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Sea turtles
Hawaiian Green Sea Turtle
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines
Suborder: Cryptodira
Superfamily: Chelonioidea
Bauer, 1893
Genera
.Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea) inhabit all of the world's oceans except the Arctic.^ World's largest sea turtle rookery?
  • Orissa | Sea Turtles of India 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC india.seaturtle.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Green sea turtles are found throughout the world's oceans.
  • GREEN SEA TURTLES 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.earthtrust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They inhabit all warm seas.
  • Sea turtle@Everything2.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Distribution

.The superfamily Chelonioidea has a worldwide distribution; sea turtles can be found in all oceans except for the polar regions.^ Green sea turtles are found throughout the world's oceans.
  • GREEN SEA TURTLES 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.earthtrust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I thought sea turtles were found in all the oceans.
  • Sea turtle@Everything2.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All species of sea turtles are endangered.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.September 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Some species travel between oceans.^ Some species travel between oceans.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some tortoises rarely see water, while other turtles spend virtually their entire lives in it, be it in a single small pond or traveling the vast open ocean.
  • turtle (reptile) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World U.S. N.Y. / Region Business Technology Science Environment Space & Cosmos Health Sports Opinion Arts Style Travel Jobs Real Estate Autos .
  • A ‘Race’ to Save Ancient Sea Turtle Species - Dot Earth Blog - NYTimes.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Flatback turtle is found solely on the northern coast of Australia.^ Hawksbill Turtles northern Australia .
  • seaturtle.org - Satellite Tracking 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.seaturtle.org [Source type: General]
  • seaturtle.org - Satellite Tracking 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.seaturtle.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Flatback turtle is found solely on the northern coast of Australia .
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Australian Flatback is found only in the coastal waters of northern Australia and the Gulf of Papua, New Guinea .
  • Sea turtle@Everything2.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Biology

Air breathers

A Green turtle breaks the surface to breathe.
.Sea turtles are almost always submerged in water, and, therefore, have developed an anaerobic system of respiration.^ Open water Sea Turtle catches...
  • Catching the Sea Turtle Mount - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

^ The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), the largest living species of sea turtle, is said to be in grave danger in Pacific waters.
  • ENVIRONMENT- SOUTH PACIFIC: Sea Turtles - Iconic but Going Extinct - IPS ipsnews.net 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ The green turtle is found in warm coastal waters around the world; however, unlike other sea turtles, it is predominantly herbivorous and feeds on algae or marine grasses.
  • sea turtle (reptile) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although all sea turtles breathe air, under dire circumstances they may divert to anaerobic respiration for long periods of time.^ May 15, 2009 in Sea Turtles .
  • Volunteering in Costa Rica: Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.crazyjungle.com [Source type: General]

^ As air-breathing reptiles with lungs, sea turtles must surface periodically.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sea turtles, like all reptiles breathe air and can drown.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When surfacing to breathe, a sea turtle can quickly refill its lungs with a single explosive exhalation and rapid inhalation.^ As air-breathing reptiles with lungs, sea turtles must surface periodically.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a single explosive exhalation and rapid inhalation, sea turtles can quickly replace the air in their lungs.
  • Hawksbill Sea Turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As air-breathing reptiles with lungs, sea turtles must surface to breathe.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their large lungs have adapted to permit rapid exchange of oxygen and to avoid trapping gases during deep dives.^ The lungs are adapted to permit a rapid exchange of oxygen and to prevent gasses from being trapped during deep dives.
  • Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.marinebio.com [Source type: General]
  • Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: General]
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blood of sea turtles can deliver oxygen efficiently to body tissues even at the pressures encountered during diving.
  • Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.marinebio.com [Source type: General]
  • Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: General]
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have large onboard stores of oxygen in their blood and muscle, and special features like collapsible lungs (to avoid ‘the bends’), a pulmonary sphincter (to shunt blood flow away from the collapsed lungs and back to the body during dives), flexible shell (to respond to increased pressure at depth), and slowed heart rate (to conserve energy and oxygen stores).
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, turtles must emerge while breeding, given the extra level of activity.^ Sea turtles spend almost all their lives submerged but must breathe air for the oxygen needed to meet the demands of vigorous activity.
  • Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.marinebio.com [Source type: General]
  • Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: General]

^ Emerging from the Nest Unlike baby alligators, which are liberated from their nest by their mother, sea turtle hatchlings must do it all themselves.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Snapping turtles are long-lived creatures with a relatively slow metabolism and low activity level.
  • Langston University Goat Research Extension 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www2.luresext.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Life history

Green turtle swims above corals at Hawaii
A feeding Green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas
.The lifespan of sea turtles has been speculated at 80 years.^ The longevity of sea turtles has been speculated at 80 years.

^ Sea turtles evolved nearly 150 million years ago during the Jurassic Period when their giant land turtle ancestors returned to the sea.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balazs, George H. and Chaloupka, Milani ( 2004 ) Thirty-year recovery trend in the once depleted Hawaiian green sea turtle stock .
  • Search Results (All Fields:"sea turtles", Status:" Published") - UQ eSpace 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC espace.library.uq.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.It takes decades for sea turtles to reach sexual maturity.^ They reach sexual maturity earlier than other turtles.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the largest of the sea turtles, measuring six or seven feet (2 m) in length at maturity, and three to five feet (1 to 1.5 m) in width, weighing up to 1300 pounds (600 kg).

^ It is the largest of the sea turtles, measuring six or seven feet (2 m) in length at maturity, and three to five feet (1 to 1.5 m) in width, weighing up to 1300 pounds (650 kg).
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After mating at sea, adult female sea turtles return to land to nest at night.^ Female leatherback turtle digs her nest.

^ After the nest is laid, the female then returns to the ocean.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What should I do if I see a sea turtle nesting?
  • Sea Turtles - Naples Florida Beaches 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.explorenaples.com [Source type: General]

.Different species of sea turtles exhibit various levels of philopatry.^ All 7 species of sea turtle are endangered.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News - Part 2 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

^ There are about 8 species of sea turtle.
  • About Turtles and Tortoises, Chelonians 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC animal-world.com [Source type: General]

^ There are seven species of sea turtles.
  • Sea turtle@Everything2.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the extreme case, females return to the beach where they hatched.^ Most females return to nest on the beach where they were born (natal beach).
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They return to the beach on which they were born.
  • Sea turtle@Everything2.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon hatching, the baby turtles often get confused by the lights of buildings near the beach; they are supposed to be drawn to the bright white light of the surf.
  • Leatherback Sea Turtle An Endangered Species At Bagheera 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.bagheera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This can take place every two to four years in maturity.^ This can take place every two to four years in maturity.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gender of a sea turtle cannot be ascertained visually until they are sexually mature, which in the case of the loggerhead takes 35 years.

^ "In Georgia we provide a lot of protection on beaches and through TEDs, but it takes 20 years for females to reach sexual maturity," said Possardt.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They make from one to eight nests per season.^ They make from four to seven nests per nesting season.

^ They usually lay 2 to 3 nests per season on a 2-3 year cycle.
  • Sea Turtles - Naples Florida Beaches 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.explorenaples.com [Source type: General]

^ To observe nesting turtles, join one of the many state-permitted "turtle walks" conducted by experienced guides during the nesting season.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mature nesting female hauls herself onto the beach and finds suitable sand on which to create a nest.^ A mature nesting female hauls herself onto the beach until she finds suitable sand on which to create a nest.

^ Loss and degradation of habitat and continued killing of reproductive females on the nesting beach and removal of their eggs are the biggest problems.
  • Testudines 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After mating with a male just off shore, the female waits for nightfall to clamber up the beach, dig a shallow pit in the sand, and deposit her eggs.
  • Leatherback Sea Turtle An Endangered Species At Bagheera 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.bagheera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using her hind flippers, she digs a circular hole 40 to 50 centimetres (16 to 20 in) deep.^ Using its hind flippers, the female proceeds to dig a circular hole 40 to 50 centimeters deep.

^ Using her hind flippers, the female proceeds to dig a circular hole 40 to 50 centimeters deep.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A turtle prepares to nest: (from top to bottom) using her front flippers, the turtle creates the "body pit" and, with her hind legs, digs the egg chamber, where she deposits more than a hundred eggs.
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the hole is dug, the female then starts filling the nest with a clutch of soft-shelled eggs one by one until she has deposited around 50 to 200 eggs, depending on the species.^ After the hole is dug, the female then starts filling the nest with a clutch of soft-shelled eggs one by one until she has deposited around 150 to 200 eggs, depending on the turtle's species.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turtle eggs may be hard- or soft-shelled, round or elongated, depending on the species.
  • Amphibians and Reptiles: Missouri's Turtles 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.mdc.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clutch size: Between 70-190 eggs depending on the species.
  • Sea Turtles Facts and Video - Testudines - Defenders of Wildlife - Defenders of Wildlife 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.defenders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some species have been reported to lay 250 eggs, such as the hawksbill.^ In some areas, such as the east coast of Florida , after the adult turtles lay their eggs, they are dug up and relocated to special fenced nurseries where they can be protected from beach traffic.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catching females when they lay eggs on land has contributed to a serious decline in many species, since it can take 10 to 30 years for some turtles to reach sexual maturity.
  • turtle Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about turtle 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other species lay soft, leathery-shelled eggs with a proportionately lower amount of calcium in the shell.
  • Amphibians and Reptiles: Missouri's Turtles 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.mdc.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After laying, she re-fills the nest with sand, re-sculpting and smoothing the surface until it is relatively undetectable visually.^ The nest is then re-filled with loose sand by the female, re-sculpting and smoothing the sand over the nest until it is relatively undetectable visually.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nest is then re-filled with loose sand by the female, re-sculpting and smoothening the sand over the nest until it is relatively undetectable visually.

^ A mature nesting female hauls herself onto the beach until she finds suitable sand on which to create a nest.

.The whole process takes thirty to sixty minutes.^ The whole process takes around thirty minutes to a little over an hour.

.She then returns to the ocean, leaving the eggs untended.^ Using their flippers, they cover the eggs with sand, and return to the sea leaving the nest completely unattended.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although at home on the ocean, sea turtles are tied to the land because females must leave the water to lay their eggs in a sandy beach.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The hatchling's gender depends on the sand temperature.^ The length of incubation and the gender of the hatchling depends on the temperature of the sand.

^ The success of Texas turtle nesting populations is largely attributed to a captive rearing program which collects and incubates the eggs in their native sand, at the appropriate temperatures for each gender.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News - Part 2 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

^ Darker sands maintain higher temperatures, decreasing incubation time and increasing the frequency of female hatchlings.

.Lighter sands maintain higher temperatures, which decreases incubation time and results in more female hatchlings.^ Higher temperatures produce more females and result in shorter incubation periods.
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The length of incubation and the gender of the hatchling depends on the temperature of the sand.

^ Darker sands maintain higher temperatures, decreasing incubation time and increasing the frequency of female hatchlings.

.Incubation takes about two months.^ Incubation takes about 2 months.

^ Most sea turtles hatch after about two months of incubation.

^ Incubation takes about two months.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eggs in one nest hatch together over a very short period of time.^ Nesting and egg laying - - Egg development and hatching .
  • turtle (reptile) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of individuals nesting at one time is very difficult to measure.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turtle eggs either hatch in late summer or early fall, or the young turtles may remain in the egg or nest all winter and emerge in the spring.
  • Amphibians and Reptiles: Missouri's Turtles 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.mdc.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When ready, hatchlings tear their shells apart with their snout and dig through the sand.^ When the time comes, these hatchlings tear their way out of their shells with their snout and once they have reached the surface of the sand, they will instinctively head towards the sea.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preparing to Nest As they leave the water and proceed up the beach, many turtles will stop several times to dig their snouts into the sand.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hatchlings, which are no bigger than a bar of soap, have to dig up through the sand to get to the surface.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

.Once they reach the surface, they instinctively head towards the sea.^ Once they reach adulthood and sexual maturity, it is believed that they migrate to a new feeding ground.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once maturity is reached, most sea turtles move to permanent feeding grounds or through a series of feeding areas.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When hatchlings scramble from the nest, they instinctively head for the water , where they swim seaward.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only a very small proportion of each hatch (usually .01%) succeed, because local opportunist predators, such as the common seagull, gorge on the new turtles.^ This is a common, small turtle usually four inches or less in length.

^ Only a very small proportion of them (usually .01%) will be successful, as many predators wait to eat the steady stream of new hatched turtles (since many sea turtles lay eggs en masse, the eggs also hatch en masse).
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only a very small proportion of them (usually .001%) will be successful, as many predators wait to eat the steady stream of new hatched turtles (since many sea turtles lay eggs en masse, the eggs also hatch en masse).

.The survivors then proceed into the open ocean.^ The hatchlings then proceed into the open ocean, borne on oceanic currents that they often have no control over.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T he hatchlings then proceed into the open ocean, borne on oceanic currents that they often have no control over.

.In 1987, Carr discovered that the young of Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta spent a great deal of their pelagic lives in floating sargassum beds, where there are thick mats of unanchored seaweed.^ However in 1987, it was discovered that the young of Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta spent a great deal of their pelagic lives in floating sargassum beds - thick mats of unanchored seaweed floating in the middle of the ocean.

^ Studying the turtle egg incubation,for better breeding.Also research about Growth and Sexual maturity on Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata and Caretta caretta.

^ In the absence of sargassum beds, turtle young feed in the vicinity of upwelling "fronts" In 2007, is was verified that green turtles hatchlings spend the first three to five years of their lives in pelagic waters.

.Within these beds, they found ample shelter and food.^ Within these beds, they found ample shelter and food.

^ Spiny Softshell turtles live in streams and rivers with sandy or soft substrates, and can be found within these habitats statewide.

^ There is evidence that young turtles drift with rafts of sargassum weed where they find food and shelter.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the absence of sargassum beds, turtle young feed in the vicinity of upwelling "fronts".[2] In 2007, Reich determined that green turtle hatchlings spend the first three to five years of their lives in pelagic waters.^ In the absence of sargassum beds, turtle young feed in the vicinity of upwelling "fronts" .
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Green turtle mating happens in the water.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the absence of sargassum beds, turtle young feed in the vicinity of upwelling "fronts" In 2007, is was verified that green turtles hatchlings spend the first three to five years of their lives in pelagic waters.

.In the open ocean, pre-juveniles of this particular species were found to feed on zooplankton and smaller nekton before they are recruited into inshore seagrass meadows as obligate herbivores.^ Out in the open ocean, pre-juveniles of this particular species were found to feed on zooplankton and smaller nekton before they are recruited into inshore seagrass meadows as obligate herbivores.

^ Then they dance around it before releasing it into the ocean.

^ Olive ridleys are found in continental coastal waters, principally in the eastern Pacific, Indian Ocean and south Atlantic where the water does not drop below 20C. Occasionally, they are carried by warm currents into subtropical areas.
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4]
.Instead of nesting individually like the other species, Ridley turtles come ashore en masse, known as an "arribada" (arrival).^ Other turtle & tortoise species: .

^ These turtles come ashore in daylight and nest in groups.
  • http://www.co.st-johns.fl.us/HCP/Turtles.aspx 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.co.st-johns.fl.us [Source type: News]

^ Turtles are tagged, and the numbers of individual turtles that come ashore are counted.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the Kemp's Ridley, this occurs during the day.^ With the Kemp's Ridley this occurs during the day and on only one beach in the entire world.

^ Kemps ridley Ridleys are the only sea turtles that nest during the day.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Olive ridley Ridleys are the only sea turtles that nest during the day.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

Salt gland

.Sea turtles possess a salt excretory gland at the corner of the eye, in the nostrils, or in the tongue, depending on the species; chelonian salt glands are found in the corner of the eyes in leatherback turtles.^ There are about 8 species of sea turtle.
  • About Turtles and Tortoises, Chelonians 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC animal-world.com [Source type: General]

^ All species of sea turtles are endangered.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea).
  • turtle (reptile) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to the iso-osmotic makeup of jellyfish and the other gelatinous prey upon which sea turtles subsist, sea turtle diets are high in salt; chelonian salt gland excretions are almost entirely composed of sodium chloride 1500-1800 mosmoll-1 (Marshall and Cooper, 1988; Nicolson and Lutz, 1989; Reina and Cooper, 2000).^ Besides the concentration of potential prey and the concealment the rafts offer to baby turtles, there is a tendency for the mats to occur off high-energy beaches.
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early 2007, almost a thousand sea turtles were killed inadvertently in the Bay of Bengal over the course of a few months as a result of becoming trapped in fishing nets.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their heads are smaller than other sea turtle species, and the ends of their lower jaws are serrated.
  • http://www.co.st-johns.fl.us/HCP/Turtles.aspx 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.co.st-johns.fl.us [Source type: News]

Importance to humans

Moche Sea Turtle. 200 A.D. Larco Museum Collection, Lima, Peru
.
"Manner in which Natives of the East Coast strike turtle". Near Cooktown, Australia.
^ The bays, estuaries and nearshore coastal waters of the U.S. east coast and Gulf of Mexico provide important developmental habitat for juvenile and subadult sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 300 to 700 green turtle nests and 50 to 80 leatherback nests are also recorded annually on the state's east coast; hawksbills rarely nest there.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flatbacks live ONLY in the shallow waters near the northern and northeastern coasts of Australia.The flatback sea turtle is a carnivore and prefers to eat shellfish and sea cucumbers.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

From Phillip Parker King's Survey. 1818.
.Marine turtles are caught worldwide, although it is illegal to hunt most species in many countries.^ Marine turtles are caught worldwide, despite it being illegal to hunt most of the species in many countries.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human Predation–Though most countries have laws against harvesting sea turtle eggs for food, the laws are not well enforced.
  • Sea Turtles - Naples Florida Beaches 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.explorenaples.com [Source type: General]

^ Turtles are aquatic or terrestrial reptiles that have horny toothless jaws and a bony or leathery shell into which the head, limbs, and tail can be withdrawn in most species.

[5][6] .A great deal of intentional marine turtle harvests worldwide are for food.^ A great deal of intentional marine turtle harvests worldwide are for the food industry.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human Predation–Though most countries have laws against harvesting sea turtle eggs for food, the laws are not well enforced.
  • Sea Turtles - Naples Florida Beaches 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.explorenaples.com [Source type: General]

^ Marine turtles are caught worldwide, despite it being illegal to hunt most of the species in many countries.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many parts of the world have long considered sea turtles to be fine dining.^ In many parts of the world, the flesh of sea turtles are considered fine dining.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sea turtle 1 3/8" long and 1" across or 26x33mm.
  • sea turtle jewelry 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.seawear.com [Source type: General]

^ Like many other animals in the world, sea turtles have predators.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ancient Chinese texts dating to the fifth century B.C. describe sea turtles as exotic delicacies.^ Reply to this topic » Sea Turtle text .
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

^ Texts dating back to the fifth century B.C. describes sea turtles as exotic delicacies in ancient China .
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Distress call of an ancient mariner - the sea turtle story.
  • Orissa | Sea Turtles of India 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC india.seaturtle.org [Source type: Academic]

[7] .Many coastal communities around the world depend on sea turtles as a source of protein, often harvesting several turtles at once and keeping them alive on their backs until needed.^ Pet Turtles to Sea Turtles around Florida.

^ Historically, many coastal communities around the world have depended on sea turtles as a source of protein.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like many other animals in the world, sea turtles have predators.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Coastal peoples gather turtle eggs for consumption.^ Coastal peoples have also been known to gather turtle eggs for consumption.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another hazard to turtle eggs and hatchlings is normal beach traffic - people and beach- cleaning equipment.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people believe that while laying her eggs a sea turtles goes into a trance from which she can not be disturbed.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.Turtles are popular in Mexico as boot material and food.^ The turtles are endangered due to shrimpers' nets and they are popular in Mexico as boot material and food .
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.To a much lesser extent, specific species of marine turtles are targeted not for their flesh, but for their shells.^ Turtles are aquatic or terrestrial reptiles that have horny toothless jaws and a bony or leathery shell into which the head, limbs, and tail can be withdrawn in most species.

^ Some mangled flesh, some bits of shell were wreckage to explain Why this dusty little turtle will not cross a road again.
  • Chelonian Research Foundation » Turtle Poetry 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.chelonian.org [Source type: General]

^ Typical of low-island flora, the Turtle Islands marine macrobenthic flora (large, bottom-dwelling plants) is characterized by low species diversity.
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Philippine Turtle Islands 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tortoiseshell, a traditional decorative ornamental material used in Japan and China, comes from the carapace scutes of the hawksbill turtle.^ Tortoiseshell , a traditional decorative ornamental material used in Japan and China, is derived from the carapace scutes of the hawksbill turtle .
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native Hawaiian used hawksbill 'tortoise shell' to fabricate hair ornaments, jewelry, and other decorative and practical items.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of marine turtle shells for decorative purposes is by no means limited to the orient.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][11] .Ancient Greeks and ancient Romans processed turtle scutes (primarily from the hawksbill) for various articles and ornaments used by their elites, such as combs and brushes.^ Since ancient times, the shells of sea turtles (primarily the hawksbill) have been used by the ancient Greeks and ancient Romans .
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various articles and ornaments used by the elite of these societies, such as combs and brushes, were from processed turtle scutes.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native Hawaiian used hawksbill 'tortoise shell' to fabricate hair ornaments, jewelry, and other decorative and practical items.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .The skin of the flippers are prized for use as shoes and assorted leather goods.^ The skin of the flippers are also prized for use as shoes and assorted leather-goods.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped the sea and its animals.^ The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped the sea and its animals.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They often depicted sea turtles in their art.^ They often depicted sea turtles in their art.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do not attempt to put sea turtles back into the water as they may need medical attention.
  • http://www.co.st-johns.fl.us/HCP/Turtles.aspx 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.co.st-johns.fl.us [Source type: News]

^ Sea turtles are often consumed during the Catholic holiday, Lent, even though they are reptiles, not fish.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.Sea turtles enjoy immunity from the sting of the deadly box jellyfish and regularly eat them, helping keep tropical beaches safe for humans.^ Today we focused on how humans can help sea turtles.

^ Conservationists in Mexico and the United States have launched "Don't Eat Sea Turtle" campaigns in order to reduce the urban black market trade in sea turtle products.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, marine turtles face threats for the other 99% of their life cycle in seas far from the nesting beach.
  • seaturtle.org - Satellite Tracking 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.seaturtle.org [Source type: General]

Conservation

Legal notice posted by nest at Boca Raton, Florida
.All species of sea turtles are listed as threatened or endangered.^ There are about 8 species of sea turtle.
  • About Turtles and Tortoises, Chelonians 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC animal-world.com [Source type: General]

^ All species of sea turtles are listed as threatened or endangered.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hawaiian green sea turtle is listed as "threatened" under the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leatherback, Kemp's Ridley, and hawksbill turtles are critically endangered.^ The Kemps ridley is the smallest of the sea turtles AND the most endangered.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The leatherback, Kemp's ridley, and hawksbill turtles are listed as critically endangered.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kemp's ridleys are the most critically endangered species of all sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14][15] .The Olive Ridley and green turtles are endangered, and the loggerhead is threatened.^ Olive ridley turtle .
  • Testudines 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lepidochelys olivacea (Olive ridley turtle) .
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The olive ridley and green turtles are considered endangered, and the loggerhead is a threatened species.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .The flatback's conservation status is unclear due to lack of data.^ The flatback's conservation status is unclear due to a lack of research data.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the most significant threats now comes from bycatch due to imprecise fishing methods.^ One of their most significant threats now comes from bycatch due to various fishing methods, long-line fishing has been blamed as one of the causes of accidental sea turtle deaths, and the black market demand for tortoiseshell for both decoration and supposed health benefits.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I’ve seen one too many venues shut down now due to poor management and lack of communication with the city council, the cops, even the landlord.
  • Monument to Thieves (SoCal, ex-Throwdown, Eighteen Visions, & Adamantium) 2009 Featured Interview | hardtimes.ca 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.hardtimes.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are times now when they can’t fish anymore- the nets only come up filled with- jellyfish.
  • A ‘Race’ to Save Ancient Sea Turtle Species - Dot Earth Blog - NYTimes.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Donnelly points to long-lining as a major cause of accidental sea turtle death.^ Sea turtle 1 3/8" long and 1" across or 26x33mm.
  • sea turtle jewelry 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.seawear.com [Source type: General]

^ One of their most significant threats now comes from bycatch due to various fishing methods, long-line fishing has been blamed as one of the causes of accidental sea turtle deaths, and the black market demand for tortoiseshell for both decoration and supposed health benefits.
  • Sea turtle encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Green sea turtles can stay under water for as long as five hours even though the length of a feeding dive is usually five minutes or less.
  • Sea Turtles Facts and Video - Testudines - Defenders of Wildlife - Defenders of Wildlife 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.defenders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] There is also black-market demand for tortoiseshell for both decoration and supposed health benefits.[18]
.Turtles must surface to breathe.^ As air-breathing reptiles with lungs, sea turtles must surface to breathe.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As air-breathing reptiles with lungs, sea turtles must surface periodically.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other than the female guiding the rigid ball of turtle to the surface to breath, there’s not much apparent movement during the act.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Caught in a fisherman's net, they are unable to surface and thus suffocate. .In early 2007, almost a thousand sea turtles were killed inadvertently in the Bay of Bengal over the course of a few months after netting.^ The capture and drowning of loggerheads in shrimp trawls killed an estimated 5,000 to 50,000 each year before TEDs (Turtle Exclusion Devices), instruments that allow sea turtles caught in shrimp nets to escape before drowning, became mandatory in 1989.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We topped off the day with the successful release of Simone & Duffy, two rehabilitated loggerhead sea turtle patients that arrived at the Center just a month apart.

^ Every sea turtle species has long been killed for meat, with its eggs being harvested from beach nests as soon as they are laid.
  • turtle (reptile) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.However, some relatively inexpensive changes to fishing techniques, such as slightly larger hooks and traps from which sea turtles can escape, can dramatically cut the mortality rate.^ A leatherback sea turtle hooked by a longliner.

^ Trash, such as balloons and plastic bags, are mistaken for tasty jelly fish and can quickly kill a turtle if eaten.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As reptiles, sea turtles are left exposed to the elements unable to regulate their body temperatures and are at high risk of succumbing to any dramatic change in temperature.

[20][21] .Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs) have reduced sea turtle bycatch in shrimp nets by 97 percent.^ Proceedings of the workshop on Turtle Excluder Device.
  • Orissa | Sea Turtles of India 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC india.seaturtle.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Escape hatches, called Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs), have been required on shrimp trawl nets since the late 1980s.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News - Part 2 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

^ This video depicts a dissertation entitled “The invention and adoption of conservation technology to successfully reduce the bycatch of protected marine species” by Lekelia, using a mix of modern dance and watusi styles in the remarkable Sea Turtle Conservation Dance.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another danger comes from marine debris, especially from abandoned fishing nets in which they can become entangled.^ They damage fishing nets.
  • A ‘Race’ to Save Ancient Sea Turtle Species - Dot Earth Blog - NYTimes.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once at sea, the hatchlings migrate to where adult sea turtles live, where they are prey to whales, sharks and fish (which is another reason so few of them survive long enough to become adults).
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sea turtles are often killed when they become entrapped in shrimp nets or similar fishing gear.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beach development is another area which threatens sea turtles.^ The green sea turtle has also been observed often digging another "decoy" nest next to the real one to deceive predators and keep their eggs safe.
  • Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.marinebio.com [Source type: General]
  • Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: General]

^ The Turtle Islands are the first trans-frontier protected area for sea turtles in the world and Southeast Asia's single most important green turtle conservation area .
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Philippine Turtle Islands 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The islands are known primarily as a nesting area for sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata ).
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Philippine Turtle Islands 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since many turtles return to the same beach each time to nest, development can disrupt the cycle.^ Usually, a female returns to the same nesting beach each season.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nesting: In many places in the world, development has destroyed the green sea turtles' nesting beaches.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last year around this time , DSN reported on a Corpus Christi Caller-Times story documenting that 135 sea turtle nests were located in 8,895 hours of surveys over 73,632 miles of Texas beaches.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News - Part 2 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

.There has been a movement to protect these areas, in some cases by special police.^ Many organizations and private citizens are permitted through FDNR to protect and conserve sea turtles through beach patrols, nest protection and, in some cases, moving nests to safer areas.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, all seven species of sea turtles are either endangered or critically endangered, and for some populations there are so few that their status is simply unknown.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News - Part 2 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

^ The tracking results tell some very interesting stories about these  endangered species'   time around the islands and their migration.
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Philippine Turtle Islands 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some areas, such as the east coast of Florida, conservationists dig up turtle eggs and relocate them to fenced nurseries to protect them from beach traffic.^ The green sea turtle has also been observed often digging another "decoy" nest next to the real one to deceive predators and keep their eggs safe.
  • Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.marinebio.com [Source type: General]
  • Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: General]

^ This year for some reason many adult turtles are washing up on the beaches from the Carolinas to Florida, loggerheads, Kemp's Ridleys, leatherbacks and greens.
  • sea turtle jewelry 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.seawear.com [Source type: General]

^ Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) The Loggerhead is the most common sea turtle species in the southeastern United States, with the east coast of Florida being a very active breeding area.
  • http://www.co.st-johns.fl.us/HCP/Turtles.aspx 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.co.st-johns.fl.us [Source type: News]

.Since hatchlings find their way to the ocean by crawling towards the brightest horizon, they can become disoriented on developed stretches of coastline.^ Sea turtles depend on the movement of the ocean as one way to find their way around.” ~Ciera .

^ They may travel the world, they always find their way home to nest.
  • sea turtle jewelry 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.seawear.com [Source type: General]

^ During its first critical 48 hours , a hatchling must travel from the beach to a place in the ocean where it is relatively safe from predators and where it can find food.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lighting restrictions can prevent lights from shining on the beach and confusing hatchlings.^ The lights can prevent females from nesting and can disorient hatchlings, leading them into streets and parking lots instead of the ocean.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They get confused, though, if there are other bright lights (street lights, signs, houses, etc) near a beach.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If artificial lights are lighting the beach, the hatchlings will be disoriented, travel in the wrong direction, and possibly never make it to the water.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Turtle-safe lighting uses red or amber LED light, invisible to sea turtles, in place of white light.^ Youll have a difficult time seeing the sea turtles from beneath them because their light-colored plastrons (bottom shells / bellies) blend in with the bright sky above.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Turtle-Safe campaign focused on a new market-oriented approach to the problem of sea turtles drowning in shrimp nets.

^ Hmmm none of the turtles so far from what I see here and on the wow forums were from the frozen sea so far.........I figured the pools where u can see the giant turtle boat is the LOGICAL place to catch turtle mount .
  • Catching the Sea Turtle Mount - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another major threat to sea turtles is black-market trade in eggs and meat.^ Another threat facing nesting sea turtles is climate change.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clutcha group of sea turtles egg .
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Boats are a major threat to turtles.” ~Colton .

.This is a problem throughout the world, but especially a concern in the Philippines, India, Indonesia and the coastal nations of Latin America.^ Other species, such as leatherbacks, are also at risk as their eggs are poached in massive quantities throughout Latin America.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News - Part 2 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

^ For centuries, sea turtles have been used as feast food throughout Latin America during Catholic celebrations such as Semana Santa.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News - Part 2 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

.Estimates reach as high as 35,000 turtles killed a year in Mexico and the same number in Nicaragua.^ The capture and drowning of loggerheads in shrimp trawls killed an estimated 5,000 to 50,000 each year before TEDs (Turtle Exclusion Devices), instruments that allow sea turtles caught in shrimp nets to escape before drowning, became mandatory in 1989.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its been estimated that, over the last twenty years, the worlds sea turtle population has dropped by half.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite being held in captivity for 6 to 10 years, when the turtles were released off the coast of Mexico they immediately migrated back across the Pacific Ocean, a trip of over 12,000 km.
  • Chelonian Research Foundation » Turtle Poetry 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.chelonian.org [Source type: General]

.Conservationists in Mexico and the United States have launched "Don't Eat Sea Turtle" campaigns in order to reduce this trade in sea turtle products.^ Similarly, terrapin is sometimes used to describe any aquatic turtle but is now largely restricted to the edible diamondback terrapin ( Malaclemys terrapin ) of the eastern United States .
  • turtle (reptile) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) The Loggerhead is the most common sea turtle species in the southeastern United States, with the east coast of Florida being a very active breeding area.
  • http://www.co.st-johns.fl.us/HCP/Turtles.aspx 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.co.st-johns.fl.us [Source type: News]

^ Sea turtles once roamed the oceans by the millions, but over the past few centuries the demand for sea turtle meat, eggs, shell, leather and oil has greatly reduced their number.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These campaigns have involved figures such as Dorismar, Los Tigres del Norte and Maná. .Turtles are often consumed during the Catholic season of Lent, even though they are reptiles, not fish.^ During Easter or the Lenten season, traditional Catholic rules prohibit the consumption of ‘meat’, yet allow food such as ‘fish’ and other types of seafood to be eaten as a substitute… Although sea turtles do live in the sea, they are actually reptiles related to tortoises, lizards, and even dinosaurs; they are not fish, invertebrates, or crustaceans, and do have ‘red’ meat.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News - Part 2 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

^ "We used to have 120 turtles seen in a season, though the number fluctuated.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To observe nesting turtles, join one of the many state-permitted "turtle walks" conducted by experienced guides during the nesting season.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consequently, conservation organizations have written letters to the Pope asking that he declare turtles meat.^ The Baja California Sur environmental group ProPeninsula is engaged in a letter writing campaign to His Excellency Pope Benedict XVI at the Vatican asking him to remind Catholics everywhere that sea turtles are not fish.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News - Part 2 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

^ The main aim of the organization is to conserve sea turtles, nature and natural resources of Bangladesh.

^ This year, GTR is being co-organized by Conservation International, National Geographic, and field partner Canadian Sea Turtle Network, and is bigger and better than ever.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News - Part 2 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

 
A Green Sea Turtle at rest
.Climate change may also cause a threat to sea turtles.^ Another threat facing nesting sea turtles is climate change.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 15, 2009 in Sea Turtles .
  • Volunteering in Costa Rica: Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.crazyjungle.com [Source type: General]

^ More than 50% of sea turtle eggs are stolen by humans, which has lead to a decrease in turtle populations worldwide which face a serious threat of extinction.
  • Hawksbill Sea Turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since sand temperature at nesting beaches defines the sex of a turtle while developing in the egg, there is concern that rising temperatures may produce too many females.^ There were many females and young ones too.

^ Concern rises over threat to Indian turtles.
  • Orissa | Sea Turtles of India 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC india.seaturtle.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The internal temperature of the nest determines the eventual sex of the turtles.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, more research is needed to understand how climate change might affect sea turtle gender distribution and what other possible threats it may pose.^ Another threat facing nesting sea turtles is climate change.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 15, 2009 in Sea Turtles .
  • Volunteering in Costa Rica: Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.crazyjungle.com [Source type: General]

^ The more we understand about how, where and when sea turtles nest, the better we will be able to protect their nesting habitat.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.Fibropapillomatosis disease causes tumors in sea turtles.^ Melissa is suffering from Fibropapilloma, a virus that causes tumor-like growths on sea turtles.

^ In addition to their daily care, once strong enough, all 12 sea turtles require a surgical procedure to remove the external Fibropapilloma tumors.

^ Releasing Hawkeye to the wrong place could have put other sea turtles at risk of disease and could disrupt the gene pool, aquarium officials said.

.Injured sea turtles are sometimes rescued and rehabilitated by professional organizations, such as the Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Florida, the Marine Mammal Center in Northern California, the ClearWater Marine Aquarium in Clearwater, Florida,[23] and the Sea Turtle Inc.^ Pet Turtles to Sea Turtles around Florida.

^ Marine Turtle Newsletter 23: 6.
  • Orissa | Sea Turtles of India 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC india.seaturtle.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Marine Turtle Newsletter 23: 1-2.
  • Orissa | Sea Turtles of India 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC india.seaturtle.org [Source type: Academic]

organization in .South Padre Island, Texas.^ At Padre Island, Texas scientists established a second, experimental site but it has produced limited success.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural gas drilling at Padre Island National Seashore the locus of the federal government's turtle preservation efforts in Texas could harm the species' recovery.

[24] .One such turtle, named Nickel for the coin that was found lodged in her throat, lives at the Shedd Aquarium in Chicago.^ Also about pictures of turtles and their names and their history of how I found them.

^ All of the turtles except Hawkeye were rehabilitated at the Shedd Aquarium, then returned to the wild, the last one in the mid-1990s.

^ Turtle Track found after one of our nightly visitors.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the Caribbean, researchers are having some success in assisting a comeback.[25] .In September 2007, Corpus Christi, Texas, wildlife officials found 128 Kemp's ridley sea turtle nests on Texas beaches, a record number, including 81 on North Padre Island (Padre Island National Seashore) and four on Mustang Island.^ Olive ridley Ridleys are the only sea turtles that nest during the day.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The phenomenon is unique to Kemp's and olive ridley sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the only turtle we found alive that day in nest #63 on Sea Island.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wildlife officials released 10,594 Kemp's ridleys hatchlings along the Texas coast this year.^ Despite being held in captivity for 6 to 10 years, when the turtles were released off the coast of Mexico they immediately migrated back across the Pacific Ocean, a trip of over 12,000 km.
  • Chelonian Research Foundation » Turtle Poetry 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.chelonian.org [Source type: General]

^ The Pacific or Olive Ridley is listed as vulnerable ., which means the probability of its extinction during the next 20 years is at least 10%.
  • Sea Turtles Facts and Video - Testudines - Defenders of Wildlife - Defenders of Wildlife 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.defenders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For many years the occurrence of Pacific loggerhead turtles ( Caretta caretta ) along the coast of Baja California, Mexico, has been a point of discussion among biologists and naturalists.
  • Chelonian Research Foundation » Turtle Poetry 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.chelonian.org [Source type: General]

.Also in 2007, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service issued a determination that the leatherback, the hawksbill and the Kemp's Ridley populations were endangered while that of green turtles and olive ridleys were threatened.^ These beaches are a nesting home to the leatherback, the olive ridley, and the hawksbill.

^ Lepidochelys olivacea (Olive ridley turtle) .
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The phenomenon is unique to Kemp's and olive ridley sea turtles.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.In Southeast Asia, the Philippines has had several initiatives dealing with the issue of turtle conservation.^ The Turtle Islands are the first trans-frontier protected area for sea turtles in the world and Southeast Asia's single most important green turtle conservation area .
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Proceedings of the First ASEAN Symposium-Workshop on Marine Turtle Conservation, Manila, Philippines.
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2007, the province of Batangas in the Philippines declared the catching and eating of Pawikans illegal. .However, the law seems to have had little effect as Pawikan eggs are still in demand in Batangan markets.^ They have probably been taking and selling turtle eggs for many years and may have little understanding of their effect on the population of turtles in this area.
  • Volunteering in Costa Rica: Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.crazyjungle.com [Source type: General]

.In September 2007, several Chinese poachers were apprehended off the Turtle Islands in the country's southernmost province of Tawi-Tawi.^ Using satellite telemetry , this site tracks the green turtles of the Turtle Islands at the border of Sabah, Malaysia and Tawi-Tawi, Philippines.
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This crisis began January 6th, 2010, after 92 sea turtles, mostly juvenile Greens, were found at Mosquito Lagoon off of Meritt Island , Florida .

^ The program offers Turtle Walks several times a week in the summer to island visitors.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The poachers had collected more than a hundred sea turtles, along with 10,000 turtle eggs.^ Sea turtles have existed for more than 175 million years.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clutcha group of sea turtles egg .
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to an article in Indias national newspaper, 13,000 olive ridley sea turtles died in fishing trawlers nets during illegal fishing operations along the Orissa coast.
  • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]

Fragile ecosystems

Sea turtles on a beach in Hawaii
.Sea turtles play key roles in two ecosystem types that are critical to them as well as to humans—oceans and beaches/dunes.^ Human Predation–Though most countries have laws against harvesting sea turtle eggs for food, the laws are not well enforced.
  • Sea Turtles - Naples Florida Beaches 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.explorenaples.com [Source type: General]

^ The eggs of hawksbill sea turtles were once a popular food for humans as was the meat, however the sale and consumption of turtle eggs is now illegal and the meat was found to be frequently poisonous to humans.
  • Hawksbill Sea Turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 50% of sea turtle eggs are stolen by humans, which has lead to a decrease in turtle populations worldwide which face a serious threat of extinction.
  • Hawksbill Sea Turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata at MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the oceans, for example, sea turtles, especially green sea turtles, are one of very few creatures (manatees are another) that eat the sea grass that grows on the sea floor.^ Because very few sea turtles make it to adulthood.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Very few sea turtles survive to this point.
  • Sea Turtles - Naples Florida Beaches 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.explorenaples.com [Source type: General]

^ Sea turtles are one of the Earth's most ancient creatures.
  • Sea Turtles Facts and Video - Testudines - Defenders of Wildlife - Defenders of Wildlife 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.defenders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sea grass must be kept short to remain healthy, and beds of healthy sea grass are essential breeding and development areas for many species of fish and other marine life.^ Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) The Loggerhead is the most common sea turtle species in the southeastern United States, with the east coast of Florida being a very active breeding area.
  • http://www.co.st-johns.fl.us/HCP/Turtles.aspx 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.co.st-johns.fl.us [Source type: News]

^ Their heads are smaller than other sea turtle species, and the ends of their lower jaws are serrated.
  • http://www.co.st-johns.fl.us/HCP/Turtles.aspx 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.co.st-johns.fl.us [Source type: News]

^ However, marine turtles face threats for the other 99% of their life cycle in seas far from the nesting beach.
  • seaturtle.org - Satellite Tracking 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.seaturtle.org [Source type: General]

.A decline or loss of sea grass beds would damage these populations, triggering a chain reaction and negatively impacting marine and human life.^ His body can recover from damage that would kill a normal human being and does so in mere minutes (depending upon the severity of the damage).
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 10:49 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Populations continue to decline because of the trade in sea turtle products and the loss of essential habitat.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Populations of all species of sea turtles have declined steeply over the past several decades due to nesting habitat loss, drowning in shrimp nets and other fishing gear, poaching, and other human-related causes.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beaches and dunes form a fragile ecosystem that depends on vegetation to protect against erosion.^ The Endangered Species Act of 1973 was designed to protect plant and animal species, and the ecosystems they depend on, that had been put in danger of extinction due to economic growth and development.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their eggs provide calcium that supports growth of dune vegetation which is the frontline against hurricane impacts on other inland habitats (where people like to build people their homes).
  • A ‘Race’ to Save Ancient Sea Turtle Species - Dot Earth Blog - NYTimes.com 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hotel has protected its section of beach from lights by leaving the dune structure in place surrounding the hotel and allowing vegetation to grow up, naturally shielding the beach from light.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eggs, hatched or unhatched, and hatchlings that fail to make it into the ocean are nutrient sources for dune vegetation[citation needed].^ Many hatchlings in the Atlantic and Caribbean make their way into Gulf stream currents, which are filled with floating sargassum weed.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural Causes Eggs can fail to hatch as a result of flooding from heavy rains or prolonged tidal inundation, and nests are washed away by beach erosion.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hatchlings die of dehydration if they don’t make it to the ocean fast enough.
  • Sea Turtles - Naples Florida Beaches 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.explorenaples.com [Source type: General]

.Every year, sea turtles lay countless eggs on beaches.^ All turtles lay eggs on land.
  • Amphibians and Reptiles: Missouri's Turtles 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.mdc.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Might this be the last beach where this ancient turtle lays her eggs?
  • Chelonian Research Foundation » Turtle Poetry 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.chelonian.org [Source type: General]

^ Leatherbacks nest every 2 to 3 years, laying 6 to 9 egg clutches in a nesting season.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Along one twenty-mile (32 km) stretch of beach in Florida alone, for example, more than 150,000 pounds of eggs are laid each year.^ For example, US states have jurisdiction over waters extending out to 9 miles from shore, except for Texas and the west coast of Florida whose territorial waters extend 18 miles from shore.
  • seaturtle.org - Satellite Tracking : Teachers 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.seaturtle.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On some South Carolina beaches, more than 95% of the loggerhead nests were destroyed by raccoons until protective measures were taken.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Westy entered the 22 mile C to C Paddleboard race off of Coco Beach Florida.

Taxonomy and evolution

Immature Hawaiian Green turtle in shallow waters
Eurysternum wagneri fossil at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin
.Sea turtles, along with other turtles and tortoises, are part of the order Testudines.^ ORDER - Testudines Order Testudines includes all turtles and tortoises.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tortoises, turtles and sea turtles .
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, marine turtles face threats for the other 99% of their life cycle in seas far from the nesting beach.
  • seaturtle.org - Satellite Tracking 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.seaturtle.org [Source type: General]

.The seven living species of sea turtles are: flatback, green sea turtle, Hawksbill, Kemp's Ridley, Leatherback, Loggerhead and Olive Ridley.^ Olive ridley Ridleys are the only sea turtles that nest during the day.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hawksbill Hawksbill sea turtles live in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lepidochelys olivacea (Olive ridley turtle) .
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .All species except the leatherback are in the family Cheloniidae.^ Family Dermochelyidae includes only one modern species of sea turtle, the leatherback turtle.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During that radiation, sea turtles split into two main subgroups, which still exist today: the unique family Dermochelyidae , which consists of a single species, the leatherback; and the six species of hard-shelled sea turtle, in the family Cheloniidae .

^ Hard scales (or scutes) cover all but the leatherback, and the number and arrangement of these scutes can be used to determine the species.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leatherback belongs to the family Dermochelyidae and is its only member.^ Leatherbacks, with a rubbery "skin," are the only living members of the Family Dermochelyidae.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are the only species in their taxonomic family, the Dermochelyidae.
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family Dermochelyidae includes only one modern species of sea turtle, the leatherback turtle.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The species are primarily distinguished by their anatomy: for instance, the prefrontal scales on the head, the number of and shape of scutes on the carapace, and the type of inframarginal scutes on the plastron.^ Different species are distinguished by varying anatomical aspects: for instance, the prefrontal scales on the head, the number of and shape of scutes on the carapace , and the type of inframarginal scutes on the plastron .

^ The number, shape and distribution of these scutes are used to differentiate species.
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bridge on both sides, connecting the plastron and the carapace, has 3 or 4 large inframarginal scutes.
  • Ocean Ambassadors -- Turtle Biology 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC oneocean.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leatherback is the only sea turtle that does not have a hard shell; instead, it bears a mosaic of bony plates beneath its leathery skin.^ Rather than a shell covered with scutes, leatherbacks have leathery skin.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leatherback does not have a hard shell, but instead a thick, soft, rubbery one.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A leatherback sea turtle hooked by a longliner.

.It is the largest sea turtle, measuring 6 to 7 feet (1.8 to 2.1 m) in length at maturity, and 3 to 5 feet (0.91 to 1.5 m) in width, weighing up to 1,300 pounds (590 kg).^ Leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea) are the largest of the sea turtles, capable of reaching shell lengths of 6 feet and weights of 1,400 pounds, though they average between 660 and 1,210 pounds and 53 to 69 inches.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leatherback sea turtle is also the deepest diver of the seven species, able to dive down about 1300 feet.
  • Free Sea Turtles Unit Study & Lapbook 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.homeschoolshare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The blue whale, the largest animal on our planet, measures around 26 meters long and weighs more than 129 tons.

.Other species are smaller, being mostly 2 to 4 feet (0.61 to 1.2 m) and proportionally narrower.^ Other species are smaller, being mostly two to four feet in length (0.5 to 1 m) and proportionally narrower.

^ The flippers are proportionally longer than in other sea turtle species, spanning over 2m!
  • Sea Turtle | Deep Sea News 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether they be turtles or tortoises, other animal species, or human children, they are all our charges, dependent on us for their well-being and secure futures.
  • Chelonian Research Foundation » Turtle Poetry 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.chelonian.org [Source type: General]

[29]
.Sea turtles constitute a single radiation that became distinct from all other turtles at least 110 million years ago.^ Sea turtles have existed for more than 175 million years.
  • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classification: Seven distinct species of sea turtles grace our oceans today; they constitute a single radiation that was distinct from all other turtles at least 110 million years ago.

^ Sea turtles evolved nearly 150 million years ago during the Jurassic Period when their giant land turtle ancestors returned to the sea.
  • Sherpa Guides | Georgia | The Natural Georgia Series | Barrier Islands | Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC sherpaguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Additional reading

  • Brongersma, L.D. (1972). "European Atlantic Turtles". Zoologische Verhandelingen Vol. 121 pp. 1–318. PDF
  • Davidson, Osha Gray. (2001). .Fire in the Turtle House: The Green Sea Turtle and the Fate of the Ocean.^ Small Green Sea Turtle Painted Suncatcher Part #: TDG6778 .
    • Turtle Max Reptile Gifts :: - Turtles, Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.turtlemax.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Distribution and Habitat Sea turtles, obviously, make their homes in the world oceans.
    • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Among sea turtles found in United States waters, the Family Cheloniidae (hard-shell turtles) includes the green, hawksbill, loggerhead and ridley turtles.
    • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    United States: United States of Public Affairs. ISBN 1-5864-8199-1.
  • Sizemore, Evelyn (2002). The Turtle Lady: Ila Fox Loetscher of South Padre. Plano, Texas: Republic of Texas Press. pp. 220. ISBN 1556228961. 
  • Spotila, James R. (2004). .Sea Turtles: A Complete Guide to Their Biology, Behavior, and Conservation.^ In: Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Symposium on Sea turtle Biology and Conservation (ed.
    • Orissa | Sea Turtles of India 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC india.seaturtle.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Observers of sea turtle mating have reported very aggressive behavior by both the males and females.
    • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Olive RIdley sea turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) in Orissa: An urgent call for an intensive and integrated conservation programme.
    • Orissa | Sea Turtles of India 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC india.seaturtle.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.^ P. Plotkin & S. Morreale), Johns Hopkins Press, USA. .
    • Orissa | Sea Turtles of India 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC india.seaturtle.org [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-8018-8007-6.
  • Witherington, Blair E. (2006). .Sea Turtles: An Extraordinary Natural History of Some Uncommon Turtles.^ Life History Sea turtles nest on beaches, depositing eggs in a pit dug with the hind flippers.
    • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Back to Top -------------------------------------------------------- Nesting, Incubation and Emergence Very little in known about why sea turtles nest on some beaches and not on others.
    • Sea Turtles 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC www.2fla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Longline fishing in all the world's deep oceans kills some 40,000 sea turtles each year, along with 300,000 seabirds and millions of sharks.

    St. Paul: Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-7603-2644-4.

References

  1. ^ Audubon, Maria R. (1897/1986). Audubon and His Journals: Dover Publications Reprint. New York: Scribner's Sons. pp. 373–375. ISBN 978-0486251448. 
  2. ^ Carr, Archie (August 1987). "New Perspectives on the Pelagic Stage of Sea Turtle Development". Conservation Biology (Blackwell Publishing) 1 (2): 103–121. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.1987.tb00020.x. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0888-8892%28198708%291%3A2%3C103%3ANPOTPS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C. Retrieved 15 February 2007. 
  3. ^ Reich, Kimberly J.; Karen A. Bjorndal & Alan B. Bolten (18 September 2007). "The ‘lost years’ of green turtles: using stable isotopes to study cryptic lifestages". Biology Letters 6 (in press): 712. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0394. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/content/k1l8072271716750/. Retrieved 20 September 2007. 
  4. ^ Brynner, Jeanna (19 September 2007). "Sea Turtles' Mystery Hideout Revealed". LiveScience (Imaginova Corp.). http://www.livescience.com/animals/070919_sea_turtle.html. Retrieved 20 September 2007. 
  5. ^ CITES (14 June 2006). "Appendices" (SHTML). Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna. http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.shtml. Retrieved 5 February 2007. 
  6. ^ UNEP-WCMC. "Eretmochelys imbricata A-301.003.003.001". UNEP-WCMC Species Database: CITES-Listed Species. United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre. http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/isdb/CITES/Taxonomy/tax-species-result.cfm?displaylanguage=eng&Genus=Eretmochelys&Species=imbricata&source=animals&Country=&tabname=all. Retrieved 5 February 2007. 
  7. ^ Schafer, Edward H. (1962). "Eating Turtles in Ancient China". Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 82 (1): 73–74. doi:10.2307/595986. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0279%28196201%2F03%2982%3A1%3C73%3AETIAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R. Retrieved 16 February 2007. 
  8. ^ Sam Settle, 1995. Marine Turtle Newsletter 68:8-13
  9. ^ Yahoo.com, Endangered turtle nests found in Texas
  10. ^ Heppel, Selina S.; Larry B. Crowder (June 1996). "Analysis of a Fisheries Model for Harvest of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata)". Conservation Biology (Blackwell Publishing) 10 (3): 874–880. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10030874.x. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0888-8892%28199606%2910%3A3%3C874%3AAOAFMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-3. Retrieved 16 February 2007. 
  11. ^ Strieker, Gary (10 April 2001). "Tortoiseshell ban threatens Japanese tradition". CNN.com/sci-tech (Cable News Network LP, LLLP.). http://archives.cnn.com/2001/TECH/science/04/10/japan.turtles/. Retrieved 2 March 2007. 
  12. ^ Casson, Lionel (1982). "Periplus Maris Erythraei: Notes on the Text". The Journal of Hellenic Studies (The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies) 102: 204–206. doi:10.2307/631139. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0075-4269%281982%29102%3C204%3APMENOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y. Retrieved 16 February 2007. 
  13. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  14. ^ Sarti Martinez, A.L. (Marine Turtle Specialist Group) (2000). Dermochelys coriacea. In: IUCN 2000. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 27 October 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of critically endangered.
  15. ^ Sarti Martinez, A.L. (Marine Turtle Specialist Group) (2008). Lepidochelys kempii. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 27 October 2009.
  16. ^ US Fish and Wildlife Services. "Species Profile: Loggerhead sea turtle." 2007. February 22, 2007. FWS.gov
  17. ^ Moniz, Jesse (3 February 2007). "Turtle conservation: It's now very much a political issue". News (The Royal Gazette Ltd.). http://www.royalgazette.com/siftology.royalgazette/Article/article.jsp?sectionId=80&articleId=7d5908e3003001d. 
  18. ^ "Atlantic Hawksbill Sea Turtle Fact Sheet". Endangered Species Unit. http://www.dec.state.ny.us/website/dfwmr/wildlife/endspec/athafs.html. Retrieved 7 February 2007. 
  19. ^ "Fishermen blamed for turtle deaths in Bay of Bengal". Yahoo! Science News (Yahoo! Inc.). 5 February 2007. http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20070205/sc_nm/india_turtles_dc_3. Retrieved 6 February 2007. 
  20. ^ Irene Kinan . 2006. Marine Turtle Newsletter 113:13-14
  21. ^ O'Kelly-Lynch, Ruth. "Govt: Long-line fishing won't hurt birds". http://www.royalgazette.com/siftology.royalgazette/Article/article.jsp?sectionId=60&articleId=7d72411300300c5. 
  22. ^ Hawkes, LA; Broderick, AC; Godfrey, MH; Godley, BJ (2009). "Climate change and marine turtles". Endangered Species Research 7: prepress 2009. doi:10.3354/esr00198. 
  23. ^ The Marine Mammal Center and The Florida Aquarium in Tampa, Florida . "Volunteer Opportunities." 2007. February 22, 2007. Marinemammalcenter.org
  24. ^ Sea Turtle, Inc
  25. ^ Clarren, Rebecca (2008). "Night Life". Nature Conservancy 58 (4): 32–43. 
  26. ^ "Sea turtles still endangered, threatened". Yahoo! News (Yahoo! Inc.). 8 September 2007. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070907/ap_on_sc/caribbean_sea_turtles_1. Retrieved 7 September 2007. 
  27. ^ Adraneda, Katherine (12 September 2007). "WWF urges RP to pursue case vs turtle poachers". Headlines (The Philippine Star). http://www.philstar.com/index.php?Headlines&p=49&type=2&sec=24&aid=20070911144. Retrieved 12 September 2007. 
  28. ^ The East Pacific sub-population of the green turtle was previously classified as a separate species, the black turtle, but DNA evidence indicates that it is not evolutionarily distinct from the green turtle.Karl, Stephen H.; Brian W. Bowen (1999). "Evolutionary Significant Units versus Geopolitical Taxonomy: Molecular Systematics of an Endangered Sea Turtle (genus Chelonia)". Conservation Biology (Blackwell Synergy) 13 (5): 990–999. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.97352.x. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.97352.x. Retrieved 9 September 2007. 
  29. ^ "WWF - Marine Turtles". Species Factsheets. World Wide Fund for Nature. 4 May 2007. http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/species/about_species/species_factsheets/marine_turtles/index.cfm. Retrieved 13 September 2007. 

External links

.
  • [1]Wildlife Trust Sea Turtle protection and research
  • Turtle Conservation Center, One-stop centre for everything about Malaysian freshwater, terrestrial and marine turtles
  • Pifworld, Support the Sea Turtle project on pifworld.com (first wildlife project)
  • Sea Turtle Lighting - dedicated to providing amber LED lighting to protect sea turtles from getting disoriented
  • SWOT The State of the World's Sea Turtles - up-to-date information on global sea turtle populations
  • Oceana, Scientists are tracking turtles in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic to find out more about their habits in the deep sea.
  • Conserving Turtles on a Global Scale
  • Save the Turtles, Non-profit organization protecting endangered sea turtles by supporting community-based conservation projects and developing international education programs.^ Oceanic Resources Foundation A San Francisco based marine conservation, research and education organization.
    • Sea Turtle Information from World Turtle Trust 21 January 2010 7:34 UTC world-turtle-trust.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ SEATURTLE.ORG's Satellite Tracking Program has been developed in cooperation with the Marine Turtle Research Group (MTRG).
    • seaturtle.org - Satellite Tracking 14 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.seaturtle.org [Source type: General]

    ^ One stop was of course, The Turtle Hospital.

    Teachers around the world are invited to participate in collaborative conservation project: *Ride the Turtle Education Rainbow
  • Underwater video of turtles in the Red Sea, Egypt
  • Preserving Turtles
  • Seaturtle.org, dedicated to providing online resources and solutions in support of sea turtle conservation and research
  • EuroTurtle, European sea turtle conservation and education
  • Savetheseaturtles.org, dedicated to providing public education and awareness about the endangered sea turtles and environmental issues impacting Southern Baja California, Mexico
  • JCVI.org, Cheloniidae

Simple English

Sea Turtles
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Order: Testudines
Suborder: Cryptodira
Superfamily: Chelonioidea
Bauer, 1893
Genera
  • Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811)
  • Family Dermochelyidae
    • Dermochelys
  • Family Protostegidae (extinct)
  • Family Toxochelyidae (extinct)
  • Family Thalassemyidae (extinct)

Sea turtles (Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the world's oceans except the Arctic Ocean, and some species travel between oceans.

There are seven types of sea turtles: Kemp's Ridley, Flatback, Green, Olive Ridley, Loggerhead, Hawksbill and the leatherback. All but the leatherback are in the family Chelonioidea; the leatherback belongs to the family Dermochelyidae and is its only member, the leatherback sea turtle, is the largest, measuring six or seven feet (2 m) in length at maturity, and three to five feet (1 to 1.5 m) in width, weighing up to 1300 pounds (600 kg). Most other species are smaller, being two to four feet in length (0.5 to 1 m) and proportionally less wide. The Flatback turtle is found solely on the northern coast of Australia.

Further reading

  • Spotila, James R. (2004). "Sea Turtles: A Complete Guide to Their Biology, Behavior, and Conservation." Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8007-6.
  • Davidson, Osha Gray. (2001.) "Fire in the Turtle House: The Green Sea Turtle and the Fate of the Ocean." United States: United States of Public Affairs. ISBN 1-5864-8199-1.
  • Witherington, Blair E. (2006). “Sea Turtles: An Extraordinary Natural History of Some Uncommon Turtles.” St. Paul: Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-7603-2644-4.
  • Sizemore, Evelyn (2002). The Turtle Lady: Ila Fox Loetscher of South Padre. Plano, Texas: Republic of Texas Press. pp. 220. ISBN 1556228961. 

Other websites

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