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Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas)
Part of the American Civil War
Bull run bridge 1862.jpg
Ruins of Stone Bridge at Bull Run Creek, Manassas, Virginia, March 1862.
Date August 28–30, 1862[1]
Location Prince William County, Virginia
Result Confederate victory
Belligerents
United States United States (Union) Confederate States of America CSA (Confederacy)
Commanders
John Pope Robert E. Lee
Strength
62,000[2] 50,000[2]
Casualties and losses
approx. 10,000 killed and wounded[3] approx. .1,300 killed
approx.
^ During the First Battle, there had been 50,000 troops on the field and 4,878 casualties killed, wounded and missing; during the Second Battle, 112,000 troops on the field and 18,300 (approx.
  • Battle of Bull Run, Manassas - America's Best HistoryBest Historic Sites 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC americasbesthistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

7,000 wounded[3]
.The Second Battle of Bull Run, or, as it was called by the Confederacy, the Battle of Second Manassas, was fought August 28–30, 1862,[1] as part of the American Civil War.^ At the second battle of Bull Run, Aug.
  • Policies 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.gizwebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lost first battle bull-run?
  • WikiAnswers - Who won the first battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

^ They earned their reutation at First Bull Run in the American Civil War.
  • Michael Corcoran's 69th U.S. Infantry Regiment: The Irish of the "Fighting 69th" made their mark at First Bull Run. 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC militaryhistory.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.It was the culmination of an offensive campaign waged by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia against Union Maj.^ Robert E. Lee's army was able to break a Union stranglehold on the Confederate capital at Richmond, and drive Maj.
  • The Battle of Manassas/Bull Run (Second) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mycivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lee then renames his force the Army of Northern Virginia.
  • The History Place - U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Historic La Mott, PA - Chronology of The Civil War 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.historic-lamott-pa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discuss the fate of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.
  • Civil War Study Guide 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www2.austin.cc.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia, and a battle of much larger scale and numbers than the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas) fought in 1861 on the same ground.^ At the second battle of Bull Run, Aug.
  • Policies 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.gizwebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The First Battle of Bull Run (called First Manassas, by the South) was fought on July 21, 1861.
  • battles of Bull Run (American Civil War) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lost first battle bull-run?
  • WikiAnswers - Who won the first battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: News]

.Following a wide-ranging flanking march, Confederate Maj.^ The second day was a quiet morning followed by a fierce Federal attack in the afternoon, succeeded by an overwhelming Confederate counterattack that soundly defeated Maj.
  • Self-Guided Tour 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.history.army.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Confederate General Stonewall Jackson killed after a quick flanking march turns tide to South.
  • ADAH: Alabama Moments (Time Line of the Civil War, Including Alabama's Involvement) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.alabamamoments.alabama.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ADAH: Alabama Moments (Time Line of the Civil War, Including Alabama's Involvement) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.alabamamoments.state.al.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August Lee sent Jackson, followed the next day by Longstreet's divisions, on a wide turning movement around the Federal right flank.
  • 2nd Manassas/Bull Run Campaign 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mycivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. .Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson captured the Union supply depot at Manassas Junction, threatening Pope's line of communications with Washington, D.C. Withdrawing a few miles to the northwest, Jackson took up defensive positions on Stony Ridge.^ John Pope's retreating Union army from reaching the defense line of Washington.
  • Battle of Ox Hill 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.worldandi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thomas J. Jackson acquired his nickname "Stonewall."

^ Jackson, and his defense seemed like a "stonewall".

.On August 28, 1862, Jackson attacked a Union column just east of Gainesville, at Brawner's Farm, resulting in a stalemate.^ August 28, 1862 .
  • Actions 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC vagenweb.org [Source type: General]

^ The fighting at Brawner Farm lasted several hours and resulted in a stalemate.
  • The Battle of 2nd Bull Run (2nd Manassas) Official Records and Battle Description 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Second Bull Run (Manassas), VA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civil-war-journeys.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Civil War 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.harlingen.isd.tenet.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fighting at Brawner Farm lasted several hour and resulted in a stalemate.

.On that same day, the wing of Lee's army commanded by Maj.^ Lee appointed Commander of army in Virginia.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln's army had almost completed its 90-day enlistment requirement and still its field commander, General Irvin McDowell , did not want to fight.
  • First Blood and Its Aftermath [ushistory.org] 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rejoining the main Confederate army, now under Lee's command, Jackson fought in the Seven Days' Battles, the Second Battle of Bull Run, and the battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg.

Gen. .James Longstreet broke through light Union resistance in the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap and approached the battlefield.^ Battle of Thoroughfare Gap August 28 - Longstreet defeats small union force.
  • List of Battles by Date 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.ncgenweb.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jackson had marched to the Union right and rear, destroyed Union communications and supplies, and stationed his troops just west of the first Bull Run battlefield, where he awaited the arrival of James Longstreet with the rest of Lee's army.
  • Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the Union attack on Earlys rebels on September 17th to the Battle of Fishers Hill that broke the Confederate Cause in the Valley in mid November, Capt.
  • PhotoAlbum 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him.^ Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run (Manassas), VA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civil-war-journeys.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Art Fully Redone US Civil War Battle Prints 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.artfullyredone.com [Source type: General]
  • The American Civil War 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.rockingham.k12.va.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fighting at Brawner Farm lasted several hours and resulted in a stalemate.  Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him.
  • Bullrun Manassas Second Virginia Civil War Battle 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americancivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Daringly splitting his army, Lee sent Jackson to destroy Pope’s base at Manassas, while he himself advanced via another route with James Longstreet ’s half of the army.
  • American Civil War (United States history) :: Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and Antietam -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jackson's position along an unfinished railroad grade.^ On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jackson’s position along an unfinished railroad grade.
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jacksons position along an unfinished railroad grade.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run (Manassas), VA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civil-war-journeys.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Art Fully Redone US Civil War Battle Prints 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.artfullyredone.com [Source type: General]

^ On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jackson's position along an unfinished railroad grade.
  • Bullrun Manassas Second Virginia Civil War Battle 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americancivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Battle of 2nd Bull Run (2nd Manassas) Official Records and Battle Description 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The attacks were repulsed with heavy casualties on both sides.^ The attacks were repulsed with heavy casualties on both sides.
  • Bullrun Manassas Second Virginia Civil War Battle 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americancivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fire was heavy from both sides.
  • Sullivan Ballou 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC bessel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The carnage is very heavy on both sides.
  • Untitled Document 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson's right flank.^ Longstreet attacked, pivoting on Jackson's position.
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Second Manassas: Chronology 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson’s right flank.
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 29th, Pope found his army facing two confederate armies and a corps under General James Longstreet, which arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson's right flank.

.On August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field.^ With the morning of August 30 th , Lee awaited Popes renewed attacks.
  • Chapter 3: Second Manassas, South Mountain and Antietam 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.2ndmississippi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson's right flank.  On August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field.
  • Bullrun Manassas Second Virginia Civil War Battle 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americancivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run (Manassas), VA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civil-war-journeys.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Battle of Manassas/Bull Run (Second) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mycivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When massed Confederate artillery devastated a Union assault by Maj.^ The Union right was devastated by Confederate infantry and finally by a charge of Jeb Stuarts Cavalry.

^ When massed Confederate artillery devastated a Union assault by Fitz John Porter's command, Longstreet's wing of 28,000 men counterattacked in the largest, simultaneous mass assault of the war.
  • Bullrun Manassas Second Virginia Civil War Battle 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americancivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Battle of 2nd Bull Run (2nd Manassas) Official Records and Battle Description 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 5-hour battle began with a Union assault resulting in a Confederate retreat to Henry House Hill.
  • BULL RUN, BATTLE OF, 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

Gen. .Fitz John Porter's V Corps, Longstreet's wing of 25,000 men in five divisions counterattacked in the largest, simultaneous mass assault of the war.^ Fitz John Porter’s V Corps, he kept it as a reserve in case of a disaster.
  • American Civil War - The New York Times 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When massed Confederate artillery devastated a Union assault by Fitz John Porter’s command, Longstreet’s wing of 28,000 men counterattacked in the largest, simultaneous mass assault of the war.
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When massed Confederate artillery devastated a Union assault by Fitz John Porter's command, Longstreet's wing of 28,000 men counterattacked in the largest, simultaneous mass assault of the war.
  • Bullrun Manassas Second Virginia Civil War Battle 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americancivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Battle of 2nd Bull Run (2nd Manassas) Official Records and Battle Description 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .The Union left flank was crushed and the army was driven back to Bull Run.^ The Union left flank was crushed and the army driven back to Bull Run.
  • Bullrun Manassas Second Virginia Civil War Battle 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americancivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Second Bull Run (Manassas), VA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civil-war-journeys.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Battle of Manassas/Bull Run (Second) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mycivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Manassas II (Second Bull Run, Manassas Plains, Groveton *) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Manassas II (Second Bull Run, Manassas Plains, Groveton *) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While other Union generals licked their wounds after Bull Run, McClellan gloried in having defeated a Confederate force and aided in the beginnings of a new Unionist state.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / Enter George McClellan—Hero 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Longstreet's forces, consisting of 28,000 troops led by John B. Hood 's brigades, drove forward and crushed the Union left flank as Jackson held it in place.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only an effective Union rearguard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas disaster.^ Only an effective Union rearguard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas disaster.
  • Bullrun Manassas Second Virginia Civil War Battle 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americancivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Battle of 2nd Bull Run (2nd Manassas) Official Records and Battle Description 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Second Bull Run (Manassas), VA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civil-war-journeys.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Battle of Manassas/Bull Run (Second) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mycivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only isolated resistance an effective Union rearguard, a few brigades that held their nerve, including Kearny, prevented a replay of the First Battle of Manassas/Bull Run disaster.
  • The Battle of Manassas/Bull Run (Second) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mycivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first attempt of the Union to invade the Southern Confederacy and seize its capital in Richmond ended in disaster on July 21 of 1861, when Confederate forces turned back the Union Army at Manassas Junction in the battle of Bull Run, or (in the South) Manassas.
  • Antietam - A Photographic Tour:Introduction and Background of Maryland Campaign 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.westwoodgalleries.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pope's retreat to Centreville was nonetheless precipitous.^ Popes retreat to Centreville was precipitous, nonetheless.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run (Manassas), VA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civil-war-journeys.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope’s retreat to Centreville was precipitous, nonetheless.
  • Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope's retreat to Centreville was precipitous, nonetheless.  The next day, Lee ordered his army in pursuit.
  • Bullrun Manassas Second Virginia Civil War Battle 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americancivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Contents

Background and opposing forces

Key Union commanders
After the collapse of Maj. Gen. .George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in the Seven Days Battles of June 1862, President Abraham Lincoln appointed John Pope to command the newly formed Army of Virginia.^ Seven Pines, Virginia, June 12, 1862.
  • 72nd New York Volunteer Battle History 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.snowcrest.net [Source type: General]

^ Battle of Secessionville, June 16th, 1862 .
  • Index to double-page illustrations in The Soldier in Our Civil War, Vol. I 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC frankleslie.com [Source type: General]

^ June 1862 The battle of Seven Pines.
  • The Civil War Battle for Atlanta 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC web.li.gatech.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Pope had achieved some success in the Western Theater, and Lincoln sought a more aggressive general than McClellan.^ He said he knew that McClellan was not an aggressive general.
  • The American Civil War: The Second Battle at Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Civil War: The Second Battle at Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: At Bull Run, a Terrible Defeat for the North - VOA Special English 2009- VOA Special English 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.21voa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sent to the front, he had a number of successes in the Western Theater , culminating in the capture of Vicksburg, Mississippi in 1863.
  • The Complete List of Old West Soldiers - Page 3 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.legendsofamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We knew that Jackson (General Stonewall Jackson) had joined the enemy with his whole force, and we stood waiting an attack, which we felt would be more desperate and sanguinary than the first.

[6]
.The Union Army of Virginia was divided into three corps of 51,000 men, under Maj.^ Defeats the Union Army under Gen.
  • History Bookshelf - Outline - Chapter 22 - The Ordeal of Reconstruction 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC apusnotes.nfshost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After this engagement, Lee sent 30,000 men under Maj.
  • The Battle of Manassas/Bull Run (Second) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mycivilwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The principal Union army of some 30,000 men, under General Irvin...
  • Bull Run, First Battle of – FREE Bull Run, First Battle of information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Bull Run, First Battle of research 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. Franz Sigel (I Corps); Maj. Gen. .Nathaniel P. Banks (II Corps); and Maj.^ Pope had ordered the 2nd Corps, under the command of General Nathaniel P. Banks, further south with the intention of identifying and slowing the Confederate forces which they were facing.
  • 28th New York - Battle Honors 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.28thnycoe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jackson defeated Nathaniel Banks's corps, the vanguard of Pope's army, in the battle of Cedar Mt.
  • Bull Run Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nathaniel P. Banks commands II Corps.
  • Second Bull Run | TOCWOC - A Civil War Blog 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: General]

Gen. .Irvin McDowell, who had led the losing Union army at First Bull Run (III Corps).^ General Irvin McDowell heads for Bull Run , then retreats .
  • �A Splendid Civil War 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Union Army named the battle Battle of Bull Run; the Confederate Army named it Battle of Manassas.
  • http://www.dogstar.com/catalog.html?cat=antique_maps&id=6 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.dogstar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First battle of Bull Run .
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

.Parts of three corps (III, V, and VI) of McClellan's Army of the Potomac and Maj.^ Brigade, 3rd Division, 2nd Corps, Army of the Potomac .
  • History of the 5th 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mi5th.org [Source type: General]

^ Pope selected the III Corps of the Army of Virginia and the IX Corps to play his game.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Brigade, 2nd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to July, 1863.
  • NH Second Regiment 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usgennet.org [Source type: General]

Gen. .Ambrose Burnside's IX Corps (commanded by Maj.^ Lincoln's choice was the commander of the 9th Corp, General Ambrose Burnside.
  • 28th New York - Battle Honors 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.28thnycoe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was praised by corps commander Maj.
  • Civil War General of the Day 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.rocemabra.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When McClellan did not pursue Lee as quickly as Lincoln and Halleck thought he should, he was replaced in command by Ambrose E. Burnside , who had been an ineffective corps commander at Antietam.
  • American Civil War (United States history) :: Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and Antietam -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Gen. Jesse L. Reno), eventually joined Pope for combat operations, raising his strength to 77,000.[7]
On the Confederate side, Gen. .Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was organized into two "wings" or "commands" of about 55,000 men.^ The Army of Virginia was organized in June 1862.

^ Lee then had about 50,000 men at command in his two far-reaching wings, the great jaws of the war monster, .
  • And Then A.P. Hill Came Up - Description of the Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.aphillcsa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An army of 55,000 men was about to march into a region occupied by 100,000, 2 who might easily be reinforced to 150,000; and it was to march in two wings, .
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.The "right wing" was commanded by Maj.^ The right wing, under command of Captain M'Coy, was thrown forward upon the skirmish line.
  • 83d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Organization and Service 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson also commanded the right wing of the victorious Confederate army at Fredericksburg in December 1862.

Gen. .James Longstreet, the left by Maj.^ James Longstreet's assault on the Union left flank, this part of the battlefield saw little action on that day.

^ As two divisions of James Longstreet's 1 st Corps moved forward to attack the 3 rd and 5 th Corps defending the Round Tops on the far left of the Union line.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. Stonewall Jackson. .The Cavalry Division under Maj.^ Near Aldie the cavalry under Pleasanton met the cavalry of the enemy, and Barnes' Division of the Fifth Corps was sent to its support.
  • 83d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Organization and Service 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sheridan reorganized the various forces under his command to include a cavalry corps of three divisions.

^ William French was less experienced and was deploying more slowly behind Sedgwick but ominously out of sight of it while Sumner's third division under Maj.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. J.E.B. Stuart was attached to Jackson's wing.[8]
Key Confederate commanders
Northern Virginia Campaign, August 7–28, 1862.      Confederate      Union
.Pope's mission was to fulfill two basic objectives: protect Washington and the Shenandoah Valley; and draw Confederate forces away from McClellan by moving in the direction of Gordonsville.^ The objective of this campaign was to maintain Confederate possession of the Shenandoah Valley.
  • 28th New York - Battle Honors 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.28thnycoe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October 19, 1864: General Philip Sheridan defeats General Jubal Early's Confederate forces at Cedar Creek, ending Confederate control of the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia .
  • Tools & Resources: Civil War Cheat Sheet - CliffsNotes 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lee sent Jackson and his fast-marching force to Manassas Junction to destroy Pope's main supply base and link to Washington while he advanced north separately with the slower-moving corps of James Longstreet.
  • The Eastern Theater - First And Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Based on his experience fighting McClellan in the Seven Days, Robert E. Lee perceived that McClellan was no further threat to him on the Virginia Peninsula, so he felt no compulsion to keep all of his forces in direct defense of Richmond.^ McClellan’s in the seven days’ battle.

^ Seven days before Richmond .
  • 105th Battles and Engagements 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: General]

^ The Seven Days Battle McClellan’s forces advanced to within 15 miles of Richmond.
  • Important Battles 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.belvideresd.org [Source type: Original source]

.This allowed him to relocate Jackson to Gordonsville to block Pope and protect the Virginia Central Railroad.^ On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jacksons position along an unfinished railroad grade.
  • Art Fully Redone US Civil War Battle Prints 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.artfullyredone.com [Source type: General]

^ Why did Pope let Jackson get behind him.
  • The American Civil War: The Second Battle at Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Civil War: The Second Battle at Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The community originated in 1852 at the junction of the Manassas Gap and Orange & Alexandria Railroad, which linked northern Virginia and Washington, D.C. with the Shenandoah Valley and central Virginia.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
Lee had larger plans in mind. .Since the Union Army was split between McClellan and Pope and they were widely separated, Lee saw an opportunity to destroy Pope before returning his attention to McClellan.^ Daringly splitting his army, Lee sent Jackson to destroy Pope’s base at Manassas, while he himself advanced via another route with James Longstreet ’s half of the army.
  • American Civil War (United States history) :: Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and Antietam -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Concluding that Richmond was no longer in danger from McClellans forces still on the Peninsula, Lee decided that Major General John Pope, commander of the newly formed Federal Army of Virginia, [56] needed to be suppressed.
  • Chapter 3: Second Manassas, South Mountain and Antietam 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.2ndmississippi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee sent Jackson and his fast-marching force to Manassas Junction to destroy Pope's main supply base and link to Washington while he advanced north separately with the slower-moving corps of James Longstreet.
  • The Eastern Theater - First And Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

He committed Maj. Gen. .A.P. Hill to join Jackson with 12,000 men.^ When Hill showed up personally, Jackson told him: "General, your men have done nobly; if you are attacked again you will beat the enemy back."
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee left only 12,000 men, under the command of Major General Jubal Early defending Fredericksburg.
  • 28th New York - Battle Honors 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.28thnycoe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Pope's advance having reached the Rapidan, General A, P. Hill, with his division, was ordered on July 27th to join General Jackson.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.On August 3, General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck directed McClellan to begin his final withdrawal from the Peninsula and to return to Northern Virginia to support Pope.^ Northern Virginia Campaign [August 1862] .

^ McClellan then ordered a general withdrawal.
  • Important Battles 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.belvideresd.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 11th, General Halleck was appointed General-in-chief.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

McClellan protested and did not begin his redeployment until August 14.[11]
.On August 9, Nathaniel Banks's corps attacked Jackson at Cedar Mountain, gaining an early advantage, but a Confederate counterattack led by A.P. Hill drove Banks back across Cedar Creek.^ Battle of Cedar Mountain August 9 - Union forces repelled by Confederate counter-attack.
  • List of Battles by Date 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.ncgenweb.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Battle of Cedar Mountain - August 9, 1862.
  • 28th New York - Battle Honors 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.28thnycoe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle of Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1862.
  • Pictorial Americana: Civil War (1862) (Prints and Photographs Reading Room, Library of Congress) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Jackson's advance was stopped, however, by the Union division of Brig.^ Jackson ordered a counterattack to break up the uncoordinated Union advance before they could bring up reinforcements.
  • Battle of First Bull Run: There Stands Jackson - Battle for Henry Hill - Fast Play Rules for Students 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC juniorgeneral.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first clash of Second Manassas is represented by a pair of Brawner's Farm scenarios, pitting Jackson again a Union division under King.
  • Battleground 7: Bull Run Review for PC - GameSpot 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.gamespot.com [Source type: General]

^ The unit—it was the 33rd Virginia Regiment of Jackson’s brigade—advanced to within seventy yards and then calmly let loose a deadly volley that destroyed the Union position.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / “BULL RUN” RUSSELL 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

Gen. James B. Ricketts. .By now Jackson had learned that Pope's corps were all together, foiling his plan of defeating each in separate actions.^ Jackson defeated Nathaniel Banks's corps, the vanguard of Pope's army, in the battle of Cedar Mt.
  • Bull Run Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lee sent Jackson and his fast-marching force to Manassas Junction to destroy Pope's main supply base and link to Washington while he advanced north separately with the slower-moving corps of James Longstreet.
  • The Eastern Theater - First And Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope ordered a vigorous attack on Jackson's left by Sigel's corps, supported by Heintzelman, Reno and Reynolds.
  • And Then A.P. Hill Came Up - Description of the Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.aphillcsa.com [Source type: Original source]

.He remained in position until August 12, then withdrew to Gordonsville.^ General Bonham marched his brigade back, but, thinking that there was a mistake somewhere, I remained in position until the order was renewed, about 10 o'clock p.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Afterwards returned to their former position and remained building forts, strengthening works, &c., until Dec.
  • Union Flags from Cottage Industries Home of Old Steam Navy and Carolina Miniatures. Civil War Models and memorabilia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cottage-industries.com [Source type: General]

^ Blenker remained in position at Centreville, as rear guard, until about midnight, when he was ordered to fall back on Washington.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

[12] .On August 13, Lee sent Longstreet to reinforce Jackson.^ Daringly splitting his army, Lee sent Jackson to destroy Pope’s base at Manassas, while he himself advanced via another route with James Longstreet ’s half of the army.
  • American Civil War (United States history) :: Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and Antietam -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Again Lee, with all the earnestness of his heroic nature, urged Longstreet to participate and help Jackson in meeting this furious attack.
  • And Then A.P. Hill Came Up - Description of the Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.aphillcsa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stuart believed that Stonewall Jackson and James Longstreet were nearby and rushing to reinforce his hold on the heights.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From August 22 to August 25, the two armies fought a series of minor actions along the Rappahannock River.^ While the two armies were stalemated on the Rappahannock, Stuart's raid striking Pope's rear is narrated followed by an account of Stonewall Jackson's August 25 flanking movement which resulted in the burning of Bristoe Station and the capture of Manassas Junction August 27th.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Pope's army was drawn up along the Rappahannock to defend Washington.
  • Major Civil War Battles 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I understood that this army was to maintain the line of the Rappahannock until all the forces from the Peninsula had united behind that river.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Heavy rains had swollen the river and Lee was unable to force a crossing.^ Second Battle of Fort Fisher January 15 - Union takes fort Battle of Rivers' Bridge February 3 - Union forces capture river crossing.
  • List of Battles by Date 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.ncgenweb.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scene on the road near Emmitsburg - marching through the rain," Union forces pursue Lee's after the Battle of Gettysburg.
  • The History Project - University of California, Davis 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC historyproject.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Union forces had besieged General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia in the city of Petersburg but were unable to penetrate the defensive lines to take the city.
  • Wisconsin Veterans Museum Foundation Blog » 2007 » 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.wvmfoundation.com [Source type: General]

.By this time, reinforcements from the Army of the Potomac were arriving from the Peninsula.^ The Confederate pursuit of the Union forces marching back to Alexandria, even as more units from McClellan's Army of the Potomac arrived at Centreville to reinforce Pope, was checked on September 1 at Chantilly (see Chantilly).
  • The Eastern Theater - First And Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Inferring that the enemy had relinquished all active operations in the Peninsula, and that Pope would soon be reinforced by the Army of the Potomac , Lee resolved to take the offensive without delay.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope and McClellan had been given time, and the hours of the night might have been utilised to bring up the remainder of the Army of the Potomac .
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Lee's new plan in the face of all these additional forces outnumbering him was to send Jackson and Stuart with half of the army on a flanking march to cut Pope's line of communication, the Orange & Alexandria Railroad.^ General Pope still thought he was facing only Jackson's army.
  • The American Civil War: The Second Battle at Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Civil War: The Second Battle at Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: At Bull Run, a Terrible Defeat for the North - VOA Special English 2009- VOA Special English 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.21voa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stonewall Jacksons flank march is successful.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At least one half of Popes army had gradually assembled on this flank.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Pope would be forced to retreat and could be defeated while moving and vulnerable.^ Welker stresses the importance of Pope's line, saying, “The size and flexibility of Pope's force would have made any army commander jealous.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He could not stop Pope's retreat to Centreville and Washington.
  • The American Civil War: The Second Battle at Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Civil War: The Second Battle at Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: At Bull Run, a Terrible Defeat for the North - VOA Special English 2009- VOA Special English 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.21voa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope would need to use the Warrenton Turnpike to retreat to Washington, and Lee hoped to get Jackson interspersed between the Federal Army and their Capital.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

.Jackson departed on August 25 and reached Salem (present-day Marshall) that night.^ On the first day of Pope's full-scale attack against Jackson at the Groveton plateau (August 29), the 16th Massachusetts was part of Joseph Hooker's division.
  • http://members.cox.net/rayhbanks/Pages485-490.html 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jackson's chief surgeon, Dr. Hunter H. McGuire, was the only physician present the entire six days.

^ It was not until the next day that Jackson and Longstreet were close enough to reach Evelington Heights, but by then the Union army had too strong a grip on the hills to be dislodged.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.On the evening of August 26, after passing around Pope's right flank via Thoroughfare Gap, Jackson's wing of the army struck the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Bristoe Station and before daybreak August 27 marched to capture and destroy the massive Union supply depot at Manassas Junction.^ Sigels Corps to march from Gainesville to Manassas Junction, the right resting on the Manassas railroad.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ August 27 - Bristoe Station, Virginia.
  • 72nd New York Volunteer Battle History 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.snowcrest.net [Source type: General]

^ He destroyed supplies and army material and captured Pope's headquarters wagons.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This surprise movement forced Pope into an abrupt retreat from his defensive line along the Rappahannock.^ Early in February, Grant sends his cavalry and infantry south and west of Petersburg in an attempt to sever the only remaining supply lines into the city and to force Lee to extend his already strained defensive positions.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope's army was drawn up along the Rappahannock to defend Washington.
  • Major Civil War Battles 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But now, forced into line in the open field, while the enemy was sheltered by the wood, it in turn was subjected to the fiery ordeal.
  • 83d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Organization and Service 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the night of August 27–28, Jackson marched his divisions north to the First Bull Run (Manassas) battlefield, where he took position behind an unfinished railroad grade below Stony Ridge.^ July 21 First battle of Manassas (Bull Run) , Virginia.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first battle of Bull Run.
  • Georgia Civil War Map Collection at USHistoricalArchive.com 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.ushistoricalarchive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August 28-30 Battle of Second Manassas (Bull Run) , Virginia.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] The defensive position was a good one. .The heavy woods allowed the Confederates to conceal themselves, while maintaining good observation points of the Warrenton Turnpike, the likely avenue of Union movement, only a few hundred yards to the south.^ The losses in the battle were considered heavy, though they would soon seem insignificant: The confederates suffered 1,982 casualties, the Union 2,896.
  • Bull Run Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That wily leader had disappeared in the woods about Bull Run and no one in the entire Union army knew where he and his 25,000 lean followers were concealed.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On Henry Hill Beauregard had also limited his control to the regimental level, generally allowing the battle to continue on its own and only reacting to Union moves.
  • First Battle of Bull Run Manassas Junction Virginia American Civil War 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC americancivilwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.There were good approach roads for Longstreet to join Jackson, or for Jackson to retreat to the Bull Run Mountains if he could not be reinforced in time.^ Thoroughfare Gap, a gap in the Bull Run Mountains, ...
  • Manassas "unfinished railroad" hike, observations - The Dispatch Depot at Civil War Talk 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civilwartalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Jackson ordered a counterattack to break up the uncoordinated Union advance before they could bring up reinforcements.
  • Battle of First Bull Run: There Stands Jackson - Battle for Henry Hill - Fast Play Rules for Students 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC juniorgeneral.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jackson had marched to the Union right and rear, destroyed Union communications and supplies, and stationed his troops just west of the first Bull Run battlefield, where he awaited the arrival of James Longstreet with the rest of Lee's army.
  • Bull Run Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally, the unfinished railroad grade offered cuts and fills that could be used as ready-made entrenchments.^ In May 1863 the "Gray Ghost" John S. Mosby first requested a mountain howitzer, and said that he "could use it with great effect, especially on the railroad trains."
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jackson's men, still entrenched in the unfinished railroad cut, ran behind the ...
  • Manassas "unfinished railroad" hike, observations - The Dispatch Depot at Civil War Talk 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civilwartalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Confederates were defending the cut of an unfinished railroad on the ridge in the ...
  • Manassas "unfinished railroad" hike, observations - The Dispatch Depot at Civil War Talk 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civilwartalk.com [Source type: General]

[15]
.In the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap on August 28, Longstreet's wing broke through light Union resistance and marched through the gap to join Jackson.^ Battle of Thoroughfare Gap August 28 - Longstreet defeats small union force.
  • List of Battles by Date 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.ncgenweb.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most interesting segment deals with Pope focusing so much on Jackson that he leaves Thoroughfare Gap lightly defended allowing Longstreet to arrive on the scene in time to strike during Jackson's critical need for relief.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Jackson had marched to the Union right and rear, destroyed Union communications and supplies, and stationed his troops just west of the first Bull Run battlefield, where he awaited the arrival of James Longstreet with the rest of Lee's army.
  • Bull Run Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This seemingly inconsequential action virtually ensured Pope's defeat during the coming battles because it allowed the two wings of Lee's army to unite on the Manassas battlefield.^ The two armies met in the Battle of Gettysburg .
  • American Civil War - The New York Times 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Daringly splitting his army, Lee sent Jackson to destroy Pope’s base at Manassas, while he himself advanced via another route with James Longstreet ’s half of the army.
  • American Civil War (United States history) :: Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and Antietam -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Union General John Pope's Army, retreating after defeat by Robert E. Lee at Second Manassas, clashed with "Stonewall" Jackson's divisions which were attempting to prevent Pope from reaching Washington, D.C. Although Union Generals Kearny and Stevens were killed, Jackson's men were held off by the smaller Union forces.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

Battle

August 28: Brawner's Farm (Gainesville)

Action at Brawner's Farm, August 28.
.The Second Battle of Bull Run began on August 28 as a Federal column, under Jackson's observation just outside of Gainesville, near the farm of the John Brawner family, moved along the Warrenton Turnpike.^ At the second battle of Bull Run, Aug.
  • Policies 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.gizwebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By midnight, the 2 nd Mississippi was back in line just north of the Warrenton Turnpike near the Brawner Farm.
  • Chapter 3: Second Manassas, South Mountain and Antietam 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.2ndmississippi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aug 29/30, 1862 Second Battle of Bull Run .
  • Historic La Mott, PA - Chronology of The Civil War 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.historic-lamott-pa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It consisted of units from Brig. .Gen. Rufus King's division: the brigades of Brig.^ The brigade was with its division-now commanded by Gen.
  • Policies 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.gizwebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fourth division, under Brig.-Gen.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The army of the Potomac, before the battle, consisted of the First brigade, one North Carolina and four South Carolina regiments, under Brig.-Gen.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

Gens. .John P. Hatch, John Gibbon, Abner Doubleday, and Marsena R. Patrick, marching eastward to concentrate with the rest of Pope's army at Centreville.^ Popes army rested in its camps.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The corps of Sumner, Franklin and Cox, from McClellan's army, were that day marching toward Pope, under urgent orders, from Alexandria.
  • And Then A.P. Hill Came Up - Description of the Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.aphillcsa.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Pope (1822-1892), Union general in command of the newly-created Army of Virginia (26 June-2 September 1862).
  • Virginia Historical Society: Manuscripts and Archives Finding Aids< 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vahistorical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.King was not with his division because he had suffered a serious epileptic attack earlier that day.^ On the first day of Pope's full-scale attack against Jackson at the Groveton plateau (August 29), the 16th Massachusetts was part of Joseph Hooker's division.
  • http://members.cox.net/rayhbanks/Pages485-490.html 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again, when King’s single division, the rear-guard of Pope’s army, appeared upon the turnpike, Jackson attacked it with the idea that it was the flank-guard of a much larger force.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee talked to Jackson and apparently agreed with him that Pope might attack on the 2nd because the ANV stayed in place into the morning of that day.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

[17]
.Jackson, who had been relieved to hear earlier that Longstreet's men were on their way to join him, displayed himself prominently to the Union troops, but his presence was disregarded.^ Jackson had marched to the Union right and rear, destroyed Union communications and supplies, and stationed his troops just west of the first Bull Run battlefield, where he awaited the arrival of James Longstreet with the rest of Lee's army.
  • Bull Run Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Hill showed up personally, Jackson told him: "General, your men have done nobly; if you are attacked again you will beat the enemy back."
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The blazing and defiant look of Jackson, his bold and prompt determination, and the steady line of brave men that supported him, gave new life to Bee.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

.Concerned that Pope might be withdrawing his army behind Bull Run to link up with McClellan's arriving forces, Jackson determined to attack.^ Halleck ordered McClellan to bring his army up to join Pope.
  • The American Civil War: The Second Battle at Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Civil War: The Second Battle at Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope was attacking Jackson when Longstreet came up on Aug.
  • Bull Run Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Civil War : President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restored Union General George McClellan to full command after General John Pope 's disastrous defeat at the Battle of Second Bull Run .
  • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 2| Great Fire of London goddesses Semele Ariadne Ramadan Yatzuo Kaze-No-Bon Wind BonEvent Japan William Roschild Roskilde Margaret Louvain Marathonia Liliuokalani Henry George 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

.Returning to his position behind the tree line, he told his subordinates, "Bring out your men, gentlemen."^ Soon there came an order for the brigades to withdraw and return to their positions behind the run.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Hill showed up personally, Jackson told him: "General, your men have done nobly; if you are attacked again you will beat the enemy back."
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Johnston, directing reinforcements, and Beauregard, controlling the battle line, managed to bring up enough reinforcements to maintain their Henry Hill position.
  • The Eastern Theater - First And Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.jcs-group.com [Source type: Original source]

.At about 6:30 p.m., Confederate artillery began shelling the portion of the column to their front, John Gibbon's Black Hat Brigade (later to be named the Iron Brigade).^ The Iron Brigade, known for steel in battle and distinctive black headgear, was one of the few all-Western units in the Army of the Potomac.
  • The Second Bull Run Campaign, July-August 1862 by David G. Martin at Questia Online Library 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The latter unit earned its membership into the brigade and its Black Hats with valor at Fredericksburg, won at awful human cost.
  • Union Flags from Cottage Industries Home of Old Steam Navy and Carolina Miniatures. Civil War Models and memorabilia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cottage-industries.com [Source type: General]

^ It was about 1600, and, with the Union threat against Henry Hill apparently over, the Confederates turned their attention to Chinn Ridge where Howard’s brigade had arrived.
  • Battle of First Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gibbon, a former artilleryman, responded with fire from Battery B, 4th U.S. Artillery.^ The left of the battery was not far distant from the guns on Jackson’s right, and the whole of the open space was thus exposed to the cross-fire of a formidable artillery.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After the arrival of Longstreet the enemy changed his position and began to concentrate opposite Jackson's left, opening a brisk artillery fire, which was responded to with effect by some of General A. P. Hill's batteries.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was responded to by a very heavy fire from the enemy, forcing our batteries to select another position.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

The artillery exchange halted King's column. .Hatch's brigade had proceeded past the area and Patrick's men, in the rear of the column, sought cover, leaving Gibbon and Doubleday to respond to Jackson's attack.^ Jackson ordered an immediate attack on a Federal column that was passing straight across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28, 1862.

^ I sent word to the column to hasten its march, and proceeded to the left at once ,myself in the direction of the firing, arriving on the field just before dark, and found that Gibbon's brigade, of King's division, was engaged with the enemy, with Doubleday's and Patrick's brigades in the vicinity.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson knew that Pope had thousands of fresh men in the vicinity, and he strongly believed that Pope would renew the attacks in the morning.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

.Gibbon assumed that, since Jackson was supposedly at Centreville (according to Pope), and having just seen the 14th Brooklyn Zouaves of Hatch's Brigade reconnoiter the position, that these were merely horse artillery cannons from Jeb Stuart's cavalry.^ Stuart's horse artillery and his cavalry fired and charged in both directions.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The unit—it was the 33rd Virginia Regiment of Jackson’s brigade—advanced to within seventy yards and then calmly let loose a deadly volley that destroyed the Union position.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / “BULL RUN” RUSSELL 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Longstreet talks about Stuart's Horse Artillery being deployed in the open field to combat the Union soldiers.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Gibbon sent aides out to the other brigades with requests for reinforcements, and sent his staff officer Frank A. Haskell to bring the veteran 2nd Wisconsin Infantry up the hill to disperse the harassing cannons.^ He sent out staff officers to find McDowell, but decided to attack with what he had.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Medon's Guards dispersed reinforcements sent to aid.

^ Instead, he sent the 13th New York Infantry up the slope of Henry Hill.
  • Battle of First Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gibbon met the 2nd in the woods saying, "If we can get you up there quietly, we can capture those guns."^ There the Sixth met its recruits and those who had not reenlisted, brought forward from Kentucky.
  • Policies 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.gizwebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We met the cavalry returning saying that there was no chance for them to do anything in the thick woods.
  • 1st Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The dense woods, however, proved impenetrable to all but three horse-artillery guns, and one of these was unable to keep up.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.
Our men on the left loaded and fired with the energy of madmen, and the 6th worked with equal desperation.^ Our fire was so terrible and certain that after having the colors in front of us shot down twice they broke down in confusion and left us in possession of the field.
  • Wisconsin Veterans Museum Foundation Blog » 2007 » 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.wvmfoundation.com [Source type: General]

^ When the firing commenced our main army some fifteen or twenty thousand men, were lying in camp about two miles back.
  • 1st Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But our men, exhausted with fatigue and thirst and confused by firing into each other, were attacked by the enemy's reserves, and driven from the position we had gained, overlooking Manassas.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

.This stopped the rush of the enemy and they halted and fired upon us their deadly musketry.^ Our fire was so terrible and certain that after having the colors in front of us shot down twice they broke down in confusion and left us in possession of the field.
  • Wisconsin Veterans Museum Foundation Blog » 2007 » 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.wvmfoundation.com [Source type: General]

^ They were received with the very climax of the enemy's fire, from both musketry and artillery and, though they retreated at last, it was not till they had been severely mangled that they escaped to the open field.
  • 1st Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though exposed to a fearful musketry fire, the line did not waver, and the enemy was driven from its front.
  • 83d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Organization and Service 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: Original source]

.During a few awful moments, I could see by the lurid light of the powder flashes, the whole of both lines.^ The powder on both sides was in fact wet, and fighting in mud and a downpour so violent the soldier's couldn't even see sapped the aggressiveness of the fighters.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two Sharpsburg events lining up for 07, both capped at 2,000, so I don't think we will see a BIG Sharpsburg event next year.
  • 145th Manassas/Bull Run [Archive] - Civil War Reenactors Discussion Forums 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cwreenactors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We could not see any of the enemy's movements but the sound of cannon was still heard both to our right and our left.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

The two ... were within ... fifty yards of each other pouring musketry into each other as fast as men could load and shoot.
—Maj. Rufus R. Dawes, 6th Wisconsin[20]
.The 2nd Wisconsin, under the command of Col. Edgar O'Connor, advanced obliquely back through the woods the Federal column was passing through.^ Jackson ordered an immediate attack on a Federal column that was passing straight across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28, 1862.

^ B The battle of Bull Run, between the Federal Army, Commanded by Major General McDowell, and the Confederate Army, under Generals Johnston and Beauregard, on July 21st, 1861 - Advance of the Federal Troops Wood Engraving; 9 1/4" x 14" .
  • Guide to the Northern Virginia Civil War images collection, 1853-1914 Northern Virginia Civil War imagesC0150 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After breaching the outer perimeter, American forces under command of Col. Elijah Clark were routed by British Regulars and Florida Rangers.
  • Search Our Georgia History for battle 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC ourgeorgiahistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the 430 men emerged from the woods on John Brawner's farm they were quietly formed and advanced up the hill.^ When Hill showed up personally, Jackson told him: "General, your men have done nobly; if you are attacked again you will beat the enemy back."
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The regiment advanced up the hill alone and unsupported.
  • Sullivan Ballou 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC bessel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the survivors retired behind the Dunker Church, they found only about 700 unwounded men of approximately 2000 in the division who had advanced at dawn.
  • Chapter 3: Second Manassas, South Mountain and Antietam 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.2ndmississippi.org [Source type: Original source]

.Upon reaching the plateau, they deployed skirmishers who drove back Confederate skirmishers.^ The horsemen and their howitzers were unable to advance any farther so they pulled back 50 yards to a nearby abandoned Confederate trench for shelter.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then it goes back to a present day family who are living in a house that they turned into a bed and breakfast that was once a stop along the Underground Railroad.
  • American Historical Fiction Reviews - Seminole County Public Library 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.seminolecountyfl.gov [Source type: General]

^ His Confederates drove into the Union lines, which faltered and fell back.
  • Major Civil War Battles 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

They soon received a heavy volley into their right flank by 800 men of the fabled Stonewall Brigade, commanded by Col. William S. Baylor. .Absorbing the volley from 150 yards (140 m), the 2nd Wisconsin did not waver, but replied with a devastating volley at the Virginians in Brawner's orchard.^ Over a three-week period in August-September 1862, the 2nd Wisconsin fought in intense battles at Brawner’s Farm, South Mountain, and Antietam.
  • Wisconsin Veterans Museum Foundation Blog » 2007 » 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.wvmfoundation.com [Source type: General]

^ Brawner’s Farm was the first of many great successes of the Iron Brigade and the 2nd Wisconsin.
  • Wisconsin Veterans Museum Foundation Blog » 2007 » 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.wvmfoundation.com [Source type: General]

.The Confederates returned fire when the lines were only 80 yards (73 m) apart.^ Calculating percentage of loss is difficult since numbers of men actually on the firing line are only estimates, see Hartwig, 164.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Griffin ’s five guns soon unlimbered just north of the Henry house, and his and Ricketts’ batteries began a close-range artillery duel with the Confederate artillery along Jackson ’s line, only three hundred yards away.
  • Battle of First Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He persuaded his captors that they were within the Confederate picket lines, and would be fired on whichever way they attempted to escape.
  • And Then A.P. Hill Came Up - Description of the Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.aphillcsa.com [Source type: Original source]

.As units were added by both sides, the battle lines remained close together, a standup fight with little cover, trading mass volleys for over two hours.^ At the conclusion of several hours of fighting, both sides withdrew, exhausted from the battle.
  • http://www.dogstar.com/catalog.html?cat=antique_maps&id=6 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.dogstar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two Sharpsburg events lining up for 07, both capped at 2,000, so I don't think we will see a BIG Sharpsburg event next year.
  • 145th Manassas/Bull Run [Archive] - Civil War Reenactors Discussion Forums 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cwreenactors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The advance separated the regiment from most of its brigade, but they contiuned to fight for nearly two hours until their ammunition was gone.
  • Wisconsin Veterans Museum Foundation Blog » 2007 » 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.wvmfoundation.com [Source type: General]

Jackson described the action as "fierce and sanguinary." Gibbon added his 19th Indiana. .Jackson, personally directing the actions of his regiments instead of passing orders to the division commander, Maj.^ Instead, he ordered Maj.
  • Battle of First Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He continued in that position until the Regiment reached Rappahanock Station, when he received orders from General Rice, commanding the First Division, to report at his headquarters as Acting Aide-de-Camp upon his staff.
  • 76th NYSV - Roster (W) 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.bpmlegal.com [Source type: News]

^ Jackson ordered an immediate attack on a Federal column that was passing straight across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28, 1862.

Gen. .Richard S. Ewell, sent in three Georgia regiments belonging to Brig.^ However, three regiments of Jubal Early's Brigade stopped the breakthrough and sent Stevens' now-leaderless division streaming for the rear.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

^ R. S. Ewell; Third brigade, two Mississippi and one South Carolina regiments, under Brig.-Gen..
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ D. R. Jones; Fourth brigade, one North Carolina and three Virginia regiments, under Brig.-Gen.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

Gen. Alexander R. Lawton's brigade. Gibbon countered this advance with the 7th Wisconsin. Jackson ordered Brig. Gen. .Isaac R. Trimble's brigade to support Lawton, which met the last of Gibbon's regiments, the 6th Wisconsin.^ Unions staunchest formations - composed of the 2nd , 6th and 7th Wisconsin and 19th Indiana regiments, later...the 24th Michigan.
  • The Second Bull Run Campaign, July-August 1862 by David G. Martin at Questia Online Library 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The brigade was passing behind the Gibbon Wood which partly hid it from sight to the north, the 6th Wisconsin was just coming into view east of the wood and the 19th Indiana was yet west of it.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Monday, July 23rd, 2007 The Iron Brigade makes it 6-0 so far in this tournament with the 6th Wisconsin’s defeat of the 12th Wisconsin.
  • Wisconsin Veterans Museum Foundation Blog » 2007 » 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.wvmfoundation.com [Source type: General]

[21]
.After Trimble's brigade entered the action, Gibbon needed to fill a gap in his line between the 6th Wisconsin and the rest of the Iron Brigade regiments.^ During the 6th and 7th the regiment was upon the front line, where was considerable cannonading, and some skirmishing; but it remained behind its entrenchments without being seriously molested.
  • 83d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Organization and Service 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These cuts and fills are what remain of the Independent Line of the Manassas Gap ...
  • Manassas "unfinished railroad" hike, observations - The Dispatch Depot at Civil War Talk 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC civilwartalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Just before sundown the lead of the 4th brigade of Kings Division, carrying the banners of Indiana and Wisconsin, afterwards known as the "Iron Brigade."
  • 76th NYSV - Uberto Burnham on Second Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.bpmlegal.com [Source type: Original source]

.Doubleday sent in the 56th Pennsylvania and the 76th New York, who advanced through the woods and checked the new Confederate advance.^ Return to 76th New York homepage .
  • 76th NYSV - Roster (W) 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.bpmlegal.com [Source type: News]

^ Pennsylvania and 76th New York, eager for the fray.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Doubleday bowed assent and the men of Pennsylvania and New York pushed forward through the wood to the aid of their comrades from Wisconsin and Indiana.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

.These men arrived at the scene after dark and both Trimble and Lawton launched uncoordinated assaults against them.^ Despite sharing little in common in their lives, both of these men were hard fighters with bright futures.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These men lifted their hands against the white man, while their fathers held theirs out to him with gifts.
  • Sitting Bull 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC siouxme.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In both cases, however, these men were treated with the utmost respect.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

.Horse artillery under Captain John Pelham was ordered forward by Jackson and fired at the 19th Indiana from less than 100 yards (91 m).^ The 7th had been reduced by killed, wounded, sick and straggling to less than 100 men, of which more than 30 were killed and wounded here.
  • Brief History of the 7th Tennessee Infantry Regiment 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prices had risen more than 100% during the war, but wages rose less than 50%.
  • The History Project - University of California, Davis 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC historyproject.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sixth went forward into withering fire in which it lost more than half of its force before the signal was given to retire.
  • Historic La Mott, PA - Chronology of The Civil War 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.historic-lamott-pa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The engagement ended around 9 p.m., with Gibbon's men slowly retreating backwards still firing, making their line at the edge of the woods.^ On each front the edge was sharply defined, while towards the rear of each it was less so, showing how men had staggered backwards after receiving their death blow."
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ General Gibbon in vain sent for aid, only two regiments making their appearance near the end of the action.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Calculating percentage of loss is difficult since numbers of men actually on the firing line are only estimates, see Hartwig, 164.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Doubleday's regiments retired to the turnpike in an orderly fashion. .The fight was essentially a stalemate, but at a heavy cost, with over 1,150 Union and 1,250 Confederate casualties.^ The losses in the battle were considered heavy, though they would soon seem insignificant: The confederates suffered 1,982 casualties, the Union 2,896.
  • Bull Run Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The total casualties in the campaign were Union, 10,142; Confederate, 9091.

^ Battle of Devil's Backbone September 1 - Union victory after heavy fighting.
  • List of Battles by Date 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.ncgenweb.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 2nd Wisconsin lost 276 of 430 engaged.^ Remember, the 2nd Wisconsin lost nearly 20% of its men in the field, #1 among all Union regiments.
  • Wisconsin Veterans Museum Foundation Blog » 2007 » 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.wvmfoundation.com [Source type: General]

.The Stonewall brigade lost 340 out of 800. Two Georgia regiments—Trimble's 21st and Lawton's 26th—each lost more than 70%.^ The regiment lost but two or three wounded.
  • 83d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Organization and Service 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sixth went forward into withering fire in which it lost more than half of its force before the signal was given to retire.
  • Historic La Mott, PA - Chronology of The Civil War 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.historic-lamott-pa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Stonewall Brigade, which had by this time dwindled to 600 muskets, lost over 200, including five field officers; the 21st Georgia, of Trimbles brigade, 178 men out of 242; and it is probable that the Valley army on .
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.In all, one of every three men engaged in the fight was shot.^ The first shots of the soldiers went through the teepees, so no one was hurt, but Three Bears was killed down by where White Bull was.
  • Lazy White Bull's Story of the Battle of the Little Bighorn 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.astonisher.com [Source type: News]

^ The howitzer fired 18 shots during the brief fight and lost one cannoneer killed.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When they start fighting, Three Bears [and] Dog with Horns were killed, and after they started for them, White Bull and Swift Bear were shot by a Ree Scout.
  • Lazy White Bull's Story of the Battle of the Little Bighorn 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.astonisher.com [Source type: News]

Confederate Brig. Gen. .William B. Taliaferro wrote, "In this fight there was no maneuvering and very little tactics.^ T here was no maneuvering, little tactics.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The attack was thus no stronger than the defence, and as the Federal artillery positions were restricted by the woods, there could be little doubt of the result.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During the fighting there, Sedgwick's men gained little ground and he was hit by a spent ball but uninjured as he needlessly exposed himself to enemy fire.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was a question of endurance and both endured."^ It was a contest of endurance and both endured.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

.Taliaferro was wounded, as was Ewell, whose right leg had to be amputated.^ Gunshot wound of the right leg .

^ He was wounded by a gunshot wound in the right leg in the summer of 1864.

^ Colonel Woodward was struck in the right knee, the wound resulting in the loss of his leg.
  • 83d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Organization and Service 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: Original source]

[22]
.
In a few moments our entire line was engaged in a fierce and sanguinary struggle with the enemy.^ At the close of the day it was ordered to the front line, to relieve troops which had, during the day, been struggling to advance upon the enemy's stronghold on the heights beyond.
  • 83d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Organization and Service 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Colonel Walton placed his batteries in a commanding position between my line and that of General Jackson, and engaged the enemy for several hours in a severe and successful artillery duel.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the enemy were bayoneted in their tracks, others struck down with the butts of pieces, and onward pressed our line.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.As one line was repulsed another took its place and pressed forward as if determined by force of numbers and fury of assault to drive us from our positions.
—Maj.^ The 8th in its forward position was under heavy artillery and musket and took about fifty percent casualties, a severe loss demonstrating the fury it faced: 34 killed, 139 wounded, and 21 missing.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was responded to by a very heavy fire from the enemy, forcing our batteries to select another position.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One is to play as the CSA with difficulty set accordingly and randomization lines with a USA advantage, another similar but to play as the USA and a 3rd with no difficulty levels, variant setups or arrivals and randomization lines with no advantage.
  • Gettysburg! Online Society - Community for Sid Meier's Gettysburg! Players 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC smgettysos.f-snet.com [Source type: General]

Gen. Stonewall Jackson[23]
.Jackson had not been able to achieve a decisive victory with his superior force (about 6,200 men against Gibbon's 2,100),[24] due to darkness, his piecemeal deployment of forces, the wounding of two of his key generals, and the tenacity of the enemy.^ He had about 9,000 men against a defending force of less than 2,000.
  • Major Civil War Battles 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 7th had been reduced by killed, wounded, sick and straggling to less than 100 men, of which more than 30 were killed and wounded here.
  • Brief History of the 7th Tennessee Infantry Regiment 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Brigade's first test in battle occurred in the prelude to Second Bull Run when the four regiments confronted a superior force of Stonewall Jackson's men on the farm fields of a family named Brawner.
  • Union Flags from Cottage Industries Home of Old Steam Navy and Carolina Miniatures. Civil War Models and memorabilia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cottage-industries.com [Source type: General]

.But he had achieved his strategic intent, attracting the attention of John Pope.^ The arrival on August 29 of Longstreet's Corps in support of Jackson and the failure of McClellan to support John Pope dramatically changed the tactical and strategic situation.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Pope wrongly assumed that the fight at the Brawner Farm occurred as Jackson was retreating from Centreville.^ The Brigade's first test in battle occurred in the prelude to Second Bull Run when the four regiments confronted a superior force of Stonewall Jackson's men on the farm fields of a family named Brawner.
  • Union Flags from Cottage Industries Home of Old Steam Navy and Carolina Miniatures. Civil War Models and memorabilia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cottage-industries.com [Source type: General]

^ The fighting at Brawner Farm lasted several hour and resulted in a stalemate.

^ Jackson, retreating by Aldie Gap, would have joined Longstreet west of the mountains; Pope would have escaped defeat, but the Confederates would have lost nothing.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Pope believed he had "bagged" Jackson and sought to capture him before he could be reinforced by Longstreet.^ Daringly splitting his army, Lee sent Jackson to destroy Pope’s base at Manassas, while he himself advanced via another route with James Longstreet ’s half of the army.
  • American Civil War (United States history) :: Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and Antietam -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Jackson knew that Pope had thousands of fresh men in the vicinity, and he strongly believed that Pope would renew the attacks in the morning.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson, however, knew not that one division was all that was before him.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

Pope's dispatch sent that evening to Maj. Gen. .Philip Kearny stated, in part, "General McDowell has intercepted the retreat of the enemy and is now in his front ...^ McDowell, ran the order, has intercepted the retreat of the enemy, Sigel is immediately in his front, and I see no possibility of his escape.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After receiving the joint order, General McDowell again joined Porter, at the front, and showed him a dispatch just received from Ruford, dated 9:30 A. M., and addressed to Ricketts.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, a telegram arrived stating “General McDowell’s army in full retreat through Centreville.
  • Battle of First Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unless he can escape by by-paths leading to the north to-night, he must be captured."^ There was but one thing to do, to retreat at once; and only one line of escape still open, the roads leading north and north-west from Manassas Junction.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Gibbon conferred with King, Patrick, and Doubleday as to the next move, because McDowell was "lost in the woods."^ Hearing the sound of the guns indicating King's engagement with the enemy, McDowell set off to rejoin his command, but lost his way, and I first heard of him next morning at Manassas Junction.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Per Gibbon's recommendation, the only remaining Federal force still between Lee and Jackson moved out at 1 a.m.^ Payne was appointed commander of the 2nd , and when Union forces moved out to Sharpsburg, he returned to Warrenton to find a desperate situation.
  • The Second Bull Run Campaign, July-August 1862 by David G. Martin at Questia Online Library 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Early in February, Grant sends his cavalry and infantry south and west of Petersburg in an attempt to sever the only remaining supply lines into the city and to force Lee to extend his already strained defensive positions.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Lee called upon reinforcements from the Stonewall Jackson forces in the Shenandoah Valley.
  • American Civil War - The New York Times 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

heading east on the pike towards Centreville.[25]
.Pope issued orders to his subordinates to surround Jackson and attack him in the morning, but he made several erroneous assumptions.^ Bull Head, advising him of the disposition to be made of the cavalry command which was to cooperate with him, and directed him to make the arrest at daylight the following morning.

^ Jackson appears to have received the attack in position as stated by General Pope in the next sentence.---- EDITORS. .
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of 2nd Manassas --In order to draw Pope's army into battle, Jackson ordered an attack on a Federal column that was passing across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28.

.He assumed that McDowell and Sigel were blocking Jackson's retreat routes toward the Bull Run Mountains, but the bulk of both units were southeast of Jackson along the Manassas-Sudley Road.^ Heavy skirmishing along Bull Run.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His regiment was actively engaged with General Thomas J. Jackson's army at the Battles of McDowell and Cross Keys before moving to join General John Pope's army and fighting at Cedar Mountain and Second Bull Run.
  • CAC: NW Ohio in the Civil War--55th Ohio Volunteer Infantry 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.bgsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the days to come, the individual reports will be published and linked from this page.  JULY 16-22, 1861.- The Bull Run, or Manassas, Campaign, Virginia.
  • American Civil War - 1st Manassas - Bull Run | Official Record Excerpts 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwar.com [Source type: Reference]

.Pope's assumption that Jackson was attempting to retreat was completely wrong; Jackson was in a good defensive position, anxiously awaiting the arrival of Longstreet to begin attacking Pope.^ Porter reports Longstreet's arrival and implores Pope that he cannot attack Jackson as ordered.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The text notes, amazingly Pope failed to recognize the danger to his left and continues "With Porter long since gone from his threatening position ....Longstreet recognized his opportunity to completely envelop the Union left.To accomplish this, Longstreet selected as the objective of his attack the old battleground of Henry Hill."
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Jackson knew that Pope had thousands of fresh men in the vicinity, and he strongly believed that Pope would renew the attacks in the morning.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

.Despite receiving intelligence of Longstreet's movements, Pope inexplicably discounted his effect on the battle to come.^ On the Henry Hill, Pope's rear guard, in the late afternoon of August 30, 1862, repulsed the attacks of Longstreet coming from the west.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]

August 29: Jackson defends Stony Ridge

August 29, 10 a.m.: Sigel's attack.
.Jackson had initiated the battle at Brawner's farm with the intent of holding Pope until Longstreet arrived with the remainder of the Army of Northern Virginia.^ This was the decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign.

^ James Longstreet at the second battle of Bull Run in northern Virginia.
  • The History Place - U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Historic La Mott, PA - Chronology of The Civil War 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.historic-lamott-pa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next day Lee arrived and crushed the Federal left with a massive flank assault by Longstreet, which, combined with Jackson’s counterattacks, drove the Northerners back in rout upon Washington.
  • American Civil War (United States history) :: Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and Antietam -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Longstreet's 25,000 men began their march from Thoroughfare Gap at 6 a.m.^ Leaving 1,700 invalids at Winchester, Virginia, Johnston got 9,000 of his men through Ashby’s Gap and onto trains for Manassas.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / “BULL RUN” RUSSELL 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nov 15, 1864 - After destroying Atlanta's warehouses and railroad facilities, Sherman, with 62,000 men begins a March to the Sea.
  • The History Place - U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An army of 55,000 men was about to march into a region occupied by 100,000, 2 who might easily be reinforced to 150,000; and it was to march in two wings, .
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

on .August 29; Jackson sent Stuart to guide the initial elements of Longstreet's column into positions that Jackson had preselected.^ Daringly splitting his army, Lee sent Jackson to destroy Pope’s base at Manassas, while he himself advanced via another route with James Longstreet ’s half of the army.
  • American Civil War (United States history) :: Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) and Antietam -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Jackson ordered an immediate attack on a Federal column that was passing straight across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28, 1862.

^ They finally arrived in Washington, D.C., by train on 29 August and went into camp on Arlington Heights.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While he waited for their arrival, Jackson reorganized his defense in case Pope attacked him that morning, positioning 20,000 men in a 3,000-yard (2,700 m) line to the south of Stony Ridge.^ Early in February, Grant sends his cavalry and infantry south and west of Petersburg in an attempt to sever the only remaining supply lines into the city and to force Lee to extend his already strained defensive positions.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book describes how the Union commanders under Pope launched attacks against Jackson which often breached his lines but lacking coordination and support from other units, after much gallantry failed with heavy losses.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Jackson knew that Pope had thousands of fresh men in the vicinity, and he strongly believed that Pope would renew the attacks in the morning.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

.Noticing the build up of I Corps (Sigel's) troops along the Manassas-Sudley Road, he ordered A.P. Hill's brigades behind the railroad grade near Sudley Church on his left flank.^ Sherman next ordered the 2d Wisconsin Infantry up the Manassas-Sudley Road .
  • Battle of First Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Troops were still moving through Gainesville, and, instead of turning off to Manassas, were marching up the turnpike on which so many eyes were turned from the neighbouring woods.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thrown into the woods along the Sudley–Manassas road, five battalions of the United States army held the extreme left, the most critical point of the Federal line, until .
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Aware that his position was geographically weak (because the heavy woods in the area prevented effective deployment of artillery), Hill placed his brigades in two lines, with Brig.^ Third line: Two brigades.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ First and Second line: Two brigades.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Placement of the guns on Henry Hill would bring the artillery perilously close to the Confederate line.
  • Battle of First Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. .Maxcy Gregg's South Carolina brigade and Brig.^ The army of the Potomac, before the battle, consisted of the First brigade, one North Carolina and four South Carolina regiments, under Brig.-Gen.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They went forward aggressively and fell on a South Carolina brigade, part of A.P. Hill's command.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They were confronting veteran South Carolina regiments in Maxcy Gregg's brigade to their front and left flank.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. .Edward L. Thomas's Georgia brigade in the front.^ Kearny ended up wandering into the front of Thomas' Confederate Brigade, and their volley killed him as he tried to escape.
  • Tempest At Ox Hill: The Battle of Chantilly by David A. Welker 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.brettschulte.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Grovers brigade of Hookers division had hitherto been held in reserve, sheltered by a roll of the land opposite that portion of the front which was held by Thomas.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the center of the line, Jackson placed two brigades from Ewell's division (now under the command of Brig.^ Centre.Two brigades of Ewells Division (now commanded by Lawton).
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Third line: Two brigades.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ First and Second line: Two brigades.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

Gen. .Alexander Lawton following Ewell's leg amputation), and on the right, William B. Taliaferro's division, now commanded by Brig.^ Centre.Two brigades of Ewells Division (now commanded by Lawton).
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Right.Taliaferros Division (now commanded by Stark).
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At about 7:30 as Mansfield and the division commander of his lead division, Williams, were posting troops, Mansfield was mortally wounded and the two-thirds of the 12th Corps which were green troops were in trouble.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. William E. Starke.[27]
.Pope's intention was to move against Jackson on both flanks.^ Stonewall Jackson, moving southward on his march around Pope, was here joined by J.E.B. Stuart with his cavalry, August 26, 1862.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Battle of Kernstown --Jackson hoped to take the ridge and move beyond the Federals' right flank and cut them off from Winchester.

^ Late in the afternoon, after Jackson had repulsed Pope's assaults, Longstreet moved eastward, driving the Union forces facing him toward Henry Hill.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He ordered Fitz John Porter to move toward Gainesville and attack what he considered to be the Confederate right flank.^ The Fourteenth was moving to the right flank.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Directly after this you ordered the brigade to move forward towards Sangster's Station, 7 miles up the railroad, and within 3 miles of Bull Run.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reports had been received that a large Confederate force of infantry, cavalry and artillery was moving to attack Union-held New Berne.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He ordered Sigel to attack Jackson's left at daybreak.^ Jackson ordered an immediate attack on a Federal column that was passing straight across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28, 1862.

^ While the battle was raging on Jackson's left, General Longstreet ordered Hood and Evans to advance, but before the order could be obeyed Hood was himself attacked, and his command at once became warmly engaged.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At 5:30 o'clock, when General Porter should have been going into action in compliance with this order, I directed Heintzelman and Reno to attack the enemy's left.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sigel, unsure of Jackson's dispositions, chose to advance along a broad front, with Brig.^ The only real issue was that on the second day as we advanced with Jackson's brigade the Yankee Artillary directly to our front was loaded.
  • 145th Manassas/Bull Run [Archive] - Civil War Reenactors Discussion Forums 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cwreenactors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson had just ridden along his lines, examining with his own eyes the stir in the Groveton wood, when, in rear of the skirmishers, advancing over the highroad, appeared the serried ranks of the line .
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He advanced to Fairfax Court House on the morning of the 23d, and a little later established his pickets along the Potomac, and in front of Washington, in sight of the dome of the capitol.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

Gen. .Robert C. Schenck's division, supported by Brig.^ His three divisions, Schurz, Schencks, and Steinwehrs, supported by Milroys independent brigade, advanced to the attack along a wide front.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

Gen. .John F. Reynolds's division (Heintzelman's III Corps) on the left, Brig.^ Sketched portrait of Samuel Peter Heintzelman, commander of the III Corps of the U.S. Army of the Potomac .
  • Virginia Historical Society: Manuscripts and Archives Finding Aids< 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vahistorical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This move of Kearny was to strengthen my right at Bristoe and unite the two divisions of Heintzelman's corps.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Photograph of the Union General John Sedgwick (1813-1864), commander of the 2nd Division of the II Corps of the U.S. Army of the Potomac .
  • Virginia Historical Society: Manuscripts and Archives Finding Aids< 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vahistorical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. .Robert H. Milroy's independent brigade in the center, and Brig.^ His three divisions, Schurz, Schencks, and Steinwehrs, supported by Milroys independent brigade, advanced to the attack along a wide front.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Warren was there with the survivors of the 5th New York Zouaves, along with Brigadier General Robert Milroy and his brigade of Ohio and West Virginia men.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

Gen. Carl Schurz's division on the right. .Schurz's two brigades, moving north on the Manassas-Sudley Road, were the first to contact Jackson's men, at about 7 a.m.^ Jackson moved west, then north.
  • Major Civil War Battles 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First and Second line: Two brigades.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Brigade's first test in battle occurred in the prelude to Second Bull Run when the four regiments confronted a superior force of Stonewall Jackson's men on the farm fields of a family named Brawner.
  • Union Flags from Cottage Industries Home of Old Steam Navy and Carolina Miniatures. Civil War Models and memorabilia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cottage-industries.com [Source type: General]

[28]
.The actions in Sigel's attack against A.P. Hill's division was typical of all the battles near Stony Ridge that day.^ All day long the battle raged.
  • Major Civil War Battles 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ My brigade was now placed in position on the ridge alongside the Pike where it climbed the hill near the Robinson House, the pieces of Battery "B" being unlimbered, were prepared for action.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the battle of Chattanooga, November 23, 1863, it was put on duty with the Second (Sheridans) Division of the Fourth Corps and was engaged near Bushy Knob on that and the following day.
  • 4th U.S. Artillery History 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usregulars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the unfinished railroad grade provided natural defensive positions in some places, in general the Confederates eschewed a static defense, absorbing the Union blows and following up with vigorous counterattacks.^ American Civil War: Union forces under General William T Sherman entered Atlanta, Georgia a day after the Confederate defenders fled the city.
  • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 2| Great Fire of London goddesses Semele Ariadne Ramadan Yatzuo Kaze-No-Bon Wind BonEvent Japan William Roschild Roskilde Margaret Louvain Marathonia Liliuokalani Henry George 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ I withdrew General Wilcox, with his three brigades, from the left, and placed his command in position to support Jones in case of an attack against my right.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Colonel Walton placed his batteries in a commanding position between my line and that of General Jackson, and engaged the enemy for several hours in a severe and successful artillery duel.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.(These were the same tactics that Jackson would employ at the Battle of Antietam a few weeks later.^ The battle was fought a few hours later.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only thing that really surprised me was that Lee was unable to destroy Pope and only a month later, he suffered defeat at Antietam from the same army he defeated earlier.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ For these two reasons the battle of Antietam was one of the important battles of the Civil War.
  • Major Civil War Battles 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

) .Schurz's two brigades (under Brig.^ The army of the Potomac, before the battle, consisted of the First brigade, one North Carolina and four South Carolina regiments, under Brig.-Gen.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearer Bull Run were two brigades of Ricketts; and to Morell’s left rear the division of regulars moved forward under Sykes.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ R. S. Ewell; Third brigade, two Mississippi and one South Carolina regiments, under Brig.-Gen..
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

Gen. Alexander Schimmelfennig and Col. Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski) skirmished heavily with Gregg and Thomas, with both sides committing their forces piecemeal. .As Milroy heard the sound of battle to his right, he ordered two of his regiments to assist Schurz.^ The brigades of Holmes and Early and two regiments of Bonham's brigade, with six guns, were ordered to move rapidly to the left to reinforce the battle of Evans and Bee on the Warrenton road.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We could not see any of the enemy's movements but the sound of cannon was still heard both to our right and our left.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This wheeling movement of his right to the Federal left and rear, by his front line, was to be followed up by the reserves, which, without orders, were to move to the sound of the heaviest firing.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

.They achieved some success, and the 82nd Ohio breached the Confederate lines in a ground depression known as the Dump, but were eventually repulsed.^ Five Union divisions made repeated assaults on Hill's men and at times pushed into their lines, but they were never able to drive away the Confederates.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there were some Federal reports that the Confederates also were showing the U.S. National colors, they were never substantiated.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Ohio brigade held the line, but by 5:30 PM they were under extreme pressure.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

.Schenck and Reynolds, subjected to a heavy artillery barrage, answered with counterbattery fire, but did not advance their infantry.^ The artillery opened fire as the infantry moved forward to assault the Confederate works.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Federal gunners, striving valiantly to cover the retreat of their shattered infantry, met the advance of the Southerners with a rapid fire.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But when several batteries opened a heavy fire, and heavy columns advanced against their flanks, the men broke in flight towards the bridge.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

[29]
.Assuming that Kearny's division of the III Corps was poised to support him, Schurz ordered another assault against Hill around 10 a.m.^ C Portions of the Middle Department 2nd Division 8th Army Corps Lithograph; 9" x 10 1/2" .
  • Guide to the Northern Virginia Civil War images collection, 1853-1914 Northern Virginia Civil War imagesC0150 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This move of Kearny was to strengthen my right at Bristoe and unite the two divisions of Heintzelman's corps.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Late in the afternoon, after Jackson had repulsed Pope's assaults, Longstreet moved eastward, driving the Union forces facing him toward Henry Hill.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kearny did not move forward and the second assault failed.^ The artillery opened fire as the infantry moved forward to assault the Confederate works.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McClellan ordered Franklin to move forward that morning, but then had second thoughts and ordered Franklin to halt.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was promoted to second lieutenant to date October 3, 1862 and moved with the Army of the Potomac to Fredericksburg but did not participate in the battle.
  • CAC: NW Ohio in the Civil War--55th Ohio Volunteer Infantry 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.bgsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Historians have faulted Kearny for his actions that day, blaming a personal grudge that Kearny held against Sigel.[30]
August 29, 12 noon: Longstreet arrives, Porter stalls.
By 1 p.m., Sigel's sector was reinforced by the division of Maj. Gen. .Joseph Hooker (III Corps) and the brigade of Brig.^ For the Union, Major General George B. McClellan, Brigader General Ambrose E. Burnside, and Major General Joseph Hooker, were the commanders.

Gen. Isaac Stevens (IX Corps). Pope also arrived on the battlefield, expecting to see the culmination of his victory. .By this time, Longstreet's initial units were in position to Jackson's right.^ The unit—it was the 33rd Virginia Regiment of Jackson’s brigade—advanced to within seventy yards and then calmly let loose a deadly volley that destroyed the Union position.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / “BULL RUN” RUSSELL 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While this demonstration was being made on our right, a large force advanced to assail the left of Jackson's position, occupied by the division of General A. P. Hill.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was at this time, probably, that Jackson received a message from a brigade commander, reporting that his cartridges were so wet that he feared he could not maintain his position.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

Brig. Gen. .John Bell Hood's division straddled the turnpike, loosely connected with Jackson's right flank.^ Wilcox’ division, north of the turnpike, connected with Jackson’s right.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ September 1, 1864 - American Civil War: Confederate General John Bell Hood evacuates Atlanta, Georgia after a four-month siege by General Sherman .
  • Today's Show: Friday, September 1, 2006 | Air America Media 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC airamerica.com [Source type: General]

^ When that assault failed, the Unionists north of the turnpike were attacked by the brigades of Featherston and Pryor (of Wilcox, which were acting with some of Jackson's troops and with one brigade of Hood.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

To Hood's right were the divisions of Brig. Gens. James L. Kemper and David R. "Neighbor" Jones. Brig. Gen. .Cadmus M. Wilcox's division arrived last and was placed into reserve.^ General D. R. Jones's division was placed upon the Manassas Gap railroad to the right, and en echelon with regard to the last three brigades.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Starke’s division never came into action, and of Hill’s and Lawton’s there were still brigades in reserve.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Holocaust : Diarist Anne Frank and her family were placed on the last transport train from Westerbork to Auschwitz , arriving three days later.
  • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 2| Great Fire of London goddesses Semele Ariadne Ramadan Yatzuo Kaze-No-Bon Wind BonEvent Japan William Roschild Roskilde Margaret Louvain Marathonia Liliuokalani Henry George 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

[31]
.Stuart's cavalry encountered Porter, Hatch, and McDowell moving up the Manassas-Gainesville Road and a brief firefight halted the Union column.^ Whilst this was going on, Heintzelman's division was moving down the field to the stream and up the road beyond.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Porter, who had been called up from the Manassas road, was already marching northwards through the woods.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I instructed McDowell to move along the road from Centreville toward Fairfax Court House, as far as Difficult Creek, and to connect on his right with Hooker.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Then a courier arrived with a message for Porter and McDowell, a controversial document from Pope that has become known as the "Joint Order". Historian John J. Hennessy described the order as a "masterpiece of contradiction and obfuscation that would become the focal point of decades of wrangling."^ After receiving the joint order, General McDowell again joined Porter, at the front, and showed him a dispatch just received from Ruford, dated 9:30 A. M., and addressed to Ricketts.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I immediately sent a joint order, addressed to Generals McDowell and Porter, ** repeating the instructions to move forward with their commands toward Gainesville, and informing them of the position and movements of Sigel and Heintzelman.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Porter took counsel of his fears and decided to sit on his hands; McDowell was less passive and took a division by a roundabout route to join Pope.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

.It described the attacks on Jackson's left, which were already underway, but was unclear about what Porter and McDowell were supposed to do.^ About two o'clock in the afternoon three discharges of artillery were heard on the extreme left of our line or right of the enemy's, and I for the moment, and naturally, believed that Porter and McDowell had reached their positions and were engaged with the enemy.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At 5:30 o'clock, when General Porter should have been going into action in compliance with this order, I directed Heintzelman and Reno to attack the enemy's left.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, about 5:00 PM, Phil Kearny moved up the turnpike towards the Bull Run in an attempt to outflank Jackson's men by an attack through the woods.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

.Rather than moving "to" Gainesville and striking Jackson's supposedly unprotected right flank, it described a move "toward" Gainesville and "as soon as communication is established [with the other divisions] the whole command shall halt.^ The Fourteenth was moving to the right flank.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I also wrote McDowell the situation and directed him to call back to Gainesville any part of his force which had moved in the direction of Manassas Junction, and march upon Centreville along the Warrenton pike with the whole force under his command to intercept the retreat of Jackson toward Thoroughfare Gap.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Longstreet entered the turnpike near Gainesville, and, moving down toward Groveton, the head of his column came upon the field in rear of the enemy's left, which had already opened with artillery upon Jackson's right, as previously described.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.It may be necessary to fall back behind Bull Run to Centreville tonight."^ GENERAL: I closed my division report of the battle at Bull Run at the time we left for Centreville.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reno appears not to have been at Centreville at this time, since General Pope's headquarters "near Bull Run" were between him and Centreville at 3 A. M. on the 20th.---EDITORS. .
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Butler, George, 19, taken prisoner at Bull Run, paroled in May 1862, died Aug.
  • Roster of the 27th NY Volunteers - Organized at Elmira NY 1861 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.joycetice.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nowhere in the order did Pope explicitly direct Porter and McDowell to attack and he concluded the order with "If any considerable advantages are to be gained from departing from this order it will not be strictly carried out," rendering the document virtually useless as a military order.^ Do not hesitate to pre-order these Strictly Limited items in the future as you will surely miss out.

^ After receiving the joint order, General McDowell again joined Porter, at the front, and showed him a dispatch just received from Ruford, dated 9:30 A. M., and addressed to Ricketts.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Porter took counsel of his fears and decided to sit on his hands; McDowell was less passive and took a division by a roundabout route to join Pope.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

[32]
Meanwhile, Stuart's cavalry under Col. Thomas Rosser deceived the Union generals by dragging tree branches behind a regiment of horses to simulate great clouds of dust from large columns of marching soldiers. .At this time, McDowell received a report from his cavalry commander, Brig.^ Reports had been received that a large Confederate force of infantry, cavalry and artillery was moving to attack Union-held New Berne.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To gain time, Beauregard gathered all the cavalry at hand, and, mounting behind each an infantryman, started to head off the reported Federal movement.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such of the subordinate reports as mention the time, as well as the reports of Generals McDowell and Reynolds, tend to confirm General Sigel's statement.--- EDITORS. .
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

Gen. .John Buford, who reported that 17 regiments of infantry, one battery, and 500 cavalry were moving through Gainesville at 8:15 a.m.^ One battery of each regiment was to be armed with 4 3-in.
  • 4th U.S. Artillery History 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usregulars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Porter was digesting this development when he was met personally by McDowell, who was carrying a message from General Buford describing the enemy force: "Seventeen regiments, one battery and five hundred cavalry passed through Gainesville."
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Reports had been received that a large Confederate force of infantry, cavalry and artillery was moving to attack Union-held New Berne.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was Longstreet's wing arriving from Thoroughfare Gap, and it warned the two Union generals that trouble lay to their front.^ On August 29th, Pope found his army facing two confederate armies and a corps under General James Longstreet, which arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson's right flank.

^ Beardsley's men were able to discover that Jackson was heading through Thoroughfare Gap, on his way to attack Union General John Pope's flank in the extremely successful Second Manassas Campaign.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Schenck reports that the two Ohio regiments left Bull Run after the cavalry charge, and arrived at Centreville in good order.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

The Union advance was again halted. .For some reason, McDowell neglected to forward Buford's report to Pope until about 7 p.m., so the army commander was operating under two severe misconceptions: that Longstreet was not near the battlefield and that Porter and McDowell were marching to attack Jackson's right flank.^ Stonewall Jacksons flank march is successful.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope’s flank until Longstreet came into line.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope and McDowell were hunting for Jackson.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

[33]
.As Longstreet's men were placed into their final positions, General Lee ordered an offensive against the Union left.^ General Bonham marched his brigade back, but, thinking that there was a mistake somewhere, I remained in position until the order was renewed, about 10 o'clock p.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I withdrew General Wilcox, with his three brigades, from the left, and placed his command in position to support Jones in case of an attack against my right.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the arrival of Longstreet the enemy changed his position and began to concentrate opposite Jackson's left, opening a brisk artillery fire, which was responded to with effect by some of General A. P. Hill's batteries.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.(Longstreet later remembered that Lee "was inclined to engage as soon as practicable, but did not order."^ Very soon, the 2nd was ordered to rise and go up into the field, and did so, presenting a battalion front to the north.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee orders Longstreet, Hill, & Ewell to march toward Gettysburg.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

) .Longstreet, however, saw that the divisions of Reynolds and Schenck extended south of the Warrenton Turnpike, overlapping half of his line, and he argued against making the attack at that time.^ Jackson ordered an immediate attack on a Federal column that was passing straight across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28, 1862.

^ This attack along the pike was made by King's division near sunset; but, as Porter made no movement whatever toward the field, Longstreet, who was pushing to the front, was able to extend his lines beyond King's left with impunity, and King's attack did not accomplish what was expected, in view of the anticipated attack which Porter was ordered to make, and should have been making at the same time.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Does it really make a difference whether the South was trying to extend slavery for political or economical reasons?
  • Hit & Run > Mutual Aid, Private Property, and Armed Self-Defense - Reason Magazine 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lee eventually relented when Jeb Stuart reported that the force on the Gainesville-Manassas Road (Porter and McDowell) was formidable.^ It is intended to turn the position, force the enemy from the road, that it may be reopened, and, if possible, destroy the railroad leading from Manassas to the valley of Virginia, where the enemy has a large force.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After McDowell arrived on Matthews’ Hill to take command, Porter extended the Union line to Dogan Ridge, west of the Manassas-Sudley Road .
  • Battle of First Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He could not retrace his steps through Gainesville, as that place was occupied by McDowell with a force equal if not superior to his own.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

[34]
August 29, 3 p.m.: Grover's attack.
.Pope, assuming that the attack on Jackson's right would proceed as he thought he had ordered, authorized four separate attacks against Jackson's front with the intent of diverging the Confederates' attention until Porter delivered the fatal blow.^ Morell’s attack was directed against Jackson’s right.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I withdrew General Wilcox, with his three brigades, from the left, and placed his command in position to support Jones in case of an attack against my right.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Getting to Jackson's right flank by marching through half of Lee's army didn't seem very practical, and after giving the matter some thought, Porter decided to stay where he was.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

Brig. Gen. .Cuvier Grover's brigade attacked at 3 p.m., expecting to be supported by Kearny's division.^ I withdrew General Wilcox, with his three brigades, from the left, and placed his command in position to support Jones in case of an attack against my right.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First New Jersey Brigade, going to support of General Kearny.
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On Fri- day afternoon Grover's brigade, of Hooker's division, here charged Jackson's center before Kearny's successful and bloody charge on Jackson's left.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Grover was fortunate to accidentally strike through a gap in a line that opened between Thomas and Gregg.^ I was in the midde of the battleline and we were the ones who went first through the gap in line of trees onto the second field area.
  • 145th Manassas/Bull Run [Archive] - Civil War Reenactors Discussion Forums 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cwreenactors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federal cavalry still stood between Stuart and Thoroughfare Gap, and not only was Jackson unaware that Longstreet had broken through, but he was unaware whether he could break through.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Between Greggs and Thomas brigades a gap of over a hundred yards, as the men closed in upon the .
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.His spirited bayonet charge was successful temporarily, but Kearny once again did not move forward as ordered and Pope did not intend to support a major attack.^ At about 4 P.M. Harland ordered his three regiments to advance but apparently only the 8th heard the order and moved forward.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On Fri- day afternoon Grover's brigade, of Hooker's division, here charged Jackson's center before Kearny's successful and bloody charge on Jackson's left.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they attempt this point again, Hill,” were his orders to that general at Busaco, “give them a volley and charge bayonets; but don’t let your people follow them too far.” .
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

Brig. Gen. .Dorsey Pender's brigade beat back the attack.^ When Hill showed up personally, Jackson told him: "General, your men have done nobly; if you are attacked again you will beat the enemy back."
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Three fresh brigades were rapidly deployed; as the enemy pressed the attack a fourth was sent in, and the Northerners fell back with the loss of a general and many men.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Two brigades had crossed and were advancing, when a heavy body of the enemy, concealed in a wood near by, suddenly attacked and drove back our force.
  • 83d Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Organization and Service 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.pa-roots.com [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.Reynolds was ordered to conduct a spoiling attack south of the turnpike and encountered Longstreet's men, causing him to call off his demonstration.^ Reynolds, south of the turnpike, and confronting Longstreet, was immediately ordered to fall back and support the attack, and two small brigades, Warren’s and Alexander’s, were left alone on the Federal left.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When Hill showed up personally, Jackson told him: "General, your men have done nobly; if you are attacked again you will beat the enemy back."
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He further asserts, somewhat extravagantly, that if Porter had attacked he (Longstreet) would have annihilated him.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pope dismissed Reynolds's concern as a case of mistaken identity, insisting that Reynolds had run into Porter's V Corps, preparing to attack Jackson's flank.^ Explain the results of Jackson's flank attack.
  • Civil War Study Guide 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www2.austin.cc.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beardsley's men were able to discover that Jackson was heading through Thoroughfare Gap, on his way to attack Union General John Pope's flank in the extremely successful Second Manassas Campaign.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unaccustomed to such disjointed marches as were now in progress across his front, Jackson believed that Kings column was the flank-guard of McDowells army corps.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

Jesse Reno ordered a XI Corps brigade under Col. James Nagle to attack the center of Jackson's line again. This time Brig. Gen. .Isaac R. Trimble's brigade was driven back from the railroad embankment, but Confederate counterattacks restored the line and pursued Nagle's troops back into the open fields until Union artillery halted their advance.^ Confederate victory halts Fed advance into southwest Missouri.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The rest of the Confederates were driven back by Union reinforcements from other areas.

^ Union troops fall back to Washington.
  • Historic La Mott, PA - Chronology of The Civil War 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.historic-lamott-pa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The American Civil War 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.rockingham.k12.va.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
August 29, 5–7 p.m., Kearny's attack, Hood vs. Hatch.
.At 4:30 p.m., Pope finally sent an explicit order to Porter to attack, but his aide (his nephew) lost his way and did not deliver the message until 6:30 p.m.^ After receiving the joint order, General McDowell again joined Porter, at the front, and showed him a dispatch just received from Ruford, dated 9:30 A. M., and addressed to Ricketts.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At that moment one of Johnston's aides peremptorily ordered that the batteries should not open, and when asked whether General Johnston had sent such an order, replied that he gave it on his own responsibility.
  • War between the States - The Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the Henry Hill, Pope's rear guard, in the late afternoon of August 30, 1862, repulsed the attacks of Longstreet coming from the west.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In any event, Porter was in no better position to attack then than he was earlier in the day.^ The attack was thus no stronger than the defence, and as the Federal artillery positions were restricted by the woods, there could be little doubt of the result.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The scattershot Federal attacks on Jackson's positions had failed, and Pope was still angry over the failure of McDowell and Porter to get their men into battle.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But the fresh attack was made with no better concert than those which preceded it.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.But in anticipation of the attack that would not come, Pope ordered Kearny to attack Jackson's far left flank, intending to put strong pressure on both ends of the line.^ Both flanks were protected by artillery, and strong reinforcements were coming up.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Explain the results of Jackson's flank attack.
  • Civil War Study Guide 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www2.austin.cc.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jackson ordered an immediate attack on a Federal column that was passing straight across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28, 1862.

.At 5 p.m., for the first time in the battle, Kearny's fierce offensive reputation was realized and he surged forward with ten regiments, striking A.P. Hill's depleted division.^ GENERAL: I closed my division report of the battle at Bull Run at the time we left for Centreville.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the regiments which had been driven from the hill in the first two attempts of the enemy to keep possession of it had become shaken, were unsteady, and had many men out of the ranks.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A fierce yell and a heavy volley, and the regiments of the second line surged forward, driving back the intruders, and closing the breach.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.During the most severe fighting of the day, counterattacks by the brigades of Brig.^ During the Seven Days' fight (Fording Bear Creek one mile below Savage Station) June 29th, 1862.
  • Pictorial Americana: Civil War (1862) (Prints and Photographs Reading Room, Library of Congress) 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Mosby carried off the barrels and broke carriages of the two howitzers, and continued to favor the howitzer for his style of fighting and used several during the rest of the war.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 5 o'clock in the day until some time after dark the fighting all along our lines was severe and bloody, and our losses were very heavy.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

Gens. .Lawrence O'Bryan Branch and Jubal A. Early repulsed the Union advance.^ Jubal Early's Confederate troops expel Union forces from the Shenandoah Valley and march to the outskirts of Washington, before being turned back at Fort Stevens.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sigel moves against Early, but his advance is repulsed.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.On the Confederate right, Longstreet observed a movement of McDowell's force away from his front; the I Corps was moving divisions to Henry House Hill to support Reynolds.^ He was to be supported by Reynolds's division.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a time Ricketts's division of McDowell's corps was placed in support of this movement.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no doubt, had General McDowell been with his command when King's division of his corps became engaged with the enemy, he would have brought forward to its support both Sigel and Reynolds, and the result would have been to hold the ground west of Jackson at least until morning brought against him also the forces moving from the direction of Centreville.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

This report caused Lee to revive his plan for an offensive in that sector. Longstreet once again argued against it, this time due to inadequate time before dusk. .He suggested instead that a reconnaissance in force could feel the position of the enemy and set up the Confederates for a morning attack.^ On September 10 th the 34 th and 37 th were attacked at Fayette by a large force of Confederate cavalry.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Hill showed up personally, Jackson told him: "General, your men have done nobly; if you are attacked again you will beat the enemy back."
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Reports had been received that a large Confederate force of infantry, cavalry and artillery was moving to attack Union-held New Berne.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lee agreed and Hood's division was sent forward.^ Some batteries were ordered to change position so as to rake their lines; and the Stonewall Division, reinforced by a brigade of Hill’s, was sent forward to the counter-attack.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee sent an order to Jackson to send his men forward as well.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At every step the losses of the Federals increased, and the shattered divisions, passing through two regiments of regulars, which had been sent forward to support them, sought shelter in the woods.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, Pope, who maintained his delusion that the Confederates were retreating, sent the division of John P. Hatch west on the turnpike to pursue.^ Here Generals John Gibbons and Hatch's Brigades, Army of the Potomac, raiding south from Fredericksburg, were attacked by J.E.B. Stuart's Cavalry, on August 6, 1862, and retreated northward.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We were sent forward,” reported a regimental commander with quiet sarcasm, “to pursue the enemy, who was said to be retreating; we found the enemy, but did not see them retreat.” .
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Had French continued to the west, he would have likely hit the Confederate division attacking Sedgwick's left flank on its flank but that, unfortunately for Sedgwick, did not happen.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hood and Hatch collided briefly at the Groveton crossroads, but the short, violent confrontation ended at darkness and both sides withdrew.^ At the conclusion of several hours of fighting, both sides withdrew, exhausted from the battle.
  • http://www.dogstar.com/catalog.html?cat=antique_maps&id=6 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.dogstar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At dark Ewell withdrew, ending the last major engagement of the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hostile lines were within short range, and the advent of a reserve on either side would have probably ended the engagement.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Longstreet and his subordinates again argued to Lee that they should not be attacking a force they considered to be placed in a strong defensive position, and for the third time, Lee canceled the planned assault.^ Early in February, Grant sends his cavalry and infantry south and west of Petersburg in an attempt to sever the only remaining supply lines into the city and to force Lee to extend his already strained defensive positions.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Robert E. Lee easily forced the much larger Union army to leave its positions close to the Confederate capital by attacking their flanks and playing on George McClellan's fears of the supposedly huge Southern army opposing him.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Petersburg, Virginia, showing the position of General Lee and his staff during the attack on Fort Stedman, March 25, 1865].
  • Georgia Civil War Map Collection at USHistoricalArchive.com 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.ushistoricalarchive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]
.When Pope learned from McDowell about Buford's report, he finally acknowledged that Longstreet was on the field, but he optimistically assumed that Longstreet was there only to reinforce Jackson while the entire Confederate army withdrew; Hood's division had in fact just done that.^ Pope and McDowell were hunting for Jackson.
  • Gainesville 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC secondwi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederate army received only about 700 reinforcements.

^ Only 15 Confederates had been wounded, and the supplies on which Popes army, whether it was intended to move against Longstreet or merely to hold the line of the Rappahannock, depended both for food and ammunition were in Jacksons hands.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Pope issued explicit orders for Porter's corps to rejoin the main body of the army and planned for another offensive on August 30. Historian A. Wilson Greene argues that this was Pope's worst decision of the battle.^ August 10 Battle of Wilson's Creek .
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mansfield received orders from Hooker about 5:30 A.M. to advance the 12th Corps to the front.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At about 7:30 as Mansfield and the division commander of his lead division, Williams, were posting troops, Mansfield was mortally wounded and the two-thirds of the 12th Corps which were green troops were in trouble.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since he no longer had numerical superiority over the Confederates and did not possess any geographical advantage, the most prudent course would have been to withdraw his army over Bull Run and unite with McClellan's Army of the Potomac, which had 25,000 men nearby.^ The Brigade's first test in battle occurred in the prelude to Second Bull Run when the four regiments confronted a superior force of Stonewall Jackson's men on the farm fields of a family named Brawner.
  • Union Flags from Cottage Industries Home of Old Steam Navy and Carolina Miniatures. Civil War Models and memorabilia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cottage-industries.com [Source type: General]

^ Since regiments were recruited by geographical regions, most of the men serving in a unit were neighbors, and their families often shared letters with each other.
  • BGSU :: Center for Archival Collections :: Civil War Newspapers: Wood County 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.bgsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As McClellan retreated Lee had to try and figure if he was heading for the York or James Rivers, either of which would allow naval support and withdrawal.
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[39]
.One of the historical controversies of the battle involves George B. McClellan's cooperation with John Pope.^ September 2, 1862 - American Civil War : President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restores Union General George McClellan to full command after General John Pope 's disastrous defeat at the Battle of Second Bull Run .
  • Today's Show: Friday, September 1, 2006 | Air America Media 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC airamerica.com [Source type: General]

^ Used as headquarters by George Brinton McClellan during the Battle of Antietam.
  • Virginia Historical Society: Manuscripts and Archives Finding Aids< 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vahistorical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jackson then took part with Robert E. Lee in the defeat of General George McClellan in the Seven Days' Battle at Richmond.

.In late August, two full corps of the Army of the Potomac (William B. Franklin's VI Corps and Edwin V. Sumner's II Corps) had arrived in Alexandria, but McClellan would not allow them to advance to Manassas because of what he considered inadequate artillery, cavalry, and transportation support.^ Franklin's corps arrived at Centreville late on the afternoon of the 30th; Sumner's the next day.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Artillery, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1863.
  • Draw the Sword (and Throw Away the Scabbard) » Archives » ** ** 1st Rhode Island Artillery, Battery B 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.drawthesword.goellnitz.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Confederate delaying tactics and heavy rains slow McClellan's advance and it is nearly two months before he comes within sight of the city's steeples.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was accused by his political opponents of deliberately undermining Pope's position, and he did not help his case in history when he wrote to his wife on August 10, "Pope will be badly thrashed within two days & ...^ Though Pope conceded his own losses at 10,000, he described the rebel's casualties as "two to one" of his own, a gross exaggeration.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope was certain that Porter had deliberately dragged his feet, and did not believe for an instant Porter's claim that he had been blocked by half the rebel army.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For the best part of two days Jackson had vanished from his enemys view, to be found by Pope himself at Manassas Junction.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

they will be very glad to turn over the redemption of their affairs to me. I won't undertake it unless I have full & entire control." .He told Abraham Lincoln on August 29 that it might be wise "to leave Pope to get out of his scrape, and at once use all our means to make the capital perfectly safe."^ But it was always possible that Pope might have been alarmed, and the railroad from Warrenton Junction supplied him with the means of throwing a strong force of infantry rapidly to his rear.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope had demonstrated an inclination to hand out such opportunities generously, and the odds that he might make even bigger blunders were worth betting on.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope's optimism for his chances in the battle were not borne out by the fighting on 29 August.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

[40]

August 30: Longstreet counterattack, Union retreat

August 30, 3 p.m., Porter's attack.
The final element of Longstreet's command, the division of Maj. Gen. .Richard H. Anderson, marched 17 miles (27 km) and arrived on the battlefield at 3 a.m., August 30. Exhausted and unfamiliar with the area, they halted on a ridge east of Groveton.^ This is a primitive map of the area around Richmond extending from Petersburg at the south to 30 miles above Richmond.
  • http://www.dogstar.com/catalog.html?cat=antique_maps&id=6 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.dogstar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have all his wives account for and their deaths none left the area except for the Grey Eagle sister and they moved to Pine Ridge.
  • Looking for wifes and children of Sitting Bull :: FamilyTreeCircles.com Genealogy 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.familytreecircles.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fort Moultrie, Exterior View of 17 ; Spiking the Guns, 22 ; Evacuation of, 26-27 ; Review of South Carolina Volunteers in, 30-31 ; Interior View of..
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]

.At dawn, they realized they were in an isolated position too close to the enemy and fell back.^ Three fresh brigades were rapidly deployed; as the enemy pressed the attack a fourth was sent in, and the Northerners fell back with the loss of a general and many men.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They reported to me the evacuation of these positions by the enemy, and that there was every indication of their retreat in the direction of Gainesville.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The enemy was repulsed by Hood after a severe contest, and fell back, closely followed by our troops.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pope's belief that the Confederate army was in retreat was reinforced by this movement, which came after the withdrawal of Hood's troops the night before.^ Hood withdraws his army during night .
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope and McClellan had been given time, and the hours of the night might have been utilised to bring up the remainder of the Army of the Potomac .
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jubal Early's Confederate troops expel Union forces from the Shenandoah Valley and march to the outskirts of Washington, before being turned back at Fort Stevens.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At an 8 a.m. .council of war at Pope's headquarters, his subordinates attempted to convince their commander to move cautiously.^ General John Pope, a former subordinate of Halleck's, was put in command of the new army.

.Probes of the Confederate line on Stony Ridge around 10 a.m.^ Joe Johnston's Confederates abandon their long-held lines around Manassas in early March and withdraw toward Richmond.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The war was in truth a great siege; the fortress covered an area of more than 700,000 square miles, and the lines of investment around it extended over more than 10,000 miles.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

indicated that .Stonewall Jackson's men were still firmly in their defensive positions.^ Stonewall Jackson had formed a defensive line in the shape of an upside-down fishhook, running roughly southwest to northeast with the hook at the northern end.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scattershot Federal attacks on Jackson's positions had failed, and Pope was still angry over the failure of McDowell and Porter to get their men into battle.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Shenandoah Valley Campaign --"Stonewall" Jackson had been reinforced to a strength of 17,000 men by a division from Johnston's army commanded by Richard S. Ewell.

John F. Reynolds indicated that the Confederates were in great strength south of the turnpike. .Fitz John Porter arrived later with similar intelligence.^ Porter, Fitz John, Portrait, 389 .
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fitz-John Porter (1822-1901) during the Battle of Malvern Hill.
  • Virginia Historical Society: Manuscripts and Archives Finding Aids< 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vahistorical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For another account of Porter's action see "The Fitz John Porter Case," linked from the Battle of Second Manassas page .
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, Heintzelman and McDowell conducted a personal reconnaissance that somehow failed to find Jackson's defensive line, and Pope finally made up his mind to attack the retreating Southerners.^ When Hill showed up personally, Jackson told him: "General, your men have done nobly; if you are attacked again you will beat the enemy back."
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The second road was the Warrenton and Alexandria highway, the direct line of communication between Pope s army and Washington, and it is not difficult to divine the anxiety with which it was scrutinised by Jackson.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A turning movement from the north was more promising, and during the day Stuart, supported by Jackson, made vigorous efforts to find a passage across the river.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

[41]
.Shortly after noon, Pope issued orders for Porter's corps, supported by Hatch and Reynolds, to advance west along the turnpike.^ Mansfield received orders from Hooker about 5:30 A.M. to advance the 12th Corps to the front.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Pope's advance having reached the Rapidan, General A, P. Hill, with his division, was ordered on July 27th to join General Jackson.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The advance of Porter's corps at Dawkins's Branch was less than a mile and a half from the Monroe house, and the road in his front was one of several which converged on that point.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, Ricketts, Kearny, and Hooker were to advance on the Union right.^ Jackson advanced southward at the same time.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time I shifted the New York Sixty-ninth to the extreme right of the brigade.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ General Isaac I. Stevens, who was killed at the same time and nearly on the same ground, was an officer in many respects contrasted to Kearny.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.This dual movement would potentially crush the retreating Confederates.^ Jackson, retreating by Aldie Gap, would have joined Longstreet west of the mountains; Pope would have escaped defeat, but the Confederates would have lost nothing.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.But the Confederates were not retreating, and were in fact hoping to be attacked.^ September 1, 1862 - American Civil War : Battle of Chantilly - Confederate forces attack retreating Union troops in Chantilly, Virginia .
  • Today's Show: Friday, September 1, 2006 | Air America Media 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC airamerica.com [Source type: General]

^ When Lee and General James Longstreet joined Jackson, Pope attacked them, but a Confederate counterattack beat Pope's forces back and the Northern troops retreated toward Washington.

.Lee was still waiting for an opportunity to counterattack with Longstreet's force.^ When Lee and General James Longstreet joined Jackson, Pope attacked them, but a Confederate counterattack beat Pope's forces back and the Northern troops retreated toward Washington.

^ Had the Federals blocked Thoroughfare Gap that day, and prevented Longstreet’s passage, Lee was still able to concentrate without incurring defeat.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Longstreet also apparently had an intuition that he should wait for a good opportunity.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

Although he was not certain that Pope would attack that day, Lee positioned 18 artillery pieces under Col. Stephen D. Lee on high ground northeast of the Brawner Farm, ideally situated to bombard the open fields in front of Jackson's position.[42]
.Porter's corps was actually not in position to pursue west on the turnpike, but was in the woods north of the turnpike near Groveton.^ Porter's corps was near Bealeton Station moving slowly toward Warrenton Junction; Heintzelman at Warrenton Junction, with very small means to move in any direction.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jacksons army corps bivouacked in the position they had held when the fierce musketry of Groveton died away.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Attacking to the west, he drove a few Southerners from just north of the Dunker Church through the West Woods immediately west of the Hagerstown Pike.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It took about two hours for the 10,000 men to organize themselves for the assault against Jackson's line to their front, which would be focused on Jackson's old division, now led by Brig.^ The total strength was 10,000 men.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On the side of the Union 2,800 men were engaged, on the side of the Southerners 4,500, and for more than an hour and a half the lines of infantry were engaged at the very closest quarters.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At about 7:30 as Mansfield and the division commander of his lead division, Williams, were posting troops, Mansfield was mortally wounded and the two-thirds of the 12th Corps which were green troops were in trouble.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. William E. Starke. .The lead division in the Union assault was commanded by Brig.^ These movements may lead to the gravest results, and commanders of divisions and brigades should bear in mind the immense consequences involved.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At about 7:30 as Mansfield and the division commander of his lead division, Williams, were posting troops, Mansfield was mortally wounded and the two-thirds of the 12th Corps which were green troops were in trouble.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Five Union divisions made repeated assaults on Hill's men and at times pushed into their lines, but they were never able to drive away the Confederates.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. Daniel Butterfield, replacing Maj. Gen. George W. Morell: Col. Henry Weeks's brigade was on the left, Col. Charles W. Roberts's brigade in the center. .Hatch's division came in on the right of the corps line.^ D. R. Jones's division formed the extreme right of the line, resting on the Manassas Gap railroad.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This move of Kearny was to strengthen my right at Bristoe and unite the two divisions of Heintzelman's corps.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kearneys division had already deployed on the extreme right of the Federal line, resting on Bull Run.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Two brigades of regular army troops under Brig.^ These troops were supported on the left by three brigades under General Wilcox, and by a light force on the right under General Kemper.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearer Bull Run were two brigades of Ricketts; and to Morell’s left rear the division of regulars moved forward under Sykes.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After Antietam McClellan had more fresh troops under him than Lee had left in his entire army yet he allowed Lee to retreat with little interference.

Gen. George Sykes were in reserve.[43]
The Union men faced a formidable task. .Butterfield's division had to cross 600 yards (550 m) of open pasture land owned by widow Lucinda Dogan, the final 150 yards (140 m) of which were steeply uphill, to attack a strong position behind the unfinished railroad; Hatch's division had only 300 yards (270 m) to traverse, but was required to perform a complex right wheel maneuver under fire to hit the Confederate position squarely in its front.^ To the right of the batteries, Stuart’s Hill was strongly occupied by Longstreet, with Anderson’s division as general reserve; and this wing of the Confederate army was gradually wheeled up, but always under cover, until it was almost perpendicular to the line of the unfinished railroad.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The artillery opened fire as the infantry moved forward to assault the Confederate works.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I withdrew General Wilcox, with his three brigades, from the left, and placed his command in position to support Jones in case of an attack against my right.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.They experienced devastating fire from Stephen Lee's batteries and then withering volleys from the infantrymen in the line.^ As the Confederates threatened to swallow them up, they fell back under fire to their own lines.
  • [29.0] August 1862 (4): It's Another Bull Run, Sir 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I ordered Colonel Keyes to incline the head of his column a little to the right of the line of march taken by Sherman's brigade, to avoid the fire of a battery which the enemy had opened.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the battle of Chancellorsville they were detached to guard the telegraph line, and although exposed to artillery fire, suffered no loss.
  • Union Flags from Cottage Industries Home of Old Steam Navy and Carolina Miniatures. Civil War Models and memorabilia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cottage-industries.com [Source type: General]

.Nevertheless, they were able to break the Confederate line, routing the 48th Virginia Infantry.^ The 16 th Virginia Cavalry spent the winter of 1863-1864 successfully raiding behind Union lines in West Virginia, as they had all of the previous winters of the war.
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^ Likewise, the Confederates were forced by Federal industrialists and Lincoln to choose between staying in the Union or leaving when they perceived their commonality with the other states breaking down.
  • Hit & Run > Mutual Aid, Private Property, and Armed Self-Defense - Reason Magazine 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were sleeping almost in ranks; and by the time the horses of their officers were saddled, the long lines of infantry were moving to the anticipated battle-field.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

The Stonewall Brigade rushed in to restore the line, taking heavy casualties, including its commander, Col. Baylor. In what was arguably the most famous incident of the battle, Confederates in Col. Bradley T. Johnson's and Col. Leroy A. Stafford's brigades fired so much that they ran out of ammunition and resorted to throwing large rocks at the 24th New York, causing occasional damage, and prompting some of the surprised New Yorkers to throw them back. .To support Jackson's exhausted defense, Longstreet's artillery added to the barrage against Union reinforcements attempting to move in, cutting them to pieces.^ Longstreet talks about Stuart's Horse Artillery being deployed in the open field to combat the Union soldiers.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reports had been received that a large Confederate force of infantry, cavalry and artillery was moving to attack Union-held New Berne.
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^ Stuart believed that Stonewall Jackson and James Longstreet were nearby and rushing to reinforce his hold on the heights.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]
.Having suffered significant casualties, Porter did not engage Sykes's reserve division and halted his assault, essentially leaving his lead brigades to extricate themselves without support.^ At Roanoke Island, the 8th was in reserve suffering no casualties.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In spite of having the only artillery piece in the battle the Yankees suffered many more casualties.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 146th was attached to the lone brigade of volunteers in Sykes' Division, joining the 5th NY(Duryée's Zouaves)and 140th NY(Rochester Racehorses) volunteers.
  • Union Flags from Cottage Industries Home of Old Steam Navy and Carolina Miniatures. Civil War Models and memorabilia 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.cottage-industries.com [Source type: General]

The withdrawal was also a costly operation. .Some of the jubilant Confederates in Starke's brigade attempted a pursuit, but were beaten back by the Union reserves posted along the Groveton-Sudley Road.^ The left, lightly thrown back, rested on a rocky spur near Bull Run, commanding Sudley Springs Ford and the road to Aldie Gap.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Cemetery Hill was at that hour protected by only one fresh Union reserve brigade.

^ Lew Wallace attempted to arrest Early's invading Confederate divisions along the Monocacy River, just east of Frederick.

.Overall, Jackson's command was too depleted to counterattack, allowing Porter to stabilize the situation north of the turnpike.^ Wilcox’ division, north of the turnpike, connected with Jackson’s right.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When that assault failed, the Unionists north of the turnpike were attacked by the brigades of Featherston and Pryor (of Wilcox, which were acting with some of Jackson's troops and with one brigade of Hood.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson says: "My command had hardly concentrated north of the turnpike before the enemy's advance reached the vicinity of Grove- ton from the direction of Warrenton."
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Concerned about Porter's situation, however, Irvin McDowell ordered Reynolds's division to leave Chinn Ridge and come to Porter's support.^ He was to be supported by Reynolds's division.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After receiving the joint order, General McDowell again joined Porter, at the front, and showed him a dispatch just received from Ruford, dated 9:30 A. M., and addressed to Ricketts.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I also sent orders to General Porter ^^ at Manassas Junction to move forward rapidly with his own corps and King's division of McDowell's corps, which was there also, upon Gainesville by the direct route from Manassas Junction to that place.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.This may have been the worst tactical decision of the day because it left only 2,200 Union troops south of the turnpike, where they would soon face ten times their number of Confederates.^ The controversy surrounding the true sound of the Rebel Yell remains, but it is certain that many Southern troops would whoop and holler as they entered battle.
  • First Blood and Its Aftermath [ushistory.org] 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On May 9 th the cavalry protected the Union right in the morning and the left in the afternoon.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This decision was one of the many terrible ones Butler would make in the coming days.

[45]
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack.
August 30, 4:30 p.m.: Union defense of Chinn Ridge.
.Lee and Longstreet agreed that the time was right for the long awaited assault and that the objective would be Henry House Hill, which had been the key terrain in the First Battle of Bull Run, and which, if captured, would dominate the potential Union line of retreat.^ At the second battle of Bull Run, Aug.
  • Policies 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.gizwebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Battle of Bull Run --On July 21, 1861 the First Battle of Bull Run occurred.

^ July 21 First battle of Manassas (Bull Run) , Virginia.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Longstreet's command of 25,000 men in five divisions stretched nearly a mile and a half from the Brawner Farm in the north to the Manassas Gap Railroad in the south.^ The conduct of this division in this severe engagement was admirable, and reflects the utmost credit both upon its commanders and the men under their command.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These guns, pointing north-east, overlooked the wide tract of undulating meadow which lay in front of the Stonewall and Lawton’s divisions, and they commanded a field of fire over a mile long.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ D. R. Jones's division formed the extreme right of the line, resting on the Manassas Gap railroad.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.To reach the hill, they would have to traverse 1.5 to 2 miles (3.2 km) of ground containing ridges, streams, and some heavily wooded areas.^ This paper would be incomplete indeed did it fail to contain some short, if entirely insufficient, tribute to that most gallant and loyal soldier, John Buford.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His batteries, some of them of heavy caliber, were posted behind the ridges in the open ground, while the mass of his troops were sheltered by woods and the railroad embankment.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of my best friends lived their entire lives simply chucking as much wood as they could chuck.

.Longstreet knew that he would not be able to project a well coordinated battle line across this terrain, so he had to rely on the drive and initiative of his division commanders.^ As noted above, he was offered the command of the 12th Corps but refused giving as the reason that he knew his division well but knew little of the new 12th Corps.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to General Longstreet's and other Confederate reports, their troops withdrew at night to their line of battle of the day, occupying the same positions and in the same order.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I, of course, knew that you commanded the division by virtue of your superior rank; but you were at that time, as you will remember, in command of your brigade, which you were just bringing into action.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

.The lead division, on the left, closest to the turnpike, was John Bell Hood's Texans, supported by Brig.^ Hood, however, was strongly supported, and the Texans pushed forward .
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ September 1, 1864 - American Civil War: Confederate General John Bell Hood evacuates Atlanta, Georgia after a four-month siege by General Sherman .
  • Today's Show: Friday, September 1, 2006 | Air America Media 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC airamerica.com [Source type: General]

^ "On approaching the field some of Brigadier-General Hood's batteries were ordered into position, and his division was deployed on the right and left of the turnpike, at right angles with it, and supported by Brigadier-General Evans's brigade.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

Gen. Nathan G. "Shanks" Evans's South Carolinians. .On Hood's right were Kemper's and Jones's divisions.^ D. R. Jones's division formed the extreme right of the line, resting on the Manassas Gap railroad.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ General D. R. Jones's division was placed upon the Manassas Gap railroad to the right, and en echelon with regard to the last three brigades.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ General Wilcox was recalled from the right and ordered to advance on Hood's left, and one of Kemper's brigades, under Colonel Hunton, moved forward on his right.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Anderson's division was held as a ready reserve.^ Grovers brigade of Hookers division had hitherto been held in reserve, sheltered by a roll of the land opposite that portion of the front which was held by Thomas.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jacksons cavalry was to cover the left and front, and Andersons division was to form a general reserve.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Just before the attack, Lee signaled to Jackson: "General Longstreet is advancing; look out for and protect his left flank."^ While the battle was raging on Jackson's left, General Longstreet ordered Hood and Evans to advance, but before the order could be obeyed Hood was himself attacked, and his command at once became warmly engaged.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But wherever Longstreet was in the morning, it is certain that at 4 o'clock that day, or about 4 o'clock, according to his own official report, he withdrew the larger part of his force and advanced to Jackson's right flank to resist the last attack of the Union army on Jackson's line, and that for several hours he was engaged in a severe battle on our left, utterly ignoring Porter and presenting his right flank to Porter's attack during that whole time.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just before the 8:30 train left for Pottsville, Jim was conversing very pleasantly with Gov. S. A. Losch.

[46]
.The Union defenders south of the turnpike consisted of only two brigades, commanded by Cols.^ Cemetery Hill was at that hour protected by only one fresh Union reserve brigade.

^ Then came Evans, facing the two brigades which formed the Federal left, and extending across the turnpike.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Centre.Two brigades of Ewells Division (now commanded by Lawton).
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Nathaniel C. McLean (Schenck's division, Sigel's I Corps) and Gouverneur K. Warren (Sykes's division, Porter's V Corps).^ McLean's brigade of Schenck's division, which was posted in observation on our left flank, and in support of Reynolds, became exposed to the attack of the enemy on our left when Reynolds's division was drawn back to form line to support Porter's corps, then retiring from their attack, and it was fiercely assailed by Hood and Evans, in greatly superior force.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Brigadier General Nathaniel McLean's Itinerary of the 1 st Division, undated, OR , ser.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the assault by Porter's corps and King's division, Jackson's forces were behind the unfinished railway.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.McLean held Chinn Ridge, Warren was near Groveton, about 800 yards (730 m) further west.^ About the same moment Bradley Johnson became engaged with the skirmishers near Groveton.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mustache , or Bearded Man , was the Lakota name for the Cheyenne war chief, Lame White Man , who was killed near the crest on the west slope of Custer Ridge.
  • Lazy White Bull's Story of the Battle of the Little Bighorn 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.astonisher.com [Source type: News]

^ Groveton wood was equally successful, but on the ridge in rear were posted the regulars under Sykes; and, further east, on Buck Hill, had assembled the remnants of four divisions.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hood's men began the assault at 4 p.m., immediately overwhelming Warren's two regiments, the 5th New York (Duryée's Zouaves) and 10th New York (the National Zouaves).^ Some of the regiments which had been driven from the hill in the first two attempts of the enemy to keep possession of it had become shaken, were unsteady, and had many men out of the ranks.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ El1sworth’s(Fire) Zouaves Fighting their Old New York Enemy in their usual way....
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dunn, George W., 21, Sergeant, taken prisoner at Bull Run, paroled in May 1862, commissioned as Captain 109 th New York Regiment.
  • Roster of the 27th NY Volunteers - Organized at Elmira NY 1861 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.joycetice.com [Source type: Academic]

.Within the first 10 minutes of contact, the 500 men of the 5th New York lost almost 300 shot, 120 of them mortally wounded.^ September 1, 1974 - The SR-71 Blackbird sets (and holds) the record for flying from New York to London : 1 hour 54 minutes and 56.4 seconds.
  • Today's Show: Friday, September 1, 2006 | Air America Media 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC airamerica.com [Source type: General]

^ He deserves an apology for the underhanded way in which these gutless executives told him that he would be back on in New York after the first, then turned around and fired him.
  • Today's Show: Friday, September 1, 2006 | Air America Media 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC airamerica.com [Source type: General]

^ Here, Jackson, in the early evening, moving in front of his line of battle to reconnoitre, fell, mortally wounded by his own men..
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was the largest loss of life of any infantry regiment in a single battle during the entire war.^ By the battle of Second Bull Run and the loss of life at Antietam, without slavery being THE issue amongst the general populace, the war would have ended regardless of what Lincoln and other northern politicians wanted.
  • Hit & Run > Mutual Aid, Private Property, and Armed Self-Defense - Reason Magazine 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He joined the 165th Infantry Regiment (“Fighting 69th”) and earned a Medal of Honor as a battalion commander in World War I. “Wild Bill” Donovan commanded the 1 st Battalion, 165th Infantry and later commanded the entire 165th Infantry Regiment of the 42d Infantry Division (Rainbow Division).

^ Mulhall, John D. 1Lt served with the Regiment during the Civil War.

[47]
.As Pope and McDowell realized the danger of their situation, they ordered units to occupy Henry House Hill, but until that could occur, McLean's brigade was the only obstacle to the Confederate onslaught.^ Pope, realizing his danger, retired northward.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His situation, in reality, was one of extreme danger.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Cemetery Hill was at that hour protected by only one fresh Union reserve brigade.

.His 1,200 Ohioans in four regiments lined up, facing west on Chinn Ridge, with one artillery battery in support, and were able to repulse two assaults, first by Hood and then by Shanks Evans's brigade (Kemper's division).^ This hill was quickly carried by Hood’s brigade of Evans’s division.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ First and Second line: Two brigades.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Earlys brigade and two batteries crossed by an old mill-dam, a mile below, and .
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

The third assault, by Col. Montgomery D. Corse's brigade (also Kemper's division), was successful. McLean's men mistakenly believed the men approaching the southern tip of the ridge were friendly and withheld their fire. .When they realized their mistake, a fierce firefight ensued for over 10 minutes at virtually point-blank range.^ Hills riflemen, lying down to load, and rising only to fire, poured in their deadly volleys at point-blank range.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Added fire from a Louisiana artillery battery caused the Union line to collapse.^ The left of the battery was not far distant from the guns on Jackson’s right, and the whole of the open space was thus exposed to the cross-fire of a formidable artillery.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Pelham was ordered to open fire with his howitzer, and caused widespread panic among the Union teamsters and the horses.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colonel Walton placed his batteries in a commanding position between my line and that of General Jackson, and engaged the enemy for several hours in a severe and successful artillery duel.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Ohio brigade suffered 33% casualties, but they gave Pope an additional 30 minutes to bring up reinforcements.^ On March 5, they reached the field at the Wilderness, where they participated in heavy fighting, suffering heavy casualties.

^ Pope and McClellan had been given time, and the hours of the night might have been utilised to bring up the remainder of the Army of the Potomac .
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Yankees were now within a mile of Petersburg, but the horsemen were tired and short on ammunition, so they waited for reinforcements to come up.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.The first two Union brigades to arrive were from Rickett's division, commanded by Brig.^ Centre.Two brigades of Ewells Division (now commanded by Lawton).
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ First and Second line: Two brigades.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These movements may lead to the gravest results, and commanders of divisions and brigades should bear in mind the immense consequences involved.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

Gen. Zealous B. Tower and Col. Robert Stiles. .Tower's brigade was overwhelmed by attacks from three sides.^ I withdrew General Wilcox, with his three brigades, from the left, and placed his command in position to support Jones in case of an attack against my right.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three fresh brigades were rapidly deployed; as the enemy pressed the attack a fourth was sent in, and the Northerners fell back with the loss of a general and many men.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, it appeared to the shaken 16th than they were being attacked from three sides at once and by Union soldiers.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His artillery battery was captured and he was seriously wounded. .Stiles's brigade, following Tower, fell victim to two newly arrived brigades from Kemper's division, commanded by Brig.^ Centre.Two brigades of Ewells Division (now commanded by Lawton).
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The brigade was with its division-now commanded by Gen.
  • Policies 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.gizwebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These movements may lead to the gravest results, and commanders of divisions and brigades should bear in mind the immense consequences involved.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

Gen. Micah Jenkins and Col. Eppa Hunton. During this intense fighting, the commander of the 12th Massachusetts, Col. Fletcher Webster (son of the statesman Daniel Webster), was mortally wounded. .Two more Union brigades poured into the battle from Sigel's I Corps, commanded by Cols.^ Centre.Two brigades of Ewells Division (now commanded by Lawton).
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These two reports discuss the battle from the Union viewpoint.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the first two hours of battle, 4,500 Confederates gave ground grudgingly to 10,000 Union soldiers.
  • First Blood and Its Aftermath [ushistory.org] 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.John Koltes and Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski, but had no more success than their predecessors.^ Out of 50,000 infantry, no more than 20,000 had been simultaneously engaged, and when a partial success had been achieved there were no supports at hand to complete the victory.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ THE BATTLE OF CHANCELLORSVILLE --In no battle of the Civil War was the military genius of General Lee more brilliantly displayed than at Chancellorsville, May 2-4, 1863.

^ With this theory in successful operation, war will be stripped of most of its terrors, and a pitched battle need not be much more dangerous to human life than a militia muster.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.The lead elements of Jones's division, the brigades of Cols.^ General D. R. Jones's division was placed upon the Manassas Gap railroad to the right, and en echelon with regard to the last three brigades.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These movements may lead to the gravest results, and commanders of divisions and brigades should bear in mind the immense consequences involved.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On reaching the ford at Sudley Springs, I found part of the leading brigade of Hunter's division (Burnside's) had crossed, but the men were slow in getting over, stopping to drink.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

.George T. Anderson and Henry L. Benning, swept all Union resistance off Chinn Ridge by 6 p.m.^ A. P. Hill swept in from the west (the left side of the map) and pushed the Union First Corps off McPherson and Seminary Ridges (the low hills running north to south on the right half of the map) and then through Gettysburg.

^ For if he should once obtain possession of this ridge, which overlooks all the country to the west to the foot of the spurs of the Blue Ridge, we should have been irretrievably cut off and destroyed.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the successful Confederate assault came at a high cost, both in men (Hood's and Kemper's divisions suffered heavy losses and were at least temporarily incapable of further offensive action) and in time.^ The loss on both sides was heavy.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The conduct of this division in this severe engagement was admirable, and reflects the utmost credit both upon its commanders and the men under their command.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then Major General George G. Meade, USA, thinking Lee's lines too strong to assault, retired across the Rapidan in time to avoid a counterattack by the Confederates.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henry House Hill was still several hundred yards away and there was only an hour of daylight remaining.^ There were still nearly four hours of daylight left.

^ Cemetery Hill was at that hour protected by only one fresh Union reserve brigade.

^ Not one Union man made it within a hundred yards of the wall, from daylight to dusk.

[49]
.
R.H. Anderson failed to avail himself of the most significant advantage three hours of fighting on Chinn Ridge and Henry Hill had forged.^ During this fierce action the division of D. R. Jones, leaving the Chinn House to the left, had advanced against the Henry Hill.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Battle of Missionary Ridge, TN, & Feds finally break Confed line after 2 hours of fierce fighting.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, nine hours fighting, much of it at close range, had piled the corpses thick upon the railroad, and the ranks of Hills brigades were terribly attenuated.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

Because he did not, the Confederates' last opportunity to destroy Pope's army dwindled with the day's light.
—John J. Hennessy, Return to Bull Run[50]
August 30, 5 p.m.: Final Confederate attacks, beginning of the Union retreat.
.During the first two hours of the Confederate assault, Pope had been able to place four brigades in defense of Henry House Hill: two from Reynolds's division, one from Sykes's, and Brig.^ First and Second line: Two brigades.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This hill was quickly carried by Hood’s brigade of Evans’s division.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On the morning of the 18th, about the very hour that the advance should have begun, Pope was informed by a spy that the Confederate army was assembled behind Clarks .
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

Gen. .Robert H. Milroy's independent brigade.^ His three divisions, Schurz, Schencks, and Steinwehrs, supported by Milroys independent brigade, advanced to the attack along a wide front.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Lee realized that additional combat power would be required to complete his assault, so he ordered Richard Anderson's division from its reserve position.^ Some batteries were ordered to change position so as to rake their lines; and the Stonewall Division, reinforced by a brigade of Hill’s, was sent forward to the counter-attack.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Morell's division arrived later in the day at Warrenton Junction, and would have been in camp for at least eight hours before the time it was ordered to march.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jacksons cavalry was to cover the left and front, and Andersons division was to form a general reserve.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.While these troops were moving up, D.R. Jones launched an attack on the hill with the brigades of Benning and G.T. Anderson.^ Directly after this you ordered the brigade to move forward towards Sangster's Station, 7 miles up the railroad, and within 3 miles of Bull Run.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Troops were still moving through Gainesville, and, instead of turning off to Manassas, were marching up the turnpike on which so many eyes were turned from the neighbouring woods.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I withdrew General Wilcox, with his three brigades, from the left, and placed his command in position to support Jones in case of an attack against my right.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.With 3,000 men, this was the largest concentrated attack of the afternoon, but it was poorly coordinated and the four Union brigades held their ground.^ Reports had been received that a large Confederate force of infantry, cavalry and artillery was moving to attack Union-held New Berne.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Battle of Second Bull Run --The Union army led by General John Pope suffered a loss of 1/4th of 63,000 Union men.

^ Three fresh brigades were rapidly deployed; as the enemy pressed the attack a fourth was sent in, and the Northerners fell back with the loss of a general and many men.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Additional pressure was applied with the arrival of two brigades from Anderson's division: Brig.^ Centre.Two brigades of Ewells Division (now commanded by Lawton).
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearer Bull Run were two brigades of Ricketts; and to Morell’s left rear the division of regulars moved forward under Sykes.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Hood, with his two Texan brigades, led the Confederates, and Kings division, now commanded by Hatch, met him on the slopes of Stuarts Hill.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

Gens. William Mahone and Ambrose R. Wright. .The regulars from Sykes's division had no natural defensive advantage on the end of the line and they were driven back toward the Henry House.^ Brigadier General Maxcey Gregg held the far left of Hill's position, and after a lot of back and forth fighting they were able to push back the attacking blue-coats towards the end of August 29 th .
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the afternoon, McDowell vainly attempted to rally his retreating troops on the Matthews Hill after they had been driven down the Henry Hill.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stonewall Jackson had formed a defensive line in the shape of an upside-down fishhook, running roughly southwest to northeast with the hook at the northern end.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Inexplicably, Anderson declined to exploit his opening, perhaps because of the growing darkness. The hill remained in Union hands.[51]
.Stonewall Jackson, under relatively ambiguous orders from Lee to support Longstreet, launched an attack north of the turnpike at 6 p.m., probably as soon as his exhausted forces could be mustered.^ Jackson ordered an immediate attack on a Federal column that was passing straight across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28, 1862.

^ While Confederate Cavalry under Major General J.E.B. Stuart engaged Union Brigadier General John Buford's troops, the cavalry of Brigadier General H. Judson Kilpatrick rode to Buford's support and attacked the rear of Stuart's force.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stuart believed that Stonewall Jackson and James Longstreet were nearby and rushing to reinforce his hold on the heights.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historian John J. Hennessy called Jackson's delays "one of the battle's great puzzles" and "one of the most significant Confederate failures" of the battle, greatly reducing the value of his advance.^ He was a great and most accomplished soldier, and died as he would himself have wished to die, and as became his heroic character, at the head of his troops and in the front of the battle.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most famous users of mountain howitzers was "The Grey Ghost" John Singleton Mosby.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Battle of Chancellorsville --Jackson's death made Chancellorsville a decisive battle in the war, for the impetus for Confederate victory in the east died with him.

[52] .The attack coincided with Pope's ordered withdrawal of units north of the turnpike to assist in the Henry House Hill defense and the Confederates were able to overrun a number of artillery and infantry units in their fierce assault.^ Jackson ordered an immediate attack on a Federal column that was passing straight across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28, 1862.

^ The artillery opened fire as the infantry moved forward to assault the Confederate works.
  • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the Matthews Hill, just to the north, the Confederates repulsed the attack of the Unionists, coming from the north, in the forenoon of July 21, 1861.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 7 p.m., however, Pope had established a strong defensive line that aligned with the units on Henry House Hill.^ But on the opposite hills, where the Federals were now forming in line of battle, the Valley soldiers had already given proof of their stubborn qualities on the defensive.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On the Henry Hill, Pope's rear guard, in the late afternoon of August 30, 1862, repulsed the attacks of Longstreet coming from the west.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Late in the afternoon, after Jackson had repulsed Pope's assaults, Longstreet moved eastward, driving the Union forces facing him toward Henry Hill.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 8 p.m., he ordered a general withdrawal on the turnpike to Centreville.^ Griffin testified that he was ordered by General Morell to follow Sykes, who was supposed to have gone to Centreville.
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At 3 A. M. on the 29th, General Pope ordered Porter, then at Bristoe, to "move upon Centreville at the first dawn of day."
  • The Second Battle Of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike the calamitous retreat at the First Battle of Bull Run, the Union movement was quiet and orderly.^ Battle of Bull Run --On July 21, 1861 the First Battle of Bull Run occurred.

^ July 21 First battle of Manassas (Bull Run) , Virginia.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Map of the Battle of Bull Run, 1st..
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]

The Confederates, weary from battle and low on ammunition, did not pursue in the darkness. .Although Lee had won a great victory, he had not achieved his objective of destroying Pope's army.^ Their great task had been accomplished, and Popes army, harassed, starving, and bewildered, had been brought to bay.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But although both Pope and Lee were anxious to engage, neither could bring their subordinates to the point.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The overthrow of Pope s advanced guard at Cedar Run, followed by the unaccountable disappearance of the victorious army, was of a piece with the manuvres in the Valley.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

[53]

Aftermath

.Union casualties were about 10,000 killed and wounded out of 62,000 engaged; the Confederates lost about 1,300 killed and 7,000 wounded out of 50,000.[54] As the Union Army concentrated on Centreville, Lee planned his next move.^ Over 26,000 for both armies killed, wounded, or missing.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederates lost 5 killed and 40 wounded.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee's masterful coordination of his much smaller army allowed him to fix Hooker in place while the bulk of the Confederates were sent to annihilate Sedgwick.
  • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He sent Jackson on another flanking march in an attempt to interpose his army between Pope and Washington.^ Stonewall Jacksons flank march is successful.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Union General John Pope's Army, retreating after defeat by Robert E. Lee at Second Manassas, clashed with "Stonewall" Jackson's divisions which were attempting to prevent Pope from reaching Washington, D.C. Although Union Generals Kearny and Stevens were killed, Jackson's men were held off by the smaller Union forces.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Washington was but a long days march to the north; Warrenton, Popes headquarters, but twelve miles distant to the south-west; and along the Rappahannock, between Jackson and Lee, stood the tents of a host which outnumbered the whole Confederate army.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

.Pope countered the move and the two forces clashed a final time at the Battle of Chantilly (also known as Ox Hill) on September 1. Lee immediately began his next campaign on September 3, when the vanguard of the Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River, marching toward a fateful encounter with the Army of the Potomac in the Maryland Campaign and the Battle of Antietam.^ Northern Virginia Campaign [August 1862] .

^ Lee appointed Commander of army in Virginia.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert E. Lee offers his resignation as commander of the Army of Northern Virginia.
  • CONFEDERATE SOCIETY OF AMERICA 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.deovindice.org [Source type: Original source]

[55]
.
A splendid army almost demoralized, millions of public property given up or destroyed, thousands of lives of our best men sacrificed for no purpose.^ Pope and McClellan had been given time, and the hours of the night might have been utilised to bring up the remainder of the Army of the Potomac .
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of our noblest and best officers lost their lives in trying to rally them.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With an army that at no time exceeded 55,000 men he had driven 80,000 into the fortifications of Washington.
  • Battle of Second Bull Run Conclusion 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

I dare not trust myself to speak of this commander [Pope] as I feel and believe. Suffice to say ... that more insolence, superciliousness, ignorance, and pretentiousness were never combined in one man. .It can in truth be said of him that he had not a friend in his command from the smallest drummer boy to the highest general officer.
—Brig.^ An unsuccessful general who feels instinctively that his command is slipping from him, and who sees in victory the only hope of retaining it, seldom listens to the voice of prudence.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.sonofthesouth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I desire to call the attention of the commanding general particularly to him.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles, the colored servant of Adjutant Bark, unaided, captured a prisoner armed with gun and pistol, and turned him over to the commanding general of the First Brigade.
  • 69th New York State Militia at Bull Run Official Records 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.usvolunteers.org [Source type: Original source]

Gen. Alpheus S. Williams (II Corps division commander)[56]
.Pope was relieved of command on September 12, 1862, and his army was merged into the Army of the Potomac as it marched into Maryland under McClellan.^ Centre and Right Wing of McClellan's Army, September 17th, 1862.
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]

^ McClellan's Army of the Potomac moves by water to Fort Monroe and Newport News at the tip of the Virginia peninsula and prepares to march on Richmond some 70 miles to the northwest.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 2, 1862 - American Civil War : President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restores Union General George McClellan to full command after General John Pope 's disastrous defeat at the Battle of Second Bull Run .
  • Today's Show: Friday, September 1, 2006 | Air America Media 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC airamerica.com [Source type: General]

He spent the remainder of the war in the Department of the Northwest in Minnesota, dealing with the Dakota War of 1862. Pope sought scapegoats to spread the blame for his defeat. .On November 25, 1862, Fitz John Porter was arrested and court-martialed for his actions on August 29. Porter was found guilty on January 10, 1863, of disobedience and misconduct, and he was dismissed from the Army on January 21. He spent most of the remainder of his life fighting against the verdict.^ Porter, Fitz John, Portrait, 389 .
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Full Index to Illustrations, The Soldier in Our Civil War Volume I 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.webbgarrison.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Miscellaneous general orders, court martials, pass, 1861-1862.
  • http://www.rihs.org/mssinv/Mss673sg4.htm 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.rihs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this vicinity, Union General Ambrose E. Burnside, USA, took command of the Army of the Potomac, November 7, 1862.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1878, a special commission under General John M. Schofield exonerated Porter by finding that his reluctance to attack Longstreet probably saved Pope's Army of Virginia from an even greater defeat.^ American Civil War : President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restored Union General George McClellan to full command after General John Pope 's disastrous defeat at the Battle of Second Bull Run .
  • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 2| Great Fire of London goddesses Semele Ariadne Ramadan Yatzuo Kaze-No-Bon Wind BonEvent Japan William Roschild Roskilde Margaret Louvain Marathonia Liliuokalani Henry George 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Union General John Pope's Army, retreating after defeat by Robert E. Lee at Second Manassas, clashed with "Stonewall" Jackson's divisions which were attempting to prevent Pope from reaching Washington, D.C. Although Union Generals Kearny and Stevens were killed, Jackson's men were held off by the smaller Union forces.
  • northva 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.mosocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 2, 1862 - American Civil War : President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restores Union General George McClellan to full command after General John Pope 's disastrous defeat at the Battle of Second Bull Run .
  • Today's Show: Friday, September 1, 2006 | Air America Media 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC airamerica.com [Source type: General]

Eight years later, President Chester A. Arthur reversed Porter's sentence.[57]
.James Longstreet was criticized for his performance during the battle and the postbellum advocates of the Lost Cause claimed that his slowness, reluctance to attack, and disobedience to Gen.^ On the 19th of April the Sixth was engaged in the battle of Camden, N. C., and at a critical moment was ordered to attack.
  • Policies 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.gizwebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He acted as a messenger for Confederate General James Longstreet at the battle of Chickamauga.
  • Guide to the Northern Virginia Civil War images collection, 1853-1914 Northern Virginia Civil War imagesC0150 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lee on August 29 were a harbinger of his controversial performance to come on July 2, 1863, at the Battle of Gettysburg.^ H, July 29, 1863; transferred to Co.
  • 76th NYSV - Roster (W) 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.bpmlegal.com [Source type: News]

^ Allee, Edward, 21, wounded and taken prisoner in the battle of Gaines’ Mill, exchanged and died July 29, 1862.
  • Roster of the 27th NY Volunteers - Organized at Elmira NY 1861 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC www.joycetice.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On July 4, 1863, he was enrolled in Captain William M. Randall's Company I, 39th Regiment, P. V. M. and served until August 2nd of the same year when the company was disbanded.

Lee's biographer, Douglas Southall Freeman, wrote: "The seeds of much of the disaster at Gettysburg were sown in that instant – when Lee yielded to Longstreet and Longstreet discovered that he would."[58]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The National Park Service has established these dates for the battle. The references by Greene, Hennessy, Salmon, and Kennedy (whose works are closely aligned with the NPS) adopt these dates as well. However, all of the other references to this article specify that the action on August 28 was a battle separate from the Second Battle of Bull Run. Some of these authors name the action on August 28 the Battle of Groveton, Brawner's Farm, or Gainesville.
  2. ^ a b Eicher, p. 327.
  3. ^ a b Greene, p. 54. Most published figures for casualties are for the entire Northern Virginia Campaign, including the significant battles of Cedar Mountain and Chantilly. The campaign casualties reported by Eicher (p. 334) are Union 14,462 (1,747 killed, 8,452 wounded, 4,263 captured/missing); Confederate 9,474 (1,553 killed, 7,812 wounded, 109 captured/missing).
  4. ^ National Park Service. There were Confederate offensives in the war that employed more men—57,000 at Gaines' Mill, for instance—but they involved multiple, piecemeal attacks over longer periods.
  5. ^ National Park Service
  6. ^ Eicher, p. 318; Martin, pp. 24, 32-33; Hennessy, p. 12.
  7. ^ Martin, p. 280; Eicher, p. 318; Hennessy, p. 6.
  8. ^ Hennessy, pp. 561-67; Langellier, pp. 90-93.
  9. ^ Esposito, Map 54.
  10. ^ Whitehorne, Overview, np.
  11. ^ Hennessy, p. 10; Esposito, Map 56.
  12. ^ NPS Cedar Mountain summary.
  13. ^ Salmon, pp. 127-28; Eicher, pp. 322-23; Esposito, Map 58.
  14. ^ NPS Manassas Station Operations summary.
  15. ^ Hennessy, pp. 145, 200-01; Greene, p. 17.
  16. ^ NPS Thoroughfare Gap summary.
  17. ^ Greene, p. 19.
  18. ^ Dawes, p. 60.
  19. ^ Herdegen, p. 91; Greene, pp. 19-21; Eicher, p. 326; Salmon, p. 147.
  20. ^ Dawes, p. 62.
  21. ^ Herdegen, pp. 91-92; Hennessy, pp. 173-80; Greene, p. 21; Salmon, p. 147.
  22. ^ Hennessy, pp. 180-88; Eicher, p. 326; Greene, pp. 22-23; Salmon, p. 147.
  23. ^ Ropes, p. 134.
  24. ^ Time-Life, p. 139.
  25. ^ Nolan, pp. 92-93; Hennessy, p. 194.
  26. ^ Greene, pp. 23-24; Hennessy, p. 194.
  27. ^ Greene, pp. 24-25; Hennessy, pp. 201-02.
  28. ^ Hennessy, p. 204; Greene, pp. 26-27.
  29. ^ Salmon, p. 148; Whitehorne, Stop 5; Hennessy, pp. 205-14; Eicher, p. 328; Greene, p. 27.
  30. ^ Martin, pp. 171-72; Hennessy, pp. 221-22; Greene, p. 27.
  31. ^ Greene, pp. 27-28; Hennessy, pp. 226-28.
  32. ^ Esposito, map 62; Greene, pp. 28-29; Hennessy, pp. 232-36.
  33. ^ Greene, p. 29; Hennessy, p. 227.
  34. ^ Longstreet, p. 181; Greene, pp. 29-30; Hennessy, pp. 230-31.
  35. ^ Martin, pp. 181-82; Greene, p. 32; Hennessy, pp. 245-58.
  36. ^ Greene, p. 33; Martin, pp. 183-84; Hennessy, pp. 259-65.
  37. ^ Greene, pp. 33-35; Hennessy, pp. 270-86; Martin, pp. 185-88.
  38. ^ Hennessy, pp. 287-99; Longstreet, pp. 183-84; Martin, pp. 189-90; Greene, pp. 35-37; Eicher, p. 329.
  39. ^ Hennessy, pp. 304-07; Greene, pp. 37-38.
  40. ^ Hennessy, pp. 241-42; Greene, p. 38.
  41. ^ Hennessy, pp. 311-12, 323-24; Martin, p. 209; Greene, p. 39.
  42. ^ Greene, pp. 39-40; Eicher, p. 329; Hennessy, pp. 313-16.
  43. ^ Hennessy, p. 318; Greene, p. 40.
  44. ^ Salmon, p. 150; Hennessy, pp. 339-57; Greene, pp. 41-43.
  45. ^ Martin, pp. 219-20; Hennessy, pp. 358-61; Greene, pp. 43-44.
  46. ^ Esposito, map 63; Eicher, p. 331; Martin, pp. 223-24; Greene, p. 45; Hennessy, pp. 362-65.
  47. ^ Hennessy, pp. 366-73; Greene, p. 45; Martin, p. 223-26. Martin claims that this was the largest Union infantry regiment loss of the war.
  48. ^ Hennessy, pp. 373-93; Greene, p. 46.
  49. ^ Hennessy, pp. 393-406; Martin, pp. 231-37; Greene, pp. 47-49.
  50. ^ Hennessy, p. 421.
  51. ^ Martin, pp. 235-43; Greene, pp. 49-52; Hennessy, pp. 408-424.
  52. ^ Hennessy, p. 427.
  53. ^ Eicher, p. 331; Martin, pp. 246-48; Greene, p. 52; Hennessy, pp. 424-438.
  54. ^ Greene, p. 54; Eicher, p. 327.
  55. ^ Harsh, pp. 163-73.
  56. ^ Hennessy, p. 471.
  57. ^ Warner, p. 379.
  58. ^ Gallagher, pp. 140-57; Wert, pp. 166-72.

References

.
  • Dawes, Rufus R., A Full Blown Yankee of the Iron Brigade: Service with the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers, University of Nebraska Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8032-6618-9.
  • Editors of Time-Life Books, Lee Takes Command: From Seven Days to Second Bull Run, Time-Life Books, 1984, ISBN 0-8094-4804-1.
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959. Reprinted by Henry Holt & Co., 1995, ISBN 0-8050-3391-2.
  • Gallagher, Gary, Lee and His Generals in War and Memory, Louisiana State University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8071-2958-5.
  • Greene, A. Wilson, The Second Battle of Manassas, National Park Service Civil War Series, Eastern National, 2006, ISBN 0-915992-85-X.
  • Harsh, Joseph L., Confederate Tide Rising: Robert E. Lee and the Making of Southern Strategy, 1861–1862, Kent State University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-87338-580-2.
  • Hennessy, John J., Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas, University of Oklahoma Press, 1993, ISBN 0-806 1-3187-X.
  • Herdegen, Lance J., The Men Stood Like Iron: How the Iron Brigade Won Its Name, Indiana University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-253-33221-4.
  • Kennedy, Frances H., ed., The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998, ISBN 0-395-74012-6.
  • Langellier, John, Second Manassas 1862: Robert E. Lee's Greatest Victory, Osprey Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1-84176-230-X.
  • Longstreet, James, From Manassas to Appomattox: Memoirs of the Civil War in America, J. B. Lippincott and Co., 1896, (reprinted by Da Capo Press) ISBN 0-3068-0464-6.
  • Martin, David G., The Second Bull Run Campaign: July-August 1862, Da Capo Press, 1997, ISBN 0-306-81332-7.
  • Nolan, Alan T., The Iron Brigade: A Military History, Indiana University Press, 1961, ISBN 978-0-253-34102-0.
  • Ropes, John Codman, The Army in the Civil War, Vol.^ Alpheus S. Williams, The Civil War Letters of General Alpheus S. Williams: From the Cannon's Mouth, (Detroit: Wayne State University Press and Detroit Historical Society, 1959; reprint, Lincoln: Bison Books, Univ.
    • Military History Online - Nutmeggers on Antietam Creek 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One of the Six Supplemented Battle Pictures the Book "The Pictorial Battles of the Civil War," Published by the Sherman Publishing Co., New York .
    • Guide to the Northern Virginia Civil War images collection, 1853-1914 Northern Virginia Civil War imagesC0150 25 January 2010 11:34 UTC sca.gmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In mid-June James Wilson's Cavalry Division was sent out by U. S. Grant to ride around Robert E. Lee's army in Richmond and Petersburg.
    • http://www.currensnet.com/cwcongrs/Mountain_hwtzers/mh_ht_cwet.htm 16 September 2009 21:16 UTC www.currensnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    IV: The Army under Pope
    , Charles Scribner's Sons, 1881.
  • Salmon, John S., The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide, Stackpole Books, 2001, ISBN 0-8117-2868-4.
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
  • Wert, Jeffry D., General James Longstreet: The Confederacy's Most Controversial Soldier: A Biography, Simon & Schuster, 1993, ISBN 0-671-70921-6.
  • Whitehorne, Joseph W. A., The Battle of Second Manassas: Self-Guided Tour, U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1990, OCLC 20723735.
  • Woodworth, Steven E., and Winkle, Kenneth J., Oxford Atlas of the Civil War, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-19-522131-1.
  • National Park Service battle description

Further reading

  • Beaudot, William J. K., and Herdegen, Lance J., An Irishman in the Iron Brigade, Fordham University Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-8232-1501-0.

External links


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