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Seizure
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 G40., I64., P90., R56.
ICD-9 345.9, 780.3
DiseasesDB 19011
eMedicine neuro/694 neuro/415
MeSH D012640
.An epileptic seizure can be defined as "a transient symptom of excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain".[1] The outward effect can be as dramatic as a wild thrashing movement (tonic-clonic seizure) or as mild as a brief loss of awareness.^ Nocturnal seizures are usually tonic-clonic.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A seizure is caused by abnormal brain activity.
  • Mebane Veterinary Hospital - MebaneVet Gazette 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.mebanevet.com [Source type: General]

^ Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures .
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It can manifest as an alteration in mental state, tonic or clonic movements, convulsions, and various other psychic symptoms (such as déjà vu or jamais vu).^ Tonic clonic (convulsive) seizures .

^ They can manifest as an alteration in mental state, tonic or clonic movements and various other symptoms.
  • Epilepsy & Seizures Support Group - DailyStrength 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Unlike tonic-clonic seizures, absence seizures do not cause convulsions or other dramatic symptoms.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The medical syndrome of recurrent, unprovoked seizures is termed epilepsy, but seizures can occur in people who do not have epilepsy.^ Stress increases seizure activity in 30% of people who have epilepsy.
  • Seizures, Information about Seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Seizure Disorder: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Seizure Disorder - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seizures that continue to occur are referred to as epilepsy.
  • Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure - NY Times Health Information 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am one of the people in this world who have epilepsy.

.About 4% of people will have an unprovoked seizure by the age of 80 and yet the chance of experiencing a second seizure is between 30% and 50%.^ The seizure lasted around 30 seconds.
  • Seizure Activity 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.mcmprod.com [Source type: General]

^ This seizure lasted about 30 sec.
  • Seizures in Dogs 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One recent study that followed patients for an average of 8 years found that only 33 percent of people have a second seizure within 4 years after an initial seizure.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][3] .Treatment may reduce the chance of a second one by as much as half.^ In dogs with idiopathic epilepsy, treatment after the second seizure should be considered because early treatment may improve the prognosis for successful control of epilepsy.
  • Irish Wolfhound Seizure Study, Managing Epileptic Irish Wolfhounds and other Dogs 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.irishwolfhoundstudy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It may have been a one-time occurrence, but I would not chance it.

^ There may even be some benefit since it reduces at least one major stress in her life (estral periods) that may (or may not) lower her seizure threshold.
  • Seizures in Dogs 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .Most single episode seizures are managed by primary care physicians (emergency or general practitioners), whereas investigation and management of ongoing epilepsy is usually by neurologists.^ Unlike in primary reading epilepsy, most have spontaneous seizures.
  • International League Against Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ilae-epilepsy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures .
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seizures are the primary symptom of epilepsy.
  • Tag: Seizures - Explore content tagged Seizures on eHow.com 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

.Difficult to manage epilepsy may require consultation with an epileptologist, a neurologist with an interest in epilepsy.^ Similar attacks may be triggered transiently in some metabolic encephalopathies such as alcohol withdrawal without requiring a diagnosis of epilepsy.
  • International League Against Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ilae-epilepsy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Successful management of epilepsy is often difficult as is evident by estimates that approximately 20% to 50% of canine epileptics treated at referral centers are not satisfactorily controlled.
  • Irish Wolfhound Seizure Study, Managing Epileptic Irish Wolfhounds and other Dogs 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.irishwolfhoundstudy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They include neurologists, pediatricians, pediatric neurologists, internists, and family physicians, as well as neurosurgeons and doctors called epileptologists who specialize in treating epilepsy.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Classification

.Seizure types are organized according to whether the source of the seizure within the brain is localized (partial or focal onset seizures) or distributed (generalized seizures).^ The seizures can be either focal or generalized.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Partial seizures with secondary generalization .

^ The type of seizure will depend on where it starts and spreads within the brain.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

.Partial seizures are further divided on the extent to which consciousness is affected (simple partial seizures and complex partial seizures).^ Simple and complex partial seizures are, in effect, one big aura.

^ Seizures involving no impairment of consciousness are simple partial seizures.
  • Seizures in the Emergency Department: eMedicine Neurology 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If consciousness is impaired, they are called partial complex seizures.
  • Visions or Epileptic Seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.whiteestate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If consciousness is unaffected, then it is a simple partial seizure; otherwise it is a complex partial seizure.^ Seizures involving no impairment of consciousness are simple partial seizures.
  • Seizures in the Emergency Department: eMedicine Neurology 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An aura is a simple partial seizure.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy, Overview and Classification: eMedicine Neurology 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The defining element of simple partial seizures is a seizure with preserved consciousness.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy, Overview and Classification: eMedicine Neurology 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.A partial seizure may spread within the brain—a process known as secondary generalization.^ With generalized seizures With partial seizures .

^ The seizure may stop there or it may generalize.

^ Sometimes partial seizures can spread from one hemisphere to both hemispheres of the brain.

.Generalized seizures are divided according to the effect on the body, but all involve loss of consciousness.^ Simple partial seizure These seizures involve no loss of consciousness.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Not all body shaking is caused by seizures.
  • Seizures - Yahoo! Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Loss of consciousness is a feature of generalized seizures.

.These include absence, myoclonic, clonic, tonic, tonic–clonic, and atonic seizures.^ Nocturnal seizures are usually tonic-clonic.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms Signs of absence seizures include: .
  • Absence seizure (petit mal seizure) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures .
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following standardization proposals published in 1970, out-dated terms such as "petit mal", "grand mal", "Jacksonian", "psychomotor", and "temporal-lobe seizure" have fallen into disuse.^ Temporal lobe epilepsy, or psychomotor seizures are older terms for this kind of attack.
  • Visions or Epileptic Seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.whiteestate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A petit mal seizure lasts 15 to 20 seconds.
  • Seizure Disorder: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Misdiagnosis of Grand mal seizures Failure to diagnose Grand mal seizures Hidden causes of Grand mal seizures (possibly wrongly diagnosed) Undiagnosed: Grand mal seizures Videos for Grand mal seizures .
  • Grand mal seizures Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

Signs and symptoms

.Seizures can cause involuntary changes in body movement or function, sensation, awareness, or behavior.^ Seizures are caused by abnormal brain function.

^ The main function is sensation, perception of where the body is.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Not all body shaking is caused by seizures.
  • Seizures - Yahoo! Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Seizures are often associated with a sudden and involuntary contraction of a group of muscles and loss of consciousness.^ Often loss of consciousness occurs as well as muscle contractions and rigidity.
  • Grand mal seizures Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

^ These seizures are often associated with auras.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Atonic seizures may be associated with sudden loss of muscle tone.

.However, a seizure can also be as subtle as a fleeting numbness of a part of the body, a brief or long term loss of memory, visual changes, sensing/discharging of an unpleasant odor, a strange epigastric sensation, or a sensation of fear and total state of confusion.^ With a seizure, a person has change in awareness, body movements, or sensation.
  • Emergency & First Aid: Seizures: First Aid For Seizures Emergency Conditions 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with complex partial seizures experience distortions of thought, perception or emotion (usually fear), sometimes with unusual visual, olfactory, auditory and gustatory sensations.
  • Canine Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A sudden sense of unprovoked fear A deja vu experience The sudden occurrence of a strange odor or taste A rising sensation in the abdomen People who have temporal lobe seizures usually remain partially conscious during a seizure, but they lose awareness of their surroundings and usually don't remember what happened.
  • Temporal lobe seizure 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.A seizure can last from a few seconds to status epilepticus, a continuous seizure that will not stop without intervention.^ Seizures usually stop within a few seconds or a few minutes.

^ Status epilepticus is a seizure which lasts for a long time, or repeats without recovery.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A seizure can last from seconds to minutes.
  • Seizure Disorders 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.petplace.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore seizures are typically classified as motor, sensory, autonomic, emotional or cognitive.^ They are further classified according to their symptoms: Autonomic Seizures .
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The many kinds of simple partial seizures include sensory, motor, autonomic, and psychic types.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy, Overview and Classification: eMedicine Neurology 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The seizures begin with sensory symptoms; a sensory jacksonian seizure occurs often followed by tonic motor manifestations suggesting a supplementary motor area seizure.
  • International League Against Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ilae-epilepsy.org [Source type: Academic]

.After a seizure, while the brain is recovering, there can be a transient loss of memory; usually the short term memory.^ A seizure is often followed by memory loss; brain damage can occur if a seizure is...
  • Tag: Seizures - Explore content tagged Seizures on eHow.com 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Children usually recover from seizures on their own.
  • AboutKidsHealth: Epilepsy: What to Do in Case of a Seizure 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the seizure, there is no memory of it.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.In some cases, the full onset of a seizure event is preceded by some of the sensations described above.^ Some dogs have one or two short seizures a year, while others have three or more in a day, an event known as a cluster seizure.
  • Why does my dog have seizures? 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.dogchannel.com [Source type: General]

^ It is important to differentiate syncope from seizure, since some cases of syncope can look like your pet is having a seizure.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.lbah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, this type of seizure is triggered by other health problems, such as extremely low blood sugar or a stroke.
  • Grand mal seizure 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.These sensations can serve as a warning to the sufferer that a generalized tonic–clonic seizure is about to occur.^ Generalized tonic-clonic seizure .
  • Seizures | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ These are called clonic-tonic-clonic seizures!
  • Clonic Seizures | epilepsy.com 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC mynew.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

^ Generalized tonic-clonic seizures may be primary or secondary.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These "warning sensations" are cumulatively called an aura.^ Some people with focal seizures, especially complex focal seizures, may experience auras -- unusual sensations that warn of an impending seizure.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SPS are sometimes called ‘warnings’ or ‘auras’ because, for some people, a SPS develops into another type of seizure.
  • National Society for Epilepsy : Epileptic seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsysociety.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ These seizures are sometimes called simple partial seizures of temporal lobe origin or temporal lobe auras .
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Also, it is commonly believed among healthcare providers[citation needed] that many seizures, especially those in children, are preceded by tachycardia that frequently persists throughout the seizure.^ Dogs who suffer significantly from epilepsy (those who have frequent and/or severe seizures) can be treated with antiseizure medication, although most dogs need to remain on the medication for life.
  • Why does my dog have seizures? 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.dogchannel.com [Source type: General]

^ These will include ability to enter any numbers of seizures, or seizure clusters for a day by describing one seizure and then entering a number for how many of those occurred.
  • Epilepsy and seizure information for patients and health professionals | epilepsy.com 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

^ Some fundamentals - Many people believe that piston seizures occur when engine heat causes the piston to expand larger than the size of the cylinder bore...this is not true.
  • Piston Siezures of High Performance Personal Watercraft 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.groupk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This early increase in heart rate may supplement an aura as a physiological warning sign of an imminent seizure.^ Was there any warning (aura) of the seizures?
  • Health Los Angeles - Seizures. A seizure is a sudden change in behavior due to... 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.uclahealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms or warning signs may include: .
  • Seizures and Epilepsy - My Child Has - Children's Hospital Boston 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.childrenshospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.healthsystem.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Seizures and Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.chw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Seizures, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/nervous_system/seizures/Pages/index.aspx 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CHOC Health Library - Neurological Disorders: Seizures and Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.choc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many patients have an aura (sensory warning sign) preceding the seizure.
  • Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure - NY Times Health Information 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some patients are able to tell when a seizure is about to happen.^ Some facts about seizures .
  • National Society for Epilepsy : Epileptic seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsysociety.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ To some of us this is a story about seizures.

^ Some patients with epilepsy may have an inherited predisposition for fast or long-lasting activation of NMDA channels that alters their seizure threshold.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy, Overview and Classification: eMedicine Neurology 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some symptoms experienced by the person before a seizure may include dizziness, lightheadedness, tightening of the chest, and some experience things in slow-motion just prior to the seizure.^ Symptoms of seizures come on suddenly, over just seconds to a minute, and may include: .
  • Seizures | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • Channel Management System v2.1 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.drgreene.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms Signs of absence seizures include: .
  • Absence seizure (petit mal seizure) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ A person may experience one or many seizures.
  • Seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.healthsystem.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Seizures, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/nervous_system/seizures/Pages/index.aspx 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symptoms experienced by a person during a seizure depend on where in the brain the disturbance in electrical activity occurs.^ A generalized seizure occurs when electrical abnormalities exist throughout the brain.
  • Seizure Disorder - baby, symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sudden and uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain.
  • AboutKidsHealth: Epilepsy: What to Do in Case of a Seizure 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A seizure is a sudden abnormal discharge of electrical activity in the brain.
  • Tag: Seizures - Explore content tagged Seizures on eHow.com 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

.Partial and frontal seizures and focal epileptic discharges tend to happen more during sleep than during wakefulness.^ Nocturnal Seizures Seizures that occur during sleep.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

^ What happened during the seizure?
  • Seizures - Yahoo! Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Presence of any partial (focal) features during the seizure .
  • SCN1A-Related Seizure Disorders -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In contrast, psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are rare between midnight and 6 a m.^ Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are common in the ED. In fact, in one study, 50% of patients presenting in status epilepticus were experiencing psychogenic seizures (Howell et al, 1989).
  • Seizures in the Emergency Department: eMedicine Neurology 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nonepileptic events may include psychogenic seizures or symptoms of medical conditions such as sleep disorders, Tourette syndrome, or cardiac arrythmia.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certain mental disorders can cause symptoms that resemble seizures, called psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and never occurred during sleep.[4] .Generalized epilepsy but not focal epilepsy is higher in the morning probably reflecting a diurnal variation in cortical excitability.^ Cortical dysplasia - focal epilepsy syndrome ...

^ Reflex seizures that occur in focal and generalized epilepsy syndromes that are also associated with spontaneous seizures, are listed as seizure types”.
  • International League Against Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ilae-epilepsy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If you decide that an AED is necessary, classification of the child's epilepsy by syndrome or seizure type, such as generalized or focal, is essential.
  • A Guide to Interventions for Pediatric Seizure Disorders - Psychiatric Times 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.psychiatrictimes.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .A person having a tonic–clonic seizure may cry out, lose consciousness and fall to the ground, and convulse, often violently.^ Nocturnal seizures are usually tonic-clonic.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures .
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generalized tonic-clonic seizures .
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A person having a complex partial seizure may appear confused or dazed and will not be able to respond to questions or direction.^ Once the seizure is over, he may be confused or tired.
  • AboutKidsHealth: Epilepsy: What to Do in Case of a Seizure 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although a person having a complex partial seizure may appear to be conscious, the person has no knowledge of what is happening and may behave inappropriately.
  • Seizure Disorder: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Partial seizures may be simple or complex.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some people have seizures that are not noticeable to others.^ Some people also have absence seizures.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some dogs have one or two short seizures a year, while others have three or more in a day, an event known as a cluster seizure.
  • Why does my dog have seizures? 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.dogchannel.com [Source type: General]

^ Do they all look the same, or are there different seizure behaviors you or others have noticed?
  • Grand mal seizure 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Sometimes, the only clue that a person is having an absence seizure is rapid blinking, extreme confusion for a few seconds or sometimes into hours.^ This is not only hard on the person having the seizure, but also on the people around the...
  • Tag: Seizures - Explore content tagged Seizures on eHow.com 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Absence seizures are short, usually lasting only 2-10 seconds.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If your child is having an absence seizure : .
  • AboutKidsHealth: Epilepsy: What to Do in Case of a Seizure 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Causes

.Unprovoked seizures are often associated with epilepsy and related seizure disorders.^ These seizures are often associated with auras.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with recurrent seizures.
  • Health Los Angeles - Seizures. A seizure is a sudden change in behavior due to... 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.uclahealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ictal EEG recordings from these arrays can often define the exact region of seizure onset in relation to the CM and reveal pathways of seizure propagation.
  • Vascular Malformations and Seizures - Neurosurgical Service - Massachusetts General Hospital 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

Causes of provoked seizures include:
.
.Some medications produce an increased risk of seizures and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) deliberately sets out to induce a seizure for the treatment of major depression.^ These substances that may induce seizures include the tricyclic antidepressants, lithium , antipsychotic medications, aminophylline, and high doses of penicillin.

^ If phenobarbitol is not adequately controlling seizures, even as we increase the dose, we will sometimes add this drug to the treatment regimen.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.lbah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, when seizures won't respond to medication it seems reasonable to rule out this possibility.
  • Seizures in Dogs 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many seizures have unknown causes.^ Many causes of seizures have been documented in dogs.

^ Epileptic seizures have many causes, including a genetic predisposition for certain seizures, head trauma, stroke, brain tumors, alcohol or drug withdrawal, and other conditions.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy, Overview and Classification: eMedicine Neurology 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although many people with seizures and epilepsy have normal MRIs, certain MRI abnormalities may provide a clue as to the cause of seizures in some cases.
  • Grand mal seizure 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Seizures which are provoked are not associated with epilepsy, and people who experience such seizures are normally not diagnosed with epilepsy.^ Some people who have epilepsy experience more than one type of seizure.
  • Seizure Disorder: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other people who have psychogenic seizures do not have epilepsy at all.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am one of the people in this world who have epilepsy.

.However, the seizures described above resemble those of epilepsy both outwardly, and on EEG testing.^ It is also possible to have both psychogenic seizures and epilepsy.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a younger sib of a proband presents with encephalopathy or a seizure, pyridoxine should be administered acutely (ideally under EEG monitoring) for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
  • Pyridoxine-Dependent Seizures -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Seizures of primary reading epilepsy are described and possible mechanisms discussed in Chapter XX. Secondary reading epilepsy occurs in patients with spontaneous seizures.
  • International League Against Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ilae-epilepsy.org [Source type: Academic]

.Seizures can occur after a subject witnesses a traumatic event.^ The first step in diagnosing the cause of a seizure is to obtain a moment-by-moment description of the event from a witness.
  • Seizure Disorders in the Elderly - January 15, 2003 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Myoclonic seizures can occur as a single event or in series.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seizures can be a very frightening event for a witness that is not familiar with the symptoms and causes of the seizure.
  • Tag: Seizures - Explore content tagged Seizures on eHow.com 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

.This type of seizure is known as a psychogenic non-epileptic seizure and is related to posttraumatic stress disorder.^ See non-epileptic seizures.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Keeping a seizure diary Non-epileptic seizures .
  • National Society for Epilepsy : Epileptic seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsysociety.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Patient known to be epileptic with a single seizure .
  • Seizures in the Emergency Department: eMedicine Neurology 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Mild seizures can be induced through a combination of quickly standing, hyperventilation and applying pressure to the sternum.^ Photic-induced seizures could be triggered even if only a limited brain area were treated with strychnine as long as it was applied to both occipital cortices.
  • International League Against Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ilae-epilepsy.org [Source type: Academic]

Diagnosis

.It is important to distinguish primary epileptic seizures from secondary causes.^ The different types of seizures include Primary Epileptic Seizures, Secondary Epileptic Seizures, and Reactive Epileptic Seizures.
  • Dog Seizures- Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, & More 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ If we can identify the cause of the seizures, say a brain tumor or a stroke, then we say the pet has symptomatic (or secondary) epilepsy.

^ Even though most of the time we find nothing on labwork or physical exam that explains the cause of a seizure, when we do find the cause it can be very important to treat it early.
  • Seizures in Dogs 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Blood tests, lumbar puncture or toxicology screening can be helpful in specific circumstances suggestive of an underlying cause like alcohol or benzodiazepine withdrawal, meningitis or drug overdose, but there is insufficient evidence to support their routine use in the work-up of an adult with an apparently unprovoked first seizure.^ Yes Do you think your seizure was caused by alcohol withdrawal?
  • Seizures - Yahoo! Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Withdrawal of a drug after heavy use .
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was no evidence of any seizure activity."
  • Seizure Activity 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.mcmprod.com [Source type: General]

[6] .A 2007 evidence-based review from the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society recommends an electroencephalogram (EEG, brain wave activity) and brain imaging with CT scan or MRI scan in the work-up.^ An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test to detect problems in the electrical activity of the brain.
  • Seizures | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ An electroencephalogram (an EEG) is a recording of the brain's electrical activity.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MRI or CT brain scan .

.MRI is more sensitive in a first apparently unprovoked seizure.^ More than 2 million people in the United States -- about 1 in 100 -- have experienced an unprovoked seizure or been diagnosed with epilepsy.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Berg AT, Shinnar S. The risk of seizure recurrence following a first unprovoked seizure: a quantitative review.
  • Seizures in the Emergency Department: eMedicine Neurology 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Primidone (Rx) is commonly used in dogs to avoid keeping controlled substances on hand but it is more likely to be toxic to the liver and is not a good first choice for seizure control.
  • Seizures in Dogs 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Differentiating an epileptic seizure from other conditions such as syncope can be difficult.^ Sometimes syncope can be difficult to differentiate from a seizure.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.lbah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Syncope may be difficult to differentiate from seizures, particularly if the event was unwitnessed.
  • Evaluation of a First Seizure - May 1, 2007 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is difficult to differentiate between psychogenic and epileptic seizures.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A reliable description of a witnessed seizure is the most important factor in determining whether a seizure has occurred.^ This is important in determining a seizure focus.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

^ A detailed description of the clinical semiology of the habitual events is important to determine if the seizures are consistent with the location of the cavernous angioma or whether the lesion may be an incidental finding.
  • Vascular Malformations and Seizures - Neurosurgical Service - Massachusetts General Hospital 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The first step in diagnosing the cause of a seizure is to obtain a moment-by-moment description of the event from a witness.
  • Seizure Disorders in the Elderly - January 15, 2003 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

Physical examination

.Most patients are in a post-ictal state following a seizure.^ Post-ictal state —A period of disorientation usually followed by sleep that occurs after a seizure.
  • Seizure Disorder: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Post-ictal The period following a seizure.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no post-ictal state after a typical absence seizure.

.In this state they are drowsy and often confused.^ They might occur just after a person has fallen asleep, just before waking, during daytime sleep, or while in a state of drowsiness.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can often be very subtle or bizarre, and may go unnoticed or be confused with other events.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Often times, they are called upon by a client residing outside of the state of Wisconsin, which they represent in very serious crimes such as Felony Murder or Homicide.
  • Illegal Search & Seizure - Legal Search & Seizure - The Exclusionary Rule - Wisconsin Laws Wisconsin Attorney 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.vanwagnerwood.com [Source type: Original source]

.There may be signs of other injuries.^ There are many signs and symptoms that a person has sustained a head injury.
  • Early Seizure | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Although any injury causing a person to lose consciousness may be serious, there is nothing in the records that demands that Ellen sustained severe brain damage.
  • Visions or Epileptic Seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.whiteestate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional treatment may be needed for the cause of the seizures or if there are multiple factors involved such as emotional trauma or past head/nerves injuries.
  • Natural Pet Health Info: Seizures & Epilepsy in Dog, Cat & Pets 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.gentlecarepet.com [Source type: General]

.A small study found that finding a bite to the side of the tongue was very helpful when present: while only a quarter of those with seizures had such a bite (sensitivity of 24%), the finding was very specific for seizures, with only 1% due to other causes (specificity of 99%).^ Tongue biting, especially lateral, is highly specific but not sensitive for generalized seizures.
  • Evaluation of a First Seizure - May 1, 2007 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I was very surprised to find she was only 2-3.

^ If your child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is having trouble controlling his aggressive behaviors, adding a drug commonly used to treat seizures and manic depression may help, according to a small new study.
  • Seizures News - Topix 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

[7]

Serum prolactin level

Two meta-analyses have quantified the role of an elevated serum prolactin. The first meta-analysis found that[8]: "If a serum prolactin concentration is greater than three times the baseline when taken within one hour of syncope, then in the absence of test "modifiers":
.
  1. the patient is nine times more likely to have suffered a GTCS as compared with a pseudoseizure positive LR = 8.92 (95% CI (1.31 to 60.91)), SN = 0.62 (95% CI (0.40 to 0.83)), SP = 0.89 (95% CI (0.60 to 0.98))
  2. five times more likely to have suffered a GTCS as compared with non-convulsive syncope positive LR 4.60 (95% CI (1.25 to 16.90)), SN = 0.71 (95% CI (0.49 to 0.87)), SP = 0.85 (95% CI (0.55 to 0.98)).^ RR for treatment failure (midazolam v lidocaine) 2.50 (95% CI 0.85-7.31).
    • Anticonvulsants for neonates with seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Relative risk of neurological impairment - all grades - (midazolam v lidocaine) 1.11 (95% CI 0.38-3.25).
    • Anticonvulsants for neonates with seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Relative risk for use of additional anticonvulsant (phenobarbital v phenytoin) 1.12 (95% CI 0.65, -1.91).
    • Anticonvulsants for neonates with seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    "
The second meta-analysis found:[9]
  1. "Elevated serum prolactin assay, when measured in the appropriate clinical setting at 10 to 20 minutes after a suspected event, is a useful adjunct for the differentiation of generalized tonic-clonic or complex partial seizure from psychogenic nonepileptic seizure among adults and older children (Level B)."
  2. "Serum prolactin assay does not distinguish epileptic seizures from syncope (Level B).
  3. "The use of serum PRL assay has not been established in the evaluation of status" epilepticus, repetitive seizures, and neonatal seizures (Level U)."
.The serum prolactin level is less sensitive for detecting partial seizures.^ Infrequent "Petit mal" or "partial motor seizures" is a less severe form of epilepsy, which affects only a specific group or groups of muscles.
  • Naturally Treating Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.purelypets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simple partial seizures begin focally in one hemisphere and do not impair the level of consciousness.

^ Two types of partial seizures include the following: simple partial seizures The seizures typically last less than one minute.
  • Seizures, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/nervous_system/seizures/Pages/index.aspx 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CHOC Health Library - Neurological Disorders: Seizures and Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.choc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

EEG

.An isolated abnormal electrical activity recorded by an electroencephalography examination without a clinical presentation is called subclinical seizure.^ Doctors examine the recording (electroencephalogram) for evidence of abnormal electrical discharges.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A record of the electrical activity (function) of the heart.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

^ A seizure was defined as an episode lasting at least 10 seconds and consisting of abnormal repetitive electrical discharges with demonstrable onset, waveform and amplitude.
  • Anticonvulsants for neonates with seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.They can identify background epileptogenic activity, as well as help identify causes of seizures.^ If we can identify the cause of the seizures, say a brain tumor or a stroke, then we say the pet has symptomatic (or secondary) epilepsy.

^ Although psychogenic seizures are not caused by electrical discharges in the brain and thus do not register any EEG abnormalities, they are often mistaken for epileptic disorders.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A provoked seizure is caused by an identifiable transient disturbance such as an electrolyte abnormality (e.g., hypocalcemia).
  • Evaluation of a First Seizure - May 1, 2007 - American Family Physician 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

Investigation of underlying cause

.Additional diagnostic methods include CT Scanning and MRI imaging or angiography.^ MRI or CT brain scan .

^ It can nclude computerised tomography ( CT) scanning, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography ( PET).
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

^ If one can not be found it is reasonable, if desired, to do more advanced diagnostic testing, such as CT or MRI scans.
  • Seizures In Cats 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

.These may show structural lesions within the brain and heart, but the majority of those with epilepsy show nothing unusual.^ Even doctors may not be able to tell the difference between these disorders and epilepsy without close observation and intensive testing.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cases often result from tumors, trauma, or other problems that affect the brain and may themselves be life-threatening.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In cases where seizures are caused by a brain tumor, hydrocephalus, or other conditions that can be treated with surgery, doctors may operate to treat these underlying conditions.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As seizures have a differential diagnosis, it is common for patients to be simultaneously investigated for cardiac and endocrine causes.^ How Common are these Causes of Seizures?

^ Differential diagnosis includes startle events, syncope, and febrile seizures.
  • International League Against Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ilae-epilepsy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Portosystemic shunts are supposed to be one of the most common cause of seizuring in young cats.
  • Seizures In Cats 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Checking glucose levels, for example, is a mandatory action in the management of seizures as hypoglycemia may cause seizures, and failure to administer glucose would be harmful to the patient.^ This patient may actually be in a seizure for hours.
  • Epilepsy: A Cause of Seizures in Dogs 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, if a low blood sugar (glucose) level (hypoglycemia—see Hypoglycemia ) caused the seizure, glucose is given, and the disorder causing the low level is treated.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epileptic seizures may begin hours in advance of clinical onset: a report of five patients.
  • Seizure prediction - Scholarpedia 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other causes typically considered are syncope and cardiac arrhythmias, and occasionally panic attacks and cataplexy.^ Other nonepileptic events may be caused by narcolepsy, Tourette syndrome, cardiac arrythmia, and other medical conditions with symptoms that resemble seizures.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strokes, heart attacks, and other conditions that deprive the brain of oxygen also can cause epilepsy in some cases.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cataplexy A brief attack of sudden weakness which can cause falling or head nodding.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, 5% of patients with a positive tilt table test may have seizure-like activity that seems to be due to cerebral hypoxia.^ People known to have a seizure disorder may not need additional tests.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seizures (fits, convulsions) are caused by abnormal activity in the brain cells, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.lbah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the seizure is over, the child may not recall what just occurred and may go on with his/her activities, acting as though nothing happened.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.chw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]. .For more information, see non-epileptic seizures.^ Non epileptic Seizures .
  • Seizures and Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.lbah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See more Epilepsy & Seizures Information .
  • Epilepsy & Seizures Support Group - DailyStrength 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ See non-epileptic seizures.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

Management

.The first aid for a seizure depends on the type of seizure occurring.^ Will different types of seizures occur?
  • Temporal lobe seizure 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ First aid for seizures .
  • Seizure Disorder: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other tests may be necessary Depending upon your pet's age, type of seizure, and findings on the minimum work-up, your veterinarian may also recommend further tests.

.Generalized seizures will cause the person to fall, which may result in injury.^ They cause children to fall to the ground, sometimes resulting in injury.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During a generalized seizure, it is important to protect the person from injury.
  • Seizures | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The seizure may stop there or it may generalize.

.A tonic–clonic seizure results in violent movements that cannot and should not be suppressed.^ Nocturnal seizures are usually tonic-clonic.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures .
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generalized tonic-clonic seizures .
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The person should never be restrained, nor should there be any attempt to put something in the mouth.^ Since a search is not needed to view something "in plain view", then there is no violation of a person's reasonable expectation to privacy.
  • Illegal Search & Seizure - Legal Search & Seizure - The Exclusionary Rule - Wisconsin Laws Wisconsin Attorney 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.vanwagnerwood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the person is having a seizure and is on the ground when you arrive, put something soft under his or her head.
  • Seizures - Yahoo! Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ "There must be something to this ancient wisdom" The herbalist lore began with people's attempts to treat disease with the tools available.

.Potentially sharp or dangerous objects should also be moved from the vicinity, so that the individual is not hurt.^ Protect the child from sharp, hot, or otherwise dangerous objects.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the seizure if the person is not fully conscious and alert, they should be placed in the recovery position.^ Although in myoclonic seizures the person is conscious, they are classified as generalised seizures.
  • National Society for Epilepsy : Epileptic seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsysociety.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first place, it is not the quantity of a person’s writings that determines whether or not he or she has seizure disorder hypergraphia, but the quality and content of these writings.
  • Visions or Epileptic Seizures 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.whiteestate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the person regains consciousness, the person may complain of being tired or sleepy after the seizure.
  • Seizures, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/nervous_system/seizures/Pages/index.aspx 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bystanders should remain calm and avoid crowding the person.^ Thus a dog receiving bromide therapy should remain on a consistent, quality dog food diet and salty treats (which includes most table scraps) should be avoided.

.It is not necessary to call an ambulance if the person is known to have epilepsy, if the seizure is shorter than five minutes and is typical for them, if it is not immediately followed by another seizure, and if the person is uninjured.^ The seizure lasts longer than 3 minutes.
  • Seizures - Yahoo! Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epilepsy, sometimes called a seizure disorder, is a sudden, involuntary change in behavior, muscle control, consciousness, and/or sensation.
  • Naturally Treating Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.purelypets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Otherwise, or if in any doubt, medical assistance should be sought.^ Seizures by themselves are not life threatening unless they progress into Status, in which case medical attention should be sought immediately.
  • Epilepsy: A Cause of Seizures in Dogs 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

.A seizure longer than five minutes is a medical emergency.^ The seizure lasts longer than 3 minutes.
  • Seizures - Yahoo! Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ C and can last longer than 15 minutes.
  • Epilepsy Halton Peel 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsypeel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Relatives and other caregivers of those known to have epilepsy often carry medicine such as rectal diazepam or buccal midazolam in order to rapidly end the seizure.^ There is also an increased incidence of epilepsy in relatives of those with a seizure disorder.

^ If you have epilepsy: What seizure medicines have been prescribed?
  • Seizures - Yahoo! Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Dogs who suffer significantly from epilepsy (those who have frequent and/or severe seizures) can be treated with antiseizure medication, although most dogs need to remain on the medication for life.
  • Why does my dog have seizures? 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.dogchannel.com [Source type: General]

Safety

.A sudden fall can lead to broken bones and other injuries.^ Sudden loss of consciousness can cause serious injury due to falls and accidents.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intense, rapid muscle contractions can cause injuries, including broken bones.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Activities in which a sudden loss of consciousness could lead to injury or death (e.g., bathing, swimming, driving, or working/playing at heights).
  • SCN1A-Related Seizure Disorders -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Children who are affected by frequent drop seizures may wear helmets to protect the head during a fall.^ The affected person will fall down or may drop his or her head involuntarily.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During a seizure : Protect the person from injury.
  • Seizures - Yahoo! Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This may happen during or following a seizure.
  • Grand mal seizure 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.The unusual behavior resulting from the chaotic brain activity of a seizure can be misinterpreted as an aggressive act.^ Seizures may result when the brain's electrical activity is disrupted.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epileptic seizures are caused by chaotic electrical activity in the brain.
  • Seizure Disorder - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seizures are a result of sudden abnormal electical activity in the brain.
  • Epilepsy Action (Australia) - seizure information, help and services 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.epilepsy.org.au [Source type: Academic]

.This may invoke a hostile response or police involvement, where there was no intention to cause harm or trouble.^ In many cases, there may be no detectable cause for epilepsy.
  • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/nervous_system/seizures/Pages/index.aspx 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two basic types of seizures: Epileptic: These seizures have no apparent cause (or trigger) and occur repeatedly.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lie #2 Your vet may tell you...its "food allergies" causing your dog's seizers There is no denying the overuse of corn, wheat, and soy in commercial dog foods can cause allergies in dogs.

.During a prolonged seizure, the person is defenseless and may become a victim of theft.^ During a seizure : Protect the person from injury.
  • Seizures - Yahoo! Health 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ During the seizure, the person is limp and unresponsive.
  • Seizures, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/nervous_system/seizures/Pages/index.aspx 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A person may be awake during the surgery.
  • Seizures, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/nervous_system/seizures/Pages/index.aspx 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A seizure response dog can be trained to summon help or ensure personal safety when a seizure occurs.^ The operation may remove the part of the brain where the seizures are occurring, or, sometimes, the surgery helps to stop the spread of the bad electrical currents through the brain.
  • Seizures and Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.chw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Seizures, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/nervous_system/seizures/Pages/index.aspx 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's not the most pleasant way to administer medication, but this approach can often help dogs that have clusters of seizures.

^ If possible, you want to help the person to lie down, keeping your own safety in mind as you do this, as some types of seizures can be quite violent and others can pass undeteced even by the person having them.

These are not suitable for everybody. .Rarely, a dog may develop the ability to sense a seizure before it occurs.^ Seizures rarely occur during exercise.
  • Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Partial seizures occur, which may generalize.
  • International League Against Epilepsy 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.ilae-epilepsy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Epileptic seizures usually occur early in a dog’s life; a first seizure in a dog more than five years old suggests that epilepsy is not the cause of the problem.
  • Why does my dog have seizures? 9 January 2010 14:38 UTC www.dogchannel.com [Source type: General]

[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fisher R, van Emde Boas W, Blume W, Elger C, Genton P, Lee P, Engel J (2005). "Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE)". Epilepsia 46 (4): 470–2. doi:10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.66104.x. PMID 15816939. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.66104.x. 
  2. ^ Herman ST. (2004). Single Unprovoked Seizures. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 6(3):243–255. PMID 15043807
  3. ^ a b Berg AT. (2008).Risk of recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure. Epilepsia. 49 Suppl 1:13–8. PMID 18184
  4. ^ Bazil CW, Walczak TS. (1997). Effects of sleep and sleep stage on epileptic and nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsia. 38(1):56-62. PMID 9024184
  5. ^ Badawy RA, Macdonell RA, Jackson GD, Berkovic SF. (2009). Why do seizures in generalized epilepsy often occur in the morning? Neurology. 21;73(3):218-22. PMID 19620610
  6. ^ Krumholz A, Wiebe S, Gronseth G, Shinnar S, Levisohn P, Ting T, Hopp J, Shafer P, Morris H, Seiden L, Barkley G, French J; Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology; American Epilepsy Society. Practice Parameter: evaluating an apparent unprovoked first seizure in adults (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Neurology 2007; 69(21): 1996–2007. PMID 18025394
  7. ^ Benbadis SR, Wolgamuth BR, Goren H, Brener S, Fouad-Tarazi F (1995). "Value of tongue biting in the diagnosis of seizures". Arch. Intern. Med. 155 (21): 2346–9. doi:10.1001/archinte.155.21.2346. PMID 7487261. 
  8. ^ Ahmad S, Beckett MW (2004). "Value of serum prolactin in the management of syncope". Emergency medicine journal : EMJ 21 (2): e3. doi:10.1136/emj.2003.008870. PMID 14988379. 
  9. ^ Chen DK, So YT, Fisher RS (2005). "Use of serum prolactin in diagnosing epileptic seizures: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology". Neurology 65 (5): 668–75. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000178391.96957.d0. PMID 16157897. 
  10. ^ Shukla G, Bhatia M, Vivekanandhan S, et al. (2004). "Serum prolactin levels for differentiation of nonepileptic versus true seizures: limited utility". Epilepsy & behavior : E&B 5 (4): 517–21. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2004.03.004. PMID 15256189. 
  11. ^ Passman R, Horvath G, Thomas J, et al. (2003). "Clinical spectrum and prevalence of neurologic events provoked by tilt table testing". Arch. Intern. Med. 163 (16): 1945–8. doi:10.1001/archinte.163.16.1945. PMID 12963568. 
  12. ^ Dalziel D, Uthman B, Mcgorray S, Reep R (2003). "Seizure-alert dogs: a review and preliminary study". Seizure 12 (2): 115–20. doi:10.1016/S105913110200225X. PMID 12566236. 

External links


Simple English

Seizure can also refer to the act of taking hold of property, for this meaning see Seizure (law)

A seizure is when the nerves of somebody act strangely. Nerves transmit information. They do this by electrical impulses and by some chemical substances called transmitters.

There are many different types of seizures. They are named by how much of the brain they affect and what happens to the person when they are having that type of seizure. Some of these are:

  • Partial - when only a small part of the brain is involved in the seizure. These seizures can be more specifically called:
    • simple partial - when the person stays awake the whole time the seizure is happening and may twitch, feel dizzy, or smell and taste things that are not there.
    • complex partial - when the person "zones out" during the seizure and may start walking around, experience deja vu, laugh, feel afraid, see things that are not there, or smell something bad.
  • Generalized - when a larger part of the brain, often parts of both hemispheres or sides, is involved in the seizure. These seizures can be more specifically called:
    • tonic-clonic - when the person faints, falls down, and starts having involuntary jerking motions. They may bite their tongue, scream, drool, urinate or defecate. This kind of seizure often follows an aura, or strange feeling the person has, although not all people who have epilepsy get these feelings. Tonic-clonic seizures can last up to 20 minutes.
    • absence - when a person faints, but does not have the jerking motions associated with a tonic-clonic seizure. Other people may not know that the person is having a seizure at all. The person may simply freeze in place and pick up where they left off when the seizure is over. The person having the seizure usually does not remember it afterward. This kind of seizure only lasts up to 10 seconds.
    • myoclonic - when a person suddenly experiences a jerking motion, usually on both sides of the body. This kind of seizure is most common in children under 5, although myoclonic seizures can be seen in adults, characterised by something known as a myoclonic jerk, most commonly experienced as the sufferer is drifting to sleep, or while they are asleep. They can be seen in children even when they are awake.

Status epilepticus is a seizure that lasts much longer than normal, sometimes more than 30 minutes. The person faints while the seizure is happening. These are treatable by the use of a medicine called "Diazepam" which is given from a tube into the bowels of the person, through the anus. Whether treated or not, the person must get to a hospital as soon as possible, as their brain could be permanently damaged otherwise.

Certain types of seizures point to a disorder called epilepsy, where the nerves do not work as they should. They carry the wrong messages to the brain so that the person moves uncontrollably or sees, hears, smells, feels, or tastes things that are not there. Medicine can be taken to prevent this from happening.

Seizures also can have other causes:

  • Certain types of head injuries
  • Certain types of drugs, or their withdrawal
  • Certain diseases (some of them diseases of the brain, like encephalitis or meningitis), but also simple fever. Seizures that are caused by fever are called febrile seizures.
  • Lack of sleep
  • Too much alcohol

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Seizure, which are similar to those in the above article.








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