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In cell physiology, a secondary messenger system (also known as a second messenger system) is a method of cellular signaling[1] whereby a diffusible signaling molecule is rapidly produced/secreted, which can then go on to activate effector proteins within the cell to exert a cellular response. Secondary messengers are a component of signal transduction cascades.

Secondary messenger systems can be activated by diverse means, either by activation of enzymes that synthesize them, as is the case with the activation of cyclases that synthesize cyclic nucleotides, or by opening of ion channels to allow influx of metal ions, such as in Ca2+ signaling. These small molecules may then go on to exert their effect by binding to and activating effector molecules such as protein kinases, ion channels, and a variety of other proteins, thus continuing the signaling cascade.

Contents

Types of secondary messenger molecules

There are three basic types of secondary messenger molecules:

These intracellular messengers have some properties in common:

  • They can be synthesized/released and broken down again in specific reactions by enzymes or ion channels.
  • Some (like Ca2+) can be stored in special organelles and quickly released when needed.
  • Their production/release and destruction can be localized, enabling the cell to limit space and time of signal activity.

Common mechanisms of secondary messenger systems

General Schematic of Second Messenger Mechanism

There are several different secondary messenger systems (cAMP system, phosphoinositol system, and arachidonic acid system), but they all are quite similar in overall mechanism, though the substances involved in those mechanisms and effects are different.

In all of these cases, a neurotransmitter binds to a membrane-spanning receptor protein molecule. The binding of the neurotransmitter to the receptor changes the receptor and causes it to expose a binding site for a G-protein. The G-protein (named for the GDP and GTP molecules that bind to it) is bound to the inner membrane of the cell and consists of three subunits: alpha, beta and gamma. The G-protein is known as the "transducer."

When the G-protein binds to the receptor, it becomes able to exchange a GDP (guanosine diphosphate) molecule on its alpha subunit for a GTP (guanosine triphosphate) molecule. Once this exchange takes place, the alpha subunit of the G-protein transducer breaks free from the beta and gamma subunits, all parts remaining membrane-bound. The alpha subunit, now free to move along the inner membrane, eventually contacts another membrane-bound protein - the "primary effector."

The primary effector then has an action, which creates a signal that can diffuse within the cell. This signal is called the "secondary messenger." (The neurotransmitter is the first messenger.) The secondary messenger may then activate a "secondary effector" whose effects depend on the particular secondary messenger system.

Calcium ions are responsible for many important physiological functions, such as in muscle contraction. It is normally bound to intracellular components, even though a secondary messenger is a plasma membrane receptor. Calcium regulates the protein calmodulin, and, when bound to calmodulin, it produces an alpha helical structure. This is also important in muscle contraction. The enzyme phospholipase C produces diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate, which increases calcium ion permeability into the membrane. Active G-protein open up calcium channels to let calcium ions enter the plasma membrane. The other product of phospholipase C, diacylglycerol, activates protein kinase C, which assists in the activation of cAMP(another second messenger).

Examples

cAMP System Phosphoinositol system Arachidonic acid system cGMP System Tyrosine kinase system
Neurotransmitters
(Receptor)
Epinephrine (α2, β1, β2)
Acetylcholine (M2)
Dopamine (D1 D2)
Epinephrine (α1)
Acetylcholine (M1, M3)
Histamine (Histamine receptor) - -
Hormones ACTH, ANP, CRH, CT, FSH, Glucagon, hCG, LH, MSH, PTH, TSH AGT, GnRH, GHRH, Oxytocin, TRH - ANP, Nitric oxide INS, IGF, PDGF
Transducer Gs (β1, β2), Gi (α2, M2) Gp Unknown G-protein - -
Primary effector Adenylyl cyclase Phospholipase C Phospholipase A guanylate cyclase receptor tyrosine kinase
Secondary messenger cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) IP3 (inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate) and DAG (Diacylglycerol), both from PIP2 Arachidonic acid cGMP -
Secondary effector protein kinase A Ca++ release (see calcium-binding protein) and PKC (protein kinase C) 5-Lipoxygenase, 12-Lipoxygenase, cycloxygenase protein kinase G -

References

External links

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