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Seattle
—  City  —
Downtown Seattle from the north, with the Space Needle and Mount Rainier

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): The Emerald City, Seatown, Rain City, Jet City, Gateway to Alaska, Gateway to The Pacific
Location of Seattle in
King County and Washington
Seattle is located in the USA
Seattle
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 47°36′35″N 122°19′59″W / 47.60972°N 122.33306°W / 47.60972; -122.33306Coordinates: 47°36′35″N 122°19′59″W / 47.60972°N 122.33306°W / 47.60972; -122.33306
Country United States
State Washington
County King
Incorporated December 2, 1869
Government
 - Type Mayor–council
 - Mayor Michael McGinn
Area
 - City 142.5 sq mi (369.2 km2)
 - Land 83.87 sq mi (217.2 km2)
 - Water 58.67 sq mi (152 km2)
 - Metro 8,186 sq mi (21,202 km2)
Elevation 0–520 ft (0–158 m)
Population (April 18, 2009)[1][2][3]
 - City 602,000 (US: 25th)
 Density 7,136/sq mi (2,755.2/km2)
 Urban 2,712,205
 Metro 3,344,813 (US: 15th)
 - Demonym Seattleite
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes
Area code(s) 206
FIPS code 53-63000[5]
GNIS feature ID 1512650[6]
Website www.seattle.gov

Seattle (pronounced /siːˈæt(ə)ɫ/ ( listen), us dict: sē·ăt′·əl) is the northernmost major city on the West Coast of the United States. A seaport situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound (an arm of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada – United States border, it is named after Chief Seattle, of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Seattle is the center of the Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue metropolitan statistical area, the 15th largest in the United States, and the largest in the northwestern United States.[7] The major economic, cultural and educational center in the region, Seattle is the county seat of King County. As of 1 April 2009, the city had an estimated municipal population of 602,000.[8]

The Seattle area has been inhabited for at least 4,000 years,[9] but European settlement began only in the mid-19th century. The first permanent European settlers—Arthur A. Denny and those subsequently known as the Denny Party—arrived November 13, 1851. Early settlements in the area were called "New York-Alki" ("Alki" meaning "by and by" in the local Chinook Jargon) and "Duwamps". In 1853, Doc Maynard suggested that the main settlement be renamed "Seattle", an anglicized rendition of the name of Sealth, the chief of the two local tribes. From 1869 until 1982, Seattle was known as the "Queen City".[10] Seattle's current official nickname is the "Emerald City", the result of a contest held in the early 1980s;[11] the reference is to the lush evergreen forests of the area. Seattle is also referred to informally as the "Gateway to Alaska", "Rain City",[12] and "Jet City", the last from the local influence of Boeing. Seattle residents are known as Seattleites.

Seattle is the birthplace of rock legend Jimi Hendrix and the music style known as "grunge,"[13] which was made famous by local groups Nirvana, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, and Soundgarden. Bruce Lee and Brandon Lee are also buried at Lakeview cemetery. Seattle has a reputation for heavy coffee consumption;[14] coffee companies founded or based in Seattle include Starbucks,[15] Seattle's Best Coffee,[16] and Tully's.[17] There are also many successful independent artisanal espresso roasters and cafes.[14]

Researchers at Central Connecticut State University ranked Seattle the most literate city of America's sixty-nine largest cities in 2005 and 2006, second most literate in 2007 (after Minneapolis),[18] and tied with Minneapolis in 2008.[19] Additionally, survey data from the United States Census Bureau indicate that Seattle has a higher percentage of college graduates than any other major American city, with approximately 53.8% of residents aged 25 and older holding a bachelor degree or higher.[20]

Seattle is one of the most politically progressive cities in North America, with an overwhelming majority of voters supporting Democratic politicians; support for liberal issues such as same-sex marriage, reproductive rights and gun control is largely taken for granted in local politics. Like much of the Pacific Northwest (which has the lowest rate of church attendance in the United States and consistently reports the highest percentage of atheism[21][22]), church attendance, religious belief and political influence of religious leaders is much lower than in other parts of America[23]. Seattle also has a thriving alternative press, with two well-established weekly newspapers, several online dailies (including the Seattle P.I., Publicola and Crosscut), and a number of issue-focused publications, including the nation's two largest online environmental magazines, Worldchanging and Grist.org.

In terms of per capita income, a study by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the Seattle metropolitan area 17th out of 363 metropolitan areas in 2006.[24] Seattle has particularly strong information technology, aviation, architecture and recreational industries. It is particularly known as a hotbed of "green" technologies[25], stemming in part from the strong and relatively non-controversial stances its public leaders have taken on policies regarding urban design, building standards, clean energy and climate change (Seattle in February 2010 committed itself to becoming North America's first "climate neutral" city, with a goal of reaching zero net per capita greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 [26]).

The city's form is largely sprawling and auto-dependent, and efforts to promote compact development and transportation choices are perennial policy issues. The railways and streetcars that once dominated its transportation system were largely replaced with an extensive network of bus routes for those living near the city center, and the city's outward growth caused automobiles to become the main mode of transportation for much of the population in the middle to late twentieth century. As a result, Seattle is ranked as one of the most congested cities in the United States.[27] However, efforts to reverse this trend at the municipal and state levels have resulted in new commuter rail service that connects Seattle to Everett and Tacoma, a regional Link Light Rail system that extends south from the city core,[28] and an inner-city South Lake Union Streetcar network in the South Lake Union area.[29] An extension of the light rail south to the Seattle–Tacoma International Airport began service on December 19, 2009; an extension north to the University of Washington is under construction as of 2010; and further extensions are planned to reach Lynnwood to the north, Des Moines to the south, and Bellevue and Redmond to the east by 2023.[30][31][32]

Contents

History

Founding

Pioneer Square in 1917 featuring the Smith Tower, the Seattle Hotel and to the left the Pioneer Building

Archaeological excavations confirm that the Seattle area has been inhabited by humans for at least 4,000 years.[9] By the time the first European settlers arrived in the area, the people (now called the Duwamish Tribe) occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.[33]

In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River; they formally claimed it on September 14, 1851.[34] Thirteen days later, members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party, the group who would eventually found Seattle.[35] Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851.[36] The rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland, Oregon and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851.[36]

After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and founded the village of "Dewamps" or "Duwamps" on the site of present day Pioneer Square.[36] Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and established a village they initially called "New York", but renamed "Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning, roughly, by and by or someday.[37] New York-Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance for the next few years, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.[38]

David Swinson ("Doc") Maynard, one of Duwamps's founders, was the primary advocate to rename the village "Seattle" after Chief Sealth of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.[39] The term, "Seattle", appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city. Two years later, after a petition was filed by most of the leading citizens, the Legislature disincorporated the town. The town remained a precinct of King County until late 1869 when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated with a Mayor-council government.[36][40]

Timber town

The Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition had just over 3.7 million visitors during its 138-day run[41]

Seattle has a history of boom and bust cycles, as is common to cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically, then gone into precipitous decline, but it has typically used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure.[42]

The first such boom, covering the early years of the city, was fueled by the lumber industry. (During this period the road now known as Yesler Way was nicknamed "Skid Road",[43] after the timber skidding down the hill to Henry Yesler's sawmill. This is considered a possible origin for the term which later entered the wider American vocabulary as Skid Row.)[42] Like much of the American West, Seattle saw numerous conflicts between labor and management, as well as ethnic tensions that culminated in the anti-Chinese riots of 1885–1886.[44] This violence was caused by unemployed whites who determined to drive the Chinese from Seattle (anti-Chinese riots also occurred in Tacoma). Martial law was declared, and federal troops were brought in to put down the disorder. Nevertheless, the economic success in the Seattle area was so great that when the Great Seattle fire of 1889 destroyed the central business district, a far grander city center rapidly emerged in its place.[45] Finance company Washington Mutual, for example, was founded in the immediate wake of the fire.[46] However, the Panic of 1893 hit Seattle hard.[47]

Gold Rush, World War I, and the Great Depression

Image showing 5th Avenue entrance of the Central Branch of the Seattle Public Library, designed by OMA; located on 4th and Madison street in Downtown Seattle. Columbia Center can also be seen in the background.

This boom was followed by the construction of a park system, designed by the Olmsted brothers' landscape architecture firm.[42]

The second and most dramatic boom and bust resulted from the Klondike Gold Rush, which ended the depression that had begun with the Panic of 1893; in a short time, Seattle became a major transportation center. On July 14, 1897, the S.S. Portland docked with its famed "ton of gold", and Seattle became the main transport and supply point for the miners in Alaska and the Yukon. Those working men only found lasting wealth in a few cases, however; it was Seattle's business of clothing the miners and feeding them salmon that panned out in the long run. Along with Seattle, other cities like Everett, Tacoma, Port Townsend, Bremerton, and Olympia, all within Puget Sound became competitors for exchange, rather than mother-lodes for extraction, of precious metals.[48] The boom lasted well into the early part of the 20th century and funded many new Seattle companies and products. In 1907, 19-year-old James E. Casey borrowed $100 from a friend and founded the American Messenger Company (later UPS). Other Seattle companies founded during this period include Nordstrom and Eddie Bauer.[46] The Gold Rush era culminated in the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition of 1909, which is largely responsible for the layout of today's University of Washington campus.[49]

A shipbuilding boom in the early part of the 20th century became massive during World War I, making Seattle somewhat of a company town; the subsequent retrenchment led to the Seattle General Strike of 1919, the first general strike in the country[50] A 1912 city development plan by Virgil Bogue went largely unused. Seattle was mildly prosperous in the 1920s but was particularly hard hit in the Great Depression, experiencing some of the country's harshest labor strife in that era. Violence during the Maritime Strike of 1934 cost Seattle much of its maritime traffic, which was rerouted to the Port of Los Angeles.[51]

Seattle was also the home base of impresario Alexander Pantages who, starting in 1902, opened a number of theaters in the city exhibiting vaudeville acts and silent movies. His activities soon expanded, and the thrifty Greek went on and became one of America's greatest theater and movie tycoons. Between Pantages and his rival John Considine, Seattle was for a while the western United States' vaudeville mecca. The several theaters Scottish-born, Seattle-based architect B. Marcus Priteca built for Pantages in Seattle have all been either demolished or converted to other uses, but many of their theaters survive in other cities of the USA, often retaining the Pantages name.

Post-war years: aircraft and software

Downtown Seattle and a ferry at the Central Waterfront.

The local economy dipped after World War II, which had seen the dispersion of the numerous Japanese-American businessmen. The local economy rose again with manufacturing company Boeing's growing dominance in the airliner market.[52] Seattle celebrated its restored prosperity and made a bid for world recognition with the Century 21 Exposition, the 1962 World's Fair.[53] The local economy went into another major downturn in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Many left the area to look for work elsewhere, and two local real estate agents put up a billboard reading "Will the last person leaving Seattle – Turn out the lights."[54]

Still, Seattle remained the corporate headquarters of Boeing until 2001, when the company separated its headquarters from its major production facilities. Boeing finally chose to move its corporate headquarters to Chicago.[55] The Seattle area is still home to Boeing's Renton narrow-body plant (where the 707, 720, 727, and 757 were assembled, and the 737 is assembled today) and Everett wide-body plant (assembly plant for the 747, 767, 777 and the upcoming 787 Dreamliner); the company's credit union for employees, BECU, remains based in the Seattle area, though it is now open to all residents of Washington.

Westlake Center, a Downtown mall and southern terminus of the Seattle Center Monorail. This is the northwest corner of 5th and Pine.

As prosperity began to return in the 1980s, the city was stunned by the Wah Mee massacre in 1983, when thirteen people were killed in an illegal gambling club in the International District, Seattle's Chinatown.[56] Beginning with Microsoft's 1979 move from Albuquerque, New Mexico to nearby Bellevue, Washington,[57] Seattle and its suburbs became home to a number of technology companies including Amazon.com, RealNetworks, McCaw Cellular (now part of AT&T Mobility), VoiceStream (now T-Mobile USA), and biomedical corporations such as HeartStream (later purchased by Philips), Heart Technologies (later purchased by Boston Scientific), Physio-Control (later purchased by Medtronic), ZymoGenetics, ICOS (later purchased by Eli Lilly and Company) and Immunex (later purchased by Amgen). This success brought an influx of new citizens with a population increase within city limits of almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000,[58] and saw Seattle's real estate become some of the most expensive in the country.[59] Many of the Seattle area's tech companies remain relatively strong, but the frenzied dot-com boom years ended in early 2001.[60][61]

Seattle in this period attracted widespread attention as home to these many companies, but also by hosting the 1990 Goodwill Games[62] and the APEC leaders conference in 1993, as well as through the worldwide popularity of grunge, a sound that had developed in Seattle's independent music scene.[63] Another bid for worldwide attention—hosting the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999—garnered visibility, but not in the manner its sponsors desired, as related protest activity and police reactions to those protests overshadowed the conference itself.[64] The city was further shaken by the Mardi Gras Riots in 2001, and was literally shaken the following day by the Nisqually Earthquake.[65]

The UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Seattle 50th worldwide in quality of living; the survey factored in political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, and public services including transportation.[66]

Geography

Topography

Downtown Seattle is bounded by Elliott Bay (lower left), lower Broadway (from upper left to lower right), Yesler Way (lower right), and Denny Way (obscured by clouds).

Seattle is located between the Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) to the west, and Lake Washington to the east. The city's chief harbor, Elliott Bay, is an inlet of the Puget Sound. To the west, beyond the Puget Sound, are the Kitsap Peninsula and Olympic Mountains on the Olympic Peninsula; to the east, beyond Lake Washington and the eastside suburbs, are Lake Sammamish and the Cascade Range. Lake Washington's waters flow to the Puget Sound through the Lake Washington Ship canal (a series of two man-made canals), Lake Union, and the Hiram C. Chittenden Locks at Salmon Bay, ending in Shilshole Bay.

The sea, rivers, forests, lakes, and fields surrounding Seattle were once rich enough to support one of the world's few sedentary hunter-gatherer societies. The surrounding area lends itself well to sailing, skiing, bicycling, camping, and hiking year-round.[67] [68]

The city itself is hilly, though not uniformly so.[69] Like Rome, the city is said to lie on seven hills; the lists vary, but typically include Capitol Hill, First Hill, West Seattle, Beacon Hill, Queen Anne, Magnolia, and the former Denny Hill. The Wallingford and Mount Baker neighborhoods are technically located on hills as well. Many of the hilliest areas are near the city center, with Capitol Hill, First Hill, and Beacon Hill collectively constituting something of a ridge along an isthmus between Elliott Bay and Lake Washington.[70] The break in the ridge between First Hill and Beacon Hill is man-made, the result of two of the many regrading projects that reshaped the topography of the city center.[71] The topography of the city center was also changed by the construction of a seawall and the artificial Harbor Island (completed 1909) at the mouth of the city's industrial Duwamish Waterway.

North of the city center, Lake Washington Ship Canal connects Puget Sound to Lake Washington. It incorporates four natural bodies of water: Lake Union, Salmon Bay, Portage Bay, and Union Bay.

Due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, Seattle is in a major earthquake zone. On February 28, 2001, the magnitude 6.8 Nisqually earthquake did significant architectural damage, especially in the Pioneer Square area (built on reclaimed land, as are the Industrial District and part of the city center), but caused no fatalities.[72] Other strong quakes occurred on January 26, 1700 (estimated at 9 magnitude), December 14, 1872 (7.3 or 7.4),[72] April 13, 1949 (7.1),[73] and April 29, 1965 (6.5).[74] The 1949 quake caused eight known deaths, all in Seattle;[73] the 1965 quake caused three deaths in Seattle directly, and one more by heart failure.[74] Although the Seattle Fault passes just south of the city center, neither it[75] nor the Cascadia subduction zone has caused an earthquake since the city's founding. The Cascadia subduction zone poses the threat of an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or greater, capable of seriously damaging the city and collapsing many buildings, especially in zones built on fill.[76]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 142.5 square miles (369 km2),[77] 83.9 square miles (217 km2) of which is land and 58.7 square miles (152 km2) water (41.16 percent of the total area).

Surrounding municipalities

Climate

Downtown Seattle averages 58 clear (sunny) days a year, with most of those days occurring between May and September[78]

Seattle's temperate, rainy climate is usually described as temperate Oceanic or Marine west coast, with mild, damp winters and relatively dry and mild summers. Like much of the Pacific Northwest, according to the Koeppen climate classification it falls within a cool, dry-summer subtropical zone (Csb), with cool-summer Mediterranean characteristics such as its usually dry summers.[79] Other climate classification systems, such as Trewartha, place it firmly in the Oceanic zone (Do).[80]

Temperature extremes are moderated by adjacent Puget Sound, the greater Pacific Ocean, and Lake Washington. The region is partially protected from Pacific storms by the Olympic Mountains and from Arctic air by the Cascade Range. Despite being on the margin of the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains, the city has a reputation for frequent rain.[81] This reputation derives from this frequency of precipitation as well as the fact that it is cloudy an average of 201 days and 93 partly cloudy days per year.[78] At 37.1 inches (942 mm)[82], the city receives less precipitation than New York City, Atlanta, Houston, and most cities of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States. Seattle was also not listed in a study that revealed the 10 rainiest cities in the continental United States.[83] Most of the precipitation falls as drizzle or light rain. Thunderstorms occur only occasionally. Seattle reports thunder on just seven days per annum (according to 'Cities Ranked and Rated' - Bert Sperling and Peter Sander.2007). For comparison Fort Myers, Florida reports thunder on 93 days per year. Kansas City reports 52 'thunder days' and New York City reports 25. There are occasional downpours. One of these downpours occurred in December 2007 when widespread rainfall hit the greater Puget Sound area. It became the second wettest event in Seattle history when a little over 5 inches of rain fell on Seattle in a 24 hour period. The rain also caused five deaths and widespread flooding and damage.[84] Spring, late fall, and winter are filled with days when it does not rain but looks as if it might because of cloudy, overcast skies. Winters are cool and wet with average lows around 35–40 °F (1.7–4.4 °C) on winter nights. Colder weather can occur, but seldom lasts more than a few days. Summers are dry and warm, with average daytime highs around 73–80 °F (22.8–26.7 °C). Hotter weather usually occurs only during a few summer days. Seattle's hottest official recorded temperature was 103 °F (39.4 °C) on July 29, 2009;[85] the coldest recorded temperature was 0 °F (–18 °C) on January 31, 1950.[82]

Between October and May, Seattle is mostly or partly cloudy six out of every seven days[78]

Eighty miles (130 km) to the west, the Hoh Rain Forest in Olympic National Park on the western flank of the Olympic Mountains receives an annual average rainfall of 142 inches (3,607 mm), and the state capital, Olympia—south of the rain shadow—receives an annual average rainfall of 52 inches (1,321 mm). Snowfall is very infrequent, especially at lower elevations and near the coast, and is usually light and fleeting, lasting only a few days. Heavier snowfall happens infrequently; a recent example happened from December 12–25, 2008, when over one foot of snow fell and stuck on much of the city's roads, causing widespread difficulties in a city so unaccustomed to heavy snow. Average annual snowfall, as measured at Sea-Tac Airport, is 13 inches (33 cm).[86] Seattle's daily record snowfall was 20 inches (51 cm) on January 13, 1950.[87] A sunnier and drier climate typically dominates from mid-July to mid-September. An average of 0.8 inches (20 mm) of rain falls in July and 1.0 inch (25 mm) in August. Although the summer climate is considerably drier and less humid than in areas with humid continental climates, a slight dampness can be occasionally felt, usually when temperatures reach above 80 °F (26.7 °C). This dampness is typically more noticeable during the evening when the temperatures have dropped. Because of this, Seattle experiences occasional summer thunderstorms.[88]

The Puget Sound Convergence Zone is an important feature of Seattle's weather. In the convergence zone, air arriving from the north meets air flowing in from the south. Both streams of air originate over the Pacific Ocean; airflow is split by the Olympic Mountains to Seattle's west, then reunited by the Cascade Mountains to the east. When the air currents meet, they are forced upward, resulting in convection.[89] Thunderstorms caused by this activity can occur north and south of town, but Seattle itself rarely receives worse weather than occasional thunder and ice-pellet showers. The Hanukkah Eve Wind Storm in December 2006 is an exception that brought heavy rain and winds gusting up to 69 mph (111 km/h).

Another exception to Seattle's dampness may occur in El Niño years, when the marine weather systems track as far south as California and little precipitation falls in the Puget Sound area.[90] Since the region's water comes from mountain snowpacks during the drier summer months, El Niño winters can not only produce substandard skiing but can result in water rationing and a shortage of hydroelectric power the following summer.[91]

Climate data for Seattle, Washington
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 64
(18)
70
(21)
78
(26)
85
(29)
93
(34)
96
(36)
103
(39)
99
(37)
98
(37)
89
(32)
74
(23)
64
(18)
103
(39)
Average high °F (°C) 45.5
(7.5)
49.5
(9.7)
53.2
(11.8)
58.2
(14.6)
64.4
(18)
69.6
(20.9)
75.3
(24.1)
75.6
(24.2)
70.2
(21.2)
59.7
(15.4)
50.5
(10.3)
45.5
(7.5)
59.8
(15.4)
Average low °F (°C) 35.9
(2.2)
37.2
(2.9)
39.1
(3.9)
42.1
(5.6)
47.2
(8.4)
51.7
(10.9)
55.3
(12.9)
55.7
(13.2)
51.9
(11.1)
45.7
(7.6)
39.9
(4.4)
35.9
(2.2)
44.8
(7.1)
Record low °F (°C) 0
(-18)
1
(-17)
11
(-12)
29
(-2)
28
(-2)
38
(3)
43
(6)
44
(7)
35
(2)
28
(-2)
6
(-14)
6
(-14)
0
(-18)
Precipitation inches (mm) 5.13
(130.3)
4.18
(106.2)
3.75
(95.3)
2.59
(65.8)
1.78
(45.2)
1.49
(37.8)
0.79
(20.1)
1.02
(25.9)
1.63
(41.4)
3.19
(81)
5.90
(149.9)
5.62
(142.7)
37.07
(941.6)
Snowfall inches (mm) 5.1
(129.5)
1.7
(43.2)
1.3
(33)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.9
(22.9)
2.6
(66)
11.6
(294.6)
Avg. rainy days 19 17 15 11 9 5 2 3 8 11 18 20 138
Avg. snowy days 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 8
Source: National Climatic Data Center[92] February 2009, updated for record high July 2009

Neighborhoods

Downtown Seattle includes a tightly packed financial district along with residential areas and a panoramic waterfront.

Seattle has grown through a series of annexations of smaller neighboring communities. On May 3, 1891, Magnolia, Wallingford, Green Lake, and the University District (then known as Brooklyn) were annexed.[93] The town of South Seattle was annexed on October 20, 1905.[94] Between January 7 and September 12, 1907, Seattle nearly doubled its land area by annexing six incorporated towns and areas of unincorporated King County, including Southeast Seattle, Ravenna, South Park, Columbia City, Ballard, and West Seattle.[95] Three years later, after having difficulties paying a $10,000 bill from the county, the town of Georgetown merged with Seattle.[96] Finally, on January 4, 1954, the area between N. 85th Street and N. 145th Street was annexed, including the neighborhoods of Pinehurst, Maple Leaf, Lake City, View Ridge and Northgate.[97]

Former Seattle mayor Greg Nickels is among those who have called Seattle "a city of neighborhoods",[98][99] although the boundaries (and even names) of those neighborhoods are often open to dispute. For example, a Department of Neighborhoods spokeswoman reported that her own neighborhood has gone from "the 'CD' (Central District) to 'Madrona' to 'Greater Madison Valley' and now 'Madrona Park'.[99]

Over a dozen Seattle neighborhoods have Neighborhood Service Centers, originally known in 1972 as "Little City Halls"[100] and even more have their own street fair and/or parade during the summer months.[101] The largest of the city's street fairs feature hundreds of craft and food booths and multiple stages with live entertainment, and draw more than 100,000 people over the course of a weekend.[102] In addition, at least half a dozen neighborhoods have weekly farmers' markets, some with as many as fifty vendors.[103]

Cityscape

Landmarks

The Space Needle, dating from the Century 21 Exposition (1962), is Seattle's most recognizable landmark, having been featured in the logo of the television show Frasier and the backgrounds of the television series Dark Angel, Grey's Anatomy and iCarly, and films such as It Happened at the World's Fair and Sleepless in Seattle. The fairgrounds surrounding the Needle have been converted into Seattle Center, which remains the site of many local civic and cultural events, such as Bumbershoot, Folklife, and the Bite of Seattle. Seattle Center plays multiple roles in the city, ranging from a public fair ground to a civic center, though recent economic losses have called its viability and future into question.[104] The Seattle Center Monorail was also constructed for Century 21 and still runs from Seattle Center to Westlake Center, a downtown shopping mall, a little over a mile to the southeast.

Pike Place Market

The Smith Tower was the tallest building on the West Coast from its completion in 1914 until the Space Needle overtook it in 1962.[105] The late 1980s saw the construction of Seattle's two tallest skyscrapers: the 76 story Columbia Center (completed 1985) is the tallest building in the Pacific Northwest[106] and the fourth tallest building west of the Mississippi River;[107] the Washington Mutual Tower (completed 1988) is Seattle's second tallest building.[108][109] Other notable Seattle landmarks include Pike Place Market, the Fremont Troll, the Experience Music Project and Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame (at Seattle Center), and the Seattle Central Library.

Starbucks has been at Pike Place Market since the coffee company was founded there in 1971. The first store is still operating a block south of its original location.[110]

The National Register of Historic Places has over 150 Seattle listings.[111] The city also designates its own landmarks.[112]

Culture

Performing arts

Seattle has been a regional center for the performing arts for many years. The century-old Seattle Symphony Orchestra is among the world's most recorded[113] and performs primarily at Benaroya Hall.[114] The Seattle Opera and Pacific Northwest Ballet, which perform at McCaw Hall (opened 2003 on the site of the former Seattle Opera House at Seattle Center), are comparably distinguished,[115][116] with the Opera being particularly known for its performances of the works of Richard Wagner[117][118] and the PNB School (founded in 1974) ranking as one of the top three ballet training institutions in the United States.[115] The Seattle Youth Symphony Orchestras (SYSO) is the largest symphonic youth organization in the United States.[119] The city also boasts lauded summer and winter chamber music festivals organized by the Seattle Chamber Music Society.[120]

The 5th Avenue Theatre, built in 1926, stages Broadway-style musical shows[121] featuring both local talent and international stars.[122] Seattle has "around 100" theatrical production companies[123][124] and over two dozen live theatre venues, many of them associated with fringe theatre;[125] Seattle is probably second only to New York for number of equity theaters[126] (28 Seattle theater companies have some sort of Actors' Equity contract).[123] In addition, the 900-seat Romanesque Revival Town Hall on First Hill hosts numerous cultural events, especially lectures and recitals.[127]

The Moore Theatre has been a performing arts venue in Downtown Seattle since its construction in 1907.

Seattle is considered the home of grunge music[13] because it was home to artists such as Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, and Mudhoney all of whom reached vast audiences in the early 1990s.[128] The city is also home to such varied musicians as avant-garde jazz musicians Bill Frisell and Wayne Horvitz, rapper Sir Mix-a-Lot, smooth jazz saxophonist Kenny G, Heart, heavy metal bands Queensrÿche, Nevermore and Sunn O))), as well as such poppier rock bands as Harvey Danger, Goodness, and The Presidents of the United States of America. Such musicians as Jimi Hendrix, Duff McKagan, Nikki Sixx, and Quincy Jones spent their formative years in Seattle.

Since the grunge era, the area has hosted a diverse and influential alternative music scene. The Seattle record label Sub Pop—the first to sign Nirvana and Soundgarden—has signed such non-grunge bands as Band of Horses, Modest Mouse, Murder City Devils, Sunny Day Real Estate, Death Cab for Cutie, The Postal Service, Flight of the Conchords, and Fleet Foxes.[128]

Earlier Seattle-based popular music acts include the collegiate folk group The Brothers Four; The Wailers, a 1960s garage band; The Ventures, an instrumental rock band; pop Young Fresh Fellows and The Posies; pop-punk The Fastbacks; and the outright punk of The Fartz (later 10 Minute Warning), The Gits, and 7 Year Bitch.[129]

Seattle annually sends a team of spoken word slammers to the National Poetry Slam and considers itself home of some of the most talented performance poets in the world: Buddy Wakefield, two-time Individual World Poetry Slam Champ;[130] Anis Mojgani, two-time National Poetry Slam Champ;[131] and Danny Sherrard, 2007 National Poetry Slam Champ and 2008 Individual World Poetry Slam Champ.[132] Seattle also hosted the 2001 national Poetry Slam Tournament. The Seattle Poetry Festival is a biennial poetry festival that (launched first as the Poetry Circus in 1997) has featured local, regional, national, and international names in poetry.[133]

The city also has movie houses showing both Hollywood productions and works by independent filmmakers.[134] Among these, the Seattle Cinerama stands out as one of only three movie theaters in the world still capable of showing three-panel Cinerama films.[135][136]

Additionally, the city is also home to the Seattle Polish Film Festival, (SPFF) an annual film festival showcasing current and past films of Polish cinema.[137][138] The festival is produced by the Seattle-Gdynia Sister City Association and awards the Seattle Spirit of Polish Cinema awards as well as the Viewers Choice of Best Film.

Media

Today, Seattle has one major daily newspaper, The Seattle Times. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, known as the P-I, published a daily newspaper from 1863 to March 17, 2009. There is also a Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce,[139] and the University of Washington publishes The Daily, a student-run publication, when school is in session. The most prominent weeklies are the Seattle Weekly and The Stranger; both consider themselves "alternative" papers.[140] Real Change is a weekly street newspaper that is sold mainly by homeless persons as an alternative to panhandling. There are also several ethnic newspapers, including the Northwest Asian Weekly, and numerous neighborhood newspapers, including the North Seattle Journal.

Seattle is also well served by television and radio, with all major U.S. networks represented, along with at least five other English-language stations and two Spanish-language stations.[141] Seattle cable viewers also receive CBUT 2 (CBC) from Vancouver, British Columbia.

Leading non-commercial radio stations include NPR affiliates KUOW-FM 94.9 and KPLU-FM 88.5 (Tacoma). Other notable stations include KEXP-FM 90.3 (affiliated with EMP), KBCS-FM 91.3 (affiliated with Bellevue College), and KNHC-FM 89.5, which broadcasts an electronic music format and is owned by the public school system and operated by students of Nathan Hale High School. Many Seattle radio stations are also available through Internet radio, with KEXP in particular being a pioneer of Internet radio.[142] Seattle also has numerous commercial radio stations, including KING-FM, one of the last commercial classical music stations in the United States.[141]

Seattle-based online magazines Worldchanging and Grist.org were two of the "Top Green Websites" in 2007 according to Time.[143]

Seattle also has many online newspapers. The two largest are The Seattle Times and Seattle Post-Intelligencer (the latter now online only).

Tourism

210 cruise ship visits brought 886,039 passengers to Seattle in 2008.[144]

Among Seattle's prominent annual fairs and festivals are the 24-day Seattle International Film Festival,[145] Northwest Folklife over the Memorial Day weekend, numerous Seafair events throughout July and August (ranging from a Bon Odori celebration to the Seafair Cup hydroplane races), the Bite of Seattle, one of the largest Gay Pride festivals in the United States, and the art and music festival Bumbershoot, which programs music as well as other art and entertainment over the Labor Day weekend. All are typically attended by 100,000 people annually, as are the Seattle Hempfest and two separate Independence Day celebrations.[146][147][148] In the past, the Gay Pride parade and festival have been centered on Capitol Hill, but since 2006, festivities have been held city-wide, and the parade has followed a route in Downtown from the retail core to Seattle Center.[149]

Other significant events include numerous Native American pow-wows, a Greek Festival hosted by St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church in Montlake, and numerous ethnic festivals (many associated with Festál at Seattle Center).[150]

The Seattle skyline viewed from Gas Works Park.

There are other annual events, ranging from the Seattle Antiquarian Book Fair & Book Arts Show;[151] an anime convention, Sakura-Con;[152] Penny Arcade Expo, a gaming convention;[153] specialized film festivals, such as the Maelstrom International Fantastic Film Festival, the Seattle Gay and Lesbian Film Festival;[154] and a two-day, 9,000-rider Seattle to Portland Bicycle Classic.[155]

The Henry Art Gallery opened in 1927, the first public art museum in Washington.[156] The Seattle Art Museum (SAM) opened in 1933; SAM opened a museum downtown in 1991 (expanded and reopened 2007); since 1991, the 1933 building has been SAM's Seattle Asian Art Museum (SAAM).[157] SAM also operates the Olympic Sculpture Park (opened 2007) on the waterfront north of the downtown piers. The Frye Art Museum is a free museum on First Hill.

Regional history collections are at the Loghouse Museum in Alki, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, the Museum of History and Industry and the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture. Industry collections are at the Center for Wooden Boats and the adjacent Northwest Seaport, the Seattle Metropolitan Police Museum, and the Museum of Flight. Regional ethnic collections include the Nordic Heritage Museum, the Wing Luke Asian Museum and the Northwest African American Museum. Seattle has artist-run galleries,[158] including 10-year veteran Soil Art Gallery,[159] and the newer Crawl Space Gallery.[160]

Woodland Park Zoo opened as a private menagerie in 1889, but was sold to the city in 1899.[161] The Seattle Aquarium has been open on the downtown waterfront since 1977 (undergoing a renovation 2006).[162] The Seattle Underground Tour is an exhibit of places that existed before the Great Fire.[163] There are also many community centers for recreation, including Rainier Beach, Van Asselt, Rainier, and Jefferson south of the Ship Canal and Green Lake, Laurelhurst, Loyal Heights north of the Canal, and Meadowbrook.[164]

Since the middle 1990s, Seattle has experienced significant growth in the cruise industry, especially as a departure point for Alaska cruises. In 2008, a record total of 886,039 cruise passengers passed through the city, surpassing the number for Vancouver, BC, the other major departure point for Alaska cruises.[165]

Sports

Club Sport League Venue Established Championships
Seattle Sounders FC Soccer MLS Qwest Field 2009 0
Seattle Seahawks Football NFL Qwest Field 1976 0
Seattle Mariners Baseball MLB Safeco Field 1977 0
Seattle Thunderbirds Ice hockey WHL ShoWare Center 1977 0
Seattle Storm Basketball WNBA KeyArena 2000 1

Seattle's professional sports history began at the start of the 20th century with the PCHA's Seattle Metropolitans, which in 1917 became the first American hockey team to win the Stanley Cup.[166] Today Seattle has four major professional sports teams: The National Football League's Seattle Seahawks, Major League Baseball's Seattle Mariners, Major League Soccer's Seattle Sounders FC, and the 2004 Women's National Basketball Association champions, Seattle Storm.[167] From 1967 to 2008 Seattle was home to an NBA franchise, the Seattle SuperSonics, who were the 1978–79 NBA champions; the team was relocated to Oklahoma City after the 2007–08 season.[168] The Seattle Thunderbirds are a major-junior hockey team that plays in one of the Canadian major-junior hockey leagues, the WHL (Western Hockey League). The Thunderbirds moved to nearby Kent, Washington during the 2008–2009 season.[169] The Seattle Sounders FC began play in Major League Soccer in 2009.[170]

Seattle also boasts a strong history in collegiate sports, the University of Washington and Seattle University are NCAA Division I schools. The Major League Baseball All-Star game was held in Seattle twice, first at the Kingdome in 1979 and again at Safeco Field in 2001. That same year, the Seattle Mariners tied the all-time single regular season wins record with 116 wins. The NBA All-Star game was also held in Seattle twice, the first in 1974 at the Seattle Center Coliseum and the second in 1987 at the Kingdome.[171]

In 2006, Qwest Field hosted the 2005–06 NFL playoffs. In 2008, Qwest Field hosted the first game of the 2007–08 NFL playoffs, in which the Seahawks defeated the Washington Redskins, 35–14. Qwest also serves as the home field for the Seattle Sounders FC of Major League Soccer.

Outdoor activities

Green Lake Park, popular among runners, contains a 2.7-mile (4.3 km) trail circling the lake.

Seattle's mild, temperate marine climate allows year-round outdoor recreation, including walking, cycling, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, kayaking, rock climbing, motor boating, sailing, team sports, and swimming.[172] In town, many people walk around Green Lake, through the forests and along the bluffs and beaches of 535-acre (2.2 km2) Discovery Park (the largest park in the city) in Magnolia, along the shores of Myrtle Edwards Park on the Downtown waterfront, along the shoreline of Lake Washington at Seward Park, or along Alki Beach in West Seattle. Also popular are hikes and skiing in the nearby Cascade or Olympic Mountains and kayaking and sailing in the waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Strait of Georgia. In 2005, Men's Fitness magazine named Seattle the fittest city in the United States.[173]

Economy

Washington Mutual's last headquarters, the WaMu Center, (now the Chase Center and soon to be Russell Investments Center) (center left) and its headquarters prior, Washington Mutual Tower (center right).

Seattle's economy is driven a mix of older industrial companies, "new economy" Internet and technology companies, service, design and clean technology companies. The Port of Seattle is a major economic engine. Though it has not been unaffected by the recent recession, Seattle has retained a comparatively strong economy, and remains a hotbed for start-up businesses, especially in green building and clean technologies: it was ranked as America's #1 "smarter city" based on its government policies and green economy.[174] The Seattle housing market, especially in center-city neighborhoods, has not seen the sort of drop in value most housing markets around the nation have seen in recent years.[175] The Seattle region's economy is increasingly diverse and multi-sectoral.

Still, very large companies dominate the business landscape. Six companies on the 2008 Fortune 500 list of the United States' largest companies, based on total revenue are headquartered in Seattle: former financial services company Washington Mutual ( now Chase ) (#97), Internet retailer Amazon.com (#171), coffee chain Starbucks (#277), department store Nordstrom (#299), insurance company Safeco (#388), and global logistics firm Expeditors International (#458).[176] However, in April 2008, the sale of Safeco to Liberty Mutual Group was announced and in September 2008, Washington Mutual was seized by the FDIC and was sold to JPMorgan Chase.[177][178] Other Fortune 500 companies popularly associated with Seattle are based in nearby Puget Sound cities. Warehouse club chain Costco (#29), the largest company in Washington, is based in Issaquah. Microsoft (#44) and Nintendo of America are located in Redmond. Weyerhaeuser, the forest products company (#147), is based in Federal Way. Finally, Bellevue is home to truck manufacturer PACCAR (#169), and to international mobile telephony giant T-Mobile's U.S. subsidiary, T-Mobile USA.[176]

Prior to moving its headquarters to Chicago, aerospace manufacturer Boeing (#27) was the largest company based in Seattle. Its largest division is still headquartered in nearby Renton, and the company has large aircraft manufacturing plants in Everett and Renton, so it remains the largest private employer in the Seattle metropolitan area.[179] Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels announced a desire to spark a new economic boom driven by the biotechnology industry in 2006. Major redevelopment of the South Lake Union neighborhood is underway, in an effort to attract new and established biotech companies to the city, joining biotech companies Corixa (acquired by GlaxoSmithKline), Immunex (now part of Amgen), Trubion, and ZymoGenetics. Vulcan Inc., the holding company of billionaire Paul Allen, is behind most of the development projects in the region. While some see the new development as an economic boon, others have criticized Nickels and the Seattle City Council for pandering to Allen's interests at taxpayers' expense.[180] Also in 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Seattle among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion.[181] In 2005, Forbes ranked Seattle as the most expensive American city for buying a house based on the local income levels.[182]

Alaska Airlines, operating a hub at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, maintains its headquarters in the city of SeaTac, next to the airport.[183]

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1860 188
1870 1,151 512.2%
1880 3,533 207.0%
1890 42,837 1,112.5%
1900 80,671 88.3%
1910 237,194 194.0%
1920 315,312 32.9%
1930 365,583 15.9%
1940 368,302 0.7%
1950 467,591 27.0%
1960 557,087 19.1%
1970 530,831 −4.7%
1980 493,846 −7.0%
1990 516,259 4.5%
2000 563,374 9.1%
Est. 2009 602,000 [8] 6.9%
source:[184][185]

According to the Washington State Office of Financial Management, Seattle had a population of 602,000 as of April 1, 2009.[8] In the 2000 census interim measurements of 2006, there were 258,499 households and 113,400 families residing in the city.[5]

As of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 71.1% of Seattle's population; of which 64.9% were non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 12.0% of Seattle's population; of which 11.5% were non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 2.2% of the city's population; of which 0.6% were non-Hispanic. Asian Americans made up 15.4% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up 0.8% of the city's population. Individuals from other races made up 3.1% of the city's population; of which 0.2% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 4.2% of the city's population; of which 3.7% were non-Hispanic. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 6.2% of Seattle's population.[186][187]

As of the 2005–2007 American Community Survey, 16.8% of Seattle's population claimed German ancestry, 12.3% claimed Irish ancestry, 12.2% claimed English ancestry, and 5.8% claimed Norwegian ancestry. In terms of language, 78.6% spoke only English at home while 5.0% spoke Spanish. About 3.6% spoke other Indo-European languages while 10.3% spoke an Asian language at home. About 2.5% spoke other languages.[188]

Seattle has seen a major increase in immigration in recent decades: the foreign-born population increased 40% between the 1990 and 2000 censuses.[189] At nearly 4 percent, Greater Seattle has the highest concentration of Multiracial Americans of any major metropolitan area in the United States. The Chinese population in the Seattle Area has origins in China, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan. The earliest Chinese-Americans that came in the late 19th and early 20th century were almost entirely from Guangdong province. The Seattle area is also home to a high Laotian and Cambodian population.[190] There is also a Filipino community around the Seattle Area.[citation needed] In addition, the city is home to over 30,000 Somali immigrants.[191]

As of 1999, the median income of a city household was $45,736, and the median income for a family was $62,195. Males had a median income of $40,929 versus $35,134 for females. The per capita income for the city was $30,306[192] 11.8 percent of the population and 6.9 percent of families are below the poverty line. Of people living in poverty, 13.8 percent are under the age of 18 and 10.2 percent are 65 or older.[192]

It is estimated that King County has 8,000 homeless on any given night, and many of those live in Seattle.[193] In September 2005, King County adopted a "Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness", one of the near-term results of which is a shift of funding from homeless shelter beds to permanent housing.[194]

In 2006, after growing by 4,000 citizens per annum for the previous 16 years, regional planners expected the population of Seattle to grow by 200,000 people by 2040.[195] However, Mayor Nickels supported plans that would increase the population by 60 percent, or 350,000 people, by 2040 and is working on ways to accommodate this growth while keeping Seattle's single-family housing zoning laws.[195] The Seattle City Council later voted to relax height limits on buildings in the greater part of Downtown, partly with the aim of increasing residential density in the city center.[196]

A 2006 study by UCLA indicates that Seattle has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita. With 12.9 percent of citizens polled identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, the city ranks second of all major US cities, behind San Francisco and slightly ahead of Atlanta.[197] Greater Seattle also ranks second among major US metropolitan areas, with 6.5 percent being LGBT.[198]

According to the 2000 U.S. census interim measurements of 2004, Seattle has the fifth highest proportion of single-person households nationwide among cities of 100,000 or more residents, at 40.8 percent.[199]

Government and politics

Seattle City Hall, 2007

Seattle is a charter city, with a Mayor–Council form of government. Since 1911, Seattle's nine city councillors have been elected at large, rather than by geographic subdivisions.[200] The only other elected offices are the city attorney and Municipal Court judges. All offices are non-partisan.[201]

Seattle's politics are strongly liberal/progressive, although there is a small libertarian movement within the metro area.[202] It is one of the most liberal cities in the United States, with approximately 80% voting for the Democratic Party; only two precincts in Seattle—one in the Broadmoor community, and one encompassing neighboring Madison Park—had a majority of votes for Republican George W. Bush in the 2004 presidential election. In addition, all precincts in Seattle voted for Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential election, including the two precincts who had previously voted Republican in 2004.[202] In partisan elections for the Washington State Legislature and United States Congress, nearly all elections are won by Democrats.

Federally, Seattle is part of Washington's 7th congressional district, representated by Democrat Jim McDermott, elected in 1988 and one of Congress' most liberal members.[203]

The state's senior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Patty Murray, elected in 1992. The state's junior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Maria Cantwell, elected in 2000. The Governor of Washington is Democrat Christine Gregoire, elected in 2004.

Education

Of the city's population over the age of 25, 53.8 percent (vs. a national average of 27.4 percent) hold a bachelor's degree or higher, and 91.9 percent (vs. 84.5 percent nationally) have a high school diploma or equivalent.[204] A United States Census Bureau survey showed that Seattle had the highest percentage of college and university graduates of any major U.S. city.[205] The city was listed as the most literate of the country's sixty-nine largest cities in 2005 and 2006, the second most literate in 2007, after Minneapolis, and tied with Minneapolis for most literate in 2008 in studies conducted by Central Connecticut State University.[18]

Inside Suzzallo Library, University of Washington campus

Seattle Public Schools desegregated without a court order[206] but continue to struggle to achieve racial balance in a somewhat ethnically divided city (the south part of town having more ethnic minorities than the north).[207] In 2007, Seattle's racial tie-breaking system was struck down by the United States Supreme Court, but the ruling left the door open for desegregation formulae based on other indicators (e.g., income or socioeconomic class).[208]

The public school system is supplemented by a moderate number of private schools: five of the private high schools are Catholic, one is Lutheran, and six are secular.[209]

Seattle is home to one of the United States' most respected public research universities, the University of Washington, as well as its professional and continuing Education unit, University of Washington Educational Outreach. A study by Newsweek International in 2006 cited UW as the twenty-second best university in the world.[210] Seattle also has a number of smaller private universities including Seattle University and Seattle Pacific University, both founded by religious groups; universities aimed at the working adult, like City University and Antioch University; colleges, such as North Seattle Community College, Seattle Central Community College, and South Seattle Community College; and a number of arts colleges, such as Cornish College of the Arts and The Art Institute of Seattle. In 2001, Time magazine selected Seattle Central Community College as community college of the year, stating the school "pushes diverse students to work together in small teams".[211]

Infrastructure

Health systems

The University of Washington is consistently ranked among the country's top leading institutions in medical research. Seattle has seen local developments of modern paramedic services with the establishment of Medic One in 1970.[212] In 1974, a 60 Minutes story on the success of the then four-year-old Medic One paramedic system called Seattle "the best place in the world to have a heart attack".[213]

Three of Seattle's largest medical centers are located on First Hill. Harborview Medical Center, the public county hospital, is the only Level I trauma hospital serving Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.[214] Virginia Mason Medical Center and Swedish Medical Center's two largest campuses are also located in this part of Seattle. This concentration of hospitals resulted in the neighborhood's nickname "Pill Hill".[215]

Located in the Laurelhurst neighborhood, Seattle Children's, formerly Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, is the pediatric referral center for Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has a campus in the Eastlake neighborhood and also shares facilities with the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance and University of Washington Medical Center. The University District is home to the University of Washington Medical Center which, along with Harborview, is operated by the University of Washington. Seattle is also served by a Veterans Affairs hospital on Beacon Hill, a third campus of Swedish in Ballard, and Northwest Hospital and Medical Center near Northgate Mall.

Transportation

Interstate 5 in Washington as it passes through downtown Seattle

The first streetcars appeared in 1889 and were instrumental in the creation of a relatively well-defined downtown and strong neighborhoods at the end of their lines. The advent of the automobile sounded the death knell for rail in Seattle. Tacoma–Seattle railway service ended in 1929 and the Everett–Seattle service came to an end in 1939, replaced by inexpensive automobiles running on the recently developed highway system. Rails on city streets were paved over or removed, and the arrival of trolleybuses brought the end of streetcars in Seattle in 1941. This left an extensive network of privately owned buses (later public) as the only mass transit within the city and throughout the region.[216]

King County Metro provides frequent stop bus service within the city and surrounding county,as well as a streetcar line between the South Lake Union neighborhood and Westlake Center in downtown.[217] Seattle is one of the few cities in North America whose bus fleet includes electric trolleybuses. Sound Transit currently provides an express bus service within the metropolitan area; two Sounder commuter rail lines between the suburbs and downtown; and its Central Link light rail line, which opened in 2009, between downtown and Sea-Tac Airport gives the city its first rapid transit line that has intermediate stops within the city limits. Washington State Ferries, which manages the largest network of ferries in the United States and third largest in the world,[218] connects Seattle to Bainbridge and Vashon Islands in Puget Sound and to Bremerton and Southworth on the Kitsap Peninsula.[218]

According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 18.6 percent of Seattle residents used one of the three public transit systems that serve the city, giving it the highest transit ridership of all major cities without heavy or light rail prior to the completion of Sound Transit's Central Link line.[219][220]

Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, locally known as Sea-Tac Airport and located just south in the neighboring city of SeaTac, is operated by the Port of Seattle and provides commercial air service to destinations throughout the world. Closer to downtown, Boeing Field is used for general aviation, cargo flights, and testing/delivery of Boeing airliners.

The main mode of transportation, however, relies on Seattle's streets, which are laid out in a cardinal directions grid pattern, except in the central business district where early city leaders Arthur Denny and Carson Boren insisted on orienting their plats relative to the shoreline rather than to true North.[221] Only two roads, Interstate 5 and State Route 99 (both limited-access highways), run uninterrupted through the city from north to south. State Route 99 runs through downtown Seattle on the Alaskan Way Viaduct, which was built in 1953. However, due to damage sustained during the 2001 Nisqually earthquake the viaduct will be replaced by a tunnel in 2015 at a cost of US$4.25 billion.

From 2006 to 2008, transit ridership in Seattle went up by 23%,[222] and many bus routes in the central part of the city are routinely forced to leave passengers because they are full. Seattle now has the worst traffic congestion of all American cities.[223]

The city has started moving away from the automobile and towards mass transit. In 2006, voters in King County passed proposition 2(Transit Now) which increased bus service hours on high ridership routes and payed for five Bus Rapid Transit lines called RapidRide. [224] After rejecting a roads and transit measure in 2007, Seattle-area voters passed a transit only measure in 2008 that increases ST Express bus service and extends the Link Light Rail system (currently 15.7 miles with 3 miles under construction) by over thirty miles and adds 4 more round trips daily.[225] New Mayor Mike Mcginn hopes to put another transit measure on the 2010 ballot to build light rail from Downtown Seattle to Ballard, Fremont, and West Seattle [226] After seeing a surprisingly large amount of support for it from is campaign's (and now city's) policy forum.[227]

Utilities

Seattle Steam Company, one of Seattle's privately owned utility companies

Water and electric power are municipal services, provided by Seattle Public Utilities and Seattle City Light respectively. Other utility companies serving Seattle include Puget Sound Energy (natural gas); Seattle Steam Company (steam); Waste Management, Inc and Allied Waste (curbside recycling and solid waste removal); and Verizon Communications, Qwest and Comcast (telephone, Internet, and cable television).

See also

References

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    (2) "Starbucks Corporation Completes Acquisition of Seattle Coffee Company". Business Wire. July 14, 2003. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2003_July_14/ai_105403289. Retrieved December 11, 2008. 
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  93. ^ Greg Lange (January 1, 1999). "Seattle doubles in size by annexing north-of-downtown communities on May 3, 1891.". HistoryLink. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=2214. Retrieved October 4, 2007. 
  94. ^ Greg Lange (January 17, 1999). "Seattle annexes South Seattle on October 20, 1905.". HistoryLink.org. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=731. Retrieved October 4, 2007. 
  95. ^ Greg Lange (January 1, 2000). "City of Seattle annexes six towns including Ballard and West Seattle in 1907.". HistoryLink. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=1954. Retrieved October 4, 2007. 
  96. ^ David Wilma (February 10, 2001). "Georgetown (later a Seattle neighborhood) incorporates as a city on January 8, 1904.". HistoryLink. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=2978. Retrieved October 4, 2007. 
  97. ^ David Wilma (October 12, 2005). "Seattle annexes the area north of N 85th Street to N 145th Street on January 4, 1954.". HistoryLink. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=7514. Retrieved October 4, 2007. 
  98. ^ Greg Nickels (July 2005). "Nickels Newsletter – July 2005". http://www.seattle.gov/mayor/about/nicnewsJul05.htm. Retrieved October 11, 2007. 
  99. ^ a b Jack Broom (October 5, 2002). "New Seattle map: There goes the neighborhood". Seattle Times. http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis.cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=map051&date=20021005. Retrieved October 11, 2007. 
  100. ^ Walt Crowley (May 9, 2001). "Seattle's Little City Halls". HistoryLink.org. http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&File_Id=3270. Retrieved April 27, 2009. 
  101. ^ "Community Events". Archived from the original on June 25, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070625125907/http://www.seafair.com/events/community/. Retrieved October 20, 2007. 
  102. ^ Walt Crowley (May 11, 1999). "University District (Seattle) Street Fair is first held May 23 and 24, 1970". HistoryLink.org. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=1126. Retrieved October 11, 2007. 
  103. ^ For an overview of Seattle's neighborhood farmers markets see: "Markets". Neighborhood Farmers Market Alliance. http://www.seattlefarmersmarkets.org/markets. Retrieved October 11, 2007.  For the scale of one of the larger markets (in the University District, see: "University District Farmers Market". Neighborhood Farmers Market Alliance. http://www.seattlefarmersmarkets.org/markets/u_district. Retrieved October 11, 2007. 
  104. ^ Kathy Mulady; Debera Carlton Harrell (April 24, 2006). "City looking to breathe new life into Seattle Center". The Seattle Times. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/267794_seattlecenter24.asp. Retrieved October 22, 2007. 
  105. ^ Greg Lange (March 5, 2003). "Seattle's Smith Tower, tallest building west of Ohio, is dedicated on July 4, 1914.". HistoryLink. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=5370. Retrieved October 3, 2007. 
  106. ^ David Wilma (August 25, 2005). "Columbia Center, tallest building in Pacific Northwest, opens doors on March 2, 1985.". HistoryLink. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=2627. Retrieved October 3, 2007. 
  107. ^ Casey McNerthney (February 23, 2007). "Firefighters take 69 floors for leukemia". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/304900_climb23.html. Retrieved October 22, 2007. 
  108. ^ "Washington Mutual Tower opens in downtown Seattle in 1988.". HistoryLink. June 30, 2001. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=3417. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 
  109. ^ Barry Cullingworth; Roger W. Caves (1997). Planning in the USA: Policies, Issues, and Processes. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 0-415-24788-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=5zYpZxUrUtAC&pg=RA1-PA95&lpg=RA1-PA95&dq=%22washington+mutual+tower%22+second+tallest&source=web&ots=YyMqNYqkbJ&sig=Re-QMkH4B6KiEZQFwhuhTjDCB2w. 
  110. ^ "Original Starbucks". City of Seattle. http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/html/visitor/starbucks.htm. Retrieved October 3, 2007. 
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  112. ^ "Nomination and Designation Processes". Landmarks and Designation. Department of Neighborhoods, City of Seattle. https://www.seattle.gov/neighborhoods/preservation/designation_process.htm. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  113. ^ "Recordings and Broadcasts". Seattle Symphony. http://www.seattlesymphony.org/symphony/meet/recordings/. Retrieved October 19, 2007. 
  114. ^ "History". Seattle Symphony Orchestra. http://www.seattlesymphony.org/symphony/meet/history/. Retrieved October 21, 2007. 
  115. ^ a b "About the School". Pacific Northwest Ballet. http://www.pnb.org/pnbschool/philosophy.html. Retrieved October 19, 2007. 
  116. ^ "Met Opera and Seattle Opera to Co-Produce Gluck’s Final Operatic Masterpiece "Iphigénie en Tauride"". Press release. Metropolitan Opera. December 18, 2006. http://www.metoperafamily.org/metopera/news/press/detail.aspx?id=274. Retrieved October 21, 2007.  This press release from New York's Metropolitan Opera describes the Seattle Opera as "one of the leading opera companies in the United States… recognized internationally…"
  117. ^ "Wagner". Seattle Opera. http://www.seattleopera.org/discover/wagner/index.aspx. Retrieved October 21, 2007. 
  118. ^ Matthew Westphal (August 21, 2006). "Seattle Opera's First International Wagner Competition Announces Winners". Playbill Arts. http://www.playbillarts.com/news/article/5090.html. Retrieved October 21, 2007. 
  119. ^ "Home page". SYSO. http://www.syso.org/. Retrieved October 21, 2007. 
  120. ^ The Seattle Times, July 6, 2008
  121. ^ Eric L. Flom (April 21, 2002). "Fifth (5th) Avenue Theatre". HistoryLink. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=3750. Retrieved October 19, 2007. 
  122. ^ Examples of local talent are Billy Joe Huels (lead singer of the Dusty 45s starring in Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story and Sarah Rudinoff in Wonderful Town. National-level stars include Stephen Lynch in The Wedding Singer, which went on to Broadway and Cathy Rigby in Peter Pan
    (1) "Seattle World Premiere of Cry-Baby Delayed. Buddy: The Buddy Holly Story Added to Season". The 5th Avenue Theatre. October 11, 2006. http://www.5thavenue.org/press/buddy-announced.aspx. Retrieved February 19, 2007. 
    (2) "Wonderful Town: A Madcap Manhattan Romp". The 5th Avenue Theatre. 2006. http://www.5thavenue.org/press/wt_cast.aspx. Retrieved October 25, 2007. 
    (3) Misha Berson (February 11, 2006). "Eager-to-please new musical raids the '80s". Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/theaterarts/2002797878_wedding11.html. Retrieved October 25, 2007. 
    (4) "Show Archives". The 5th Avenue Theatre. http://www.5thavenue.org/about/showarchives.aspx. Retrieved October 25, 2007. 
  123. ^ a b Brendan Kiley (January 31, 2008). "Old Timers, New Theater". The Stranger. p. 27. http://www.thestranger.com/seattle/Content?oid=496361. Retrieved January 9, 2009.  "around 100 theater companies ... Twenty-eight have some sort of Actors' Equity contract ..."
  124. ^ "Theatre Producers and Presenters". Seattle Performs. http://seattleperforms.com/content/view/7/17/. Retrieved October 26, 2007.  Lists 145 theatrical production companies in the Seattle metropolitan area, the majority of them in the city. The list is certainly not complete.
  125. ^ (1) "Theater Calendar". The Stranger. October 18, 2007. p. 45.  This lists 23 distinct venues in Seattle hosting live theater (in the narrow sense) that week; it also lists 7 other venues hosting burlesque or cabaret, and three hosting improv. In any given week, some theaters are "dark".
    (2) Misha Berson (February 16, 2005). "A new wave of fringe theater groups hits Seattle". The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/entertainment/2002557462_fringe16.html. Retrieved October 26, 2007.  This article mentions five fringe theater groups that were new at that time, each with a venue.
  126. ^ Daniel C. Schechter (2002). Pacific Northwest. Lonely Planet. p. 33. ISBN 1864503777. 
  127. ^ Stuart Eskenazi (March 1, 2005). "Where culture goes to town". The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002193046_townhall01m.html. Retrieved October 19, 2007. 
  128. ^ a b Clark Humphrey (May 4, 2000). "Rock Music – Seattle". HistoryLink. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=2374. Retrieved October 3, 2007. 
  129. ^ Seattle_Music, the best nightclub Seattle ever had was named Pier 70 Chowder House with the best disk jocky named David Prince
  130. ^ Lori Patrick (August 2, 2007). "Skip your commute for a "Traffic Jam" with a twist, a Hip Hop & Spoken Word Mashup at City Hall, Aug. 16". City of Seattle. http://www.seattle.gov/arts/news/press_releases.asp?prID=7593&deptID=1. Retrieved October 6, 2007. 
  131. ^ "Indie and Team Semis results". National Poetry Slam 2006. August 12, 2006. Archived from the original on August 30, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060830062934/http://www.austinslam.com/nps06/. Retrieved October 6, 2007. 
  132. ^ "Home". Seattle Poetry Slam. http://www.seattlepoetryslam.org/. Retrieved October 6, 2007. 
  133. ^ John Marshall (August 19, 2007). "Eleventh Hour's volunteers deserve credit for a strong poetry fest revival". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/books/312352_poetry20.html. Retrieved October 6, 2007. 
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Bibliography

  • Jones, Nard (1972). Seattle. New York City: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-01875-4. 
  • Morgan, Murray (1982 (originally published 1951, 1982 revised and updated, first illustrated edition)). Skid Road: an Informal Portrait of Seattle. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95846-4. 
  • Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, ed. (1998 (originally published 1994)). Shaping Seattle Architecture: A Historical Guide to the Architects. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 029597365X. ISBN 0295973668. 
  • Sale, Roger (1976). Seattle: Past To Present. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95615-1. 
  • Speidel, William C. (1978). Doc Maynard: the man who invented Seattle. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company. pp. 196–197, 200. ISBN 0-914890-02-6. 
  • Speidel, William C. (1967). Sons of the profits; or, There's no business like grow business: the Seattle story, 1851–1901. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company. pp. 196–197, 200. ISBN 0-914890-00-X, ISBN 0-914890-06-9. 

Further reading

  • Klingle, Matthew (2007). Emerald City: An Environmental History of Seattle. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300116411. 
  • MacGibbon, Elma (1904). "Seattle, the city of destiny" (DJVU). Leaves of knowledge. Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection. Shaw & Borden. OCLC 61326250. http://www.secstate.wa.gov/history/publications%5Fdetail.aspx?p=63. 
  • Pierce, J. Kingston (2003). Eccentric Seattle: Pillars and Pariahs Who Made the City Not Such a Boring Place After All. Pullman, Washington: Washington State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87422-269-2. 

External links


Simple English

City of Seattle
Seattle during the day
Nickname(s): The Emerald City
Coordinates: 47°61′N 122°33′W / 48.017°N 122.55°W / 48.017; -122.55
Country United States
State Washington
County King County
Incorporated December 2, 1869
Government
 - Type Mayor–council
 - Mayor Greg Nickels
Area
 - City 142.5 sq mi (369.2 km2)
 - Land 83.87 sq mi (217.2 km2)
 - Water 58.67 sq mi (152.0 km2)
 - Metro 8,186 sq mi (21,202 km2)
Elevation 0-520 ft (0-158 m)
Population (July 1, 2006)
 - City 582,174
 Density 6,901/sq mi (2,665/km2)
 Metro 3,263,497
 - Demonym Seattleite
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
Area code(s) 206
File:Seattle tower
The Space Needle

Seattle is the largest city in the U.S. state of Washington. It is the home of the Space Needle and a monorail, both of which were built for the 1962 World's Fair. It is also the American headquarters of Starbucks coffee, Amazon.com and Nordstrom. In the 1980s and 1990s, grunge music artists like Nirvana, Pearl Jam, and others from the city became popular. It is also the setting of the TV shows Here Come the Brides, Frasier, and Grey's Anatomy.

Seattle has many sports teams, including the Seattle Mariners (baseball), the Seattle Seahawks (American football), the Sounders FC (soccer), and the Seattle Storm (women's basketball) . Seattle has a lot of water around it, with Puget Sound and the Pacific Ocean to the west and Lake Washington to the east. About 600,000 people live in the city. More than 3,000,000 (3 million) people live in the city or near it.

The University of Washington is in Seattle.


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