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Map of the Sea of Marmara
Photograph of the Sea of Marmara from space (STS-40, 1991). The sea is the light-colored body of water.

The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as Propontis (Greek: Προποντίς), is the inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Black Sea and the Dardanelles strait to the Aegean. The former also separates Istanbul into its Asian and European sides. The Sea has an area of 11,350 km² (280 km x 80 km)[1] with the greatest depth reaching 1,370 m.

Contents

Geography

The salinity of the sea averages about 22 parts per thousand, which is slightly greater than that of the Black Sea but only about two-thirds that of most oceans. However, the water is much more saline at the sea-bottom, averaging salinities of around 38 parts per thousand — similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea. This high-density saline water, like that of the Black Sea itself, does not migrate to the surface. Water from the Susurluk, Biga (Granicus) and Gonen Rivers also reduces the salinity of the sea, though with less influence than on the Black Sea. With little land in Thrace draining southward, almost all of these rivers flow from Anatolia.

There are two major island groups known as the Prince's and Marmara islands (including Avşa and Paşalimanı).

The south coast of the sea is heavily indented, and includes the Gulf of Izmit (Turkish: İzmit Körfezi), the Gulf of Gemlik (Turkish: Gemlik Körfezi) and the Gulf of Erdek (Turkish: Erdek Körfezi). During a storm on December 29, 1999, the Russian oil tanker Volgoneft broke in two in the Sea of Marmara, and more than 1500 tonnes of oil were spilled into the water.

The North Anatolian fault, which has triggered many major earthquakes in recent years, such as the İzmit Earthquake of 1999, runs under the sea.

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Extents

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Sea of Marmara as follows:[2]

On the West. The Dardanelles limit of the Ægean Sea [A line joining Kum Kale (26°11'E) and Cape Helles].

On the Northeast. A line joining Cape Rumili with Cape Anatoli (41°13'N).

Name

The sea takes its name from the island of Marmara, which is rich in sources of marble, from the Greek μάρμαρον (marmaron), "marble"[3].

The sea's ancient Greek name Propontis derives from pro (before) and pont- (sea), deriving from the fact that the Greeks sailed through it to reach the Black Sea. In Greek mythology, a storm on Propontis brought the Argonauts back to an island they had left, precipitating a battle where either Jason or Heracles killed King Cyzicus, who mistook them for his Pelasgian enemies.[4]

Towns and cities

Towns and cities on the Marmara Sea coast include:

Istanbul Province
    Istanbul
         Adalar
         Bakırköy
         Bostancı
         Kadıköy
         Kartal
         Kumkapı
         Pendik
         Üsküdar
         Yeşilköy
         Zeytinburnu 

    Büyükçekmece
    Silivri
    Tuzla

Balıkesir Province
    Bandırma
    Erdek
    Gönen

Bursa Province
    Gemlik
    Karacabey
    Mudanya

Çanakkale Province
    Biga
    Gelibolu
    Lapseki
Kocaeli Province
    Derince
    Eskihisar
    Gebze
    Gölcük
    Hereke
    İzmit (Pr. Cap)
    Karamürsel
    Körfez
Tekirdağ Province
    Marmara Ereğli
    Şarköy
    Tekirdağ (Pr. Cap)
Yalova Province
    Altınova
    Armutlu
    Çiftlikköy
    Çınarcık
    Termal
    Yalova (Pr. Cap)

See also

Gallery

References

External links

Coordinates: 40°43′21″N 28°13′29″E / 40.7225°N 28.22472°E / 40.7225; 28.22472


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Map of the Sea of Marmara

Proper noun

Singular
Sea of Marmara

Plural
-

Sea of Marmara

  1. A deep inland sea in north-western Turkey connecting the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea via the straits of Bosphorus and Dardanelles.

Synonyms

  • Marmara
  • Propontis

Translations


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