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Secretary of State is a commonly used title for a member of government. The role varies between countries, and in some cases there are multiple Secretaries of State in the government.

In many countries, a Secretary of State is a mid-level post. It is usually a political post, although in some countries, such as Germany, it can be filled by a member of the executive bureaucracy (civil service) as a political appointment. In the United Kingdom a Secretary of State is a senior member of the Government, a politician appointed by the Prime Minister. In the federal government of the United States, there is one Secretary of State, the politician responsible for foreign policy (that is, equivalent to a foreign minister). In the Holy See, there is one Secretary of State, who coordinates all the departments of the Roman Curia (that is, equivalent to a prime minister).

Contents

Argentina

the Secretary of State (Secretario de Estado) in Argentina (federal government) is a high official with the same rank of a Minister, who is responsible directly to the President. The position must be distinguished from a "Secretary", a lower position, responsible to a Minister.

The official responsible for foreign policy is called Minister of Foreign Affairs (Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores) or "Chancellor" (Canciller).

Belgium

As in France, a Secretary of State in Belgium is a junior minister who is responsible to a minister or the Prime Minister. For example, Vincent Van Quickenborne was a Secretary of State charged with the simplification of the administration, and in this role he was accountable to the Prime Minister. Secretaries of state do not fall under the constitutional provision that there should be an equal number of Francophone and Dutch-speaking ministers (with the possible exception of the prime minister).

Canada

The Canadian Cabinet used to have a Secretary of State for External Affairs who acted as the country's Foreign Minister, but this position was abolished in 1993 and a new position of Minister of Foreign Affairs was created. From 1867 to 1993 there was also a Secretary of State for Canada who was a Cabinet minister whose duties varied over time but who was responsible for the Department of Secretary of State until the position was abolished. From 1993, some junior ministers are styled Secretary of State, and assigned specific policy areas to assist Cabinet ministers. However, these junior ministers are not themselves members of Cabinet. A similar role is played by Ministers of State, however Ministers are members of the cabinet.

Estonia

The State Secretary (Riigisekretär) directs the State Chancellery. Its mission is to support the Government and the Prime Minister in policy drafting and implementation. It also supports any Ministers without portfolio and helps to ensure good governance. Before the Soviet re-occupation in 1944, the State Secretary went into exile until the position came back to Estonia in 1992. [1]

Finland

A Secretary of State, valtiosihteeri, is the highest official below each minister. Ministers, who lead ministries (government departments), comprise the Finnish Council of State. Each Secretary of State is appointed for the term of the minister, and is responsible to the minister.

This is a new arrangement; during the introduction of this model, a secretary was called "political state secretary" (poliittinen valtiosihteeri). In contrast, previously only two ministries, ministries of finance and foreign affairs, used to have Secretaries of State, who were permanently appointed. One such example is Raimo Sailas.

France

In France, a Secretary of State is a junior minister, responsible to a minister or the Prime Minister. It is not to be confused with the Minister of State title given to a senior French cabinet minister of particular importance.

Under the Ancien Régime, Secretaries of State were Crown officers whose responsibilities were similar to those of today's governmental ministers.

Germany

The German Staatssekretär is a Beamter (civil servant) who is second only to the minister in a state or federal ministry. The office of Staatssekretär is similar to that of vice minister or deputy minister in other countries. It is a political office, meaning that it is assigned by appointment based on political criteria such as party affiliation, rather than by career progression as a civil servant, although he is the administrative head of the ministry. They depend on the full confidence of their minister and can at any time be posted into provisional retirement with their pension paid in full. This happens usually when the government or the minister changes. De facto such a provisional retirement is lifelong and thus expensive for the taxpayers.

A special case is the Parlamentarische Staatssekretär (parliamentary secretary of state), which is a member of parliament who is appointed to a ministry as a Staatssekretär. Such posts, which were intended to improve the connection between a ministry and the parliament, have recently become subject of some controversy. Critics claim that parliamentary secretaries of state are usually given little to no influence and responsibility within their ministry. All the while they are paid very generously due to receiving two salaries, both as secretary of state and as member of parliament. For example, when interviewed about his post as a parliamentary minister of state in the German Foreign Office during an investigation into visa abuse, Ludger Volmer claimed that he had been cut off from the workflow within the ministry, and called the Staatsminister office an "Unding" (absurdity).The German Foreign Office and the German Chancellery are using a slightly different title, and are calling their parliamentary secretaries of state Staatsminister (Minister of State).

In 1998, chancellor Gerhard Schröder introduced the new office of Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media (Beauftragter der Bundesregierung für Kultur und Medien) at the formal rank of a Parlamentarischer Staatssekretär, hence the office is usually called Kulturstaatsminister ("Minister of Culture") for short. The German Parliamentary Commission for Culture and the Media (Ausschuss für Kultur und Medien im Deutschen Bundestag) serves in place of a proper ministry for this department. Since 1998, the office of Kulturstaatsminister has been held by Michael Naumann (1998-2001), Julian Nida-Rümelin (2001-2002), Christina Weiss (2002-2005), and Bernd Neumann (since 2005).

Holy See

The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Secretariat of State, which is the most important dicastery of the Roman Curia, as it organizes, makes appointments to, and directs the activities of the other dicasteries.[2] The secretariat is also responsible for the Holy See's foreign relations.[2] During a sede vacante, the former Secretary of State (the appointment expires when the pope dies or resigns) assumes some of the functions of the head of state as a part of a temporary commission.[3]

Indonesia

In Indonesia, the State Secretary (Sekretaris Negara) is a Government official of Ministerial rank who heads the State Secretariat. The State Secretary gives technical and administrational assistance to the President and Vice President in running State affairs. In the President's case, the State Secretary also provides assistance for the President in his role as Supreme Commander of TNI. In addition, the State Secretary provides the President and Vice President with their reports, coordinates household matters and protocols, as well as assisting in the drafting of bills and/or Governmental regulations.

Luxembourg

Luxembourgian Secretaries of State (French: secrétaire d'Etat, Luxembourgish: Staatssekretär(in), German: Staatssekretär(in)) are members of the cabinet, and are ranked below ministers. They are given specific briefs, covering the same briefs as the ministers, and help to assist their respective ministers to perform their functions. They often hold more than one brief or assist more than one minister. In the current cabinet, there is one Secretary of State, Octavie Modert, who is responsible for Relations with Parliament; Agriculture, Viticulture, and Rural Development; and Culture, Higher Education, and Research. There had been two in the previous cabinet, and three between 1984 and 1989.

Mexico

In Mexico a Secretary of State is a member of the Mexican Executive Cabinet who responds to the President of the Republic.

Netherlands

Norway

A statssekretær in Norway plays more or less the same role as the French or Swedish equivalent. Secretaries of State are connected to specific ministry, and serve as a de facto vice minister. However, the State Secretary cannot attend a Council of State.

Orange Free State

In the Orange Free State (1854-1902) the Secretary of State was the original the title of the main administrative officer of the State, who worked closely with both the State President as head of state and head of government, and his cabinet, and with the Volksraad, the parliament of the Orange Free State. The title of State Secretary was replaced by that of Government Secretary soon after the formation of the state apparatus and was thereafter never used again.

Portugal

In Portugal the term Secretário de Estado (plural: Secretários de Estado; feminine: Secretária de Estado; English: state secretary) was used to designate the heads of the government departments since the XVII century. In the XIX century the term Ministro (English: minister) started to be used instead. Curiously the government junior ministers continued to be known as Subsecretário de Estado (English: under-secretary of state). Although in disuse as such, only in 1958 the term Secretário de Estado became the formal meaning of a different post of that of a Ministro (cabinet minister). Since then, the Secretários de Estado are junior ministers, subordinated to a cabinet minister.

Russia

In Russia, part of the function of Secretary of State is carried on by the Foreign Minister of Russia. The situation is confused by the break-up of the USSR and the fact that each member of the old USSR had a secretary (or head) for each republic.

List of people who were Secretary of State

San Marino

In the Republic of San Marino a Secretary of State is a senior Cabinet Minister in charge of a State Department. The Secretary of State is a member of the Council of Ministers (Congresso di Stato).

South African Republic

In the South African Republic the Secretary of State was the main administrative officer of the State, working closely with both the State President as head of state and head of government, and the parliament of the South African Republic.

Spain

A Secretario de Estado is a junior minister. Each ministry may have several Secretaries of State. For example the Secretary of State for Latin America works for the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Historically the Secretary of State served as Chief Minister in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. List of Prime Ministers of Spain.

Sweden

In Sweden, a State Secretary (statssekreterare) is a political appointee, who is second in rank to the minister in his ministry. Unlike ministers, state secretaries are not part of the cabinet. Typically, there is one state secretary for each minister in the cabinet, and two for the Prime Minister of Sweden. For historical reasons, the State Secretary for Foreign Affairs (Sweden) has another title (kabinettssekreterare, literally "Cabinet Secretary"). State secretaries are more often than ministers, but not always, recrutied from a civil servant background or a professional background relevant to their ministries.

Switzerland

In the Swiss federal administration, secretaries of state are the most senior career officials. The title is conferred by the Swiss Federal Council on heads of federal offices whose duties entail independent interaction with senior foreign authorities (cf. article 46 of the Government and Administration Organisation Act). In practice, the function of a secretary of state is the same as in France.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, a secretary of state is a cabinet minister in charge of a government department (though not all departments are headed by a Secretary of State, e.g. HM Treasury is headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer). Secretaries of State are appointed directly by the Prime Minister, and are responsible, along with other Cabinet members for the collective Government of the UK. There is in theory only one office of Secretary of State, and legislation generally refers only to "the Secretary of State". In practice, there are a number of Secretaries of State, each of whom can exercise the functions of the Secretary of State, and formally titled "Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for ...". These positions can be created without primary legislation.

In eighteenth century Britain there were two Secretaries of State who divided control of foreign affairs between them: the Northern Secretary and the Southern Secretary.

United States

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Federal government

In the United States federal government, "Secretary of State" uniquely refers to the official responsible for foreign policy, the analogue of the foreign secretary or foreign minister of a country that has one or the other. The U.S. Secretary of State is head of the United States Department of State.

Six Secretaries of State became presidents (Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren and James Buchanan) and four won Nobel Peace Prizes (Frank Kellogg, Cordell Hull, George Marshall and Henry Kissinger).

The now long-established terms "Department ..." and "Secretary of State" were preceded (for two months following the effective date of the Constitution) by the narrower title Secretary of Foreign Affairs and the corresponding departmental name; the change reflected the addition of some miscellaneous domestic responsibilities.

The position is widely regarded as the most senior in the Cabinet. In the presidential line of succession the Secretary of State falls first among Cabinet officers, and fourth overall. The Secretary of State is also, in protocol, the first Cabinet member in the order of precedence, immediately preceding any former presidents and former first ladies, who are followed by the rest of the Cabinet.

President Barack Obama named Hillary Rodham Clinton as his choice for Secretary of State on December 1, 2008. She was confirmed on January 21, 2009, the day after Obama's inauguration. She is the third woman to hold the position. [4]

U.S. States

In most of the individual states of the United States, the Secretary of State is an administrative officer responsible for certain governmental functions. The specifics depend on the constitution and laws of the particular state, but often include responsibility for overseeing elections within the state. In three states (Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia), the position is called "Secretary of the Commonwealth".

References

  1. ^ Riigisekretäri ülesanded (Estonian)
  2. ^ a b Pope John Paul II (1988-06-28). "Pastor Bonus". The Holy See. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_19880628_pastor-bonus-roman-curia_en.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-17. 
  3. ^ Pope John Paul II (1996-02-22). "Universi Dominici Gregis". The Holy See. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_22021996_universi-dominici-gregis_en.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-17. 
  4. ^ http://www.etaiwannews.com/etn/news_content.php?id=801112&lang=eng_news

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SECRETARY OF STATE, in England, the designation of certain important members of the administration. The ancient English monarchs were always attended by a learned ecclesiastic, known at first as their clerk, and afterwards as secretary, who conducted the royal correspondence; but it was not until the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth that these functionaries were called secretaries of state. Upon the direction of public affairs passing from the privy council to the cabinet after 1688 the secretaries of state began to assume those high duties 1 Curiously enough, Boddaert in 1783 omitted to give it a scientific name.

The scientific synonymy of the species is given at great length by Drs Finsch and Hartlaub (Vogel Ost-Afrihas, p. 93) and by R. B. Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. Museum, i. p. 45).

3 It is from the fancied resemblance of these feathers to the pens which a clerk is supposed to stick above his ear that the bird's name of Secretary is really derived.

which now render their office one of the most influential of an administration.

Until the reign of Henry VIII. there was generally only one secretary of state, but at the end of his reign a second principal secretary was appointed. Owing to the increase of business consequent upon the union of Scotland, a third secretary, in 1708, was created, but a vacancy occurring in this office in 1746 the third secretaryship was dispensed with until 1768, when it was again instituted to take charge of the increasing colonial business. However, in 1782 the office was again abolished, and the charge of the colonies transferred to the home secretary; but owing to the war with France in 1794 a third secretary was once more appointed to superintend the business of the war department, and seven years later the colonial business was attached to his department. In 1854 a fourth secretary of state for the exclusive charge of the war department and in 1858 a fifth secretaryship for India were created. There are therefore now five principal secretaries of state, four of whom, with their political under-secretaries, occupy seats in the House of Commons. One of these secretaries of state is always a member of the House of Lords. The secretaries of state are the only authorized channels through which the royal pleasure is signified to any part of the body politic, and the counter-signature of one of them is necessary to give validity to the sign manual. The secretaries of state constitute but one office, and are coordinate in rank and equal in authority. Each is competent in general to execute any part of the duties of the secretary of state, the division of duties being a mere matter of arrangement. For the existing division of duties, see under separate headings, Colonial Office, Foreign Office, &C.

In the United States the "secretary of state" is a member of the executive, who deals with foreign affairs, and who, in the event of a vacancy in the office of president, is next in succession after the vice-president. The title of "secretary"- "of the treasury," "of war," &c. - is used for some other members of the executive. In various states there is an executive officer called "secretary of state."


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Simple English

Secretary of State is a title for a government official. The title has different meanings in different countries, and in some cases there are several Secretaries of State in the government.

In many countries, a secretary of state is a mid-level official.

United States

In the United States federal government, the Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, and is responsible for foreign policy. In most other countries, this official is called the foreign secretary or foreign minister. The Secretary of State is the highest-ranking member of the Cabinet. The current U.S. Secretary of State is Hillary Rodham Clinton.


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