at Rome.^ S. Sabina on the Aventine Hill at Rome.

.There are scenes from Bible history carved in wood, and in them much of the old classic style survives.4 In the 6th century, under the Byzantine influence of Justinian, a new class of decorative sculpture was produced, especially at Ravenna.^ The portals especially become the scenes of the new plastic decoration.
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^ There are scenes from Bible history carved in wood, and in them much of the old classic style survives.4 In the 6th century, under the Byzantine influence of Justinian, a new class of decorative sculpture was produced, especially at Ravenna.

^ The style was influenced by nineteenth-century French sculpture and the principles taught at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris where Taft studied in the 1880s.
  • Ella Sharp Museum - About Us - Outdoor Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.ellasharp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subject reliefs do not often occur, but large slabs of marble, forming screens, altars, pulpits and the like, were ornamented in a very skilful and original way with low reliefs of graceful vine-plants, with peacocks and other birds drinking out of chalices, all treated in a very able and highly decorative manner.^ Subject reliefs do not often occur, but large slabs of marble, forming screens, altars, pulpits and the like, were ornamented in a very skilful and original way with low reliefs of graceful vine -plants, with peacocks and other birds drinking out of chalices, all treated in a very able and highly decorative manner.

^ Other important sculptors of the same tendencies are E. Onslow Ford, educated at Munich ; J. M. Swan, the animal sculptor; and George Frampton, whose works are of a fine decorative quality and quite original (including a very attractive St. George ).
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^ I feel it resembles a fish on the one side and a bird on the other, while the overall form reminds me of terra cotta ocarinas I've seen from Mexico and South America.

.Byzantium, however, in the main, became the birthplace and seat of all the medieval arts soon after the transference thither of the headquarters of the empire (see Byzantine Art).^ Byzantium , however, in the main, became the birthplace and seat of all the medieval arts soon after the transference thither of the headquarters of the empire (see Byzantine Art ).

.It was natural that love of splendour and sumptuousness in the Eastern capital found expression in colour and richness of material rather than in monumental impressiveness.^ It was natural that love of splendour and sumptuousness in the Eastern capital found expression in colour and richness of material rather than in monumental impressiveness.

^ His " Two Natures," his " Brotherly Love," his " Pan " and the design for a monumental Norwegian stove are among the strongest efforts of modern American statuary.

^ Professor Edouard Lanteri, a naturalized Englishman, to whom British sculpture owes much, employed his own striking gifts to teach rather than to produce.

.The school of sculpture which arose at Byzantium in the 5th or 6th century was therefore essentially decorative, and not monumental; and the skill of the sculptors was most successfully applied to work in metals and ivory, and the carving of foliage on capitals and bands of ornament, possessed of the very highest decorative power and executed with unrivalled spirit and vigour.^ The school of sculpture which arose at Byzantium in the 5th or 6th century was therefore essentially decorative, and not monumental; and the skill of the sculptors was most successfully applied to work in metals and ivory, and the carving of foliage on capitals and bands of ornament , possessed of the very highest decorative power and executed with unrivalled spirit and vigour.

^ George Wade is essentially a sculptor of busts and statues the most noteworthy of his works are the memorial to Sir John Macdonald in Montreal , the seated figure for Madras of the native judge , Sir T. Aiyar Muthuswamy, and a number of ambitious monumental works.

^ Jdrg Syrlin, one of the most able of these sculptors in wood, executed the gorgeous choir-stalls in Ulm cathedral, richly decorated with statuettes and canopied work, between 1469 and 1474; his son and namesake sculptured the elaborate stalls in Blaubeuren church of 1496 and the great pulpit in Ulm cathedral.

.The early Byzantine treatment of the acanthus or thistle, as seen in the capitals of S. Sophia at Constantinople, the Golden Gate at Jerusalem, and many other buildings in the East, has never since been surpassed in any purely decorative sculpture; and it is interesting to note how it grew out of the dull and lifeless ornamentation which covers the degraded Corinthian capital used so largely in Roman buildings of the time of Constantine and his sons.^ The early Byzantine treatment of the acanthus or thistle , as seen in the capitals of S. Sophia at Constantinople , the Golden Gate at Jerusalem, and many other buildings in the East, has never since been surpassed in any purely decorative sculpture; and it is interesting to note how it grew out of the dull and lifeless ornamentation which covers the degraded Corinthian capital used so largely in Roman buildings of the time of Constantine and his sons.

^ Subject reliefs do not often occur, but large slabs of marble, forming screens, altars, pulpits and the like, were ornamented in a very skilful and original way with low reliefs of graceful vine -plants, with peacocks and other birds drinking out of chalices, all treated in a very able and highly decorative manner.

^ In the 4th century A.D., under the rule of Constantine's successors, the plastic arts in the Roman world reached the lowest point of degradation to which they ever fell.

.Till about the i 2th century, and in some places much later, the art of Byzantium dominated that of the whole Christian world in a very remarkable way.^ Till about the i 2th century, and in some places much later, the art of Byzantium dominated that of the whole Christian world in a very remarkable way.

^ It's all the same thing in the end— I wake up most days thinking about how I want to change, fix or improve some aspect of the world.
  • John T Unger Artist's Portfolio: sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.johntunger.com [Source type: General]
  • ArtBuzz: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC art.johntunger.com [Source type: General]

^ Towards the end of the 18th century a revolution was brought about in the style of sculpture by the suddenly revived taste for antique art.

.The spread of this art was to a great extent due to the iconoclast riots of which not only led to the destruction of images and works of art, but threatened the very life of the artists and craftsmen, who thereupon sought refuge in foreign countries, especially at the court of Charlemagne, and for several centuries determined the course of European art.^ The spread of this art was to a great extent due to the iconoclast riots of which not only led to the destruction of images and works of art, but threatened the very life of the artists and craftsmen, who thereupon sought refuge in foreign countries, especially at the court of Charlemagne , and for several centuries determined the course of European art.

^ Italian plastic art in the 5th century continued to create in the spirit of the 4th century, especially reliefs in ivory (to a certain extent imitations of the later consular diptychs), which were used to decorate episcopal thrones or the bindings of MSS. of the Gospels.

^ Most rapid progress in all the arts, especially that of sculpture, was made in England in the second half of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century, largely under the patronage of Henry III ., who employed and handsomely rewarded a large number of English artists, and also imported others from Italy and Spain, though these foreigners took only a secondary position among the painters and sculptors of England.

.From Russia to Ireland and from Norway to Spain any given work of art in one of the countries of Europe might almost equally well have been designed in any other.^ From Russia to Ireland and from Norway to Spain any given work of art in one of the countries of Europe might almost equally well have been designed in any other.

^ Torell was highly paid for this, as well as for two other bronze statues of Queen Eleanor, probably of the same design.

^ One of his chief works is the " Bishop Ellicott's Memorial," a tomb with recumbent figure, a design of considerable imagination.

.Few or no local characteristics or peculiarities can be detected, except of course in the methods of execution, and even these were wonderfully similar everywhere.^ Few or no local characteristics or peculiarities can be detected, except of course in the methods of execution, and even these were wonderfully similar everywhere.

^ It may here be well to say a few words on the technical methods employed in the execution of medieval sculpture, which in the main were very similar in England, France and Germany .

^ These volumes give in detail every process and method of the sculptor's craft with a fulness to be found in no other works of their class in the English language .

.The dogmatic unity of the Catholic Church and its great monastic system, with constant interchange of monkish craftsmen between one country and another, were the chief causes of this widespread monotony of style.^ The dogmatic unity of the Catholic Church and its great monastic system, with constant interchange of monkish craftsmen between one country and another, were the chief causes of this widespread monotony of style.

^ The extensive use of the precious metals for the chief works of plastic art in this early period is one of the reasons why so few examples still remain - their great intrinsic value naturally causing their destruction.

.An additional reason was the unrivalled technical skill of the early Byzantines, which made their city widely resorted to by the artist-craftsmen of all Europe - the great school for learning any branch of the arts.^ An additional reason was the unrivalled technical skill of the early Byzantines, which made their city widely resorted to by the artist-craftsmen of all Europe - the great school for learning any branch of the arts.

^ These artists created a supremely healthy and vital school of sculpture, dignified and elegant, learned and varied, fresh and charming, and, above all, as single-hearted and as well trained as in any period of history.

^ They differ much in style, though all are of great technical merit.

.The extensive use of the precious metals for the chief works of plastic art in this early period is one of the reasons why so few examples still remain - their great intrinsic value naturally causing their destruction.^ The extensive use of the precious metals for the chief works of plastic art in this early period is one of the reasons why so few examples still remain - their great intrinsic value naturally causing their destruction.

^ In Asia Minor the influence of Hellenistic art was still so strong that many early Christian works present an almost classical character, but in the West, where this beneficent influence was lacking, sculpture fell earlier into decline.
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^ Consequently, the few sculptors of colonial and early revolutionary periods were unimportant and formed no schools .
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.One of the most important existing examples, dating from the 8th century, is a series of colossal wall reliefs executed in hard stucco in the church of Cividale (Friuli) not far from Trieste.^ One of the most important existing examples, dating from the 8th century, is a series of colossal wall reliefs executed in hard stucco in the church of Cividale (Friuli) not far from Trieste .

^ The chief examples of the latter class are the magnificent shrine of St Augustine in the cathedral of Pavia, dated 1362, and the somewhat similar shrine of Peter the Martyr (1339), by Balduccio of Pisa, in the church of S. Eustorgio at Milan, both of white marble, decorated in the most lavish way with statuettes and subject reliefs.

^ This method is one of the causes of the dulness and want of spirit so conspicuous in most modern sculptured reliefs.

.These represent rows of female saints bearing jewelled crosses, crowns and wreaths, and closely resembling in costume, attitude and arrangement the gift-bearing mosaic figures of Theodora and her ladies in S. Vitale at Ravenna.^ These represent rows of female saints bearing jewelled crosses, crowns and wreaths, and closely resembling in costume , attitude and arrangement the gift-bearing mosaic figures of Theodora and her ladies in S. Vitale at Ravenna.

^ The central relief is a figure of Christ in Majesty , closely resembling those in the colossal apse mosaic of S. Apollinare in Classe and other churches 4 Various dates have been assigned to these interesting reliefs by different archaeologists, but the costumes of the figures are strong evidence that they are not later than the 5th century.

^ In these portrait figures, the sculpture is normally fully clothed and booted, and bears royal arms.
  • A Kushan Period Sculpture on Asianart.com 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.asianart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a striking instance of the almost petrified state of Byzantine art that so close a similarity should be' possible between works executed at an interval of fully two hundred years.^ It is a striking instance of the almost petrified state of Byzantine art that so close a similarity should be' possible between works executed at an interval of fully two hundred years.

^ He's worked with Fortune 500 companies, Wall Street executives and traders, and hundreds of other high-end clients.
  • Eddie Baran's Body Sculpting Blog: December 2006 Archives 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.eddiebaran.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two heads in the Garden are the last in a series of seven the artist executed between 1987 and 1990.
  • Minneapolis Sculpture Garden | Artwork 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC garden.walkerart.org [Source type: General]

.Some very interesting small plaques of ivory in the library of St Gall show a still later survival of early forms.^ Some very interesting small plaques of ivory in the library of St Gall show a still later survival of early forms.

^ While still keeping its early dignity and subordination to its architectural setting, the sculpture reached a very high degree of graceful finish and even sensuous beauty.

^ The later Norman sculptured ornaments are very rich and spirited, though the treatment of the human figure is still very weak.'

.The central relief is a figure of Christ in Majesty, closely resembling those in the colossal apse mosaic of S. Apollinare in Classe and other churches 4 Various dates have been assigned to these interesting reliefs by different archaeologists, but the costumes of the figures are strong evidence that they are not later than the 5th century.^ The central relief is a figure of Christ in Majesty , closely resembling those in the colossal apse mosaic of S. Apollinare in Classe and other churches 4 Various dates have been assigned to these interesting reliefs by different archaeologists, but the costumes of the figures are strong evidence that they are not later than the 5th century.

^ Italian plastic art in the 5th century continued to create in the spirit of the 4th century, especially reliefs in ivory (to a certain extent imitations of the later consular diptychs), which were used to decorate episcopal thrones or the bindings of MSS. of the Gospels.

^ Lain Bangdel, citing a dearth of early Buddhist images in the Kathmandu valley as supporting evidence against the bodhisattva identification, concluded the figure is a yaksha, and dated it to the 1st century (17) .
  • A Kushan Period Sculpture on Asianart.com 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.asianart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

of .Ravenna; while the figures below the Christ are survivals of a still older time, dating back from the best eras of classic art.^ Ravenna; while the figures below the Christ are survivals of a still older time, dating back from the best eras of classic art.

^ The first effectual rebellion against the Classic, and the birth of Individualism , dates back to Alfred Stevens.

^ Perugia, cast in 1555 by Vincenzio Danti, is one of the best portrait-figures of the time.

.A river-god is represented as an old man holding an urn, from which a stream issues, and a reclining female figure with an infant and a cornucopia is the old Roman Tellus or Earthgoddess with her ancient attributes.'^ A river-god is represented as an old man holding an urn , from which a stream issues, and a reclining female figure with an infant and a cornucopia is the old Roman Tellus or Earthgoddess with her ancient attributes.'

.While the countries of the north could not altogether resist the rising tide of Byzantinism, in Scandinavia, and to a great extent in England, the autochthonous art was not altogether obliterated during the early middle ages.^ While the countries of the north could not altogether resist the rising tide of Byzantinism, in Scandinavia, and to a great extent in England, the autochthonous art was not altogether obliterated during the early middle ages.

^ An additional reason was the unrivalled technical skill of the early Byzantines, which made their city widely resorted to by the artist-craftsmen of all Europe - the great school for learning any branch of the arts.

^ In this art also the ancients created much that is important, and during the Renaissance the terra-cottas of Luca della Robbia and his followers acquired great celebrity.
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.In England, during the Saxon period, when stone buildings were rare and even large cathedrals were built of wood, the plastic arts were mostly confined to the use of gold, silver, and gilt copper.^ In England, during the Saxon period, when stone buildings were rare and even large cathedrals were built of wood, the plastic arts were mostly confined to the use of gold, silver, and gilt copper.

^ There are in existence stone "sacrament houses" (tabernacles for the Blessed Sacrament ) of this period which are as twisted and spiral as if they had been carved from wood.
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^ Posted by Miss Cellania in Arts & Crafts on May 18, 2009 at 9:25 am Louise Hibbert works with wood and Sarah Parker-Eaton works with silver and gold.
  • sculpture – Neatorama 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

.The earliest existing specimens of sculpture in stone are a number of tall churchyard crosses, mostly in the northern provinces and apparently the work of Scandinavian sculptors.^ The earliest existing specimens of sculpture in stone are a number of tall churchyard crosses, mostly in the northern provinces and apparently the work of Scandinavian sculptors.

^ Nicholas Stone (1586-1647), who worked under the supervision of Inigo Jones and was mastermason to King Charles I., was the chief English sculptor of his time.

^ The earliest inscribed and dated stone sculptures were the pair of Trivikrama (Vis*n*uvikra-nta) figures of A.D. 467, one in the National Museum and the other at Tilganga, Pashupati (5) .
  • A Kushan Period Sculpture on Asianart.com 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.asianart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One very remarkable example is a tall monolithic cross, cut in sandstone, in the churchyard of Gosforth in Cumberland.^ One very remarkable example is a tall monolithic cross, cut in sandstone , in the churchyard of Gosforth in Cumberland .

^ The earliest existing specimens of sculpture in stone are a number of tall churchyard crosses, mostly in the northern provinces and apparently the work of Scandinavian sculptors.

^ Diirer also produced miniature reliefs cut in boxwood and hone -stone, of which the British Museum (print-room) possesses one of the finest examples.

.It is covered with rudely carved reliefs, small in scale, which are of special interest as showing a transitional state from the worship of Odin to that of Christ.^ It is covered with rudely carved reliefs, small in scale, which are of special interest as showing a transitional state from the worship of Odin to that of Christ.

^ Sculpture on a small scale was effectively carried on by L. Dejean, Vallgren, Carabin, who carves in wood, Cavaillon and FeomontMeurice.

^ Some very interesting small plaques of ivory in the library of St Gall show a still later survival of early forms.

.Some of the old Norse symbols and myths sculptured on it occur modified and altered into a semi-Christian form.^ Some of the old Norse symbols and myths sculptured on it occur modified and altered into a semi-Christian form.

^ This sculpture suggests all the elements of that myth to me… from some angles it resembles a ship leaning into a strong wind, from others, the bust of a head with large lips and a strong, heroic nose.

^ Repoussé sculpture, in which the metal was beaten into form by means of hammer and puncheon.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though rich in decorative effect and with a graceful outline, this sculptured cross shows a very primitive state of artistic development, as do the other crosses of this class in Cornwall, Ireland and Scotland, which are mainly ornamented with those ingeniously intricate patterns of interlacing knotwork designed so skilfully by both the early Norse and the Celtic races.'^ Though rich in decorative effect and with a graceful outline, this sculptured cross shows a very primitive state of artistic development, as do the other crosses of this class in Cornwall , Ireland and Scotland , which are mainly ornamented with those ingeniously intricate patterns of interlacing knotwork designed so skilfully by both the early Norse and the Celtic races.'

^ As in the monument to " Wheatstone, Inventor of the Telegraph ," or again, the standard lamps at the Astor Estate Office on the Thames Embankment, the sculptor shows charm of thought and spirit of design, vigour, and richness of effect.

^ Subject reliefs do not often occur, but large slabs of marble, forming screens, altars, pulpits and the like, were ornamented in a very skilful and original way with low reliefs of graceful vine -plants, with peacocks and other birds drinking out of chalices, all treated in a very able and highly decorative manner.

.They belong to a class of art which is not Christian in its origin, though it was afterwards largely used for Christian purposes, and so is thoroughly national in style, quite free from the usual widespread Byzantine influence.^ They belong to a class of art which is not Christian in its origin, though it was afterwards largely used for Christian purposes, and so is thoroughly national in style, quite free from the usual widespread Byzantine influence.

^ A whole class of art was not, indeed, originated, but strongly vivified by this method of treatment.

^ Isabella and the Pot of Basil " is free from this defect, and is an original treatment of the subject; and " The Briton (1908), though full of vigour and imagination, shows restraint.

.Of special interest from their early date - probably the 1 i th century - are two large stone reliefs now in Chichester cathedral, which are traditionally said to have come from the pre-Norman church at Selsey.^ Of special interest from their early date - probably the 1 i th century - are two large stone reliefs now in Chichester cathedral, which are traditionally said to have come from the pre- Norman church at Selsey.

^ A notable exception is Wells cathedral, the west end of which, dating from about the middle of the century, is covered with more than 600 figures in the round or in relief, arranged in tiers, and of varying sizes.

^ Strassburg cathedral, though sadly damaged by restoration, still possesses a large quantity of the finest sculpture of the 13th century.

.They are thoroughly Byzantine in style, but evidently the work of some very ignorant sculptor; they represent two scenes in the Raising of Lazarus; the figures are stiff, attenuated and ugly, the pose very awkward, and the drapery of exaggerated Byzantine character, with long thin folds.^ They are thoroughly Byzantine in style, but evidently the work of some very ignorant sculptor; they represent two scenes in the Raising of Lazarus ; the figures are stiff, attenuated and ugly, the pose very awkward, and the drapery of exaggerated Byzantine character, with long thin folds.

^ As long as the Gothic sculptors practised moderation in the application of these characteristics, they created works of classic beauty; but when the later generations attempted to surpass their predecessors, they fell into mannerisms, and created works which today seem highly inartistic.
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^ Another artist who approached greatness in a period of utter degradation was Rafael Donner, whose principal work is the large fountain with lead figures of Providence and the four rivers of Austria (the Enns , Ybbs, Traun and March), in Vienna, a very remarkable 1 The Villiers monument is evidently the work of two sculptors working in very opposite styles.

.To represent the eyes pieces of glass or coloured enamel were inserted; the treatment of the hair in long ropelike twists suggests a metal rather than a stone design.^ To represent the eyes pieces of glass or coloured enamel were inserted; the treatment of the hair in long ropelike twists suggests a metal rather than a stone design.

^ But it must always suggest the man with the anvil , shears , and pincers, rather than the man with the clay and the chisel.

^ The principal representative of the classical tendency in English sculpture was John Flaxman (1755-1826), who found his inspiration in Greek rather than in Roman art.
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.The Romanesque period in art was essentially one of architectural activity.^ The Romanesque period in art was essentially one of architectural activity.

^ One of the best examples of the transition period from German Romanesque to Gothic is the " golden gate " of Freiburg cathedral, with sculptured figures on the jambs after the French fashion.

.The spirit of the time did not encourage that individual thought which alone can produce a great development of sculpture and painting.^ The spirit of the time did not encourage that individual thought which alone can produce a great development of sculpture and painting .

^ When these artists fell apart, Meunier stood alone, painting where no painter had before ventured or given a thought, working amongst the machinery, the pits, and the great factory yards.

^ In the Netherlands the great development of painting was not accompanied by a parallel movement in plastic art.

.Thus the plastic art of the r rth and r 2th centuries, which was still entirely at the service and under the rule of the Church, was strictly confined to conventional symbols, ideas and forms.^ Thus the plastic art of the r rth and r 2th centuries, which was still entirely at the service and under the rule of the Church, was strictly confined to conventional symbols, ideas and forms.

^ At the beginning of the 19th century the art of sculpture was practically dead in Spain - or at least was mainly confined to the mechanical production of images of saints.

^ In the 4th century A.D., under the rule of Constantine's successors, the plastic arts in the Roman world reached the lowest point of degradation to which they ever fell.

.It is based, not on the study of nature, but on the late Roman reliefs.^ It is based, not on the study of nature, but on the late Roman reliefs.

.The treatment of the figures, though often rude and clumsy, and sometimes influenced by Byzantine stiffness, is on the whole dignified, solemn and serious, and bent upon the expression of the typical, and not of the individual.^ The treatment of the figures, though often rude and clumsy, and sometimes influenced by Byzantine stiffness, is on the whole dignified, solemn and serious, and bent upon the expression of the typical, and not of the individual.

^ The later Norman sculptured ornaments are very rich and spirited, though the treatment of the human figure is still very weak.'

^ They are laboriously cut in hard Purbeck marble, and much resemble bronze in their treatment; the faces are clumsy, and the whole figures stiff and heavy in modelling; but they are valuable examples of the military costume of the time, the armour being purely chain- mail .

.The tympana of the porches, the capitals of columns and the pulpits and choir-screens of the Romanesque churches, and, on a smaller scale, the ivory carvings for book-covers and portable miniature altars, provided the field for the Romanesque sculptors' activity.^ The tympana of the porches, the capitals of columns and the pulpits and choir -screens of the Romanesque churches, and, on a smaller scale, the ivory carvings for book-covers and portable miniature altars, provided the field for the Romanesque sculptors' activity.

^ Next in importance to the numerous examples of German Romanesque ivory carvings are the works in bronze, in the technique of which the German craftsmen of the pre-Gothic period stand unrivalled.

^ It is covered with rudely carved reliefs, small in scale, which are of special interest as showing a transitional state from the worship of Odin to that of Christ.

.In Italy the strong current of hierarchal Byzantinism had never altogether supplanted the antique tradition, though the works based upon the latter, before Niccola Pisano revived 1 On early and medieval sculpture in ivory consult Gori, Thesaurus veterum diptychorum (Florence, 1 759); Westwood, Diptychs of Consuls (London, 1862); Didron, Images ouvrantes du Louvre (Paris, 1871); William Maskell, Ivories in the South Kensington Museum (London, 1872 & 1875); Wieseler, Diptychon Quirinianum zu Brescia (Göttingen, 1868); Wyatt and Oldfield, Sculpture in Ivory (London, 1856); Alfred Maskell, Ivories (London, 1905), one of the best treatises in the English language; E. Molinier, Les Ivories; Die Elfenbeinbilder (Berlin Museum, 1903).^ His statue of " Revolution " is one of his best works.

^ In Italy the strong current of hierarchal Byzantinism had never altogether supplanted the antique tradition, though the works based upon the latter, before Niccola Pisano revived 1 On early and medieval sculpture in ivory consult Gori , Thesaurus veterum diptychorum (Florence, 1 759); Westwood, Diptychs of Consuls (London, 1862); Didron, Images ouvrantes du Louvre (Paris, 1871); William Maskell, Ivories in the South Kensington Museum (London, 1872 & 1875); Wieseler, Diptychon Quirinianum zu Brescia (Göttingen, 1868); Wyatt and Oldfield, Sculpture in Ivory (London, 1856); Alfred Maskell, Ivories (London, 1905), one of the best treatises in the English language; E. Molinier, Les Ivories; Die Elfenbeinbilder (Berlin Museum, 1903).

^ In Asia Minor the influence of Hellenistic art was still so strong that many early Christian works present an almost classical character, but in the West, where this beneficent influence was lacking, sculpture fell earlier into decline.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.' See O'Neill, Sculptured Crosses of Ireland (London, 1857).^ See O'Neill , Sculptured Crosses of Ireland (London, 1857).

^ On Belgian sculpture, see Olivier Georges Destree, The Renaissance of Sculpture in Belgium (London, 1895).

for a short while the true spirit of the antique, are of almost barbaric rudeness, like the bronze gates of .S. Zeno at Verona, and the stone-carving of The Last Supper on the pulpit of S. Ambrogio, in Milan.^ S. Zeno at Verona , and the stone-carving of The Last Supper on the pulpit of S. Ambrogio, in Milan.

.The real home of Romanesque sculpture was beyond the Alps, in Germany and France, and much of the work done in Italy during the 12th century was actually due to northern sculptors - as, for example, the very rude sculpture on the facade of S. Andrea at Pistoia, executed about 1186 by Gruamons and his brother Adeodatus, 3 or the relief by Benedetto Antelami for the pulpit of Parma cathedral of the year 1178. Unlike the sculpture of the Pisani and later artists, these early figures are thoroughly secondary to the architecture they are designed to decorate; they are evidently the work of men who were architects first and sculptors in a secondary degree..^ Dawn Tree is an example of one of these later works.
  • Minneapolis Sculpture Garden | Artwork 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC garden.walkerart.org [Source type: General]

^ From the 12th to the ,4th century many French architects and sculptors visited and worked in.

^ The real home of Romanesque sculpture was beyond the Alps , in Germany and France, and much of the work done in Italy during the 12th century was actually due to northern sculptors - as, for example, the very rude sculpture on the facade of S. Andrea at Pistoia , executed about 1186 by Gruamons and his brother Adeodatus, 3 or the relief by Benedetto Antelami for the pulpit of Parma cathedral of the year 1178.

.After the 13th century the reverse was usually the case, and, as at the west end of Orvieto cathedral, the sculptured decorations are treated as being of primary importance - not that the Italian sculptor-architect ever allowed his statues or reliefs to weaken or damage their architectural surroundings, as is unfortunately the case with much modern sculpture.^ This is specially the case with much of the sculpture that decorates the buildings of Paris.

^ After the 13th century the reverse was usually the case, and, as at the west end of Orvieto cathedral, the sculptured decorations are treated as being of primary importance - not that the Italian sculptor-architect ever allowed his statues or reliefs to weaken or damage their architectural surroundings, as is unfortunately the case with much modern sculpture.

^ Of In the 19th century an Italian sculptor named Monti won much popular repute by similar unworthy tricks; some veiled statues by him in the London Exhibition of 1851 were greatly admired; since then copies or imitations of them have enraptured the visitors who have crowded round the Italian sculpture stalls at every subsequent international exhibition.

.In southern Italy, during the 13th century, there existed a school of sculpture resembling that of France, owing probably to the Norman occupation.^ In southern Italy, during the 13th century, there existed a school of sculpture resembling that of France, owing probably to the Norman occupation.

^ The conditions for sculpture were especially favourable in Italy , where the chief attention was centred, not as in Germany or in France in the decoration of the portals and façade , but in pulpits , altars, and sepulchral monuments.
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^ In Spain, in the early part of the ,6th century, a strong Italian influence superseded that of France and Germany, partly owing to the presence there of the Florentine Torrigiano S and other Italian artists.

.The pulpit in the cathedral of Ravello, executed by Nicolo di Bartolommeo di Foggia in 1272, is an important work of this class; it is enriched with very noble sculpture, especially a large female head crowned with a richly foliated coronet, and combining lifelike vigour with largeness of style in a very remarkable way.^ The pulpit in the cathedral of Ravello , executed by Nicolo di Bartolommeo di Foggia in 1272, is an important work of this class; it is enriched with very noble sculpture, especially a large female head crowned with a richly foliated coronet, and combining lifelike vigour with largeness of style in a very remarkable way.

^ During the Renaissance period Spanish sculpture was chiefly of a decorative character, and was displayed especially on the façades of the churches and palaces and in the towering gilded wooden pulpits ( retablos ).
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^ Jdrg Syrlin, one of the most able of these sculptors in wood, executed the gorgeous choir-stalls in Ulm cathedral, richly decorated with statuettes and canopied work, between 1469 and 1474; his son and namesake sculptured the elaborate stalls in Blaubeuren church of 1496 and the great pulpit in Ulm cathedral.

.The bronze doors at Monreale (by Barisanus of Trani), Pisa and elsewhere are among the chief works of plastic art in Italy during the 12th century.^ The bronze doors at Monreale (by Barisanus of Trani ), Pisa and elsewhere are among the chief works of plastic art in Italy during the 12th century.

^ In the 4th century A.D., under the rule of Constantine's successors, the plastic arts in the Roman world reached the lowest point of degradation to which they ever fell.

^ During the 12th and 13th centuries the prodigious activity of the cathedral builders of France and their rivalry to outshine each other in the richness of the sculptured decorations, led to the glorious development that culminated in the full flower of Gothic art.

.The history of Italian sculpture of the best period is given to a great extent in the separate articles on the Pisani and other Italian artists.^ The history of Italian sculpture of the best period is given to a great extent in the separate articles on the Pisani and other Italian artists.

^ As an artist, the challenge is to take the elements of composition, design, rhythm, movement and energy to best communicate the essence of the message for a particular sculpture.
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^ The philosophy and aesthetics of the subject - the relation of sculpture to the other arts and the nature of its appeal to the emotions - are treated in the article Fine Arts .

.Here it suffices to say that sculpture never became as completely subservient to architecture, as it did in the north, and that with Giovanni Pisano the almost classic repose and dignity of his father Niccola's style gave way - probably owing to northern influences - to an increased sense of life and freedom and dramatic expression.^ Here it suffices to say that sculpture never became as completely subservient to architecture, as it did in the north, and that with Giovanni Pisano the almost classic repose and dignity of his father Niccola's style gave way - probably owing to northern influences - to an increased sense of life and freedom and dramatic expression.

^ In Asia Minor the influence of Hellenistic art was still so strong that many early Christian works present an almost classical character, but in the West, where this beneficent influence was lacking, sculpture fell earlier into decline.
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^ It may here be well to say a few words on the technical methods employed in the execution of medieval sculpture, which in the main were very similar in England, France and Germany .

.Niccola stands at the close of the Romanesque, and Giovanni on the threshold of the Gothic period.^ Niccola stands at the close of the Romanesque, and Giovanni on the threshold of the Gothic period.

^ One of the best examples of the transition period from German Romanesque to Gothic is the " golden gate " of Freiburg cathedral, with sculptured figures on the jambs after the French fashion.

^ In Andrea we find something of Niccola's classic dignity grafted on to Giovanni's close observation of nature.

.During the 13th century Rome and the central provinces of Italy produced very few sculptors of ability, almost the only men of note being the Cosmati.^ During the 13th century Rome and the central provinces of Italy produced very few sculptors of ability, almost the only men of note being the Cosmati .

^ Fiesole in the 19th century produced one sculptor of great talent , named Bastianini.

^ Very beautiful sepulchral effigies in low relief were produced in many parts of Italy, especially at Florence.

.The power acquired by Germany under the Saxon emperors, upon whom had descended the mantle of the Roman Caesars, was the chief reason that led to the great development of Romanesque art in Germany.^ The power acquired by Germany under the Saxon emperors, upon whom had descended the mantle of the Roman Caesars, was the chief reason that led to the great development of Romanesque art in Germany.

^ The extensive use of the precious metals for the chief works of plastic art in this early period is one of the reasons why so few examples still remain - their great intrinsic value naturally causing their destruction.

^ In the Netherlands the great development of painting was not accompanied by a parallel movement in plastic art.

.It is true that, in the 11th century, Byzantine influences stifled the spontaneous naivete of the earlier work; but about the end of the 12th century a new free and vital art arose, based upon a better understanding of the antique, and fostered by the rise of feudalism and the prosperity of the cities.^ It is true that, in the 11th century, Byzantine influences stifled the spontaneous naivete of the earlier work; but about the end of the 12th century a new free and vital art arose, based upon a better understanding of the antique, and fostered by the rise of feudalism and the prosperity of the cities.

^ In Asia Minor the influence of Hellenistic art was still so strong that many early Christian works present an almost classical character, but in the West, where this beneficent influence was lacking, sculpture fell earlier into decline.
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^ Then she heard about the City of Sculpture and its search for works of art to be placed around Hamilton.
  • Hamilton, Ohio, City of Sculpture - SCULPTURE 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.cityofsculpture.org [Source type: General]

.Next in importance to the numerous examples of German Romanesque ivory carvings are the works in bronze, in the technique of which the German craftsmen of the pre-Gothic period stand unrivalled.^ Next in importance to the numerous examples of German Romanesque ivory carvings are the works in bronze, in the technique of which the German craftsmen of the pre-Gothic period stand unrivalled.

^ Niccola stands at the close of the Romanesque, and Giovanni on the threshold of the Gothic period.

^ Here, he carved numerous hatchings and striations into the original plaster before casting it in bronze and gave further detail to the surface in the carefully applied patina.
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.This is seen in the bronze pillar reliefs and other works, notably the bronze gates of Hildesheim Cathedral, produced by Bishop Bernward (d.^ This is seen in the bronze pillar reliefs and other works, notably the bronze gates of Hildesheim Cathedral, produced by Bishop Bernward (d.

^ The bronze font at Liege , with figure-subjects in relief of various baptismal scenes from the New Testament, by Lambert Patras of Dinant , cast about 1112, is a work of most wonderful beauty and perfection for its time; other fonts in Osnabruck , by Master Gerhard, and Hildesheim cathedrals are surrounded by spirited reliefs, fine in conception, but inferior in beauty to those on the Liege font.

^ A. G. Walker has produced notable work in the class of pure sculpture, including the relief representing " The Last Plague : The Death of the Firstborn," " Adam and Eve: And They were Afraid " and " The Thorn " (exhibited in bronze in 1910), graceful and quaintly charming, with elegance in the pose and in the action.

1022) after his visit to Rome. .Hildesheim, Cologne and the whole of the Rhine provinces were the most active seats of German sculpture, especially in metal, till the r 2th century.^ Hildesheim, Cologne and the whole of the Rhine provinces were the most active seats of German sculpture, especially in metal, till the r 2th century.

^ On the contrary the second flower of German Renaissance sculpture lasted till 1550, and many able masters date from that period.
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^ At the beginning of the thirteenth century German sculpture attained its first triumph, which was accelerated by Byzantine and French influence.
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.Many remarkable pieces of bronze sculpture were produced at the end of that period, of which several specimens exist.^ Many remarkable pieces of bronze sculpture were produced at the end of that period, of which several specimens exist.

^ On the contrary the second flower of German Renaissance sculpture lasted till 1550, and many able masters date from that period.
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^ Many rich and elaborate works of his exist at Trinity College, Oxford, at Cambridge, Chatsworth , and several other places in England.

.The bronze font at Liege, with figure-subjects in relief of various baptismal scenes from the New Testament, by Lambert Patras of Dinant, cast about 1112, is a work of most wonderful beauty and perfection for its time; other fonts in Osnabruck, by Master Gerhard, and Hildesheim cathedrals are surrounded by spirited reliefs, fine in conception, but inferior in beauty to those on the Liege font.^ The bronze font at Liege , with figure-subjects in relief of various baptismal scenes from the New Testament, by Lambert Patras of Dinant , cast about 1112, is a work of most wonderful beauty and perfection for its time; other fonts in Osnabruck , by Master Gerhard, and Hildesheim cathedrals are surrounded by spirited reliefs, fine in conception, but inferior in beauty to those on the Liege font.

^ The subjects of these are usually scenes from the Old and New Testaments.

^ About the same time (1400) able work was done by the Schools of Burgundy and the Netherlands , the most important monument of which is the tomb of Duke Philip the Bold at Dijon by Claus Slüter.
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.Fine bronze candelabra exist in the abbey church of Combourg and at Aix-la-Chapelle, 3 The other finest 'examples of this early class of sculpture exist at Pisa, Parma, Modena and Verona; in most of them the old Byzantine influence is very strong.^ Fine bronze candelabra exist in the abbey church of Combourg and at Aix-la-Chapelle , 3 The other finest 'examples of this early class of sculpture exist at Pisa, Parma, Modena and Verona; in most of them the old Byzantine influence is very strong.

^ In Asia Minor the influence of Hellenistic art was still so strong that many early Christian works present an almost classical character, but in the West, where this beneficent influence was lacking, sculpture fell earlier into decline.
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^ One of the finest in the former collection was taken from the crypt of the old basilica of St Peter ; it contained the body of a certain Junius Bassus, and dates from the year 359.2 Many other similar sarcophagi were made in the provinces of Rome , especially Gaul ; and fine specimens exist in the museums of Arles , Marseilles and Aix ; those found in Britain are of very inferior workmanship.

the latter of about .1165. Merseburg cathedral has a strange realistic sepulchral figure of Rudolf of Swabia, executed about r roo; and at Magdeburg is a fine effigy, also in bronze, of Bishop Frederick (d.^ Merseburg cathedral has a strange realistic sepulchral figure of Rudolf of Swabia , executed about r roo; and at Magdeburg is a fine effigy, also in bronze, of Bishop Frederick (d.

^ Another very fine portrait effigy of about 1570, a recumbent figure in full armour of the duke of Montmorency , preserved in the Louvre, is the work of Barthelemy Prieur.

^ It is of white marble, surrounded with arcading, which contains about forty small alabaster figures representing mourners of all classes, executed with much dramatic power.

1152), treated in a more graceful way. .The last figure has a peculiarity which is not uncommon in the older bronze reliefs of Germany: the body is treated as a relief, while the head sticks out and is quite detached from the ground in a very awkward way.^ The last figure has a peculiarity which is not uncommon in the older bronze reliefs of Germany: the body is treated as a relief, while the head sticks out and is quite detached from the ground in a very awkward way.

^ Subject reliefs do not often occur, but large slabs of marble, forming screens, altars, pulpits and the like, were ornamented in a very skilful and original way with low reliefs of graceful vine -plants, with peacocks and other birds drinking out of chalices, all treated in a very able and highly decorative manner.

^ The ground on which the figure lies, the shield , the border of the tunic , the pillow , and other parts are decorated with these enamels very minutely treated.

.One of the finest plastic works of this century is the choir screen of Hildesheim cathedral, executed in hard stucco, one rich with gold and colours; on its lower part is a series of large reliefs of saints modelled with almost classical breadth and nobility, with drapery of especial excellence.^ Like the Hildesheim choir screen, it is made of hard stucco and is decorated with glass mosaics.

^ To this period belong a number of rich reliefs and statues on the choir-screen of Chartres cathedral.

^ One of the finest plastic works of this century is the choir screen of Hildesheim cathedral, executed in hard stucco, one rich with gold and colours; on its lower part is a series of large reliefs of saints modelled with almost classical breadth and nobility , with drapery of especial excellence.

.In the r3th century German sculpture had made considerable artistic progress, but it did not reach the high standard of France.^ In the r3th century German sculpture had made considerable artistic progress, but it did not reach the high standard of France.

^ Deserving of a special mention is the School of the "Alabasters", which for several centuries made use of the rich English quarries of alabaster to carve small and large sculptures, rather in a mechanical than an artistic fashion.
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^ Wood-carving , on the other hand, reached its artistic climax a full century later under the influence of the fully developed Perpendicular style.

.One of the best examples of the transition period from German Romanesque to Gothic is the " golden gate " of Freiburg cathedral, with sculptured figures on the jambs after the French fashion.^ One of the best examples of the transition period from German Romanesque to Gothic is the " golden gate " of Freiburg cathedral, with sculptured figures on the jambs after the French fashion.

^ One of Giovanni's best works, a group of two nude figures fighting, is now lost.

^ On the contrary the second flower of German Renaissance sculpture lasted till 1550, and many able masters date from that period.
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.The statues of the apostles on the nave pillars, and especially one of the Madonna at the east end (1260-1270), possess great beauty and sculpturesque breadth.^ The statues of the apostles on the nave pillars, and especially one of the Madonna at the east end (1260-1270), possess great beauty and sculpturesque breadth.

^ Very beautiful is the statue of Peter the Great, which breathes strength, intelligence, genius and devouring activity.

^ The last was an artist of great ability, and produced an immense number of clever but often, sculpturesquely considered, offensive statues.

.Of the same period, and kindred in style and feeling, are the reliefs on the eastern choir-screen in Bamberg cathedral.^ Of the same period, and kindred in style and feeling, are the reliefs on the eastern choir-screen in Bamberg cathedral.

^ To this period belong a number of rich reliefs and statues on the choir-screen of Chartres cathedral.

^ The most important school of this period is the Saxon with sculptures at Wechselburg, Freiberg, and Naumburg; the Frankish School with the reliefs of the choir-screens and statues in the cathedral of Bamberg , and the Romanesque sculptures of the cathedral of Strasburg , which in many respects rival the best works of antique art.
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.France is comparatively poor in characteristic examples of Romanesque sculpture, as the time of the greatest activity.^ France is comparatively poor in characteristic examples of Romanesque sculpture, as the time of the greatest activity.

^ The sculptures of the remaining European countries during this period cannot be compared with the German; next in importance are those of France .
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^ One of the best examples of the transition period from German Romanesque to Gothic is the " golden gate " of Freiburg cathedral, with sculptured figures on the jambs after the French fashion.

coincides with the beginnings of the .Gothic style, so France that in many cases, as for instance on the porches of Bourges and Chartres cathedrals, Romanesque and Gothic features occur side by side and make it impossible to establish a clear demarcation between the two.^ Gothic style, so France that in many cases, as for instance on the porches of Bourges and Chartres cathedrals, Romanesque and Gothic features occur side by side and make it impossible to establish a clear demarcation between the two.

^ The realistic trait of the crossed legs, which occurs in many of these effigies, heralds the near advent of Gothic art.

^ One of the best examples of the transition period from German Romanesque to Gothic is the " golden gate " of Freiburg cathedral, with sculptured figures on the jambs after the French fashion.

.Among the most important Romanesque monuments of the early 12th century are the sculptures on the porch of the abbey church of Conques, representing the Last Judgment; the somewhat barbaric tympanum of Autun cathedral (c.^ Among the most important Romanesque monuments of the early 12th century are the sculptures on the porch of the abbey church of Conques, representing the Last Judgment; the somewhat barbaric tympanum of Autun cathedral (c.

^ About the same time (1400) able work was done by the Schools of Burgundy and the Netherlands , the most important monument of which is the tomb of Duke Philip the Bold at Dijon by Claus Slüter.
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^ Sculpture in the United States is a development of the last three quarters of the nineteenth century.
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1130); and that of the church of Moissac.
.During the 12th and 13th centuries the prodigious activity of the cathedral builders of France and their rivalry to outshine each other in the richness of the sculptured decorations, led to the glorious development that culminated in the full flower of Gothic art.^ During the 12th and 13th centuries the prodigious activity of the cathedral builders of France and their rivalry to outshine each other in the richness of the sculptured decorations, led to the glorious development that culminated in the full flower of Gothic art.

^ During the Renaissance period Spanish sculpture was chiefly of a decorative character, and was displayed especially on the façades of the churches and palaces and in the towering gilded wooden pulpits ( retablos ).
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^ Although the difference between fully developed Gothic sculpture and Romanesque sculpture is almost as clearly marked as the difference between Gothic and Romanesque architecture 1 In Norway and Denmark during the 11th and 12th centuries carved ornament of the very highest merit was produced, especially the framework round the doors of the wooden churches; these are formed of large pine planks, sculptured in slight relief with dragons and interlacing foliage in grand sweeping curves, - perfect masterpieces of decorative art, full of the keenest inventive spirit and originality.

.The facades of large cathedrals were completely covered with sculptured reliefs and thick-set rows of statues in niches.^ The facades of large cathedrals were completely covered with sculptured reliefs and thick-set rows of statues in niches.

^ Strassburg cathedral, though sadly damaged by restoration, still possesses a large quantity of the finest sculpture of the 13th century.

^ The whole of the western portal with its three doorways is covered with statues and reliefs, all richly decorated with colour, part of which still remains.

.The whole of the front was frequently one huge composition of statuary, with only sufficient purely architectural work to form a background and frame for the sculptured figures.^ The whole of the front was frequently one huge composition of statuary, with only sufficient purely architectural work to form a background and frame for the sculptured figures.

^ These attributes of the statue render it difficult for sculpture to combine several figures in a group in which detail is necessarily subordinated to the whole.
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^ Kogan will teach students how forms are organized in space and how they relate to one another, which will allow students to find hidden balance that makes a beautiful sculpture.
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.A west end treated like that of Wells cathedral, which is almost unique in England, is not uncommon in France.^ A west end treated like that of Wells cathedral, which is almost unique in England, is not uncommon in France.

^ It may here be well to say a few words on the technical methods employed in the execution of medieval sculpture, which in the main were very similar in England, France and Germany .

^ A notable exception is Wells cathedral, the west end of which, dating from about the middle of the century, is covered with more than 600 figures in the round or in relief, arranged in tiers, and of varying sizes.

.Even the shafts of the doorways and other architectural accessories were covered with minute sculptured decoration, - the motives of which were often, especially during the 12th century, obviously derived from the metal-work of shrines and reliquaries studded with rows of jewels.^ Even the shafts of the doorways and other architectural accessories were covered with minute sculptured decoration, - the motives of which were often, especially during the 12th century, obviously derived from the metal-work of shrines and reliquaries studded with rows of jewels.

^ During the Renaissance period Spanish sculpture was chiefly of a decorative character, and was displayed especially on the façades of the churches and palaces and in the towering gilded wooden pulpits ( retablos ).
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^ During the 18th century English sculpture was mostly in the hands of Flemish and other foreign artists, of whom Roubiliac (1695-1762), Peter Scheemakers (1691-1773), and J M. Rysbrack (1694-1770) were the chief.

.The west façade of Poitiers cathedral is one of the richest examples; it has large surfaces covered with foliated carving and rows of colossal statues, both seated and standing, reaching high up the front of the church.^ The west façade of Poitiers cathedral is one of the richest examples; it has large surfaces covered with foliated carving and rows of colossal statues, both seated and standing, reaching high up the front of the church.

^ Vienna owes the Tegetthoff monument (based on the Duilius column), the Schubert statue, the seated figure of Grillparzer, and the awkwardly placed " Minerva " in front of the houses of parliament.

^ Emilio Gallori, who studied at the Florence academy, is the author of the colossal statue of St Peter on the façade of the cathedral at Florence.

.Of the same century (the 12th), but rather later in date, is the very noble sculpture on the three western doors of Chartres cathedral, with fine tympanum reliefs and colossal statues (all once covered with painting and gold) attached to the jamb-shafts of the openings.^ Of the same century (the 12th), but rather later in date, is the very noble sculpture on the three western doors of Chartres cathedral, with fine tympanum reliefs and colossal statues (all once covered with painting and gold) attached to the jamb -shafts of the openings.

^ The tomb once had a high stone canopy of open work - arches, canopies and pinnacles - a class of architectural sculpture of which many extremely rich examples exist, as, for instance, the tomb of Edward II. at Gloucester , the de Spencer tomb at Tewkesbury , and, of rather later style , the tomb of Lady Eleanor Fitzalan de Percy at Beverley .

^ The real home of Romanesque sculpture was beyond the Alps , in Germany and France, and much of the work done in Italy during the 12th century was actually due to northern sculptors - as, for example, the very rude sculpture on the facade of S. Andrea at Pistoia , executed about 1186 by Gruamons and his brother Adeodatus, 3 or the relief by Benedetto Antelami for the pulpit of Parma cathedral of the year 1178.

.These latter figures, with their exaggerated height and the long straight folds of their drapery, are designed with great skill to assist and not to break the main upward lines of the doorways.^ These latter figures, with their exaggerated height and the long straight folds of their drapery, are designed with great skill to assist and not to break the main upward lines of the doorways.

^ To the latter years of the 13th century belong the magnificent series of statues and reliefs round the three great western doorways of the same church, among which are no fewer than thirty-four life-sized figures.

^ They are thoroughly Byzantine in style, but evidently the work of some very ignorant sculptor; they represent two scenes in the Raising of Lazarus ; the figures are stiff, attenuated and ugly, the pose very awkward, and the drapery of exaggerated Byzantine character, with long thin folds.

.The sculptors have willingly sacrificed the beauty and proportion of each separate statue for the sake of the architectonic effect of the whole facade.^ The sculptors have willingly sacrificed the beauty and proportion of each separate statue for the sake of the architectonic effect of the whole facade.

.The heads, however, are full of nobility, beauty, and even grace, especially those that are softened by the addition of long wavy curls, which give relief to the general stiffness of the form.^ The heads, however, are full of nobility, beauty, and even grace, especially those that are softened by the addition of long wavy curls, which give relief to the general stiffness of the form.

^ While still keeping its early dignity and subordination to its architectural setting, the sculpture reached a very high degree of graceful finish and even sensuous beauty.

^ Very beautiful sepulchral effigies in low relief were produced in many parts of Italy, especially at Florence.

.The sculptured doors of the north and south aisles of Bourges cathedral are fine examples of the end of the 12th century, and so were the west doors of Notre Dame in Paris till they were hopelessly injured by " restoration."^ The sculptured doors of the north and south aisles of Bourges cathedral are fine examples of the end of the 12th century, and so were the west doors of Notre Dame in Paris till they were hopelessly injured by " restoration."

^ Some of the reliefs on the choir screen of Notre Dame at Paris belong to this period, as does also much fine sculpture on the transepts of Rouen cathedral and the west end of Lyons .

^ Towards the end of the 18th century a revolution was brought about in the style of sculpture by the suddenly revived taste for antique art.

.The early sculpture at Bourges is specially interesting from the existence in many parts of its original coloured decoration.^ The early sculpture at Bourges is specially interesting from the existence in many parts of its original coloured decoration.

^ The whole of the western portal with its three doorways is covered with statues and reliefs, all richly decorated with colour, part of which still remains.

^ This is specially the case with much of the sculpture that decorates the buildings of Paris.

.Romanesque sculpture in England, during the Norman period, was of a very rude sort and generally used for the tympanum reliefs over the doors of churches.^ Norman period in England.

^ Romanesque sculpture in England, during the Norman period, was of a very rude sort and generally used for the tympanum reliefs over the doors of churches.

^ During the Renaissance period Spanish sculpture was chiefly of a decorative character, and was displayed especially on the façades of the churches and palaces and in the towering gilded wooden pulpits ( retablos ).
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Christ in Majesty, the Harrowing of Hell and St George and the Dragon occur very frequently. .Reliefs of the zodiacal signs were a common decoration of the richly sculptured arches of the 12th century, and are frequently carved with much power.^ Reliefs of the zodiacal signs were a common decoration of the richly sculptured arches of the 12th century, and are frequently carved with much power.

^ In Venice the northern and almost French character of much of the early 15th-century sculpture is more strongly marked, especially in the noble figures in high relief which decorate the lower story and angles of the doge's palace; 1 these are mostly the work of a Venetian named Bartolomeo Bon.

^ On the other hand, numerous reliefs survive, because, after the ancient custom, the sarcophagi, of which a large number survive, were richly decorated with sculptural representations.
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.The later Norman sculptured ornaments are very rich and spirited, though the treatment of the human figure is still very weak.'^ The later Norman sculptured ornaments are very rich and spirited, though the treatment of the human figure is still very weak.'

^ While still keeping its early dignity and subordination to its architectural setting, the sculpture reached a very high degree of graceful finish and even sensuous beauty.

^ Schreyer monument (1492) for St Sebald's at Nuremberg, - a very skilful though mannered piece of sculpture, with very realistic figures in the costume of the time, carved in a way more suited to wood than stone, and too pictorial in effect.

.The best-preserved examples of monumental sculpture of the 12th century are a number of effigies of knights-templars in the round Temple church in London.^ The best-preserved examples of monumental sculpture of the 12th century are a number of effigies of knights- templars in the round Temple church in London .

^ Among the most important Romanesque monuments of the early 12th century are the sculptures on the porch of the abbey church of Conques, representing the Last Judgment; the somewhat barbaric tympanum of Autun cathedral (c.

^ One of the best examples of the transition period from German Romanesque to Gothic is the " golden gate " of Freiburg cathedral, with sculptured figures on the jambs after the French fashion.

.2 They are laboriously cut in hard Purbeck marble, and much resemble bronze in their treatment; the faces are clumsy, and the whole figures stiff and heavy in modelling; but they are valuable examples of the military costume of the time, the armour being purely chain-mail.^ They are laboriously cut in hard Purbeck marble, and much resemble bronze in their treatment; the faces are clumsy, and the whole figures stiff and heavy in modelling; but they are valuable examples of the military costume of the time, the armour being purely chain- mail .

^ In some cases Michelangelo appears to have cut his statue out of the marble without previously making a model - a marvellous feat of skill.

^ It is of white marble, surrounded with arcading, which contains about forty small alabaster figures representing mourners of all classes, executed with much dramatic power.

.Another effigy in the same church cut in stone, once decorated with painting, is a much finer piece of sculpture of about a century later.^ Another effigy in the same church cut in stone, once decorated with painting, is a much finer piece of sculpture of about a century later.

^ The sculpture on the western façade of the church at Loreto and the elaborate bronze gates of the Santa Casa are works of great technical merit by Girolamo Lombardo and his sons, about the middle of the 16th century.

^ Towards the end of the 18th century a revolution was brought about in the style of sculpture by the suddenly revived taste for antique art.

.The head, treated in an ideal way with wavy curls, has much simple beauty, showing a great artistic advance.^ The head, treated in an ideal way with wavy curls, has much simple beauty, showing a great artistic advance.

^ At this time portrait effigies had not come into general use, and both figures are treated in an ideal way.

^ The heads, however, are full of nobility, beauty, and even grace, especially those that are softened by the addition of long wavy curls, which give relief to the general stiffness of the form.

.Another of the most remarkable effigies of this period is that of Robert, duke of Normandy (d.^ Another of the most remarkable effigies of this period is that of Robert , duke of Normandy (d.

^ Another very fine portrait effigy of about 1570, a recumbent figure in full armour of the duke of Montmorency , preserved in the Louvre, is the work of Barthelemy Prieur.

^ The lofty monument of King Robert (1350), behind the high altar of S. Chiara, and other tombs in the same church are the most conspicuous works of this period.

.1134), in Gloucester cathedral, carved with much spirit in oak, and decorated with painting.^ Gloucester cathedral, carved with much spirit in oak, and decorated with painting.

^ Reliefs of the zodiacal signs were a common decoration of the richly sculptured arches of the 12th century, and are frequently carved with much power.

^ Another effigy in the same church cut in stone, once decorated with painting, is a much finer piece of sculpture of about a century later.

.The realistic trait of the crossed legs, which occurs in many of these effigies, heralds the near advent of Gothic art.^ The realistic trait of the crossed legs, which occurs in many of these effigies, heralds the near advent of Gothic art.

^ Many of these qualities are as obvious in his portrait-statues, such as the fine effigy set up to " John Howard " in the market-place of Bedford .

.Most rapid progress in all the arts, especially that of sculpture, was made in England in the second half of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century, largely under the patronage of Henry III., who employed and handsomely rewarded a large number of English artists, and also imported others from Italy and Spain, though these foreigners took only a secondary position among the painters and sculptors of England.^ Most rapid progress in all the arts, especially that of sculpture, was made in England in the second half of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century, largely under the patronage of Henry III ., who employed and handsomely rewarded a large number of English artists, and also imported others from Italy and Spain, though these foreigners took only a secondary position among the painters and sculptors of England.

^ In England sculpture has always been a stepchild among the arts.
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^ Not that many new and unexpected men of genius suddenly arose, for most of the artists who then came to the front had already distinguished themselves by equally noble work; but sculpture, like the other arts, benefited by the pause for thought, and by the ripe and manly tone stamped on the national mind by the discipline of events.

.The end of the r3th century was in fact the culminating period of English art, and at this time a very high degree of excellence was reached by purely national means, quite equalling and even surpassing the general average of art on the Continent, except perhaps in France.^ The end of the r3th century was in fact the culminating period of English art, and at this time a very high degree of excellence was reached by purely national means, quite equalling and even surpassing the general average of art on the Continent, except perhaps in France.

^ The subject of recent British sculpture has been curiously neglected, except in newspaper notices and occasional articles in the periodical press, such as Edmund Gosse's " Living English Sculptors " in the Century Magazine for July 1883.

^ Towards the end of the 18th century a revolution was brought about in the style of sculpture by the suddenly revived taste for antique art.

.Even Niccola Pisano could not have surpassed the beauty and technical excellence of the two bronze effigies in Westminster Abbey modelled and cast by William Torell, a goldsmith and citizen of London, shortly before the year 1300. These are on the tombs of Henry III. and Queen Eleanor (wife of Edward I.^ Among the bronze-workers the family of the Torels, active for almost a century in London , is especially noteworthy; of these William Torel in 1291 cast the well-known bronze figures of Queen Eleanor and Henry III in Westminster Abbey .
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^ The work of these sculptors, notwithstanding great formal beauty and technical ability, reveals a certain coldness and smoothness; and since 1560 secular subjects are preferred.
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^ Even though we worked pretty closely together on these, I think Mya could have done them alone if she wasn't a little bit afraid of the sparks in the shop.
  • John T Unger Artist's Portfolio: sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.johntunger.com [Source type: General]
  • ArtBuzz: Sculpture 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC art.johntunger.com [Source type: General]

), and, though the tomb itself of the former is an .Italian work of the Cosmati school, there is no trace of foreign influence in the figures.^ In no other country, however, were there so many artists who felt it necessary to immortalize their names by inscribing them upon their works.
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^ Foreign influence is absent from the work of Daniel Chester French (1850-), whose art is characterized by restraint and a certain purity of conception.
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.At this time portrait effigies had not come into general use, and both figures are treated in an ideal way.^ At this time portrait effigies had not come into general use, and both figures are treated in an ideal way.

^ Shape your general career into that of a specialist by using these steps on your resume.

^ Another very fine portrait effigy of about 1570, a recumbent figure in full armour of the duke of Montmorency , preserved in the Louvre, is the work of Barthelemy Prieur.

.3 The crowned head of Henry III., with noble well-modelled features and crisp wavy curls, resembles the conventional royal head on English coins of this and the following century, while the head of Eleanor is of remarkable, almost classic, beauty, and of great interest as showing the ideal type of the 13th century.^ The crowned head of Henry III., with noble well-modelled features and crisp wavy curls, resembles the conventional royal head on English coins of this and the following century, while the head of Eleanor is of remarkable, almost classic, beauty, and of great interest as showing the ideal type of the 13th century.

^ The head, treated in an ideal way with wavy curls, has much simple beauty, showing a great artistic advance.

^ Among the bronze-workers the family of the Torels, active for almost a century in London , is especially noteworthy; of these William Torel in 1291 cast the well-known bronze figures of Queen Eleanor and Henry III in Westminster Abbey .
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.In both cases the drapery is well conceived in broad sculpturesque folds, graceful and yet simple in treatment.^ In both cases the drapery is well conceived in broad sculpturesque folds, graceful and yet simple in treatment.

^ The ecclesiastical chasuble , in which priestly effigies nearly always appear, is also a thoroughly unsculpturesque form of drapery, both from its awkward shape and its absence of folds.

^ Flesh and textures are perfectly realized, yet broad, simple.

.The casting of these figures, which was effected by the cire perdue process, is technically very perfect.^ The casting of these figures, which was effected by the cire perdue process, is technically very perfect.

^ The ground on which the figure lies, the shield , the border of the tunic , the pillow , and other parts are decorated with these enamels very minutely treated.

^ Among his earlier works are two fine heads of a man and a girl, pure in style and incisive in character, which were cast by the cire perdue, or " lost-wax," process, which he had learned in Naples.

.The gold employed for the gilding was got from Lucca in the shape of the current florins of that time, which were famed for their purity.^ The gold employed for the gilding was got from Lucca in the shape of the current florins of that time, which were famed for their purity.

.Torell was highly paid for this, as well as for two other bronze statues of Queen Eleanor, probably of the same design.^ Torell was highly paid for this, as well as for two other bronze statues of Queen Eleanor, probably of the same design.

^ Among the bronze-workers the family of the Torels, active for almost a century in London , is especially noteworthy; of these William Torel in 1291 cast the well-known bronze figures of Queen Eleanor and Henry III in Westminster Abbey .
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^ At the same time Derwent Wood produced the two boy figures on the piers to the southward of the Queen Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace.

.Although the difference between fully developed Gothic sculpture and Romanesque sculpture is almost as clearly marked as the difference between Gothic and Romanesque architecture 1 In Norway and Denmark during the 11th and 12th centuries carved ornament of the very highest merit was produced, especially the framework round the doors of the wooden churches; these are formed of large pine planks, sculptured in slight relief with dragons and interlacing foliage in grand sweeping curves, - perfect masterpieces of decorative art, full of the keenest inventive spirit and originality.^ Although the difference between fully developed Gothic sculpture and Romanesque sculpture is almost as clearly marked as the difference between Gothic and Romanesque architecture 1 In Norway and Denmark during the 11th and 12th centuries carved ornament of the very highest merit was produced, especially the framework round the doors of the wooden churches; these are formed of large pine planks, sculptured in slight relief with dragons and interlacing foliage in grand sweeping curves, - perfect masterpieces of decorative art, full of the keenest inventive spirit and originality.

^ The most perfect development of Gothic sculpture took place in France , where the style originated.
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^ Romanesque sculpture in England, during the Norman period, was of a very rude sort and generally used for the tympanum reliefs over the doors of churches.

.2 See Richardson, Monumental Effigies of the Temple Church (London, 1843).^ See Richardson, Monumental Effigies of the Temple Church (London, 1843).

^ The best-preserved examples of monumental sculpture of the 12th century are a number of effigies of knights- templars in the round Temple church in London .

.3 The effigy of King John in Worcester cathedral of about 1216 is an exception to this rule; though rudely executed, the head appears to be a portrait.^ The effigy of King John in Worcester cathedral of about 1216 is an exception to this rule; though rudely executed, the head appears to be a portrait.

^ The recumbent effigies Of Henry VII. and his queen are fine specimens of Florentine art, well modelled with lifelike portrait heads and of very fine technique in the casting.

^ Many of these qualities are as obvious in his portrait-statues, such as the fine effigy set up to " John Howard " in the market-place of Bedford .

.Norman period in England. indeed, the evolution of the two arts proceeded in parallel stages - the change from the earlier to the later style is so gradual and almost imperceptible, that it is all but impossible to follow it step by step, and to illustrate it by examples.^ The new Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, and the striking Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum here in Minneapolis are two recent examples of his unique architectural vision.
  • Minneapolis Sculpture Garden | Artwork 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC garden.walkerart.org [Source type: General]

.What distinguishes the Gothic from the Romanesque in sculpture is the striving to achieve individual in the place of typical expression.^ What distinguishes the Gothic from the Romanesque in sculpture is the striving to achieve individual in the place of typical expression.

^ One of the best examples of the transition period from German Romanesque to Gothic is the " golden gate " of Freiburg cathedral, with sculptured figures on the jambs after the French fashion.

.This striving is as apparent in the more flexible and emotional treatment of the human figure,as it is in the substitution of naturalistic plant and animal forms for the more conventional ornamentation of the earlier centuries.^ This striving is as apparent in the more flexible and emotional treatment of the human figure,as it is in the substitution of naturalistic plant and animal forms for the more conventional ornamentation of the earlier centuries.

^ In certain groups, such as " Orpheus " and " Boy and Bear Cubs," the sculptor combines the human figure with animal forms.

^ It served the same purpose as the Babylonian , but the relief is more correct in perspective, and the human figure shows a touch of individuality.
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.Statuesque architectonic dignity and calmness are replaced by slender grace and soulful expression.^ Statuesque architectonic dignity and calmness are replaced by slender grace and soulful expression.

.The drapery, instead of being arranged in heavy folds, clings to the body and accentuates rather than conceals the form.^ The drapery, instead of being arranged in heavy folds, clings to the body and accentuates rather than conceals the form.

.At the same time, the subjects treated by the Gothic sculptor do not depart to any marked degree from those which fell to the task of the Romanesque workers, though they are brought more within the range of human emotions.^ At the same time, the subjects treated by the Gothic sculptor do not depart to any marked degree from those which fell to the task of the Romanesque workers, though they are brought more within the range of human emotions.

^ As long as the Gothic sculptors practised moderation in the application of these characteristics, they created works of classic beauty; but when the later generations attempted to surpass their predecessors, they fell into mannerisms, and created works which today seem highly inartistic.
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^ The philosophy and aesthetics of the subject - the relation of sculpture to the other arts and the nature of its appeal to the emotions - are treated in the article Fine Arts .

.It is only natural that in France, which was the birthplace of Gothic architecture, the sister art of sculpture should have attained its earliest and most striking development.^ It is only natural that in France, which was the birthplace of Gothic architecture, the sister art of sculpture should have attained its earliest and most striking development.

^ The most perfect development of Gothic sculpture took place in France , where the style originated.
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^ Thus in sculpture, as in painting and architecture, a study which might have been stimulating and useful in the highest degree became a serious hindrance to the development of modern art; this misconception and misdirection occurred not only in France but in the other countries of Europe.

.During the 13th century, the imagiers, or stone sculptors, worked hand in hand with the great cathedral builders.^ During the 13th century, the imagiers, or stone sculptors, worked hand in hand with the great cathedral builders.

^ The work of these sculptors, notwithstanding great formal beauty and technical ability, reveals a certain coldness and smoothness; and since 1560 secular subjects are preferred.
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^ Nicholas Stone (1586-1647), who worked under the supervision of Inigo Jones and was mastermason to King Charles I., was the chief English sculptor of his time.

.This century may indeed be called the golden age of Gothic sculpture.^ This century may indeed be called the golden age of Gothic sculpture.

^ Not until the middle of the sixteenth century did the Italian influence become so powerful that French sculpture may be said to have reached its zenith.
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^ One of the best examples of the transition period from German Romanesque to Gothic is the " golden gate " of Freiburg cathedral, with sculptured figures on the jambs after the French fashion.

.While still keeping its early dignity and subordination to its architectural setting, the sculpture reached a very high degree of graceful finish and even sensuous beauty.^ These very profuse decorations are excellent from the modern point of view, but too little subordinated to the architecture to be monumental.
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^ It is typical of this period that sculpture, especially in stone, was predominantly subordinated to architecture and served almost exclusively for ecclesiastical purposes.
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^ There was practically none during the Romanesque period, and even the early Gothic architecture either completely excluded sculptural representations in its edifices, or else used them only as decorations as on the keystones and spandrils of the arches and in capitals.
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.Nothing could surpass the loveliness of the angel statues round the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, and even the earlier work on the façade of Laon cathedral is full of grace and delicacy.^ Nothing could surpass the loveliness of the angel statues round the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, and even the earlier work on the façade of Laon cathedral is full of grace and delicacy.

^ The statues of the twelve apostles in the Ste Chapelle in Paris are gems of Gothic sculpture.
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^ In this work, as in the bronze statue of Bishop Creighton in St Paul's Cathedral, there is a modern feeling entirely responsive to the feeling of the people.

.Amiens cathedral is especially rich in sculpture of this date, - as, for example, the noble and majestic statues of Christ and the Apostles at the west end; the sculpture on the south transept of about 1260-1270, of more developed style, is remarkable for dignity combined with soft beauty.'^ Amiens cathedral is especially rich in sculpture of this date, - as, for example, the noble and majestic statues of Christ and the Apostles at the west end; the sculpture on the south transept of about 1260-1270, of more developed style, is remarkable for dignity combined with soft beauty.'

^ The pulpit in the cathedral of Ravello , executed by Nicolo di Bartolommeo di Foggia in 1272, is an important work of this class; it is enriched with very noble sculpture, especially a large female head crowned with a richly foliated coronet, and combining lifelike vigour with largeness of style in a very remarkable way.

^ The north transept at Rheims is no less rich: the central statue of Christ is a work of much grace and nobility of form; and some nude figures - for example, that of St Sebastian - show a knowledge of the human body which was very unusual at that early date.

.The noble row of kings on the west end of Notre Dame at Paris has, like the earlier sculpture, been ruined by " restoration," which has robbed the statues of both their spirit and their vigour.^ The noble row of kings on the west end of Notre Dame at Paris has, like the earlier sculpture, been ruined by " restoration," which has robbed the statues of both their spirit and their vigour.

^ (J.H.M.; M.H.S.; P.G.K.) During the first half of the 19th century the prevalence of a cold, lifeless pseudo-classic style was fatal to individual talent, and robbed the sculpture of England of all real vigour and spirit.

^ The west façade of Poitiers cathedral is one of the richest examples; it has large surfaces covered with foliated carving and rows of colossal statues, both seated and standing, reaching high up the front of the church.

.To the latter years of the 13th century belong the magnificent series of statues and reliefs round the three great western doorways of the same church, among which are no fewer than thirty-four life-sized figures.^ To the latter years of the 13th century belong the magnificent series of statues and reliefs round the three great western doorways of the same church, among which are no fewer than thirty-four life-sized figures.

^ His life-size recumbent statue " Awakening " is among the best of his figures.

^ The sculpture on the western façade of the church at Loreto and the elaborate bronze gates of the Santa Casa are works of great technical merit by Girolamo Lombardo and his sons, about the middle of the 16th century.

.On the whole, the single statues throughout this period are finer than the reliefs with many figures.^ On the whole, the single statues throughout this period are finer than the reliefs with many figures.

^ The whole of the western portal with its three doorways is covered with statues and reliefs, all richly decorated with colour, part of which still remains.

^ To the latter years of the 13th century belong the magnificent series of statues and reliefs round the three great western doorways of the same church, among which are no fewer than thirty-four life-sized figures.

.Some of the statues of the Virgin and Child are of extraordinary beauty, in spite of their being often treated with a certain mannerism - a curved pose of the body, which appears to have been copied from ivory statuettes, in which the figure followed the curve of the elephant's tusk.^ Some of the statues of the Virgin and Child are of extraordinary beauty, in spite of their being often treated with a certain mannerism - a curved pose of the body, which appears to have been copied from ivory statuettes, in which the figure followed the curve of the elephant's tusk.

^ In some cases Michelangelo appears to have cut his statue out of the marble without previously making a model - a marvellous feat of skill.

^ Cain " (1905), a 'vigorous, dramatic, yet wholly sculpturesque figure, is in powerful contrast to the three works that appeared in successive years: " Abundance " (a group of a woman and two children) and the marble statues " Atalanta " and " Psyche "- all of them the type of grace in pose and of beauty of face and form.

.The north transept at Rheims is no less rich: the central statue of Christ is a work of much grace and nobility of form; and some nude figures - for example, that of St Sebastian - show a knowledge of the human body which was very unusual at that early date.^ The north transept at Rheims is no less rich: the central statue of Christ is a work of much grace and nobility of form; and some nude figures - for example, that of St Sebastian - show a knowledge of the human body which was very unusual at that early date.

^ H. Greber, after some realistic works, such as " Le Grisou " (Fire-damp) and portrait-statuettes, as the tiny fulllength figures of " Fremiet " and of " Gevine," distinguished himself in the Salon of 1909 by a statue of " Narcissus " at the edge of a fountain- pool , very elegant and Italian in feeling.

^ Amiens cathedral is especially rich in sculpture of this date, - as, for example, the noble and majestic statues of Christ and the Apostles at the west end; the sculpture on the south transept of about 1260-1270, of more developed style, is remarkable for dignity combined with soft beauty.'

.Many of these Reims statues, like those by Torell at Westminster, are quite equal to the best work of Niccola Pisano.^ His statue of " Revolution " is one of his best works.

^ Many of these Reims statues, like those by Torell at Westminster, are quite equal to the best work of Niccola Pisano.

^ Of all his works the seated statue of " Dr Martineau " is perhaps the best, for interest, refinement, and for technical qualities.

.The abbey church of St Denis possesses the largest collection of French 13th-century monumental effigies, a large number of which, with supposed portraits of the early kings, were made during the rebuilding of the church in 1264; some of them appear to be " archaistic " copies of older contemporary statues.2 In the 14th century French sculpture began to decline, though much beautiful plastic work was still produced.^ Strassburg cathedral, though sadly damaged by restoration, still possesses a large quantity of the finest sculpture of the 13th century.

^ The abbey church of St Denis possesses the largest collection of French 13th-century monumental effigies, a large number of which, with supposed portraits of the early kings, were made during the rebuilding of the church in 1264; some of them appear to be " archaistic " copies of older contemporary statues.2 In the 14th century French sculpture began to decline, though much beautiful plastic work was still produced.

^ The cathedral of Santiago de Compostella possesses one of the grandest existing specimens in the world of late 12th-century architectonic sculpture; this, though the work of a native artist, Mastei Mateo,' is thoroughly French in style; as recorded by an inscription on the front, it was completed in 1188.

.Some of the reliefs on the choir screen of Notre Dame at Paris belong to this period, as does also much fine sculpture on the transepts of Rouen cathedral and the west end of Lyons.^ To this period belong a number of rich reliefs and statues on the choir-screen of Chartres cathedral.

^ Some of the reliefs on the choir screen of Notre Dame at Paris belong to this period, as does also much fine sculpture on the transepts of Rouen cathedral and the west end of Lyons .

^ The sculptured doors of the north and south aisles of Bourges cathedral are fine examples of the end of the 12th century, and so were the west doors of Notre Dame in Paris till they were hopelessly injured by " restoration."

.At the end of this century an able sculptor from the Netherlands, Claus Sluter (who followed the tradition of the 14th - century school of Tournai, which is marked by the exquisite study of the details of nature and led to the brilliant development of Flemish realism), executed much fine work, especially at Dijon, under the patronage of Philip the Bold, for whose newly founded Carthusian monastery I See Ruskin, The Bible of Amiens (1878).^ At the end of this century an able sculptor from the Netherlands , Claus Sluter (who followed the tradition of the 14th - century school of Tournai , which is marked by the exquisite study of the details of nature and led to the brilliant development of Flemish realism ), executed much fine work, especially at Dijon , under the patronage of Philip the Bold , for whose newly founded Carthusian monastery I See Ruskin, The Bible of Amiens (1878).

^ In the other provinces under the Austrian emperor's rule, the best-known sculptors are the Carniole Marcell Guicki (1830-1894), Lewandowski, Buracz, and the Tirolese Gurschner, who follows the modern French style of statuette sculptors.

^ The greatest talent of all was unquestionably Marc Antokolsky (1845-1902), a Jewish sculptor permitted to work outside the Pale, of whom the Paris correspondent of The Times wrote, about 1888, that French sculptors would benefit by studying under Antokolsky, and by learning from him the power of the inspiration drawn from the study of nature.

.See Felibien, Histoire de l'Abbaye de Saint-Denys (Paris, 1706).^ See Felibien, Histoire de l'Abbaye de Saint-Denys (Paris, 1706).

^ London, 1872); Ruskin, Aratra Pentelici (six lectures on sculpture) (London, 1872); Viardot, Les Merveilles de la sculpture (Paris, 1869); Arsenne and Denis, Manuel ...

in .1399 he sculptured the great " Moses fountain " in the cloister, with six life-sized statues of prophets in stone, painted and gilt in the usual medieval fashion.^ Moses fountain " in the cloister , with six life-sized statues of prophets in stone, painted and gilt in the usual medieval fashion.

^ He then, in the case of a life-size or colossal statue, has a sort of iron skeleton set up, with stout bars for the arms and legs, fixed in the pose of the future figure.

^ In the 14th century the silversmiths of Spain produced many works of sculpture of great size and technical power.

.Not long before his death in 1411 Sluter completed a very magnificent altar tomb for Philip the Bold, now in the museum at Dijon.^ Not long before his death in 1411 Sluter completed a very magnificent altar tomb for Philip the Bold, now in the museum at Dijon.

^ The church of this monastery contains two of the most magnificently rich monuments in the world, especially the altar-tomb of King John II .

.It is of white marble, surrounded with arcading, which contains about forty small alabaster figures representing mourners of all classes, executed with much dramatic power.^ It is of white marble, surrounded with arcading, which contains about forty small alabaster figures representing mourners of all classes, executed with much dramatic power.

^ Cain " (1905), a 'vigorous, dramatic, yet wholly sculpturesque figure, is in powerful contrast to the three works that appeared in successive years: " Abundance " (a group of a woman and two children) and the marble statues " Atalanta " and " Psyche "- all of them the type of grace in pose and of beauty of face and form.

^ Portrait-figures of all ages are here classed together, and the work is a better-sustained piece of designing and carving than is commonly understood.

.The recumbent portrait effigy of Philip in his ducal mantle with folded hands is a work of great power and delicacy of treatment.3 Whilst in France there was a distinct slackening in building activity in the 14th century, which led to a corresponding decline in sculpture, Germany experienced a reawakening of artistic creative energy and power.^ In the 14th century the silversmiths of Spain produced many works of sculpture of great size and technical power.

^ The recumbent portrait effigy of Philip in his ducal mantle with folded hands is a work of great power and delicacy of treatment.3 Whilst in France there was a distinct slackening in building activity in the 14th century, which led to a corresponding decline in sculpture, Germany experienced a reawakening of artistic creative energy and power.

^ The sculpture on the western façade of the church at Loreto and the elaborate bronze gates of the Santa Casa are works of great technical merit by Girolamo Lombardo and his sons, about the middle of the 16th century.

.That the 13th- Gothic style had taken root on German soil in the preceding century, is proved by the fresh, mob i le treatment of the statues on the south porch of the east façade of Bamberg cathedral, and even more by the equestrian statue of Conrad III.^ That the 13th- Gothic style had taken root on German soil in the preceding century, is proved by the fresh, mob i le treatment of the statues on the south porch of the east façade of Bamberg cathedral, and even more by the equestrian statue of Conrad III .

^ During the 12th and 13th centuries the prodigious activity of the cathedral builders of France and their rivalry to outshine each other in the richness of the sculptured decorations, led to the glorious development that culminated in the full flower of Gothic art.

^ Emilio Gallori, who studied at the Florence academy, is the author of the colossal statue of St Peter on the façade of the cathedral at Florence.

in the market-place at .Bamberg, which supported by a foliated corbel, exhibits startling vigour and originality, and is designed with wonderful largeness of effect, though small in scale.^ Bamberg, which supported by a foliated corbel , exhibits startling vigour and originality, and is designed with wonderful largeness of effect, though small in scale.

^ Isabella and the Pot of Basil " is free from this defect, and is an original treatment of the subject; and " The Briton (1908), though full of vigour and imagination, shows restraint.

The statues of Henry the Lion and Queen Matilda at Brunswick, of about the same period, are of the highest beauty and dignity of expression. .Strassburg cathedral, though sadly damaged by restoration, still possesses a large quantity of the finest sculpture of the 13th century.^ Strassburg cathedral, though sadly damaged by restoration, still possesses a large quantity of the finest sculpture of the 13th century.

^ The cathedral of Santiago de Compostella possesses one of the grandest existing specimens in the world of late 12th-century architectonic sculpture; this, though the work of a native artist, Mastei Mateo,' is thoroughly French in style; as recorded by an inscription on the front, it was completed in 1188.

^ The abbey church of St Denis possesses the largest collection of French 13th-century monumental effigies, a large number of which, with supposed portraits of the early kings, were made during the rebuilding of the church in 1264; some of them appear to be " archaistic " copies of older contemporary statues.2 In the 14th century French sculpture began to decline, though much beautiful plastic work was still produced.

One tympanum relief of the Death of the Virgin, surrounded by the sorrowing Apostles, is a work of the very highest beauty, worthy to rank with the best Italian sculpture of even a later period. .Of its class nothing can surpass the purely decorative carving at Strassburg, with varied realistic foliage studied from nature, evidently with the keenest interest and enjoyment.^ Of its class nothing can surpass the purely decorative carving at Strassburg, with varied realistic foliage studied from nature, evidently with the keenest interest and enjoyment.

^ The carved foliage of this period is of especial beauty and spirited execution; realistic forms of plant-growth are mingled with other more conventional foliage in the most masterly manner.

.But such works were only isolated manifestations of German artistic genius, until, in the next century, sculpture rose to new and splendid life, though it found expression not so much in the composition of extensive groups, as in the neighbouring France, but in the carving of isolated figures of rare and subtle beauty.^ Artists/Instructors such as: Jessi Rask, sculptor and painter, worked with Francois Stahly and she is also decorated by former president of France, Jaque Chirac.
  • Sculpture Workshops and Classes for Learning Sculpting Techniques 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.artshow.com [Source type: General]

^ Working out for only a short period I became stronger and had much more endurance than ever before.
  • Eddie Baran - Body Sculpting Bodyweight Exercises for Women 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.eddiebaran.com [Source type: General]

^ P.S. Rearranging your workouts will breathe new life into your day and you'll be excited about working out again.
  • Eddie Baran's Body Sculpting Blog: December 2006 Archives 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.eddiebaran.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nuremberg is rich in good sculpture of the 14th century.^ Nuremberg is rich in good sculpture of the 14th century.

^ In the 14th century the silversmiths of Spain produced many works of sculpture of great size and technical power.

^ The extraordinary poverty in the production of sculpture in Rome during the 14th century was remarkable.

The church of St Sebald, the Frauenkirche, and the west façade of St Lawrence are lavishly decorated with reliefs and statues, very rich in effect, but showing the germs of that mannerism which grew so strong in Germany during the 15th century. .Of special beauty are the statuettes which adorn the " beautiful fountain," which was formerly erroneously attributed to the probably mythical sculptor Sebald Schonhofer, and is decorated with gold and colour by the painter Rudolf.4 Of considerable importance are the statues of Christ, the Virgin, and the Apostles on the piers in the choir of Cologne cathedral, which were completed after 1350. They are particularly notable for their admirable polychromatic treatment.^ Of special beauty are the statuettes which adorn the " beautiful fountain," which was formerly erroneously attributed to the probably mythical sculptor Sebald Schonhofer, and is decorated with gold and colour by the painter Rudolf.4 Of considerable importance are the statues of Christ, the Virgin, and the Apostles on the piers in the choir of Cologne cathedral, which were completed after 1350.

^ They are particularly notable for their admirable polychromatic treatment.

^ Jdrg Syrlin, one of the most able of these sculptors in wood, executed the gorgeous choir-stalls in Ulm cathedral, richly decorated with statuettes and canopied work, between 1469 and 1474; his son and namesake sculptured the elaborate stalls in Blaubeuren church of 1496 and the great pulpit in Ulm cathedral.

.The reliefs on the high altar, which are of later date, are wrought in white marble on a background of black marble.^ I will demonstrate techniques of modeling the clay into bas relief, carving, pressing textures, painting with black and white slip clays, and sgraffito drawing through the slips.
  • Sculpture Workshops and Classes for Learning Sculpting Techniques 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.artshow.com [Source type: General]

.Augsburg produced several sculptors of ability about this time; the museum possesses some very noble wooden statues of this school, large in scale and dignified in treatment.^ Augsburg produced several sculptors of ability about this time; the museum possesses some very noble wooden statues of this school, large in scale and dignified in treatment.

^ By Hannah Kurman   |  Published 4/16/2009 More topics: Sculptor Sculptor Claes Oldenburg A look at the man behind large-scale and soft sculptures.

^ About the same time (1400) able work was done by the Schools of Burgundy and the Netherlands , the most important monument of which is the tomb of Duke Philip the Bold at Dijon by Claus Slüter.
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.On the exterior of the choir of the church of Marienburg castle is a very remarkable colossal figure of the Virgin of about 1340-1350. Like the Hildesheim choir screen, it is made of hard stucco and is decorated with glass mosaics.^ I'm talking about totally reshaping and transforming your figure - and doing so with exercises that aren't anything like those being taught in gyms today.
  • Eddie Baran - Body Sculpting Bodyweight Exercises for Women 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.eddiebaran.com [Source type: General]

^ Until the end of the twelfth century sculpture in stone was almost entirely confined to reliefs, which served as decorations of baptismal fonts , portals, and choir-screens.
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^ The demand for Gothic statues was enormous, since architecture made the widest use of them in the decoration of the churches.
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.The equestrian bronze group of St George and the Dragon in the market-place at Prague is excellent in workmanship and full of vigour, though much wanting dignity of style.^ The equestrian bronze group of St George and the Dragon in the market-place at Prague is excellent in workmanship and full of vigour, though much wanting dignity of style.

^ Thomas Seidaus (1830-1890), and is the author of the equestrian figure of St Vaelav, of " The Crucified Saviour," and of the Sladkowsky tomb in Prague.

^ They differ much in style, though all are of great technical merit.

Another fine work in bronze of about the same date is the effigy of Archbishop Conrad (d. .1261) in Cologne cathedral, executed many years after his death.^ Cologne cathedral, executed many years after his death.

.The portrait appears truthful and the whole figure is noble in style.^ The portrait appears truthful and the whole figure is noble in style.

^ Warwick - a noble portrait figure, richly decorated with engraved ornaments.

^ On the whole the 17th and 18th centuries in Germany, as in England, were periods of great decadence in the plastic art; little of merit was produced, except some portrait figures.

.The military effigies of this time in Germany as elsewhere were almost unavoidably stiff and lifeless from the necessity of representing them in plate 3 See A. Kleinclausz, Claus Sluter (Paris, 1908).^ The military effigies of this time in Germany as elsewhere were almost unavoidably stiff and lifeless from the necessity of representing them in plate 3 See A. Kleinclausz, Claus Sluter (Paris, 1908).

^ On Spanish sculpture, see Paul Laforid, La Sculpture espagnole (Paris, 1908).

See Baader, Beitriiie zur Kunstgesch. .Niirnbergs; Rettberg, Nurnberger Kunstleben (Stuttgart, 1854), and P. J. Ree, Nuremberg and its Art to the end of the 18th Century (London, 1905).^ Towards the end of the 18th century a revolution was brought about in the style of sculpture by the suddenly revived taste for antique art.

^ Niirnbergs; Rettberg, Nurnberger Kunstleben (Stuttgart, 1854), and P. J. Ree, Nuremberg and its Art to the end of the 18th Century (London, 1905).

^ On the whole the 17th and 18th centuries in Germany, as in England, were periods of great decadence in the plastic art; little of merit was produced, except some portrait figures.

armour. .The ecclesiastical chasuble, in which priestly effigies nearly always appear, is also a thoroughly unsculpturesque form of drapery, both from its awkward shape and its absence of folds.^ The ecclesiastical chasuble , in which priestly effigies nearly always appear, is also a thoroughly unsculpturesque form of drapery, both from its awkward shape and its absence of folds.

^ In both cases the drapery is well conceived in broad sculpturesque folds, graceful and yet simple in treatment.

^ The drapery, instead of being arranged in heavy folds, clings to the body and accentuates rather than conceals the form.

The Gunther of Schwarzburg (d. .1349) in Frankfort cathedral is a characteristic example of these sepulchral effigies in slight relief.^ Frankfort cathedral is a characteristic example of these sepulchral effigies in slight relief.

^ Very beautiful sepulchral effigies in low relief were produced in many parts of Italy, especially at Florence.

^ The metropolitan cathedral of Roskilde in Denmark possesses a very large and magnificent example covered with subject reliefs enriched with gold and colours.

.In England, much of the fine 13th-century sculpture was used to decorate the façades of churches, though, on the whole, English cathedral architecture did not offer such great opportunities to the imagier as did that of France.^ In England, much of the fine 13th-century sculpture was used to decorate the façades of churches, though, on the whole, English cathedral architecture did not offer such great opportunities to the imagier as did that of France.

^ Jdrg Syrlin, one of the most able of these sculptors in wood, executed the gorgeous choir-stalls in Ulm cathedral, richly decorated with statuettes and canopied work, between 1469 and 1474; his son and namesake sculptured the elaborate stalls in Blaubeuren church of 1496 and the great pulpit in Ulm cathedral.

^ The sculpture on the western façade of the church at Loreto and the elaborate bronze gates of the Santa Casa are works of great technical merit by Girolamo Lombardo and his sons, about the middle of the 16th century.

.A notable exception is Wells cathedral, the west end of which, dating from about the middle of the century, is covered with more than 600 figures in the round or in relief, arranged in tiers, and of varying sizes.^ A notable exception is Wells cathedral, the west end of which, dating from about the middle of the century, is covered with more than 600 figures in the round or in relief, arranged in tiers, and of varying sizes.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

^ On the whole, the single statues throughout this period are finer than the reliefs with many figures.

.The tympana of the doorways are filled with reliefs, and above them stand rows of colossal statues of kings and queens, bishops and knights, and saints both male and female, all treated very skilfully with nobly arranged drapery, and graceful heads designed in a thoroughly architectonic way, with due regard to the main lines of the building they are meant to decorate.^ I especially like the fact that you give more than one alternate exercise to start off with and they all work the same way as the main one in the Fab Five group.
  • Eddie Baran - Body Sculpting Bodyweight Exercises for Women 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.eddiebaran.com [Source type: General]

.In this respect the early medieval sculptor inherited one of the great merits of the Greeks of the best period: his figures or reliefs form an essential part of the design of the building to which they are affixed, and are treated in a subordinate manner to their architectural surroundings - very different from most of the sculpture on modern buildings, which frequently looks as if it had been stuck up as an afterthought, and frequently by its violent and incongruous lines is rather an impertinent excrescence than an ornament.'^ In this respect the early medieval sculptor inherited one of the great merits of the Greeks of the best period: his figures or reliefs form an essential part of the design of the building to which they are affixed, and are treated in a subordinate manner to their architectural surroundings - very different from most of the sculpture on modern buildings, which frequently looks as if it had been stuck up as an afterthought, and frequently by its violent and incongruous lines is rather an impertinent excrescence than an ornament.'

^ The architectural surroundings of the figures were treated in the same elaborate way.

^ George Wade is essentially a sculptor of busts and statues the most noteworthy of his works are the memorial to Sir John Macdonald in Montreal , the seated figure for Madras of the native judge , Sir T. Aiyar Muthuswamy, and a number of ambitious monumental works.

.Peterborough, Lichfield and Salisbury cathedrals have fine examples of the sculpture of the 13th century: in the chapter-house of the last the spandrels of the wall-arcade are filled with sixty reliefs of subjects from Bible history, all treated with much grace and refinement.^ Peterborough , Lichfield and Salisbury cathedrals have fine examples of the sculpture of the 13th century: in the chapter-house of the last the spandrels of the wall- arcade are filled with sixty reliefs of subjects from Bible history, all treated with much grace and refinement.

^ Subject reliefs do not often occur, but large slabs of marble, forming screens, altars, pulpits and the like, were ornamented in a very skilful and original way with low reliefs of graceful vine -plants, with peacocks and other birds drinking out of chalices, all treated in a very able and highly decorative manner.

^ The real home of Romanesque sculpture was beyond the Alps , in Germany and France, and much of the work done in Italy during the 12th century was actually due to northern sculptors - as, for example, the very rude sculpture on the facade of S. Andrea at Pistoia , executed about 1186 by Gruamons and his brother Adeodatus, 3 or the relief by Benedetto Antelami for the pulpit of Parma cathedral of the year 1178.

.To the end of the same century belong the celebrated reliefs of angels in the spandrels of the choir arches at Lincoln, carved in a large massive way with great strength of decorative effect.^ This was decorated with gesso reliefs, gilt and coloured in the same way as the stone.

^ To the end of the same century belong the celebrated reliefs of angels in the spandrels of the choir arches at Lincoln , carved in a large massive way with great strength of decorative effect.

^ Of the same period, and kindred in style and feeling, are the reliefs on the eastern choir-screen in Bamberg cathedral.

.Other fine reliefs of angels, executed about 1260, exist in the transepts of Westminster Abbey; being high from the ground, they are broadly treated without any high finish in the details.'^ Other fine reliefs of angels, executed about 1260, exist in the transepts of Westminster Abbey; being high from the ground, they are broadly treated without any high finish in the details.'

^ The philosophy and aesthetics of the subject - the relation of sculpture to the other arts and the nature of its appeal to the emotions - are treated in the article Fine Arts .

^ The ground on which the figure lies, the shield , the border of the tunic , the pillow , and other parts are decorated with these enamels very minutely treated.

.Purely decorative carving in stone reached its highest point of excellence about the middle of the 14th century - rather later, that is, than the best period of figure sculpture.^ Purely decorative carving in stone reached its highest point of excellence about the middle of the 14th century - rather later, that is, than the best period of figure sculpture.

^ The sculpture on the western façade of the church at Loreto and the elaborate bronze gates of the Santa Casa are works of great technical merit by Girolamo Lombardo and his sons, about the middle of the 16th century.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

Wood-carving, on the other hand, reached its artistic climax a full century later under the influence of the fully developed Perpendicular style.
.The most important effigies of the lath century are those in gilt bronze of Edward III.^ The most important effigies of the lath century are those in gilt bronze of Edward III .

^ The finest bronze statues of this century are those of George Villiers , duke of Buckingham (d.

^ The finest piece of bronze sculpture of the 15th-century is the effigy of Richard Beauchamp (d.

(d. 1377) and of Richard II. and his queen (made in 1395), all at Westminster. .They are all portraits, but are decidedly inferior to the earlier work of William Torell.^ They are all portraits, but are decidedly inferior to the earlier work of William Torell.

^ Portrait-figures of all ages are here classed together, and the work is a better-sustained piece of designing and carving than is commonly understood.

.The effigies of Richard II. and Anne of Bohemia were the work of Nicolas Broker and Godfred Prest, goldsmith citizens of London.^ The effigies of Richard II. and Anne of Bohemia were the work of Nicolas Broker and Godfred Prest, goldsmith citizens of London.

^ Even Niccola Pisano could not have surpassed the beauty and technical excellence of the two bronze effigies in Westminster Abbey modelled and cast by William Torell, a goldsmith and citizen of London, shortly before the year 1300.

.Another fine bronze effigy is at Canterbury on the tomb of the Black Prince (d.^ Another fine bronze effigy is at Canterbury on the tomb of the Black Prince (d.

^ Another very fine portrait effigy of about 1570, a recumbent figure in full armour of the duke of Montmorency , preserved in the Louvre, is the work of Barthelemy Prieur.

^ Another fine work in bronze of about the same date is the effigy of Archbishop Conrad (d.

.1376); though well cast and with carefully modelled armour, it is treated in a somewhat dull and conventional way.^ The recumbent effigies Of Henry VII. and his queen are fine specimens of Florentine art, well modelled with lifelike portrait heads and of very fine technique in the casting.

^ The face is fine and well modelled and the casting very good.

^ These noble figures, though treated in a somewhat rigid manner, are thoroughly subordinate to the main lines of the building.

.The recumbent stone figure of Lady Arundel, with two angels at her head, in Chichester cathedral is remarkable for its calm peaceful pose and the beauty of the drapery.^ The recumbent stone figure of Lady Arundel , with two angels at her head, in Chichester cathedral is remarkable for its calm peaceful pose and the beauty of the drapery.

^ S. Cecilia under the high altar of her basilica, is chiefly remarkable for its deathlike pose and the realistic treatment of the drapery.

^ Of special interest from their early date - probably the 1 i th century - are two large stone reliefs now in Chichester cathedral, which are traditionally said to have come from the pre- Norman church at Selsey.

.Among the most perfect works of this description is the alabaster tomb of Ralph Nevill, first earl of Westmorland, with figures of himself and his two wives, in Staindrop church, county Durham (1426),(1426), removed, 1908, from a dark corner of the church into full light, a few feet away, where its beauty may now be examined.^ Among the most perfect works of this description is the alabaster tomb of Ralph Nevill, first earl of Westmorland , with figures of himself and his two wives, in Staindrop church, county Durham (1426),(1426), removed, 1908, from a dark corner of the church into full light, a few feet away, where its beauty may now be examined.

^ One of Giovanni's best works, a group of two nude figures fighting, is now lost.

^ This figure is now much revered by the Spanish peasants, and the head is partly worn away with kisses.

.A very fine but more realistic work is the tomb figure of William of Wykeham (d.^ A very fine but more realistic work is the tomb figure of William of Wykeham (d.

^ One of his chief works is the " Bishop Ellicott's Memorial," a tomb with recumbent figure, a design of considerable imagination.

^ About the beginning of the 19th century the sculptor Kamenski inaugurated a more realistic tendency by his work which was inspired by contemporary life.

.1404) in the cathedral 1 The sculpture on the Paris opera house is a striking instance of this; and so, in a small way, are the statues in the reredos at Westminster Abbey and that at Gloucester cathedral.^ The sculpture on the Paris opera house is a striking instance of this; and so, in a small way, are the statues in the reredos at Westminster Abbey and that at Gloucester cathedral.

^ In true portraiture, Pomeroy executed the Liberal Memorial Statue of Mr Gladstone, in the lobby of the Houses of Parliament, and the recumbent effigy of the Duke of Westminster, for Chester cathedral.

^ The facades of large cathedrals were completely covered with sculptured reliefs and thick-set rows of statues in niches.

.Another is afforded by the figures of modern soldiers inserted in the beautifully-designed Gothic Boer War Memorial (by G. F. Bodley, R.A.) set up in the cathedral close in York.^ Another is afforded by the figures of modern soldiers inserted in the beautifully-designed Gothic Boer War Memorial (by G. F. Bodley, R.A.) set up in the cathedral close in York .

^ He then, in the case of a life-size or colossal statue, has a sort of iron skeleton set up, with stout bars for the arms and legs, fixed in the pose of the future figure.

^ His memorials of the Boer War, at Cardiff and Birmingham , in design and silhouette, are among the most striking in the country.

.2 On the whole, Westminster possesses the most completely representative collection of English medieval sculpture in an unbroken succession from the 13th to the 16th century.^ On the whole, Westminster possesses the most completely representative collection of English medieval sculpture in an unbroken succession from the 13th to the 16th century.

^ Strassburg cathedral, though sadly damaged by restoration, still possesses a large quantity of the finest sculpture of the 13th century.

^ Among the most important Romanesque monuments of the early 12th century are the sculptures on the porch of the abbey church of Conques, representing the Last Judgment; the somewhat barbaric tympanum of Autun cathedral (c.

at Winchester. .The cathedrals at Rochester, Lichfield, York, Lincoln, Exeter and many other ecclesiastical buildings in England are rich in examples of 14th-century sculpture, used occasionally with great profusion and richness of effect, but treated in strict subordination to the architectural background.^ The cathedrals at Rochester , Lichfield, York, Lincoln, Exeter and many other ecclesiastical buildings in England are rich in examples of 14th-century sculpture, used occasionally with great profusion and richness of effect, but treated in strict subordination to the architectural background.

^ Nuremberg is rich in good sculpture of the 14th century.

^ The tomb once had a high stone canopy of open work - arches, canopies and pinnacles - a class of architectural sculpture of which many extremely rich examples exist, as, for instance, the tomb of Edward II. at Gloucester , the de Spencer tomb at Tewkesbury , and, of rather later style , the tomb of Lady Eleanor Fitzalan de Percy at Beverley .

.The finest piece of bronze sculpture of the 15th-century is the effigy of Richard Beauchamp (d.^ The finest piece of bronze sculpture of the 15th-century is the effigy of Richard Beauchamp (d.

^ Strassburg cathedral, though sadly damaged by restoration, still possesses a large quantity of the finest sculpture of the 13th century.

^ The best-preserved examples of monumental sculpture of the 12th century are a number of effigies of knights- templars in the round Temple church in London .

.1439) in his family chapel at Warwick - a noble portrait figure, richly decorated with engraved ornaments.^ Warwick - a noble portrait figure, richly decorated with engraved ornaments.

^ He also cast the fine bronze equestrian statue of Cosimo de' Medici at Florence and the very richly decorated west door of Pisa cathedral, the latter notable for the overcrowding of its ornaments and the want of sculpturesque dignity in the figures; it is a feeble imitation of Ghiberti's noble production.

^ The portrait appears truthful and the whole figure is noble in style.

The modelling and casting were done by William Austen of London, and the gilding and engraving by a Netherlands goldsmith who had settled in London, named Bartholomew Lambespring, assisted by several other skilful artists.
.The first Spanish sculptor of real eminence who need be considered is Aparicio, who lived and worked in the 11th century.^ Keep up the great work - women need real health and fitness strategies like this that actually work .
  • Eddie Baran - Body Sculpting Bodyweight Exercises for Women 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.eddiebaran.com [Source type: General]

^ Kikè Barguno, sculptor, who is working with Xavier Corbero, Spain's best living sculptor.
  • Sculpture Workshops and Classes for Learning Sculpting Techniques 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC www.artshow.com [Source type: General]

^ Acropolis Edgar Degas: Biography of the Famous French Artist A brief historical and biographical account of Hilaire Germaine Edgar Degas, a famous French artist and sculptor who lived from 1834 to 1917.

.His shrine of St Millan, executed to the order of Don Sancho the Great is in the monastery of Yuso, and is a composition excellent, in its way, in design, grace and proportion.^ His shrine of St Millan, executed to the order of Don Sancho the Great is in the monastery of Yuso, and is a composition excellent, in its way, in design, grace and proportion.

^ The high degree of refinement, the charm of modelling, grace of line and composition, sweetness of feeling, which are the note of his work, are in a great measure a set-off against occasional weakness of design and character, and lack of monumental effect.

^ Lemoyne and his pupil Falconet, who executed the equestrian statue of Peter the Great at St Petersburg ; of the other, Clodion, whose real name was Claude Michel ( c.

In the early medieval period the sculpture of northern Spain was much influenced by contemporary art in France. .From the 12th to the ,4th century many French architects and sculptors visited and worked in.^ From the 12th to the ,4th century many French architects and sculptors visited and worked in.

^ The first Spanish sculptor of real eminence who need be considered is Aparicio, who lived and worked in the 11th century.

^ About the beginning of the 19th century the sculptor Kamenski inaugurated a more realistic tendency by his work which was inspired by contemporary life.

Spain. .The cathedral of Santiago de Compostella possesses one of the grandest existing specimens in the world of late 12th-century architectonic sculpture; this, though the work of a native artist, Mastei Mateo,' is thoroughly French in style; as recorded by an inscription on the front, it was completed in 1188. The whole of the western portal with its three doorways is covered with statues and reliefs, all richly decorated with colour, part of which still remains.^ The cathedral of Santiago de Compostella possesses one of the grandest existing specimens in the world of late 12th-century architectonic sculpture; this, though the work of a native artist, Mastei Mateo,' is thoroughly French in style; as recorded by an inscription on the front, it was completed in 1188.

^ The whole of the western portal with its three doorways is covered with statues and reliefs, all richly decorated with colour, part of which still remains.

^ The facades of large cathedrals were completely covered with sculptured reliefs and thick-set rows of statues in niches.

.Round the central arch are figures of the twenty-four elders, and in the tympanum a very noble relief of Christ in Majesty between Saints and Angels.^ Round the central arch are figures of the twenty-four elders, and in the tympanum a very noble relief of Christ in Majesty between Saints and Angels.

^ The central relief is a figure of Christ in Majesty , closely resembling those in the colossal apse mosaic of S. Apollinare in Classe and other churches 4 Various dates have been assigned to these interesting reliefs by different archaeologists, but the costumes of the figures are strong evidence that they are not later than the 5th century.

^ To the latter years of the 13th century belong the magnificent series of statues and reliefs round the three great western doorways of the same church, among which are no fewer than thirty-four life-sized figures.

.As at Chartres, the jambshafts of the doorways are decorated with standing statues of saints - St James the elder, the patron of the church, being attached to the central pillar.^ As at Chartres, the jambshafts of the doorways are decorated with standing statues of saints - St James the elder, the patron of the church, being attached to the central pillar.

^ The whole of the western portal with its three doorways is covered with statues and reliefs, all richly decorated with colour, part of which still remains.

^ Round the central arch are figures of the twenty-four elders, and in the tympanum a very noble relief of Christ in Majesty between Saints and Angels.

.These noble figures, though treated in a somewhat rigid manner, are thoroughly subordinate to the main lines of the building.^ These noble figures, though treated in a somewhat rigid manner, are thoroughly subordinate to the main lines of the building.

^ The ground on which the figure lies, the shield , the border of the tunic , the pillow , and other parts are decorated with these enamels very minutely treated.

^ But in the latter half of this century it began to choke these national characteristics, and led to somewhat theatrical and conventional classicism and mannerism.

.Their heads, with pointed beards and a fixed mechanical smile, together with the stiff drapery arranged in long narrow folds, recall the Aeginetan pediment sculpture of about Soo B.C. This appears strange at first sight, but the fact is that the works of the early Greek and the medieval Spaniard were both produced at a somewhat similar stage in two far distant periods of artistic development.^ Their heads, with pointed beards and a fixed mechanical smile, together with the stiff drapery arranged in long narrow folds, recall the Aeginetan pediment sculpture of about Soo B.C. This appears strange at first sight, but the fact is that the works of the early Greek and the medieval Spaniard were both produced at a somewhat similar stage in two far distant periods of artistic development.

^ The reliefs on the pediment of the Pantheon are by Pierre Jean David of Angers (1789-1856); his early works are of dull classic style, but later in life he became a realist and produced very unsculpturesque results..

^ F. M. Taubman, who had both French and Belgian teaching, has produced a series of works which display his power of design and strength of technique.

.In both cases plastic art was freeing itself from the bonds of a hieratic archaism, and had reached one of the last steps in a development which in the one case culminated in the perfection of the Phidian age, and in the other led to the exquisitely beautiful yet simple and reserved art of the end of the 13th and early part of the 14th century - the golden age of sculpture in France and England.^ In both cases plastic art was freeing itself from the bonds of a hieratic archaism , and had reached one of the last steps in a development which in the one case culminated in the perfection of the Phidian age, and in the other led to the exquisitely beautiful yet simple and reserved art of the end of the 13th and early part of the 14th century - the golden age of sculpture in France and England.

^ This century may indeed be called the golden age of Gothic sculpture.

^ Of the greatest importance for the development of Austrian sculpture in the second half of the 19th century was the influence of Joseph Daniel Boehm (1794-1865), director of the academy of coin -engravers, and discriminating collector of art treasures.

.In the cathedral of Tarragona are nine statues, in stone, executed by Bartolome in 1278 for the gate.^ In the cathedral of Tarragona are nine statues, in stone, executed by Bartolome in 1278 for the gate.

^ In true portraiture, Pomeroy executed the Liberal Memorial Statue of Mr Gladstone, in the lobby of the Houses of Parliament, and the recumbent effigy of the Duke of Westminster, for Chester cathedral.

.In the 14th century the silversmiths of Spain produced many works of sculpture of great size and technical power.^ In the 14th century the silversmiths of Spain produced many works of sculpture of great size and technical power.

^ The sculpture on the western façade of the church at Loreto and the elaborate bronze gates of the Santa Casa are works of great technical merit by Girolamo Lombardo and his sons, about the middle of the 16th century.

^ At the beginning of the 19th century the art of sculpture was practically dead in Spain - or at least was mainly confined to the mechanical production of images of saints.

.One of the finest, by a Valencian called Peter Bernec, is the great silver retable at Gerona cathedral.^ One of the finest, by a Valencian called Peter Bernec, is the great silver retable at Gerona cathedral.

^ The so-called chair of St Peter, still preserved (though hidden from sight) in his great basilica, is the finest example of the former class; of less purely classical style, dating from about 550, is the ivory throne of Bishop Maximianus in Ravenna cathedral .

.It is divided into three tiers of statuettes and reliefs, richly framed in canopied niches, all of silver, partly cast and partly hammered.^ It is divided into three tiers of statuettes and reliefs, richly framed in canopied niches, all of silver, partly cast and partly hammered.

^ The whole of the western portal with its three doorways is covered with statues and reliefs, all richly decorated with colour, part of which still remains.

.In the 1 5th century an infusion of German influence was mixed with that of France, as may be seen in the very rich sculptural decorations which adorn the main door of Salamanca cathedral, the façade of S. Juan at Valladolid, and the church and cloisters of S. Juan de los Reyes at Toledo, perhaps the most gorgeous examples of architectural sculpture in the world.^ In the 1 5th century an infusion of German influence was mixed with that of France, as may be seen in the very rich sculptural decorations which adorn the main door of Salamanca cathedral, the façade of S. Juan at Valladolid , and the church and cloisters of S. Juan de los Reyes at Toledo , perhaps the most gorgeous examples of architectural sculpture in the world.

^ The cathedral of Santiago de Compostella possesses one of the grandest existing specimens in the world of late 12th-century architectonic sculpture; this, though the work of a native artist, Mastei Mateo,' is thoroughly French in style; as recorded by an inscription on the front, it was completed in 1188.

^ Jdrg Syrlin, one of the most able of these sculptors in wood, executed the gorgeous choir-stalls in Ulm cathedral, richly decorated with statuettes and canopied work, between 1469 and 1474; his son and namesake sculptured the elaborate stalls in Blaubeuren church of 1496 and the great pulpit in Ulm cathedral.

.These were executed between 1418 and 1425 by a group of clever sculptors, among whom A. and F. Diaz, A. F. de Sahagun, A. Rodriguez and A. Gonzales were perhaps the chief.^ These were executed between 1418 and 1425 by a group of clever sculptors, among whom A. and F. Diaz, A. F. de Sahagun, A. Rodriguez and A. Gonzales were perhaps the chief.

^ These are marble statues enmeshed in nets or covered with thin veils, executed with almost deceptive realism, perhaps the lowest stage of tricky degradation into which the sculptor's art could possibly fall.'

^ Besides these three sculptors there was no man of note to strengthen the revival of sculptural art until Paul de Vigne (1843-1901).

.The marble altar-piece of the grand altar at Tarragona was begun 3 A kneeling portrait-statue of Mateo is introduced at the back of the central pier.^ The marble altar-piece of the grand altar at Tarragona was begun 3 A kneeling portrait-statue of Mateo is introduced at the back of the central pier .

.This figure is now much revered by the Spanish peasants, and the head is partly worn away with kisses.^ This figure is now much revered by the Spanish peasants, and the head is partly worn away with kisses.

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(Photo, Anderson.) .Donatello - Equestrian Statue, General Gattamelata, Padua.^ Two of the noblest equestrian statues the world has probably ever seen are the Gattamelata statue at Padua by Donatello and the statue of Colleoni at Venice by Verrocchio and Leopardi.

^ Donatello - Equestrian Statue, General Gattamelata, Padua .

.iirosc.i Jacopo Della Quercia - Tomb, Ilaria del Carretto, Lucca.^ Jacopo Della Quercia - Tomb, Ilaria del Carretto, Lucca.

(Photo, .16ucari.) .Donatello - Statue of St George, Florence.^ Emilio Gallori, who studied at the Florence academy, is the author of the colossal statue of St Peter on the façade of the cathedral at Florence.

^ Donatello - Statue of St George, Florence .

(Photo, Anderson.) .Michelangelo - Head of Colossal David, Florence.^ Michelangelo - Head of Colossal David , Florence.

^ Finally came Michelangelo, who raised the sculpture of the modern ., world to its highest pitch of magnificence, and at the same time sowed the seeds of its rapidly approaching decline; the head of his David at Florence is a work of unrivalled force and dignity.

(Photo, Alinari.) .Andrea Pisano - The first bronze door of the Baptistery, Florence.^ Andrea Pisano - The first bronze door of the Baptistery , Florence.

(Photo, Anderson.) Verrocchio & Leopardi - Bronze Colossal Statue of Bartolommeo Colleoni, Venice.
(Photo, Anderson.) .Luca Della Robbia - Girls and boys playing on musical instruments and dancing (Museo dell' Opera, Florence).^ Luca Della Robbia - Girls and boys playing on musical instruments and dancing (Museo dell' Opera, Florence).

^ Luca della Robbia, the founder of a whole dynasty of sculptors in glazed terra- cotta , with his classic purity of style and sweetness of expression, came next in order.

^ His other chief works are " Morpheus ," " A Girl Binding her Hair," " A Boy at Play " (Tate Gallery), " The Glamour of the Rose," and " The Elf " - a weird creation of true comedy .

XXIV. 494.
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(Photo, Alinari.)
.BENVENUTO CELLINI - Bronze Statue of Perseus and Medusa, in the Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence.^ Perseus " is an inspiration from Benvenuto Cellini, but " The Spearman " is an original and powerful work.

^ Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1569), though in the main greater as goldsmith than as sculptor, produced one work of great beauty and dignity - the bronze Perseus in the Loggia de' Lanzi at Florence.

^ BENVENUTO CELLINI - Bronze Statue of Perseus and Medusa , in the Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence.

(.Photo, Wurthle Sohn.^ Photo, Wurthle Sohn.

)
.PETER VISCHER - Gi'.t Bronze Statue of King Arthur, Innsbruck.^ PETER VISCHER - Gi'.t Bronze Statue of King Arthur , Innsbruck.

^ His chief work is perhaps the colossal bronze equestrian statue of King William of Prussia at Cologne.

^ The finest is an ideal statue of King Arthur of Britain, in plate armour of the 14th or early 15th century, very remarkable for the nobility of the face and pose.

(Photo, Anderson.)
.BERNINI - Apollo and Daphne (Borghese Gallery).^ The Ludovisi group of Pluto carrying off Proserpine , now in the Borghese Gallery, is a striking example, and shows Bernini's deterioration of style in later life.

^ BERNINI - Apollo and Daphne (Borghese Gallery).

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(Photo, Giraudon.) .Jean Go Jon - Diane de Poitiers (as Huntress), in the Louvre.^ Jean Go Jon - Diane de Poitiers (as Huntress), in the Louvre.

.Photo, Canova - Colossal Marble Group of Theseus and Centaur, Vienna.^ Brunn and Reichenberg ; Emanuel Pendl, whose colossal marble statue of " Justice " is placed in the law courts in Vienna; and Hans Bitterlich (b.

^ Photo, Canova - Colossal Marble Group of Theseus and Centaur, Vienna .

^ Some of his sculpture is designed with far more of the purity that distinguished antique art; his finest work is the colossal group of Theseus slaying a Centaur, at Vienna.

.
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(Photo, Giraudon.) .Houdon - Voltaire (Theatre Francais, Paris).^ Houdon - Voltaire (Theatre Francais, Paris).

(Photo, Giraudon.) .Coysevox - Bust of himself, in the Louvre.^ Coysevox - Bust of himself, in the Louvre.

by .P. Juan in 1426 and completed by G. De La Mota.^ P. Juan in 1426 and completed by G. De La Mota.

.The carved foliage of this period is of especial beauty and spirited execution; realistic forms of plant-growth are mingled with other more conventional foliage in the most masterly manner.^ The carved foliage of this period is of especial beauty and spirited execution; realistic forms of plant-growth are mingled with other more conventional foliage in the most masterly manner.

^ Unsensual beauty elevated by religious spirit was attained in the highest degree by Mino da Fiesole, the two Rossellini, Benedetto da Maiano, Desiderio da Settignano and other sculptors more or less directly influenced by Donatello.

^ This striving is as apparent in the more flexible and emotional treatment of the human figure,as it is in the substitution of naturalistic plant and animal forms for the more conventional ornamentation of the earlier centuries.

.The very noble bronze monument of Archdeacon Pelayo (d.^ The very noble bronze monument of Archdeacon Pelayo (d.

.1490) in Burgos cathedral was probably the work of Simon of Cologne, who was also architect of the Certosa at Miraflores, 2 m.^ Burgos cathedral was probably the work of Simon of Cologne, who was also architect of the Certosa at Miraflores, 2 m.

^ The brilliant exception of its period is the Wellington monument in St Paul's cathedral, probably the finest plastic work of modern times.

from Burgos. .The church of this monastery contains two of the most magnificently rich monuments in the world, especially the altar-tomb of King John II.^ The church of this monastery contains two of the most magnificently rich monuments in the world, especially the altar-tomb of King John II .

^ Not long before his death in 1411 Sluter completed a very magnificent altar tomb for Philip the Bold, now in the museum at Dijon.

^ The lofty monument of King Robert (1350), behind the high altar of S. Chiara, and other tombs in the same church are the most conspicuous works of this period.

and his queen by .Gil de Siloea perfect marvel of rich alabaster canopy-work and intricate under-cutting.^ Gil de Siloea perfect marvel of rich alabaster canopy-work and intricate under-cutting.

.The effigies have little merit.^ The effigies have little merit.

.From the 16th century onwards wood was a favourite material with Spanish sculptors, who employed it for devotional and historical groups realistically treated, such as the " Scene from Taking of Granada" by El Maestre Rodrigo, and even for portraiture, as in the Bust of Turiano by Alonzo Berruguete (1480-1561).^ From the 16th century onwards wood was a favourite material with Spanish sculptors, who employed it for devotional and historical groups realistically treated, such as the " Scene from Taking of Granada " by El Maestre Rodrigo, and even for portraiture , as in the Bust of Turiano by Alonzo Berruguete (1480-1561).

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

^ In certain groups, such as " Orpheus " and " Boy and Bear Cubs," the sculptor combines the human figure with animal forms.

.During the 14th century Florence and the neighbouring cities were the chief centres of Italian sculpture, and there numerous sculptors of successively increasing artistic power lived and worked, till in the 15th century the city had become the aesthetic capital of the world.^ During the 14th century Florence and the neighbouring cities were the chief centres of Italian sculpture, and there numerous sculptors of successively increasing artistic power lived and worked, till in the 15th century the city had become the aesthetic capital of the world.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

^ Woodstock Meet Ice Sculptor Dawson List The danger of cracks and damage to the ice sculpture was increased during the six days Dawson's team was in Alaska working on the twenty five foot Native American warrior.

.Y p But the Gothic sculptor's activity was by no means confined to Tuscany, for in northern Italy various schools of sculpture existed in the 14th century, especially at Verona and Venice, whose art differed widely from the contemporary art of Tuscany; but Milan and Pavia, on the other hand, possessed sculptors who followed closely the style of the Pisani.^ Y p But the Gothic sculptor's activity was by no means confined to Tuscany , for in northern Italy various schools of sculpture existed in the 14th century, especially at Verona and Venice, whose art differed widely from the contemporary art of Tuscany; but Milan and Pavia , on the other hand, possessed sculptors who followed closely the style of the Pisani.

^ Many other fine pieces of the Pisan school exist in Milan.

^ The cathedral of Santiago de Compostella possesses one of the grandest existing specimens in the world of late 12th-century architectonic sculpture; this, though the work of a native artist, Mastei Mateo,' is thoroughly French in style; as recorded by an inscription on the front, it was completed in 1188.

.The chief examples of the latter class are the magnificent shrine of St Augustine in the cathedral of Pavia, dated 1362, and the somewhat similar shrine of Peter the Martyr (1339), by Balduccio of Pisa, in the church of S. Eustorgio at Milan, both of white marble, decorated in the most lavish way with statuettes and subject reliefs.^ The chief examples of the latter class are the magnificent shrine of St Augustine in the cathedral of Pavia, dated 1362, and the somewhat similar shrine of Peter the Martyr (1339), by Balduccio of Pisa, in the church of S. Eustorgio at Milan, both of white marble, decorated in the most lavish way with statuettes and subject reliefs.

^ Jdrg Syrlin, one of the most able of these sculptors in wood, executed the gorgeous choir-stalls in Ulm cathedral, richly decorated with statuettes and canopied work, between 1469 and 1474; his son and namesake sculptured the elaborate stalls in Blaubeuren church of 1496 and the great pulpit in Ulm cathedral.

^ Subject reliefs do not often occur, but large slabs of marble, forming screens, altars, pulpits and the like, were ornamented in a very skilful and original way with low reliefs of graceful vine -plants, with peacocks and other birds drinking out of chalices, all treated in a very able and highly decorative manner.

.Many other fine pieces of the Pisan school exist in Milan.^ Many other fine pieces of the Pisan school exist in Milan.

^ Many rich and elaborate works of his exist at Trinity College, Oxford, at Cambridge, Chatsworth , and several other places in England.

^ Many remarkable pieces of bronze sculpture were produced at the end of that period, of which several specimens exist.

.The well-known tombs of the Scaliger family at Verona show a more native style of design, and in general form, though not in detail, suggest the influence of transalpine Gothic.^ The well-known tombs of the Scaliger family at Verona show a more native style of design, and in general form, though not in detail, suggest the influence of transalpine Gothic.

^ In general design they are close copies of pagan tombs, and are richly decorated outside with reliefs.

^ The family of Ximenes of Palermo is noted on account of the three of its members who each became well known in the world of art: Empedocle, the painter.

.In Venice the northern and almost French character of much of the early 15th-century sculpture is more strongly marked, especially in the noble figures in high relief which decorate the lower story and angles of the doge's palace; 1 these are mostly the work of a Venetian named Bartolomeo Bon.^ In Venice the northern and almost French character of much of the early 15th-century sculpture is more strongly marked, especially in the noble figures in high relief which decorate the lower story and angles of the doge's palace; 1 these are mostly the work of a Venetian named Bartolomeo Bon.

^ Italian plastic art in the 5th century continued to create in the spirit of the 4th century, especially reliefs in ivory (to a certain extent imitations of the later consular diptychs), which were used to decorate episcopal thrones or the bindings of MSS. of the Gospels.

^ Although the difference between fully developed Gothic sculpture and Romanesque sculpture is almost as clearly marked as the difference between Gothic and Romanesque architecture 1 In Norway and Denmark during the 11th and 12th centuries carved ornament of the very highest merit was produced, especially the framework round the doors of the wooden churches; these are formed of large pine planks, sculptured in slight relief with dragons and interlacing foliage in grand sweeping curves, - perfect masterpieces of decorative art, full of the keenest inventive spirit and originality.

.A magnificent marble tympanum relief by Bon can be seen at the Victoria and Albert Museum; it has a noble colossal figure of the Madonna, who shelters under her mantle a number of kneeling worshippers; the background is enriched with foliage and heads, forming a" Jesse tree," designed with great decorative skill.^ A magnificent marble tympanum relief by Bon can be seen at the Victoria and Albert Museum; it has a noble colossal figure of the Madonna, who shelters under her mantle a number of kneeling worshippers; the background is enriched with foliage and heads, forming a" Jesse tree ," designed with great decorative skill.

^ The Victoria and Albert Museum possesses a magnificent colossal wood figure of an angel , not English, but Italian work of the 14th century.

^ His colossal groups for the decoration of the War Office, theimonumental panels in high relief for the piers of Lambeth Bridge, and the decorative sculpture for the facade of the new Victoria and Albert Museum, all in London, are works of considerable importance.

.The cathedral of Como, built at the very end of the 15th century, is decorated with good sculpture of almost Gothic style, but on the whole rather dull and mechanical in detail, like much of the sculpture in the extreme north of Italy.^ The cathedral of Como , built at the very end of the 15th century, is decorated with good sculpture of almost Gothic style, but on the whole rather dull and mechanical in detail, like much of the sculpture in the extreme north of Italy.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

^ The real home of Romanesque sculpture was beyond the Alps , in Germany and France, and much of the work done in Italy during the 12th century was actually due to northern sculptors - as, for example, the very rude sculpture on the facade of S. Andrea at Pistoia , executed about 1186 by Gruamons and his brother Adeodatus, 3 or the relief by Benedetto Antelami for the pulpit of Parma cathedral of the year 1178.

.A large quantity of rich sculpture was produced in Naples_ during the 14th century, but of no great merit either in design or in execution.^ A large quantity of rich sculpture was produced in Naples _ during the 14th century, but of no great merit either in design or in execution.

^ Nuremberg is rich in good sculpture of the 14th century.

^ The sculpture on the western façade of the church at Loreto and the elaborate bronze gates of the Santa Casa are works of great technical merit by Girolamo Lombardo and his sons, about the middle of the 16th century.

The lofty monument of King Robert (1350), behind the high altar of S. Chiara, and other tombs in the same church are the most conspicuous works of this period. .The extraordinary poverty in the production of sculpture in Rome during the 14th century was remarkable.^ The extraordinary poverty in the production of sculpture in Rome during the 14th century was remarkable.

^ At the beginning of the 19th century the art of sculpture was practically dead in Spain - or at least was mainly confined to the mechanical production of images of saints.

^ In the 14th century the silversmiths of Spain produced many works of sculpture of great size and technical power.

.The clumsy effigies at the north-east of S. Maria in Trastevere are striking examples of the degradation of the plastic art there about the year 1400; and it was not till nearly the middle of the century that the arrival of able Florentine sculptors, such as Filarete, Mino da Fiesole, and the Pollaiuoli, initiated a brilliant era of artistic activity, which, however, for about a century continued to depend on the presence of sculptors from Tuscany and other northern provinces.^ The clumsy effigies at the north-east of S. Maria in Trastevere are striking examples of the degradation of the plastic art there about the year 1400; and it was not till nearly the middle of the century that the arrival of able Florentine sculptors, such as Filarete, Mino da Fiesole , and the Pollaiuoli, initiated a brilliant era of artistic activity, which, however, for about a century continued to depend on the presence of sculptors from Tuscany and other northern provinces.

^ In the next century at Naples Queirolo, Corradini and Sammartino produced a number of statues, now in the chapel of S. Maria de' Sangri, which are extraordinary examples The of wasted labour and neglect of the simplest canons of plastic art.

^ Italian plastic art in the 5th century continued to create in the spirit of the 4th century, especially reliefs in ivory (to a certain extent imitations of the later consular diptychs), which were used to decorate episcopal thrones or the bindings of MSS. of the Gospels.

.It was not, in fact, till the period of full decadence had begun that Rome itself produced any notable artists.^ It was not, in fact, till the period of full decadence had begun that Rome itself produced any notable artists.

^ On the whole the 17th and 18th centuries in Germany, as in England, were periods of great decadence in the plastic art; little of merit was produced, except some portrait figures.

.In Florence, the centre of artistic activity during the 15th as well as the 14th century, Giotto not only inaugurated the I See Ruskin, Stones of Venice; and Mothes, Gesch.^ In Florence, the centre of artistic activity during the 15th as well as the 14th century, Giotto not only inaugurated the I See Ruskin, Stones of Venice; and Mothes, Gesch.

^ During the 14th century Florence and the neighbouring cities were the chief centres of Italian sculpture, and there numerous sculptors of successively increasing artistic power lived and worked, till in the 15th century the city had become the aesthetic capital of the world.

^ The similarity between the plastic arts of Athens in the 5th or 4th century B.C. and of Florence in the 15th century is not one of analogy only.

der Bauk. u. Bildh. .Venedigs
(Leipzig, 1859); also H. v.^ Venedigs (Leipzig, 1859); also H. v.

d. Gabelentz, Mittelaltert. .Plastik in Venedig (Leipzig, 1902).^ Plastik in Venedig (Leipzig, 1902).

modern era of painting, but in his relief sculpture, and more particularly by the influence he exercised upon .Andrea Pisano, carried the art of sculpture beyond the point where it had been left by Giovanni Pisano.^ Andrea Pisano , carried the art of sculpture beyond the point where it had been left by Giovanni Pisano.

^ This epoch became the starting-point of Russian sculpture, so that Antokolsky deserves an eminent position in the history of Russian art.

.In Andrea we find something of Niccola's classic dignity grafted on to Giovanni's close observation of nature.^ In Andrea we find something of Niccola's classic dignity grafted on to Giovanni's close observation of nature.

^ Niccola stands at the close of the Romanesque, and Giovanni on the threshold of the Gothic period.

.His greatest works are the bronze south gate of the Baptistery, and some of the reliefs on Giotto's Campanile.^ His greatest works are the bronze south gate of the Baptistery, and some of the reliefs on Giotto's Campanile .

^ Since his return to pure sculpture he has executed some important work, including a bronze " Bacchante."

^ This is seen in the bronze pillar reliefs and other works, notably the bronze gates of Hildesheim Cathedral, produced by Bishop Bernward (d.

.The last great master of the Gothic period is Andrea di Cione, better known as Orcagna (1308? to 1368), who, like Giotto, achieved fame in the three sister arts of painting, sculpture and architecture.^ Giotto, achieved fame in the three sister arts of painting, sculpture and architecture.

^ The last great master of the Gothic period is Andrea di Cione, better known as Orcagna (1308?

^ Contemporaneously with Ghiberti, the sculptor of the world-famed baptistery gates, and with Donatello, and to a certain extent influenced by them, worked some men who, like Ciuffagni, were still essentially Gothic in their style, or, like Nanni di Banco, retained unmistakable traces of the earlier manner.

.His wonderful tabernacle at Or San Michele is a noble testimony to his efficiency in the three arts and to his early training as a goldsmith.^ His wonderful tabernacle at Or San Michele is a noble testimony to his efficiency in the three arts and to his early training as a goldsmith.

.Very beautiful sepulchral effigies in low relief were produced in many parts of Italy, especially at Florence.^ Very beautiful sepulchral effigies in low relief were produced in many parts of Italy, especially at Florence.

^ At Limoges in France a large number of sepulchral effigies were produced, especially between 1300 and 3400, and exported to distant places.

^ Donatello and other 15th-century Italian artists showed the most wonderful skill in their treatment of very low relief.

.The tomb of Lorenzo Acciaioli, in the Certosa near Florence, is a fine example of about the year 1400, which has absurdly been attributed to Donatello.^ The tomb of Lorenzo Acciaioli, in the Certosa near Florence, is a fine example of about the year 1400, which has absurdly been attributed to Donatello.

^ Westminster Abbey possesses a fine example, executed about 1300, in the effigy of William of Valence (d.

^ The statuary and reliefs which make the Certosa near Pavia one of the most gorgeous buildings in the world are free from the influence of Michelangelo, which at Florence and Rome was overwhelming.

.The similarity between the plastic arts of Athens in the 5th or 4th century B.C. and of Florence in the 15th century is not one of analogy only.^ The similarity between the plastic arts of Athens in the 5th or 4th century B.C. and of Florence in the 15th century is not one of analogy only.

^ Italian plastic art in the 5th century continued to create in the spirit of the 4th century, especially reliefs in ivory (to a certain extent imitations of the later consular diptychs), which were used to decorate episcopal thrones or the bindings of MSS. of the Gospels.

^ In the 4th century A.D., under the rule of Constantine's successors, the plastic arts in the Roman world reached the lowest point of degradation to which they ever fell.

.Though free from any touch of copyism, there are many points in the works of such men as Donatello, Luca della Robbia, and Antonio Pisano which strongly recall the sculpture of ancient Greece, and suggest that, if a sculptor of the later Phidian school had been surrounded by the same types of face and costume as those among which the Italians lived, he would have produced plastic works closely resembling those of the great Florentine masters.^ Though free from any touch of copyism, there are many points in the works of such men as Donatello, Luca della Robbia , and Antonio Pisano which strongly recall the sculpture of ancient Greece , and suggest that, if a sculptor of the later Phidian school had been surrounded by the same types of face and costume as those among which the Italians lived, he would have produced plastic works closely resembling those of the great Florentine masters.

^ The popular admiration for pieces of clever trickery in sculpture, such as the carving of the open meshes of a fisherman's net , or a chain with each link free and movable, or a veil over and half revealing the features of the face, would perhaps be diminished if it were known that such work as this is invariably done, not by the sculptor, but by the scarpellino.

^ A.R.A., 1887; R.A., 1892; resigned, 1909) is to be regarded as one of the greatest figures in British sculpture, not only as being a master of his art, but as having preached in his work a great movement, and in less than a decade effected more than any other man for the salvation of the British school, and inspired almost as much as Carpeaux or Dalou, the young sculptors of the country.

.Lorenzo Ghiberti may be called the first of the great sculptors of the Renaissance.^ Lorenzo Ghiberti may be called the first of the great sculptors of the Renaissance .

^ For some years the activity amongst what may be called the Sicilian group of sculptors was headed by Benedetto Civiletti (b.

.But between him and Orcagna stands another master, the Sienese, Jacopo della Quercia 2 (1371-1438) who, although in some minor traits connected with the Gothic school, heralds at this early date the boldest and most vigorous and original achievements of two generations hence.^ But between him and Orcagna stands another master, the Sienese, Jacopo della Quercia 2 (1371-1438) who, although in some minor traits connected with the Gothic school, heralds at this early date the boldest and most vigorous and original achievements of two generations hence.

^ The realistic trait of the crossed legs, which occurs in many of these effigies, heralds the near advent of Gothic art.

^ The last great master of the Gothic period is Andrea di Cione, better known as Orcagna (1308?

.Indeed, Jacopo, whose chief works are the Fonte Gaja at Siena (now reconstructed) and the reliefs on the gate of S. Petronio at Bologna, stands in his strong muscular treatment of the human figure nearer to Michelangelo than to his Gothic precursors and contemporaries.^ Indeed, Jacopo, whose chief works are the Fonte Gaja at Siena (now reconstructed) and the reliefs on the gate of S. Petronio at Bologna , stands in his strong muscular treatment of the human figure nearer to Michelangelo than to his Gothic precursors and contemporaries.

^ On the whole, the single statues throughout this period are finer than the reliefs with many figures.

^ One of his chief works is the " Bishop Ellicott's Memorial," a tomb with recumbent figure, a design of considerable imagination.

.Contemporaneously with Ghiberti, the sculptor of the world-famed baptistery gates, and with Donatello, and to a certain extent influenced by them, worked some men who, like Ciuffagni, were still essentially Gothic in their style, or, like Nanni di Banco, retained unmistakable traces of the earlier manner.^ Contemporaneously with Ghiberti, the sculptor of the world-famed baptistery gates, and with Donatello, and to a certain extent influenced by them, worked some men who, like Ciuffagni, were still essentially Gothic in their style, or, like Nanni di Banco, retained unmistakable traces of the earlier manner.

^ The influx of Italian artists into France in the reign of Francis I ., who, with Leonardo da Vinci, Andrea del Sarto , Rosso, and Primaticcio, had summoned Benvenuto Cellini and other Italian sculptors to his court, naturally led to the practical extinction of the Gothic style, though influence.

^ Irresistible in the hands of a great artist like Alfred Gilbert, such work, at all times attractive, is the goldsmith's and ironsmith's business rather than the sculptor's; and although it has coloured the work of some of the younger sculptors of the day, it is not likely to obtain any very wide hold, or to exercise permanent influence for evil.

.Luca della Robbia, the founder of a whole dynasty of sculptors in glazed terra-cotta, with his classic purity of style and sweetness of expression, came next in order.^ Luca della Robbia, the founder of a whole dynasty of sculptors in glazed terra- cotta , with his classic purity of style and sweetness of expression, came next in order.

^ The serene and reposeful statue of " Pandora ," about to open her ivory casket, successfully achieves the purity of style at which the sculptor aimed.

^ His marble statuette of " Remorse," bought for the Chantrey Collection, is a remarkable example of combined intensity of expression and elevated purity of style.

.Unsensual beauty elevated by religious spirit was attained in the highest degree by Mino da Fiesole, the two Rossellini, Benedetto da Maiano, Desiderio da Settignano and other sculptors more or less directly influenced by Donatello.^ Unsensual beauty elevated by religious spirit was attained in the highest degree by Mino da Fiesole, the two Rossellini, Benedetto da Maiano, Desiderio da Settignano and other sculptors more or less directly influenced by Donatello.

^ He worked in the style of the great 15th-century Florentine sculptors, and followed especially the methods of his distinguished fellow-townsman Mino da Fiesole.

^ The martyr is an ugly, deformed woman, tortured and suffering, but of such beautiful sentiment that under the influence of religious extasis her very soul seems to rise to the surface.

.Through them the tomb monument received the definite form which it retained throughout the Renaissance period.^ Through them the tomb monument received the definite form which it retained throughout the Renaissance period.

^ The lofty monument of King Robert (1350), behind the high altar of S. Chiara, and other tombs in the same church are the most conspicuous works of this period.

^ The magnificent tomb of Ferdinand and Isabella in Granada cathedral is a fine specimen of Italian Renaissance sculpture, somewhat similar in general form to the tomb of Sixtus IV. by Ant.

.Two of the noblest equestrian statues the world has probably ever seen are the Gattamelata statue at Padua by Donatello and the statue of Colleoni at Venice by Verrocchio and Leopardi.^ Two of the noblest equestrian statues the world has probably ever seen are the Gattamelata statue at Padua by Donatello and the statue of Colleoni at Venice by Verrocchio and Leopardi.

^ He was then twenty-five years old, and after spending two years in Rome and in other centres of artistic interest, he returned to Venice, where he produced a statue of St Anthony of Padua , one of Petrarch and another of Galileo.

^ Torell was highly paid for this, as well as for two other bronze statues of Queen Eleanor, probably of the same design.

.A third, which was probably of equal beauty, was modelled in clay by Leonardo da Vinci, but it no longer exists.^ A third, which was probably of equal beauty, was modelled in clay by Leonardo da Vinci , but it no longer exists.

^ Delphi Leonardo Da Vinci and the Study of the Human Anatomy Da Vinci wasn't just a painter and inventor; his work was instrumental in the development of knowledge of the human anatomy.

^ Equally beautiful is " The Christian Martyr," in the creation of which Antokolsky definitely broke all the fetters of tradition and strove no longer to express linear beauty, but intense truth.

Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c. .1481), whose principal works are to be found at Rimini and Perugia; the bronze-worker Bertoldo di Giovanni (1420-1491); Antonio del Pollaiuolo, the author of the tombs of popes Sixtus IV.^ Rimini and Perugia ; the bronze-worker Bertoldo di Giovanni (1420-1491); Antonio del Pollaiuolo , the author of the tombs of popes Sixtus IV .

^ The magnificent tomb of Ferdinand and Isabella in Granada cathedral is a fine specimen of Italian Renaissance sculpture, somewhat similar in general form to the tomb of Sixtus IV. by Ant.

and Innocent VIII. at .St Peter's in Rome; and Francesco Laurana (1424-1501?), a Dalmatian who worked under Brunelleschi and left many traces of his activity in Naples (Triumphal Arch), Sicily and southern France.^ Dalmatian who worked under Brunelleschi and left many traces of his activity in Naples (Triumphal Arch), Sicily and southern France.

^ Rome and worked under her influence.

^ St Peter's in Rome; and Francesco Laurana (1424-1501?

.Finally came Michelangelo, who raised the sculpture of the modern ., world to its highest pitch of magnificence, and at the same time sowed the seeds of its rapidly approaching decline; the head of his David at Florence is a work of unrivalled force and dignity.^ Finally came Michelangelo, who raised the sculpture of the modern ., world to its highest pitch of magnificence, and at the same time sowed the seeds of its rapidly approaching decline; the head of his David at Florence is a work of unrivalled force and dignity.

^ And it has some of the mystery which is distinctive of the finest art of ancient times, in which modern sculpture is almost entirely deficient.

^ Jacques de Lalaing is the author of the masterly monument erected at Evere to the English officers and men who fell at Waterloo , an elaborate work full of imagination and sculptural force and originality.

.His rivals and imitators, Baccio Bandinelli, Giacomo della Porta, Montelupo, Ammanati and Vincenzo de' Rossi (pupils of Bandinelli) and others, copied and exaggerated his faults 2 See Carl Cornelius, Jacopo della Quercia (Halle a.^ His rivals and imitators, Baccio Bandinelli, Giacomo della Porta, Montelupo, Ammanati and Vincenzo de' Rossi (pupils of Bandinelli) and others, copied and exaggerated his faults 2 See Carl Cornelius , Jacopo della Quercia (Halle a.

^ Jacopo Della Quercia - Tomb, Ilaria del Carretto, Lucca.

S., 1896).
without possessing a touch of his gigantic genius. .In other parts of Italy, such as Pavia, the traditions of the 15th century lasted longer, though gradually fading.^ In other parts of Italy, such as Pavia, the traditions of the 15th century lasted longer, though gradually fading.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

^ Donatello and other 15th-century Italian artists showed the most wonderful skill in their treatment of very low relief.

.The statuary and reliefs which make the Certosa near Pavia one of the most gorgeous buildings in the world are free from the influence of Michelangelo, which at Florence and Rome was overwhelming.^ The statuary and reliefs which make the Certosa near Pavia one of the most gorgeous buildings in the world are free from the influence of Michelangelo, which at Florence and Rome was overwhelming.

^ His ideal statuary and portraiture are not his chief work, however; his decorative sculpture for ecclesiastical and secular buildings is vast in extent and has had good influence on the younger school.

^ This method is one of the causes of the dulness and want of spirit so conspicuous in most modern sculptured reliefs.

.Though much of the sculpture was begun in the second half of the 15th century, the greater part was not executed till much later.^ Though much of the sculpture was begun in the second half of the 15th century, the greater part was not executed till much later.

^ Of the greatest importance for the development of Austrian sculpture in the second half of the 19th century was the influence of Joseph Daniel Boehm (1794-1865), director of the academy of coin -engravers, and discriminating collector of art treasures.

^ Strassburg cathedral, though sadly damaged by restoration, still possesses a large quantity of the finest sculpture of the 13th century.

.The magnificent tomb of the founder, Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti, was not completed till about 1560, and is a gorgeous example of the style of the Renaissance grown weak from excess of richness and from loss of the simple purity of the art of the 15th century.^ The magnificent tomb of the founder, Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti , was not completed till about 1560, and is a gorgeous example of the style of the Renaissance grown weak from excess of richness and from loss of the simple purity of the art of the 15th century.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

^ These sumptuous masses of polychromatic sculpture resemble the 15th-century retables of Germany more than any Italian examples, and were a sort of survival of an older medieval style.

.Everywhere in this wonderful building the fault is the same; and the growing love of luxury and display, which was the curse of the time, is reflected in the plastic decorations of the whole church.^ Everywhere in this wonderful building the fault is the same; and the growing love of luxury and display, which was the curse of the time, is reflected in the plastic decorations of the whole church.

^ Another effigy in the same church cut in stone, once decorated with painting, is a much finer piece of sculpture of about a century later.

.The old religious spirit had died out and was succeeded by unbelief or by an affected revival of paganism.^ The old religious spirit had died out and was succeeded by unbelief or by an affected revival of paganism.

.Monuments to ancient Romans, such as those to the two Plinys on the facade of Como cathedral, or " heroa " to unsaintly mortals, such as that erected at Rimini by Sigismondo.^ Monuments to ancient Romans, such as those to the two Plinys on the facade of Como cathedral, or " heroa " to unsaintly mortals, such as that erected at Rimini by Sigismondo.

^ It was his task to erect monuments in memory of some of the greatest intellectual heroes of Germany, such as his Lessing monument in Braunschweig, the monument to Goethe and Schiller in Weimar , and that to Martin Luther at Worms .

.Pandolfo in honour of Isotta,' grew up side by side with shrines and churches dedicated to the saints.^ Pandolfo in honour of Isotta,' grew up side by side with shrines and churches dedicated to the saints.

.We have seen how the youthful vigour of the Christian faith vivified for a time the dry bones of expiring classic art, and now the decay of this same belief brought with it the destruction of all that was most valuable in medieval sculpture.^ We have seen how the youthful vigour of the Christian faith vivified for a time the dry bones of expiring classic art, and now the decay of this same belief brought with it the destruction of all that was most valuable in medieval sculpture.

^ Ravenna; while the figures below the Christ are survivals of a still older time, dating back from the best eras of classic art.

^ A large stone statue of about the same date, of French workmanship, in the same museum is a most valuable example of the.

.Sculpture, like the other arts, became the bond-slave of the rich, and ceased to be the natural expression of a whole people.^ Sculpture, like the other arts, became the bond-slave of the rich, and ceased to be the natural expression of a whole people.

^ The philosophy and aesthetics of the subject - the relation of sculpture to the other arts and the nature of its appeal to the emotions - are treated in the article Fine Arts .

^ During the 12th and 13th centuries the prodigious activity of the cathedral builders of France and their rivalry to outshine each other in the richness of the sculptured decorations, led to the glorious development that culminated in the full flower of Gothic art.

.Though for a long time in Italy great technical skill continued to exist, the vivifying spirit was dead, and at last a dull scholasticism or a riotous extravagance of design became the leading characteristics.^ Though for a long time in Italy great technical skill continued to exist, the vivifying spirit was dead, and at last a dull scholasticism or a riotous extravagance of design became the leading characteristics.

^ They differ much in style, though all are of great technical merit.

^ In other parts of Italy, such as Pavia, the traditions of the 15th century lasted longer, though gradually fading.

.The 16th century was one of transition to this state of degradation, but nevertheless produced many sculptors of great ability who were not wholly crushed by;the declining taste of their time.^ Fiesole in the 19th century produced one sculptor of great talent , named Bastianini.

^ The 16th century was one of transition to this state of degradation, but nevertheless produced many sculptors of great ability who were not wholly crushed by;the declining taste of their time.

^ Thus the great ability of many French sculptors has been degraded to suit, or rather to illustrate, the taste of the voluptuary.

.John of Douai (1524-1608), usually known as Giovanni da Bologna, one of the ablest, lived and worked almost entirely in Italy.^ John of Douai (1524-1608), usually known as Giovanni da Bologna , one of the ablest, lived and worked almost entirely in Italy.

^ One of Giovanni's best works, a group of two nude figures fighting, is now lost.

^ J. D. Boehm devoted himself almost entirely to goldsmith-work and medals, but with the aid of his great collections he taught the new generation and helped to develop original talent.

.His bronze statue of Mercury flying upwards, in the Uffizi, one of his finest works, is full of life and movement.^ His statue of " Revolution " is one of his best works.

^ His bronze statue of Mercury flying upwards, in the Uffizi, one of his finest works, is full of life and movement.

^ His bronze Mercury in the Louvre, is a clever work and the enormous high-relief on the Arc de l'Etoile in Paris, representing " The Song of Departure to Battle," is full of vigour and movement, but his statues of Marshal Ney in the Luxembourg Gardens and of General Cavaignac (1847) in the cemetery of Montmartre are conspicuously poor.

.By him also is the " Carrying off of a Sabine Woman " in the Loggia de' Lanzi.^ By him also is the " Carrying off of a Sabine Woman " in the Loggia de' Lanzi.

.His great fountain at Bologna, with two tiers of boys and mermaids, surmounted by a colossal statue of Neptune, a very noble work, is composed of architectural features combined with sculpture, and is remarkable for beauty of proportion.^ His great fountain at Bologna, with two tiers of boys and mermaids , surmounted by a colossal statue of Neptune , a very noble work, is composed of architectural features combined with sculpture, and is remarkable for beauty of proportion.

^ Another artist who approached greatness in a period of utter degradation was Rafael Donner, whose principal work is the large fountain with lead figures of Providence and the four rivers of Austria (the Enns , Ybbs, Traun and March), in Vienna, a very remarkable 1 The Villiers monument is evidently the work of two sculptors working in very opposite styles.

^ The pulpit in the cathedral of Ravello , executed by Nicolo di Bartolommeo di Foggia in 1272, is an important work of this class; it is enriched with very noble sculpture, especially a large female head crowned with a richly foliated coronet, and combining lifelike vigour with largeness of style in a very remarkable way.

.He also cast the fine bronze equestrian statue of Cosimo de' Medici at Florence and the very richly decorated west door of Pisa cathedral, the latter notable for the overcrowding of its ornaments and the want of sculpturesque dignity in the figures; it is a feeble imitation of Ghiberti's noble production.^ Warwick - a noble portrait figure, richly decorated with engraved ornaments.

^ He also cast the fine bronze equestrian statue of Cosimo de' Medici at Florence and the very richly decorated west door of Pisa cathedral, the latter notable for the overcrowding of its ornaments and the want of sculpturesque dignity in the figures; it is a feeble imitation of Ghiberti's noble production.

^ In the latter part of the 16th century the influence of the later Italian Renaissance becomes very apparent, and many elaborate works in bronze were produced, especially at Augsburg, where Hubert Gerhard cast the fine " Augustus fountain " in 1593, and Adrian de Vries made the " Hercules fountain " in 1 599; both were influenced by the style of Giovanni di Bologna, as shown in his magnificent fountain at Bologna.

.One of Giovanni's best works, a group of two nude figures fighting, is now lost.^ One of Giovanni's best works, a group of two nude figures fighting, is now lost.

^ His statue of " Revolution " is one of his best works.

^ Of his other finished works may be cited " The Brave," an Indian on horseback; " Adolescents," a charming group of two nude children embracing; " The Young Girl on a Rock," and the " Panther," destined for the botanical gardens at Brussels.

.A fine copy in lead existed till recently in the front quadrangle of Brasenose College, Oxford, of which it was the chief ornament.^ A fine copy in lead existed till recently in the front quadrangle of Brasenose College, Oxford , of which it was the chief ornament.

^ Many rich and elaborate works of his exist at Trinity College, Oxford, at Cambridge, Chatsworth , and several other places in England.

.In 1881 it was sold for old lead by the principal and fellows of the college, and was immediately melted down by the plumber who bought it - an irreparable loss, as the only other existing copy is very inferior; the destruction was an utterly inexcusable act of vandalism.^ In 1881 it was sold for old lead by the principal and fellows of the college, and was immediately melted down by the plumber who bought it - an irreparable loss, as the only other existing copy is very inferior; the destruction was an utterly inexcusable act of vandalism.

^ Many rich and elaborate works of his exist at Trinity College, Oxford, at Cambridge, Chatsworth , and several other places in England.

^ A fine copy in lead existed till recently in the front quadrangle of Brasenose College, Oxford , of which it was the chief ornament.

.The sculpture on the western façade of the church at Loreto and the elaborate bronze gates of the Santa Casa are works of great technical merit by Girolamo Lombardo and his sons, about the middle of the 16th century.^ The sculpture on the western façade of the church at Loreto and the elaborate bronze gates of the Santa Casa are works of great technical merit by Girolamo Lombardo and his sons, about the middle of the 16th century.

^ Jdrg Syrlin, one of the most able of these sculptors in wood, executed the gorgeous choir-stalls in Ulm cathedral, richly decorated with statuettes and canopied work, between 1469 and 1474; his son and namesake sculptured the elaborate stalls in Blaubeuren church of 1496 and the great pulpit in Ulm cathedral.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

.Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1569), though in the main greater as goldsmith than as sculptor, produced one work of great beauty and dignity - the bronze Perseus in the Loggia de' Lanzi at Florence.^ Perseus " is an inspiration from Benvenuto Cellini, but " The Spearman " is an original and powerful work.

^ Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1569), though in the main greater as goldsmith than as sculptor, produced one work of great beauty and dignity - the bronze Perseus in the Loggia de' Lanzi at Florence.

^ Irresistible in the hands of a great artist like Alfred Gilbert, such work, at all times attractive, is the goldsmith's and ironsmith's business rather than the sculptor's; and although it has coloured the work of some of the younger sculptors of the day, it is not likely to obtain any very wide hold, or to exercise permanent influence for evil.

.His large bust of Cosimo de' Medici in the Bargello is mean and petty in style.^ His large bust of Cosimo de' Medici in the Bargello is mean and petty in style.

.A number of very clever statues and groups in terra-cotta were modelled by Antonio Begarelli of Modena (d.^ A number of very clever statues and groups in terra-cotta were modelled by Antonio Begarelli of Modena (d.

^ His large statues are very poor, but his reliefs in ivory of boys and cupids are modelled with wonderfully soft realistic power and graceful fancy.

^ The latter worked largely in terra-cotta, and modelled with great spirit and invention, but in the sensual unsculpturesque manner prevalent in his time.

.1565), and were enthusiastically admired by Michelangelo; the finest are a " Pieta " in S. Maria Pomposa and a large " Descent from the Cross " in S. Francesco, both at Modena.^ Michelangelo; the finest are a " Pieta " in S. Maria Pomposa and a large " Descent from the Cross " in S. Francesco, both at Modena.

.The colossal bronze seated statue of Julius III.^ The colossal bronze seated statue of Julius III .

^ His chief work is perhaps the colossal bronze equestrian statue of King William of Prussia at Cologne.

^ Verrocchio & Leopardi - Bronze Colossal Statue of Bartolommeo Colleoni , Venice .

at .Perugia, cast in 1555 by Vincenzio Danti, is one of the best portrait-figures of the time.^ Perugia, cast in 1555 by Vincenzio Danti, is one of the best portrait-figures of the time.

^ Ravenna; while the figures below the Christ are survivals of a still older time, dating back from the best eras of classic art.

^ At this time portrait effigies had not come into general use, and both figures are treated in an ideal way.

.1 See Yriarte, Rimini au X V e sieele (Paris, 1880).^ See Yriarte, Rimini au X V e sieele (Paris, 1880).

.The latter part of the 15th century in France was a time of transition from the medieval style, which had gradually been deteriorating, to the more florid and realistic taste of the Renaissance.^ The latter part of the 15th century in France was a time of transition from the medieval style, which had gradually been deteriorating, to the more florid and realistic taste of the Renaissance.

^ New ideas were born, old styles were resurrected, and the world seemed to come alive for the first time in many centuries.

^ These sumptuous masses of polychromatic sculpture resemble the 15th-century retables of Germany more than any Italian examples, and were a sort of survival of an older medieval style.

.To this period belong a number of rich reliefs and statues on the choir-screen of Chartres cathedral.^ To this period belong a number of rich reliefs and statues on the choir-screen of Chartres cathedral.

^ On the whole, the single statues throughout this period are finer than the reliefs with many figures.

^ Of the same period, and kindred in style and feeling, are the reliefs on the eastern choir-screen in Bamberg cathedral.

.Those on the screen at Amiens are later still, and exhibit the rapid advance of the new style.^ Those on the screen at Amiens are later still, and exhibit the rapid advance of the new style.

.The transition from the Gothic to the Renaissance is to be noted in many tomb monuments of the second half of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries, notably in Rouland de Roux's magnificent tomb of the cardinals of Amboise at Rouen cathedral.^ The transition from the Gothic to the Renaissance is to be noted in many tomb monuments of the second half of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries, notably in Rouland de Roux's magnificent tomb of the cardinals of Amboise at Rouen cathedral.

^ In the latter part of the 16th century the influence of the later Italian Renaissance becomes very apparent, and many elaborate works in bronze were produced, especially at Augsburg, where Hubert Gerhard cast the fine " Augustus fountain " in 1593, and Adrian de Vries made the " Hercules fountain " in 1 599; both were influenced by the style of Giovanni di Bologna, as shown in his magnificent fountain at Bologna.

^ One of the best examples of the transition period from German Romanesque to Gothic is the " golden gate " of Freiburg cathedral, with sculptured figures on the jambs after the French fashion.

.Italian motifs are paramount in the great tomb of Louis XII.^ Italian motifs are paramount in the great tomb of Louis XII .

^ A great mural tomb followed, with " Love Sacred and Profane " as its motif, together with a series of other works of growing artistic importance.

and his wife .Anne of Bretagne, at St Denis, by Jean Juste of Tours.^ Anne of Bretagne, at St Denis, by Jean Juste of Tours .

.The influx of Italian artists into France in the reign of Francis I., who, with Leonardo da Vinci, Andrea del Sarto, Rosso, and Primaticcio, had summoned Benvenuto Cellini and other Italian sculptors to his court, naturally led to the practical extinction of the Gothic style, though influence. isolated examples of medievalism still occur about the middle of the i 6th century.^ The influx of Italian artists into France in the reign of Francis I ., who, with Leonardo da Vinci, Andrea del Sarto , Rosso, and Primaticcio, had summoned Benvenuto Cellini and other Italian sculptors to his court, naturally led to the practical extinction of the Gothic style, though influence.

^ In the other provinces under the Austrian emperor's rule, the best-known sculptors are the Carniole Marcell Guicki (1830-1894), Lewandowski, Buracz, and the Tirolese Gurschner, who follows the modern French style of statuette sculptors.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

.Such are the " Entombment " in the crypt of Bourges cathedral, and the tomb of Rene of Chalons in the church of St Etienne at Bar-le-Duc.^ Such are the " Entombment " in the crypt of Bourges cathedral, and the tomb of Rene of Chalons in the church of St Etienne at Bar -le-Duc.

^ St Stephen's Cathedral and the Votive Church in Vienna.

^ St Peter's at Rome, that of Titian at Venice, and Alfieri's tomb in the Florentine church of S. Croce.

.But the main current of artistic thought followed the direction indicated by the founding of the italianizing school of Fontainebleau.^ But the main current of artistic thought followed the direction indicated by the founding of the italianizing school of Fontainebleau .

Jean Goujon, (d. .1572) was the ablest French sculptor of the time; he combined great technical skill and refinement of modelling with the florid and affected style of the age.^ French sculptor of the time; he combined great technical skill and refinement of modelling with the florid and affected style of the age.

^ Other French sculptors who were highly esteemed in their time were Ottin, Courtet, Simart, Etex and Carpeaux.

^ His chief early group, the Apollo and Daphne in the Villa Borghese , is a work of wonderful technical skill and delicate high finish, combined with soft beauty and grace, though too pictorial in style.

.His nude figure of " Diana reclining by a Stag," now in the Louvre, is a graceful and vigorous piece of work, superior in sculpturesque breadth to the somewhat similar bronze relief of a nymph by Cellini.^ His nude figure of " Diana reclining by a Stag ," now in the Louvre, is a graceful and vigorous piece of work, superior in sculpturesque breadth to the somewhat similar bronze relief of a nymph by Cellini.

^ One of Giovanni's best works, a group of two nude figures fighting, is now lost.

^ His best figure is probably that of " Cain - My Punishment is Greater than I can Bear ," executed in 1896; his latest work, " The Sisters " (1905), shows considerable grace.

.Between 1540 and 1552 Goujon executed the fine monument at Rouen to Duke Louis de Breze, and from 1555 to 1562 was mainly occupied in decorating the Louvre with sculpture.^ Between 1540 and 1552 Goujon executed the fine monument at Rouen to Duke Louis de Breze , and from 1555 to 1562 was mainly occupied in decorating the Louvre with sculpture.

^ Another very fine portrait effigy of about 1570, a recumbent figure in full armour of the duke of Montmorency , preserved in the Louvre, is the work of Barthelemy Prieur.

^ He, after beginning as a painter, was tempted by sculpture, more particularly, in the first instance, by a wish to execute a monument to a comrade he had loved.

.One of the most pleasing and graceful works of this period, thoroughly Italian in style, is the marble group of the " Three Graces " bearing on their heads an urn containing the heart of Henry II., executed in 1560 by Germain Pilon for Catherine de Medicis.^ One of the most pleasing and graceful works of this period, thoroughly Italian in style, is the marble group of the " Three Graces " bearing on their heads an urn containing the heart of Henry II ., executed in 1560 by Germain Pilon for Catherine de Medicis.

^ The cathedral of Santiago de Compostella possesses one of the grandest existing specimens in the world of late 12th-century architectonic sculpture; this, though the work of a native artist, Mastei Mateo,' is thoroughly French in style; as recorded by an inscription on the front, it was completed in 1188.

^ His chief early group, the Apollo and Daphne in the Villa Borghese , is a work of wonderful technical skill and delicate high finish, combined with soft beauty and grace, though too pictorial in style.

.The monument of Catherine and Henry II. at St Denis, by the same sculptor, is an inferior and coarser work.^ The monument of Catherine and Henry II. at St Denis, by the same sculptor, is an inferior and coarser work.

^ Among his best-known works is the monument of Catherine II .

.Maitre Ponce, probably the same as the Italian Ponzio Jacquio, chiselled the noble monument of Albert of Carpi (1535),(1535), now in the Louvre.^ Maitre Ponce , probably the same as the Italian Ponzio Jacquio, chiselled the noble monument of Albert of Carpi (1535), (1535), now in the Louvre.

.Another very fine portrait effigy of about 1570, a recumbent figure in full armour of the duke of Montmorency, preserved in the Louvre, is the work of Barthelemy Prieur.^ Another very fine portrait effigy of about 1570, a recumbent figure in full armour of the duke of Montmorency , preserved in the Louvre, is the work of Barthelemy Prieur.

^ Another fine work in bronze of about the same date is the effigy of Archbishop Conrad (d.

^ At this time portrait effigies had not come into general use, and both figures are treated in an ideal way.

.Francois Duquesnoy of Brussels (1594-1644), usually known as Il Fiammingo, was a clever sculptor, thoroughly French in style, though he mostly worked in Italy.^ Francois Duquesnoy of Brussels (1594-1644), usually known as Il Fiammingo, was a clever sculptor, thoroughly French in style, though he mostly worked in Italy.

^ The cathedral of Santiago de Compostella possesses one of the grandest existing specimens in the world of late 12th-century architectonic sculpture; this, though the work of a native artist, Mastei Mateo,' is thoroughly French in style; as recorded by an inscription on the front, it was completed in 1188.

^ In the other provinces under the Austrian emperor's rule, the best-known sculptors are the Carniole Marcell Guicki (1830-1894), Lewandowski, Buracz, and the Tirolese Gurschner, who follows the modern French style of statuette sculptors.

.His large statues are very poor, but his reliefs in ivory of boys and cupids are modelled with wonderfully soft realistic power and graceful fancy.^ His large statues are very poor, but his reliefs in ivory of boys and cupids are modelled with wonderfully soft realistic power and graceful fancy.

^ A number of very clever statues and groups in terra-cotta were modelled by Antonio Begarelli of Modena (d.

^ The altar-tomb on which the effigies lie is of black marble, decorated with large medallion reliefs in gilt bronze, each with a pair of saints - the patrons of Henry and Elizabeth of York - of very graceful design.

.To these sculptors should be added Jacques Sarrazin, well known for the colossal yet elegant caryatides for the grand pavilion of the Louvre; and Francois Augier, the sculptor of the splendid mausoleum of the duc de Montmorency.^ To these sculptors should be added Jacques Sarrazin , well known for the colossal yet elegant caryatides for the grand pavilion of the Louvre; and Francois Augier, the sculptor of the splendid mausoleum of the duc de Montmorency.

^ These were executed between 1418 and 1425 by a group of clever sculptors, among whom A. and F. Diaz, A. F. de Sahagun, A. Rodriguez and A. Gonzales were perhaps the chief.

^ Besides these three sculptors there was no man of note to strengthen the revival of sculptural art until Paul de Vigne (1843-1901).

.In the Netherlands the great development of painting was not accompanied by a parallel movement in plastic art.^ In the Netherlands the great development of painting was not accompanied by a parallel movement in plastic art.

^ The spirit of the time did not encourage that individual thought which alone can produce a great development of sculpture and painting .

^ On the whole the 17th and 18th centuries in Germany, as in England, were periods of great decadence in the plastic art; little of merit was produced, except some portrait figures.

.Of the few monuments that claim attention, et er- we must mention the bronze tomb of Mary of Burgundy lands. at Notre-Dame, Bruges, executed about 1495 by Jan de Baker, and the less remarkable though technically more complete companion tomb of Charles the Bold (1558).^ Of the few monuments that claim attention, et er- we must mention the bronze tomb of Mary of Burgundy lands.

^ Notre-Dame, Bruges , executed about 1495 by Jan de Baker, and the less remarkable though technically more complete companion tomb of Charles the Bold (1558).

^ Not long before his death in 1411 Sluter completed a very magnificent altar tomb for Philip the Bold, now in the museum at Dijon.

The course of the Renaissance movement in German sculpture differs from that of most other countries in so far as it appears to grow gradually out of the Gothic style in the direction of individual, realistic treatment of the figure which in late Gothic days had become somewhat conventional and schematic and idealized. .Marked physiognomic expression, careful rendering of move ment, costume and details, and the suggestion of different textures, together with almost tragic emotional intensity, are the chief aims of the 15th-century sculptors who, on the whole, adhere to medieval thought and arrangement.^ Marked physiognomic expression, careful rendering of move ment, costume and details, and the suggestion of different textures, together with almost tragic emotional intensity, are the chief aims of the 15th-century sculptors who, on the whole, adhere to medieval thought and arrangement.

^ A sculptor of quite a different class of subject is Costantino Barbella, born at Chieti in 1853, who gave his entire attention to pastoral subjects, dealing with the costumes, types and occupations of the folk among whom his early life was spent.

^ Among other sculptors who flourished in Italy about the middle of the 15th century, are the Lucchese Matteo Civitali; Agostino di Duccio (1418 - c.

.The Italian influence, which did not make itself felt until the early days of the 16th century, led to brilliant results, whilst the workers retained their fresh northern individuality and keen observation of nature.^ The Italian influence, which did not make itself felt until the early days of the 16th century, led to brilliant results, whilst the workers retained their fresh northern individuality and keen observation of nature.

^ In Spain, in the early part of the ,6th century, a strong Italian influence superseded that of France and Germany, partly owing to the presence there of the Florentine Torrigiano S and other Italian artists.

^ Canova so dominated the world of sculpture at the beginning of the 19th century that the pseudo-classic style which he introduced remained typical of all the Italian sculpture of note until Bartolini led the movement which Modern ' 'Italian ultimately crushed it.

.But in the latter half of this century it began to choke these national characteristics, and led to somewhat theatrical and conventional classicism and mannerism.^ But in the latter half of this century it began to choke these national characteristics, and led to somewhat theatrical and conventional classicism and mannerism.

.One speciality of the r 5th century was the production of an immense number of wooden altars and reredoses, painted and gilt in the most gorgeous way and covered with subject-reliefs and statues, the former often treated in a very pictorial style.'^ One speciality of the r 5th century was the production of an immense number of wooden altars and reredoses, painted and gilt in the most gorgeous way and covered with subject-reliefs and statues, the former often treated in a very pictorial style.'

^ Subject reliefs do not often occur, but large slabs of marble, forming screens, altars, pulpits and the like, were ornamented in a very skilful and original way with low reliefs of graceful vine -plants, with peacocks and other birds drinking out of chalices, all treated in a very able and highly decorative manner.

^ His large statues are very poor, but his reliefs in ivory of boys and cupids are modelled with wonderfully soft realistic power and graceful fancy.

.Wooden screens, stalls, tabernacles and other church-fittings of the greatest elaboration and clever workmanship were largely produced in Germany at the same time, and on into the 16th century.^ Wooden screens, stalls, tabernacles and other church-fittings of the greatest elaboration and clever workmanship were largely produced in Germany at the same time, and on into the 16th century.

^ The sculpture on the western façade of the church at Loreto and the elaborate bronze gates of the Santa Casa are works of great technical merit by Girolamo Lombardo and his sons, about the middle of the 16th century.

^ At the same time Derwent Wood produced the two boy figures on the piers to the southward of the Queen Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace.

.2 Jdrg Syrlin, one of the most able of these sculptors in wood, executed the gorgeous choir-stalls in Ulm cathedral, richly decorated with statuettes and canopied work, between 1469 and 1474; his son and namesake sculptured the elaborate stalls in Blaubeuren church of 1496 and the great pulpit in Ulm cathedral.^ Jdrg Syrlin, one of the most able of these sculptors in wood, executed the gorgeous choir-stalls in Ulm cathedral, richly decorated with statuettes and canopied work, between 1469 and 1474; his son and namesake sculptured the elaborate stalls in Blaubeuren church of 1496 and the great pulpit in Ulm cathedral.

^ These were executed between 1418 and 1425 by a group of clever sculptors, among whom A. and F. Diaz, A. F. de Sahagun, A. Rodriguez and A. Gonzales were perhaps the chief.

^ The dogmatic unity of the Catholic Church and its great monastic system, with constant interchange of monkish craftsmen between one country and another, were the chief causes of this widespread monotony of style.

.Another exceptionally important work of this type is the magnificent altar at St Wolfgang in Upper Austria, carved by the Tirolese, Michael Pacher, in 1481. Veit Stoss of Cracow, who later settled in Nuremberg, a man of bad character, was a most skilful sculptor in wood; he carved the high altar, the tabernacle and the stalls of the Frauenkirche at Cracow, between 1472 and 1494. One of his finest works is a large piece of wooden panelling, nearly 6 ft.^ One of his finest works is a large piece of wooden panelling, nearly 6 ft.

^ Veit Stoss of Cracow , who later settled in Nuremberg, a man of bad character, was a most skilful sculptor in wood; he carved the high altar, the tabernacle and the stalls of the Frauenkirche at Cracow, between 1472 and 1494.

^ Another exceptionally important work of this type is the magnificent altar at St Wolfgang in Upper Austria , carved by the Tirolese, Michael Pacher, in 1481.

square, carved in .1 495, with central reliefs of the Doom and the Heavenly Host, framed by minute reliefs of scenes from Bible history.^ Doom and the Heavenly Host, framed by minute reliefs of scenes from Bible history.

.It is now in the Nuremberg town-hall.^ It is now in the Nuremberg town-hall.

.Wohlgemuth (1434-1519), the master of A. Purer, was not only a painter but also a clever wood-carver, as was also Diirer himself (1471-1528), who executed a tabernacle for the Host with an exquisitely carved relief of Christ in Majesty between the Virgin and St John, which still exists in the chapel of the monastery of Landau.^ Wohlgemuth (1434-1519), the master of A. Purer, was not only a painter but also a clever wood-carver, as was also Diirer himself (1471-1528), who executed a tabernacle for the Host with an exquisitely carved relief of Christ in Majesty between the Virgin and St John, which still exists in the chapel of the monastery of Landau .

^ Lemoyne and his pupil Falconet, who executed the equestrian statue of Peter the Great at St Petersburg ; of the other, Clodion, whose real name was Claude Michel ( c.

^ Christ in Majesty, the Harrowing of Hell and St George and the Dragon occur very frequently.

.Diirer also produced miniature reliefs cut in boxwood and hone-stone, of which the British Museum (print-room) possesses one of the finest examples.^ Diirer also produced miniature reliefs cut in boxwood and hone -stone, of which the British Museum (print-room) possesses one of the finest examples.

^ A large stone statue of about the same date, of French workmanship, in the same museum is a most valuable example of the.

^ One very remarkable example is a tall monolithic cross, cut in sandstone , in the churchyard of Gosforth in Cumberland .

Adam Krafft (c. .1455-1507) was another of this class of sculptors, but he worked also in stone; he produced the great Schreyer monument (1492) for St Sebald's at Nuremberg, - a very skilful though mannered piece of sculpture, with very realistic figures in the costume of the time, carved in a way more suited to wood than stone, and too pictorial in effect.^ Another work of his is the Gutenberg monument.

^ Schreyer monument (1492) for St Sebald's at Nuremberg, - a very skilful though mannered piece of sculpture, with very realistic figures in the costume of the time, carved in a way more suited to wood than stone, and too pictorial in effect.

^ A very fine but more realistic work is the tomb figure of William of Wykeham (d.

.He also made the great tabernacle for the Host, 80 ft.^ He also made the great tabernacle for the Host, 80 ft.

high, covered with statuettes, in .Ulm cathedral, and the very spirited " Stations of the Cross " on the road to the Nuremberg cemetery.^ Ulm cathedral, and the very spirited " Stations of the Cross " on the road to the Nuremberg cemetery .

.The Vischer family of Nuremberg for three generations were among the ablest sculptors in bronze during the ,5th and 16th centuries.^ The Vischer family of Nuremberg for three generations were among the ablest sculptors in bronze during the ,5th and 16th centuries.

^ The bronze doors at Monreale (by Barisanus of Trani ), Pisa and elsewhere are among the chief works of plastic art in Italy during the 12th century.

^ During the 13th century Rome and the central provinces of Italy produced very few sculptors of ability, almost the only men of note being the Cosmati .

.Hermann Vischer the elder worked mostly between 1450 and 1505, following the earlier medieval traditions, but without the originality of his son, Peter Vischer.^ Hermann Vischer the elder worked mostly between 1450 and 1505, following the earlier medieval traditions, but without the originality of his son, Peter Vischer.

^ Both are wrongly said to be the work of Peter Vischer himself.

.Next to Nuremberg, the chief centres of bronze sculpture were Augsburg and Lubeck.^ Next to Nuremberg, the chief centres of bronze sculpture were Augsburg and Lubeck .

.Innsbruck possesses one of the finest series of bronze statues of the first half of the r6th century, namely twenty-eight colossal figures round the tomb of the emperor Maximilian, which stands in the centre of the nave, representing a succession of heroes and ancestors of the emperor.^ Innsbruck possesses one of the finest series of bronze statues of the first half of the r6th century, namely twenty-eight colossal figures round the tomb of the emperor Maximilian , which stands in the centre of the nave, representing a succession of heroes and ancestors of the emperor.

^ Strassburg cathedral, though sadly damaged by restoration, still possesses a large quantity of the finest sculpture of the 13th century.

^ One of his chief works is the " Bishop Ellicott's Memorial," a tomb with recumbent figure, a design of considerable imagination.

.The first of the statues which was completed cost 3000 florins, and so Maximilian invited the help of Peter Vischer, whose skill was greater and whose work less expensive than that of the local craftsmen.^ The first of the statues which was completed cost 3000 florins, and so Maximilian invited the help of Peter Vischer, whose skill was greater and whose work less expensive than that of the local craftsmen.
  • Sculpture - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 23:26 UTC